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Sample records for choluteca honduras central

  1. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  2. Recent Record of the Neotropical River Otter (Lontra longicaudis) in the Choluteca River Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Aceituno; Carmen Nuñez; Francisco Aceituno1,Delmy Trochez2 andCarmen Nuñez3

    2015-01-01

    We report the presence of the Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis) in the Choluteca River, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. To date the information is the second record verifiable of the species in the Choluteca River since one in the 1940s.

  3. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choluteca, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choluteca that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choluteca as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca at Choluteca were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choluteca at Choluteca is 4,620 cubic meters per second, which is the drainage-area-adjusted weighted-average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Choluteca en Puente Choluteca. One discharge, 4,913 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 17 years of peak discharge record for the gage, and the other, 2,650 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 4,530 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Choluteca was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the ratio of the drainage

  4. Recent Record of the Neotropical River Otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Choluteca River Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aceituno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the presence of the Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Choluteca River, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. To date the information is the second record verifiable of the species in the Choluteca River since one in the 1940s.

  5. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  6. Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Honduras has an area of 112,088 square km or 43,277 square miles with a population of 4.8 million in 1991 of whom 90% are mestizos. Literacy is 68%, the infant mortality rate is 60/1000, and life expectancy is 63 years. After independence from Spain in 1821 the Central American Federation collapsed in 1938. There have been 300 internal rebellions since independence. With an inadequate economic infrastructure, sociopolitical integration has been fragile. In 1982 the Suazo government relied on US support to face the economic recession, the threat posed by the Marxist government in Nicaragua, and civil war in El Salvador. USAID sponsored ambitious social and economic projects. A peaceful transfer of power between civilian presidents occurred in 1986 despite an electoral quirk. In 1990 President Callejas introduced reforms to reduce the deficit, and to stimulate investments and exports. After initial higher inflation and low growth in 1990 and 1991, modest progress is forecast for 1992 and 1993. The powerful military has been kept in check, and human rights have been better protected. The country is among the poorest in Latin America with underemployment of 30-40% and a mostly agricultural economy. The 1990 reforms of deregulation of prices, liberalization of trade, less protectionism, and export orientation is expected to produce longterm benefits not only in agriculture but also in manufacturing. The US is the primary trading partner, and the main direct foreign investor (fruits, refining, and mining). The slash-and-burn agricultural cultivation has created environmental destruction, and as a sign of public awareness the armed forces have engaged in reforestation and fighting forest fires. PMID:12178036

  7. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  8. Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

  9. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  10. The Padre Miguel Ignimbrite Suite, central Honduras: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and tectonic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, R.S.M.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Rogers, R.D.; Ganerød, M.; Dekkers, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Padre Miguel Group in western Honduras is a silicic volcanic sequence that forms part of the Central American Miocene volcanic arc built on the Chortis continental fragment.We report new 40Ar/39Ar data of 16.1±0.2 Ma and 14.42±0.08 Ma for the Padre Miguel Group, and present paleomagnetic data fo

  11. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  12. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Jovel Irina T; Mejía Rosa E; Banegas Engels; Piedade Rita; Alger Jackeline; Fontecha Gustavo; Ferreira Pedro E; Veiga Maria I; Enamorado Irma G; Bjorkman Anders; Ursing Johan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Methods Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospi...

  13. The Padre Miguel Ignimbrite Suite, central Honduras: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Roberto S. Molina; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Rogers, Robert D.; Ganerød, Morgan; Dekkers, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    The Padre Miguel Group in western Honduras is a silicic volcanic sequence that forms part of the Central American Miocene volcanic arc built on the Chortis continental fragment. We report new 40Ar/39Ar data of 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma and 14.42 ± 0.08 Ma for the Padre Miguel Group, and present paleomagnetic data for 36 cooling units (mainly ignimbrites) from localities north and northeast of the capital city of Tegucigalpa. These rocks are characterized by univectorial characteristic magnetization carried mainly by low-Ti titanomagnetites, or two component magnetizations with a minor secondary overprint. Dual polarity magnetizations suggest that it is a primary thermo-remanence and the obtained data scatter can be straightforwardly explained by paleosecular variation. The overall mean of 33 selected sites (14.39°N, 87.14°W) defines a paleomagnetic pole at lat = 80.0°N, lon = 142.9°E (K = 24.5, A95 = 5.2°). The overall mean compared with the North America expected direction indicates statistically insignificant rotation and inclination anomaly (R = - 4.1° ± 6.1° and an F = - 8.6° ± 11.3°). Restoring 255 km of sinistral slip in the Polochic-Motagua fault system, as suggested by Cayman Trough reconstructions since 15 Ma, brings the mid-Miocene arcs of southern Mexico (Oaxaca) and the Central America ignimbrite province into alignment; this is consistent with a derivation of the Chortis Block from southern Mexico. Our paleomagnetic and geochronological studies hence support models that explain the offset of the Miocene ignimbrite belt of Central America by post-Middle Miocene displacement of the Chortis Block relative to North America.

  14. Taeniasis-cysticercosis in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kaminsky, R G

    1991-01-01

    Data on human taeniasis and human and animal cysticercosis from Honduras were gathered from laboratory, medical and slaughterhouse records, proglottid identification and surveys. The infection rate for human taeniasis was 2.7/1000 individuals at the University Hospital, 10/1000 in the southern provinces of Choluteca and Valle, and 0.6/1000 in Cortes and Atlantida in the north. In surveys, the rates found ranged from 14 to 62/1000 in 9 of 15 communities studied. Taenia solium was identified in 135 of 181 individuals (74.5%) who submitted proglottids for speciation, 23 of whom were children 0-5 years old. The male:female ratio of infection rate was 1:2. The rates of infection with cysticercosis in pigs and cattle at one abattoir in 1981-1986 were 5% and 0.05% respectively. Diagnosis of human cysticercosis at the University Hospital increased five-fold with the introduction of computerized tomography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: 22 cases were diagnosed in 1980-1984 and 107 cases in 1985-1988. Rates at the neurosurgical ward were higher (29/1000 patients) than in the general hospital census (1.6/1000 patients). aeniasis-cysticercosis may be a serious health problem in some areas of Honduras. PMID:1755064

  15. A Faculty Short Course on Improving College Teaching at Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Jimmy G.; Beeman, Carl E.

    A short course on improving college teaching at Escuela Agricola Panamericana (EAP), in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, is discussed. Two University of Florida college faculty members were engaged by the United States Information Agency to conduct the 2-week course for EAP college faculty. Course objectives included: identifying the role of the teacher and…

  16. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovel Irina T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Methods Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospitals, two health centres and one regional laboratory during 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt, multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1, dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps genes and in P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr1 and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr genes were detected using PCR based methods. Results Thirty seven P. falciparum and 64 P. vivax samples were collected. All P. falciparum infections acquired in Honduras carried pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr alleles associated with chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity only. One patient with parasites acquired on a Pacific Island had pfcrt 76 T and pfmdr1 86Y alleles. That patient and a patient infected in West Africa had pfdhfr 51I, 59 R and 108 N alleles. Pvmdr1 976 F was found in 7/37 and two copies of pvmdr1 were found in 1/37 samples. Pvdhfr 57 L + 58 R was observed in 2/57 samples. Conclusion The results indicate that P. falciparum from Honduras remain sensitive to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This suggests that chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine should be efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, supporting current national treatment guidelines. However, genetic polymorphisms associated with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine tolerance were detected in local P. vivax and imported P. falciparum infections. Continuous

  17. Precipitation data in a mountainous catchment in Honduras: quality assessment and spatiotemporal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, I.; Walther, A.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Coello, Z.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.-Y.; Chen, D.; Lundin, L.-C.

    2010-08-01

    An accurate description of temporal and spatial precipitation variability in Central America is important for local farming, water supply and flood management. Data quality problems and lack of consistent precipitation data impede hydrometeorological analysis in the 7,500 km2 Choluteca River basin in central Honduras, encompassing the capital Tegucigalpa. We used precipitation data from 60 daily and 13 monthly stations in 1913-2006 from five local authorities and NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network. Quality control routines were developed to tackle the specific data quality problems. The quality-controlled data were characterised spatially and temporally, and compared with regional and larger-scale studies. Two gap-filling methods for daily data and three interpolation methods for monthly and mean annual precipitation were compared. The coefficient-of-correlation-weighting method provided the best results for gap-filling and the universal kriging method for spatial interpolation. In-homogeneity in the time series was the main quality problem, and 22% of the daily precipitation data were too poor to be used. Spatial autocorrelation for monthly precipitation was low during the dry season, and correlation increased markedly when data were temporally aggregated from a daily time scale to 4-5 days. The analysis manifested the high spatial and temporal variability caused by the diverse precipitation-generating mechanisms and the need for an improved monitoring network.

  18. Nidos de avispas minadoras en el Mioceno de Tegucigalpa (Honduras, América Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricio; Coca Abia, María Milagro

    1998-01-01

    Se describe el primer ichnofósil para Honduras, Celliforma gomezi ichnosp. nov., y se interpreta como el tramo distal de un nido de Himenópteros solitarios (esfécidos). Las porciones descritas de los nidos comprenden una celdilla de incubación y el tramo distal de la galería de acceso a la celdilla. La galería principal del nido no ha sido identificada en su totalidad, siendo posible que un mismo nido estuviera formado por varias celdillas. Para construir sus nidos, estos insectos requieren s...

  19. Nidos de avispas minadoras en el Mioceno de Tegucigalpa (Honduras, AméricaCentral)

    OpenAIRE

    Coca Abia, Milagro; Domínguez Alonso, Patricio

    1998-01-01

    [ES] Se describe el primer ichnofósil para Honduras, Celliforma gomezi ichnosp. nov. y se interpreta como el tramo distal de un nido de Himenópteros solitarios (esfécidos). Las porciones descritas de los nidos comprenden una celdilla de incubación y el tramo distal de la galería de acceso a la celdilla. La galería principal del nido no ha sido identificada en su totalidad, siendo posible que un mismo nido estuviera formado por varias celdillas. Para construir sus nidos, estos i...

  20. Review of the Bat Flies of Honduras, Central America (Diptera: Streblidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl W. Dick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streblid bat flies are obligate and host-specific blood-feeding ectoparasites of bats. While the bat flies of some American countries are well studied (e.g., Panama, Venezuela, little is known about Honduran Streblidae. Accumulation of substantial numbers of specimens, from several different collections, has enabled a relatively thorough treatment of the fauna. This study is based on 2,236 specimens representing 17 genera and 43 species of Streblidae. Of those presently reported, 11 genera and 32 species are new records for Honduras, increasing the number of known genera and species by 65% and 74%, respectively. Collection and host data are listed for all known Honduran streblid bat fly species. Comments regarding host associations and specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomic problems are given in the species accounts.

  1. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tegucigalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tegucigalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito at Tegucigalpa were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge is 922 cubic meters per second at Rio Choluteca at downstream end of the study area boundary, 663 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 475 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Guacerique, and 254 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Chiquito.

  2. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Avila-Ríos; Claudia García-Morales; Daniela Tapia-Trejo; Rita I Meza; Nuñez, Sandra M.; Leda Parham; Norma A Flores; Diana Valladares; Pineda, Luisa M.; Dixiana Flores; Roxana Motiño; Víctor Umanzor; Candy Carbajal; Wendy Murillo; Ivette Lorenzana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR) in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR) and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR) in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Methods 365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO ...

  3. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  4. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  5. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  6. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  7. Magmas with slab fluid and decompression melting signatures coexisting in the Gulf of Fonseca: Evidence from Isla El Tigre volcano (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.

  8. Tectonic Interpretation of the Morphology of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, W. I.

    1987-10-01

    The morphotectonics of Honduras have been studied using existing geologic and topographic maps and imaging done from satellites, and the following interpretations have been made. During the late Oligocene to early Miocene a wide strike-slip boundary existed in western Honduras and eastern Guatemala and produced east-west trending basins containing the coarse clastic rocks of the Subinal Formation. Marine geophysical studies of the continental shelf of Honduras show that during the rest of the Miocene and the early Pliocene the boundary was inactive, but motion resumed in the late Pliocene to Pleistocene and produced horsts on the north coast of Honduras. In northwestern Honduras the east-northeast trending alignment of the Jocotan, Copan, and Charnelecon river valleys may result from crustal flexuring rather than from faulting, as previously proposed, because the postulated fault (the Jocotan-Chamelecon fault) cannot be reconciled with available geologic maps. The northwest and northeast flowing rivers of central and eastern Honduras define domains of strike-slip faulting that have probably rotated 30° from an original set of conjugate fractures. Widespread deposition of conglomerates suggests that strike-slip movements began in the mid-Cretaceous and reoccurred at intervals, culminating in the development of pull-apart basins in western Honduras during the late Pliocene. At the present time, no further strike-slip movement is possible, as the faults defining each domain lie parallel and perpendicular to the Middle America trench. New conjugate fractures, however, cut Honduras along north-south and east-northeast trends and have also separated into domains. In the domain of north-south fractures, easterly directed, ductile extension of the lithosphere beneath western Honduras and Guatemala is opening up rifts, but the domain of east-northeast fractures is characterized by strike-slip motion that has produced left-lateral pull-aparts in central Honduras. Early

  9. Republic of Honduras : Tegucigalpa Municipality PEFA

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; PPIAF

    2013-01-01

    This Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment of the public finance management (PFM) systems of the Municipality of the Central District of Honduras (AMDC) was prepared by a World Bank team, working closely together with the AMDC. The study is based on the Public Financial Management Performance Measurement Framework developed by the PEFA program. It incorporates t...

  10. Honduras : Poverty Diagnostic 2000

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report uses household surveys to provide a diagnostic of poverty, human development, and access to basic infrastructure. The report is based on analytical work conducted by a team comprising staff from the World Bank, Honduras' "Programa de Asignacion Familiar (PRAF), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The objective of the present report is limited. It provi...

  11. Honduras : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report analyzes corporate financial reporting and auditing practices in Honduras in support of the Government's efforts to : (a) improve the business environment and make it more attractive for domestic and foreign direct investment; (b) enhance financial transparency and governance in the corporate sector; and (c) foster economic integration within the Latin America and Caribbean Reg...

  12. Legal framework: Renewables in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the framework (organic structure and legislation) in promotion of renewables in Honduras, the policies for promotion of the free market of energy, laws on environmental protection and law of electricity. Also describes treties and agreements suscribed by Honduras in these matters

  13. Neoliberal tricks in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Uribam Xavier de Holanda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, according to agreements to advance neoliberal reforming measures, Honduras promulgated the Agricultural Modernization Law that helped intensifying the process of evicting peasants and indigenous peoples from their land. In June, 2009, neoliberal leaders tried to create a state within the State, the so-called Special Region of Development – RED or Privatized Cities, as an offensive against the coup that overthrew President Manuel Zelaya who was elected in a neoliberal frame and later allied with ALBA and approximate Hugo Chávez. This article evaluates this project that was defeated by struggles led by peasants, indigenous peoples and other popular groups.

  14. Note on the Honduras Radio Schools (ACPH--Accion Cultural Popular Hondureno). IEC Discussion Paper. Appendix 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    This report on the radio schools in Honduras, Central America, includes (1) an account of an afternoon session of the radio school's Primary Equivalence Programme (PEPA), including a testimonial of a student and a statement regarding the importance of the monitors; (2) information on the social background of Honduras; (3) an historical account of…

  15. Senderos del arte Hondureño Title: Honduras: Ancient and Modern Trails

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition displayed 50 pieces, comprising three types of work: (1) prehispanic-Mayan reliefs from Copán, (2) Lenca ceramics, and (3) paintings by three artists and various other objects. The works were chosen from a number of public and private collections in Honduras, including the Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History (IHAH), PROPAITH, Galería Portales, the President of the Republic of Honduras, His Excellency Carlos Roberto Flores Facusse, Atlántida Bank, Honduran Central Ban...

  16. Mareros and pandilleros in Honduras: the reintegration of youth gang members

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the reintegration of youth gang members in Honduras. The aim of this qualitative study is to broaden the knowledge of reintegration processes and programs in one specific country in Central America, namely, Honduras. A sample of fourteen interviews with stakeholders in the field of maras and pandillas has been investigated and the results revealed some similarities between the different methods of reintegration. Our data suggest that a comprehensive process, i...

  17. Honduras : Education Resilience Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This country report and the data presented herein are a product of the piloting of the RES-360 tool in Honduras. First, national level data was collected from government strategic plans, focus groups with Ministry of Education leadership, and secondary sources such as national studies on youth violence. Next, focus groups were conducted with teachers, parents, and students from two selecte...

  18. Mapa de Vulnerabilidad en Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Dado que Honduras geográficamente se encuentra en una zona que esta expuesta a diferentes fenómenos sísmicos y climatológicos. Investigamos cuales son las zonas mas propensas a desastres naturales, la vulnerabilidad y el factor de resiliencia de la población de acuerdo a diferentes parámetros de estudio.

  19. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Avila-Ríos

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART.365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm.PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4-15.2%. NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2% was higher than NRTI (2.2% and PI (1.9%, p500 vs. <350 CD4+ T cells/μL. PDR in recently infected individuals was 13.6%, showing no significant difference with PDR in individuals with longstanding infection (10.7%. The most prevalent PDR mutations were M46IL (1.4%, T215 revertants (0.5%, and K103NS (5.5%. The overall ADR prevalence in individuals with <48 months on ART was 87.8% and for the ≥48 months on ART group 81.3%. ADR to three drug families increased in individuals with longer time on ART (p = 0.0343. M184V and K103N were the most frequent ADR mutations. PDR mutation frequency correlated with ADR mutation frequency for PI and NNRTI (p<0.01, but not for NRTI. Clusters of viruses were observed suggesting transmission of HIVDR both from ART-experienced to ART-naïve individuals and between ART-naïve individuals.The global PDR prevalence in Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations.

  20. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras: Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC) (Honduras)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. - Research Highlights: {yields} This paper shows the development of a long-term energy policy for Honduras. {yields} The various diagnoses of the energy sector in Honduras are shown, considering the use of wood, biomass, biofuels, electricity, transportation, hydrocarbons and rural electrification. {yields} The most relevant results of the analysis of energy forecasting are shown, for which the LEAP software was used. {yields} The objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes.

  1. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras: Diagnosis and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. - Research Highlights: → This paper shows the development of a long-term energy policy for Honduras. → The various diagnoses of the energy sector in Honduras are shown, considering the use of wood, biomass, biofuels, electricity, transportation, hydrocarbons and rural electrification. → The most relevant results of the analysis of energy forecasting are shown, for which the LEAP software was used. → The objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes.

  2. Honduras geothermal development: Regulations and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Winchester, W.W.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Planning, and Evaluation funded a project to review and evaluate existing power sector laws and regulations in Honduras. Also included in the scope of the project was a review of regulations pertaining to the privatization of state-run companies. We paid particular attention to regulations which might influence opportunities to develop and commercialize Honduras` geothermal resources. We believe that Honduras is well on the road to attracting foreign investment and has planned or has already in place much of the infrastructure and legal guarantees which encourage the influx of private funds from abroad. In addition, in light of current power rationing and Honduras` new and increasing awareness of the negative effects of power sector development on the environment, geothermal energy development is even more attractive. Combined, these factors create a variety of opportunities. The potential for private sector development of geothermal positive.

  3. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343< or =R(ST)< or =0.620; P=0.000) and from a Native American sample from Argentina, Tobas (R(ST)=0.210, P=0.000). Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador). PMID:19628418

  4. New project director for Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Miguel Machuca has been installed as project director for the Honduras Contraceptive Social Marketing Program (HCSMP). he was selected from a field of candidates with public and private sector experience in marketing, business management and program development. Machuca will direct the development of the social marketing program and work to establish a marketing function within ASHONPLAFA, the sponsoring organization for HCSMP. A major goal is to correct misinformation or lack of information about family planning methods among consumers and reatilers; for example, consumers worry about the side-effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) and many perceive subsidized products to be either experimental or discards. Easily understandable graphic package naterials are being prepared for OCs distributed through the program. Another goal is sales training. The project is scheduled to be launched in March 1984 with distribution of Perla, a standard dose OC. Radio spots and newspaper ads are being prepared to inform consumers that Perla can be purchased through pharmacies and small rural shops at the cost of US$.75/cycle. A low-dose OC, a condom and a vaginal tablet are scheduled to be added to the product line by December 1984. Market research on brand names, packaging and pricing of these products is currently being conducted. According the Machuca, his biggest challenge will be to maintain a balance between the need to comply with the policies and regulations of the various organizations involved with the HCSMP and the simultaneous need to promote and implement the entrepreneurial activities necessary to project goals. PMID:12266157

  5. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras. Diagnosis and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Wilfredo C. [National Directorate of Energy, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States); Ojeda, Osvaldo A. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras, Facultad de Ciencias, Escuela de Fisica, Tegucigalpa (MDC), Honduras, Central America (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)

  6. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras. Diagnosis and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)

  7. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  8. Book Review: The Snakes of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Hussam Zaher

    2011-01-01

    Book review: McCranie, J. R. 2011. The Snakes of Honduras – Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Contributions to Herpetology, Volume 26. Society for the Study of Amphibians andReptiles, Thomson-Shore, Inc., Michigan. 724 pages, 65 figures, 23 tables, 20 color plates.

  9. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies. PMID:25719872

  10. iones, sistema de partidos, democracia y ciudadanía en Honduras (1980–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Romero Ballivián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esboza las líneas gruesas de los juegos políticos en que se ha visto envuelto el proceso electoral de Honduras desde su retorno a la democracia; con el objetivo de percibir mejor las permanencias y las transformaciones de las elecciones, y propone pistas explicativas y dibuja consecuencias e implicaciones. Ofrece un análisis detallado de cada uno de los comicios, destaca las tendencias centrales de cada período

  11. Trade Integration and the Rise of the Service Sector in Latin America : the Case of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Hauck, Benjamin Christoph

    2006-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the service dimension of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) and examines the challenges and opportunities which it entails on El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras with a particular focus on the financial sector. CAFTA s principal merits are seen to be the establishment of a binding legal framework which serves as a lock-in-mechanism of previous reforms and the initiation of a broad public discussion about the competitiveness of the region which has moved the...

  12. Enclaves y territorios. Estrategias territoriales del estado y de las pandillas en Honduras.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Lirio

    2010-01-01

    This investigation focuses on the territorial strategies used by the state authorities to organize political territory in Honduras. The central thesis is that Honduran authorities did not develop a national territorial strategy, instead authorities permitted various territorial strategies, which were controlled by different dominant elites, within its political space. The multiple territorial strategies did not produce a homogenized, fragmented national space rather they led to the emergence ...

  13. Recent geothermal investigations in Honduras: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Laughlin, A.; Goff, Sue J.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1985, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U.S. Geological Survey have worked with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica of Honduras to perform a geothermal assessment of six areas in Honduras. A combination of reconnaissance and detailed techniques was used to eliminate from consideration the sites of lower potential. Detailed geophysical investigations were performed at two high-potential sites and three geothermal gradient coreholes were drilled at the highest potential site, Platanares. High-temperature fluids were encountered in two of these coreholes, while one hole was non-flowing. Evaluation of all the data collected suggests that there are two levels to the geothermal reservoir at Platanares. A shallow ( 1.2 km) reservoir at a temperature of 225° is indicated by fluid geothermometers.

  14. Including the Disabled : The Chiminike Interactive Learning Center in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Maria Valéria; Brakarz, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, the Honduras Interactive Environmental Learning and Science Promotion Project "Profuturo" was launched as a multi-sectoral effort designed to encourage and expand scientific, environmental, and cultural knowledge and management in the context of Honduras' sustainable development needs and ethnic diversity. Profuturo benefits Hondurans by providi...

  15. Honduras : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 2. Background Chapters and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic developments in Honduras over the last four years have been generally favorable, largely reflecting a benign external environment. Honduras' medium-term macroeconomic outlook, however, is clouded by several significant fiscal challenges. These challenges include: (a) rising operating losses of the public enterprises; (b) rising public wages; and (c) popular pressures to incre...

  16. Geology of Platanares geothermal area, Copan, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Ramos, N.; Flores, W.; Eppler, D.; Ritchie, A.; Escobar, C.

    1987-05-01

    The Platanares, Copan (Honduras) geothermal area is located in a highly faulted terrain of Paleozoic(.) metamorphic rocks, Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks, and Tertiary volcanic rocks. All thermal manifestations are located along faults. The volcanic rocks are probably too old to represent the surface expression of an active crustal magma body. Thus, the thermal water is interpreted to be heated during deep circulation in a regime of elevated heat flow. The water chemistry suggests that the geothermal reservoir originates within the Cretaceous sedimentary sequence and that the reservoir temperature may be as high as 240/sup 0/ C. Two exploration coreholes penetrated the volcanic sequence and bottomed within Cretaceous redbeds. Well PLTG-1 is 650 m deep and flows at 3 Mw thermal from a 160/sup 0/ C permeable zone. Well PLTG-2 is 401 m deep and has a thermal gradient of 139/sup 0/ C/km. Exploration drilling is continuing, with a third corehole to be drilled in May, 1987.

  17. Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras [Tratamientos de la superficie de rodadura para reducir la erosion en caminos forestales en Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Samuel; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(3):425-432. Using forest roads produces more erosion and sedimentation than any other forest or agricultural activity. This study evaluated soil losses from a forest road in central Honduras over two consecutive years. We divided a 400-m segment of road into 8 experimental units, each 50 m in length. Four units were treated with Best Management Practices (BMPs) and four were left untreated. The BMP treatments included reshaping the road prism, installing culverts and reshaping of road ditches, compacting 20-cm layers of the road tread, crowning the road surface (3% slope, double drainage), longitudinal sloping (less than 12%), and adding a 10-cm layer of gravel (crush size = 0.63 cm). Soil movement was measured daily during the rainy seasons. The highest soil loss occurred in the control road, around 500 m3 km-1 per year, while the road treated with BMP lost approximately 225 m3km-1 per year. These results show that road surface erosion can be reduced up to 50% with the implementation of surface treatments.

  18. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  19. Honduras Technical Manual: Conceptual Framework and Software Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Samarendu Mohanty; Darnell B. Smith; William H. Meyers; S. Patricia Batres-Marquez

    1997-01-01

    This manual describes the worksheet version of the Food Aid and Food Security Analysis System (FAFSAS) for Honduras. It details the step-by-step procedure of using the analytical system for policy analysis and includes a conceptual framework and model that combine FAPRI data with country-specific information, described in a series of equation.

  20. Forest management in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua: reform failures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a policy assessment contrasting forestry reforms and their intended objectives against the state of the forestry sector in Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua. The study finds that there is a gap between policy objectives and the state of forestry in the three countries, and th

  1. Child Marriage, Agency, and Schooling in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…

  2. Drug consumption by medical students in tegucigalpa, Honduras Uso de drogas entre estudiantes de medicina, tegucigalpa, Honduras O uso de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Juana Carolina Buchanan; Sandra Cristina Pillon

    2008-01-01

    The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. RESULTS: Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the most consumed drug in the last six months for recreational purposes. The following stimulants were frequently consumed: caffein...

  3. Potential impacts of climate variability on dengue hemorrhagic fever in Honduras, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, L I; Sevilla, C; Reyes-García, S Z; Sierra, M; Kafati, R; Rodriguez-Morales, A J; Mattar, S

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and variability are affecting human health and disease direct or indirectly through many mechanisms. Dengue is one of those diseases that is strongly influenced by climate variability; however its study in Central America has been poorly approached. In this study, we assessed potential associations between macroclimatic and microclimatic variation and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases in the main hospital of Honduras during 2010. In this year, 3,353 cases of DHF were reported in the Hospital Escuela, Tegucigalpa. Climatic periods marked a difference of 158% in the mean incidence of cases, from El Niño weeks (-99% of cases below the mean incidence) to La Niña months (+59% of cases above it) (p<0.01). Linear regression showed significantly higher dengue incidence with lower values of Oceanic Niño Index (p=0.0097), higher rain probability (p=0.0149), accumulated rain (p=0.0443) and higher relative humidity (p=0.0292). At a multiple linear regression model using those variables, ONI values shown to be the most important and significant factor found to be associated with the monthly occurrence of DHF cases (r²=0.649; βstandardized=-0.836; p=0.01). As has been shown herein, climate variability is an important element influencing the dengue epidemiology in Honduras. However, it is necessary to extend these studies in this and other countries in the Central America region, because these models can be applied for surveillance as well as for prediction of dengue. PMID:23202593

  4. Designing a behavioral program for a barrio in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Harold L.

    1994-01-01

    Health in Housing initiated a behavioral program of education and skills training for children and adults in a community of 30,000 persons living in substandard conditions in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. To measure achievement in the long-range project, 21 families of Flor del Campo participated in a preliminary three-part survey of their (a) health, (b) housing and the environment, and (c) family history. Doctors, designers, and educators worked with Honduran personnel in the first survey. Followi...

  5. Water Pricing in Honduras: A Political Economy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Strand,J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores water pricing policy in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, in a political economy perspective. I argue that current water prices are too low and significantly below long-run marginal cost, and demonstrate that water prices must be raised significantly over the next ten years for projected demands and supplies to be in balance. I also argue that low water prices has a number of adverse allocational and distributional consequences. I then go on to discuss various (externa...

  6. The conservation status of the herpetofauna of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Larry David; McCranie, James R

    2010-01-01

    The conservation status of the members of the Honduran herpetofauna is discussed. Based on current and projected future human population growth, it is posited that the entire herpetofauna is endangered. The known herpetofauna of Honduras currently consists of 334 species, including 117 amphibians and 217 reptiles (including six marine reptiles, which are not discussed in this paper). The greatest number of species occur at low and moderate elevations in lowland and/or mesic forest formations,...

  7. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan Reiger; Harris, Jeffrey R; Kwun Chuen Gary Chan; Hector Lopez Oqueli; Marlana Kohn

    2015-01-01

    Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design: This is a pr...

  8. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R; Chan, Kwun Cheun Gary; Lopez Oqueli, Hector; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control.Design: This is a pro...

  9. Sommera cusucoana , a new species of Rubiaceae from Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Lorence, David H.; Dietzsch, Anke C.; Kelly, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sommera cusucoana Lorence, D. Kelly & A. Dietzsch, sp. nov., ( Rubiaceae ), a new species from Honduras, differs from the other Mesoamerican Sommera species by the combination of large, obovate leaves with long red petioles, glabrous or glabrate intervenal areas, red stipules, lax, sparsely pubescent inflorescences with red axes, flowers with red hypanthium and calyx, long fruiting pedicels, and dark red mature fruits. It is known only from the type locality in Cusuco National Park.

  10. Prediction of Rainfall-Induced Landslides in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, Using a Hydro-Geotechnical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Urquia, Elias; Axelsson, K.

    2010-05-01

    Central America is constantly being affected by natural hazards. Among these events are hurricanes and earthquakes, capable of triggering landslides that can alter the natural landscape, destroy infrastructure and cause the death of people in the most important settlements of the region. Hurricane Mitch in October of 1998 was of particular interest for the region, since it provoked hundreds of rainfall-induced landslides, mainly in 4 different countries. Studies carried out after Hurricane Mitch have allowed researchers to identify the factors that contribute to slope instability in many vulnerable areas. As Tegucigalpa, Honduras was partially destroyed due to the various landslide and flooding events triggered by this devastating hurricane, various research teams have deepened in their investigations and have proposed measures to mitigate the effects of similar future incidents. A model coupling an infinite-slope analysis and a simple groundwater flow approach can serve as a basis to predict the occurrence of landslides in Tegucigalpa, Honduras as a function of topographic, hydrological and soil variables. A safety map showing the rainfall-triggered landslide risk zones for Tegucigalpa, Honduras is to be created. As opposed to previous safety maps in which only steady-state conditions are studied, this analysis is extended and different steady-state and quasi-dynamic scenarios are considered for comparison. For the purpose of the latter settings, a hydrological analysis that determines the rainfall extreme values and their return periods in Tegucigalpa will account for the influence of rainfall on the groundwater flow and strength of soils. It is known that the spatial distribution of various factors that contribute to the risk of landslides (i.e. soil thickness, conductivity and strength properties; rainfall intensity and duration; root strength; subsurface flow orientation) is hard to determine. However, an effort is done to derive correlations for these

  11. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  12. Honduras : Public Expenditure Review, Volume 1. Executive Summary and Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Macroeconomic developments in Honduras over the last four years have been generally favorable, largely reflecting a benign external environment. Honduras' medium-term macroeconomic outlook, however, is clouded by several significant fiscal challenges. These challenges include: (a) rising operating losses of the public enterprises; (b) rising public wages; and (c) popular pressures to incre...

  13. Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This Report provides a summary of the level of compliance with the Financial Action Task Force, and provides recommendations to improve compliance within the prevailing context of Honduras. The views expressed in this document are those of the assessment team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government of Honduras or the Boards of the World Bank (WB) and International Moneta...

  14. Evaluation of the surface erosion from different timber yarding methods in Honduras Avaliação da erosão superficial de diferentes métodos do carregamento da madeira em Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rivera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff and sediment production from different timber yarding practices, some using Best Management Practices (BMPs recommended for Honduras, were monitored in experimental plots during the rainy seasons of two consecutive years in pine forest highlands of central Honduras. Different timber yarding systems were applied to pseudo-replicated plots during the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2000. In 1999, two treatments were studied: tractor yarding and skyline cable (a recommended BMP. In 2000, four treatments were evaluated: tractor skidding, skyline cable, animal skidding (another recommended BMP, and undisturbed forest (reference. During the rainy seasons of these years, surface runoff volumes and sediment yield were measured at five 1.5m x 10m erosion plots in each treated area. The results showed significant differences between traditional tractor yarding and the recommended skyline cable and animal skidding methods. Tractor yarding produced six to ten times more erosion during the rainy seasons than cable and animal yarding. The improved soil retention of cable and animal yarding was especially important during September when the highest rainfall occurred in this climate.A produção do escorrimento de superfície e do sedimento das práticas diferentes do carregamento da madeira, algumas das melhores práticas de gestão de utilização (BMPs recomendadas para Honduras, foi monitorada em lotes experimentais durante as estações das chuvas de dois anos consecutivos em montanhas da Floresta do Pinho de Honduras. Os diferentes sistemas do carregamento da madeira foram aplicados aos lotes pseudorreplicados durante as estações das chuvas de 1999 e de 2000. Em 1999, dois tratamentos foram estudados: cabo do carregamento e do trator (um BMP recomendado. Em 2000, quatro tratamentos foram avaliados: sistemas do carregamento da madeira do trator, cabo, animal e floresta imperturbada (referência. Durante as estações das chuvas desses anos, os

  15. Honduras: Nota técnica sectorial: Salud

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna García Prado; María Fernanda Merino; María Deni Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial, utilizada para la elaboración de la estrategia país del BID con Honduras (2011-2014), tiene objeto de desarrollar una descripción y análisis del sistema de salud hondureño que sirva de apoyo para tener una visión global del sistema de salud, identificar prioridades en el sector, así como también recomendar acciones para apoyar en la definición de la política de desarrollo del BID en este país.

  16. Geothermal resource assessment in Honduras: How we got to Platanares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, A.W.; Frank, J.A.; Flores, W.

    1988-01-01

    The initial phase of a geothermal resource assessment of Honduras is essentially complete. Reconnaissance scale geological and geochemical investigations were performed at six previously identified sites to determine relative potentials for electricity generation or direct heat use. Two of the six sites were eliminated because of low potential for the production of electricity and detailed geological and geochemical work was concentrated at the remaining four sites. After an evaluation of new data, two sites (Platanares and San Ignacio) were selected for detailed geophysical surveys and one (Platanares) for gradient drilling. Very encouraging results were obtained from the drilling and it is apparent that a feasibility phase investigation is warranted at Platanares.

  17. Impact of Piping Materials on Water Quality in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Cerrato, Jose Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The possible effects of pipe materials on drinking water quality have been analyzed in the distribution system of the water treatment plant of "La La Concepciónâ " in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. "La La Concepciónâ " is a surface water reservoir experiencing biogeochemical cycling of manganese. Black water problems have been reported in the distribution system since 1998. An evaluation of the potential influence that PVC and iron pipes could have on the concentration of iron and manganese in dr...

  18. Una especie nueva de Peniocereus (Cactaceae) de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. House; Carlos Gómez-Hinostrosa; Hernández, Héctor M.

    2013-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra a Peniocereus canoensis, una especie nueva de Cactaceae de las inmediaciones de Tegucigalpa, Honduras. La especie se distingue fácilmente de los otros miembros del género por la combinación de los siguientes caracteres morfológicos: tallos monomorfos, color verde-glauco y flores diurnas, rosa intenso. La especie posiblemente está críticamente amenazada, ya que se encuentra restringida a una pequeña área de bosque seco subtropical y porque sólo se han detectado 6 individu...

  19. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces' Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995

  20. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, N.

    1999-04-01

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces` Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995.

  1. Perceptions of stakeholders about nontraditional cookstoves in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used SWOT-AHP (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats–analytical hierarchy process) technique to measure perceptions of four stakeholder groups: employees, local promoters, community leaders and end-users, about a nontraditional cookstove (NTCS) in Honduras. These stakeholder groups are part of an ongoing NTCS dissemination project led by Proyecto Mirador. We found that all stakeholder groups have a positive perception about the existing NTCS. Employees and local promoters stakeholder groups share similar perceptions. Smokeless cooking was selected as a prime strength, closely followed by reduction in forest logging and greenhouse gas emissions by all stakeholder groups. Availability of financial resources and responsible management were identified as crucial opportunities. Time spent in wood preparation and NTCS maintenance were identified as principal weaknesses. A long waiting time between a request and installation of NTCS and the risk of losing existing financial resources were acknowledged as major threats. Design improvements that can reduce maintenance and wood preparation time, a secure long-term source of funding through a market mechanism or direct/indirect government involvement, and early execution of pending orders will help in increasing adoption of NTCSs in rural Honduras. (letter)

  2. About some measurements done on Honduras during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda de Carías, María Cristina

    1995-01-01

    A morphological description of the solar photosphere, chromosphere and the corona is presented from a complete sequence of visual and spectroscopic observations made in Honduras (Amapala), during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 1991 and from the analysis of some emission and absorption lines at all the eclipse phases. Also, a comparison of detected total flux of muons incident over Tegucigalpa (Honduras) the day of the solar eclipse with data obtained years before is presented along with an analysis of the measurements of the total geomagnetic field done in Amapala (Honduras), before and on 11 July, in order to detect any change associated to the event of the solar eclipse.

  3. Drug consumption by medical students in tegucigalpa, Honduras Uso de drogas entre estudiantes de medicina, tegucigalpa, Honduras O uso de drogas entre estudantes de medicina em tegucigalpa, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Carolina Buchanan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of drugs, in Honduras, involves 25% of college students. The most used substances include legal and recreational drugs, such as alcohol. This study aimed to identify the use of drugs and socio-demographic factors in a sample of 260 medical students. RESULTS: Average age of 20 years old, unemployed and religious women, single, with no children. Alcohol was the most consumed drug in the last six months for recreational purposes. The following stimulants were frequently consumed: caffeine, mate herb tea, energetic drinks and Coke. Drugs like marijuana, cocaine, valium and sedatives were used in smaller proportions. The reasons reported by women were: to alleviate tiredness and improve their academic performance. The men's reasons were recreation and to alleviate psychological tension. This research has implications for the development of drugs prevention programs in universities.En Honduras, el uso de drogas está presente en el 25% de estudiantes universitarios. Entre las drogas de mayor consumo están las lícitas y de uso recreacional, las bebidas alcohólicas siendo las lícitas y de uso recreacional, como el caso das bebidas alcohólicas. Ese estudio tuvo como propósito identificar el consumo de drogas y los factores sociodemográficos en una muestra de 260 estudiantes de medicina. RESULTADOS: edad media 20 años, mujeres, solteros, no tiene hijos, no trabajan, profesan religión. La droga más utilizada en los últimos seis meses es el alcohol, con consumo recreacional. Los estimulantes de consumo frecuente: la cafeína, el mate; las bebidas energizantes, la coca-cola; y las drogas ilicitas como la marihuana, la cocaína, el valium y los inductores del sueño en menores proporciones. Las razones de uso para mujeres fueron: aliviar el cansancio, mejorar el rendimiento académico; y para varones: divertirse y aliviar tensiones psicológicas. Esta investigación tiene implicaciones en el desarrollo de programas preventivos del uso de

  4. Assimilation or Cultural Difference? Palestinian Migrants in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio Gutiérrez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at Palestinian immigrants in contemporary Honduras. It questions the general assumption that Palestinians have successfully assimilated into predominantly mestizo societies. It shows that the Palestinian community has maintained various features and references, such as their religious affiliation and their activity in commerce and trade, that make them a culturally differentiated group. This article also explores why, against the recent backdrop of multiculturalism, the Palestinian immigrant community have not mobilized an ethnic identity in order to gain access to resources or demand collective recognition. Furthermore, it shows that Palestinian immigrants have benefitted from various macro and local political and economic factors and policies that contributed to the accumulation of different forms of capital throughout the 20th century.

  5. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  6. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina P. Soebiyanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country’s national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks’ influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05 with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15% to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  7. A Study on Maize Farmers in Occidental Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El crédito ha sido considerado comúnmente como una estrategia importante para influir en el manejo de recursos y las estrategias de sobrevivencia campesina. Los productores con mejor acceso a recursos financieros tienen más opciones para incrementar el retorno marginal de factores variables de producción, tales como trabajo y fertilizantes. Es probable que la sustitución de factores se lleva a cabo hacia sistemas de producción más intensivos que puedan garantizar mejor la seguridad alimentaría y favorecer el uso sostenible de los suelos. Hemos realizado un estudio entre productores de maíz ubicados en el departamento occidental de Lempira en Honduras para analizar el impacto del uso de crédito sobre el retorno marginal de tierra, trabajo y fertilizantes. Encontramos que las proporciones atribuidas a trabajo y fertilizantes aumentaron considerablemente para campesinos que utilizan crédito, mientras que la proporción del factor tierra se redujo fuertemente. La posición relativa de terratenientes tiende a deteriorarse, pero la influencia de suministradores de insumos puede incrementar. Dadas las complementaridades entre fertilizantes y trabajo, el crédito puede ser un importante instrumento para cambiar las relaciones de clase en el campo.

  8. Efficacy of Chloroquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa Elena Mejia; Banegas, Engels Ilich; Mendoza, Meisy; Diaz, Cesar; Bucheli, Sandra Tamara Mancero; Fontecha, Gustavo A.; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Goldman, Ira; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Zambrano, Jose Orlinder Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is officially used for the primary treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the municipality of Puerto Lempira, Gracias a Dios, Honduras was evaluated using the Pan American Health Organization—World Health Organization protocol with a follow-up of 28 days. Sixty-eight patients from 6 months to 60 years of age microscopically diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were included in the final analysis. All patients who were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) cleared parasitemia by day 3 and acquired no new P. falciparum infection within 28 days of follow-up. All the parasite samples sequenced for CQ resistance mutations (pfcrt) showed only the CQ-sensitive genotype (CVMNK). This finding shows that CQ remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Gracias a Dios, Honduras. PMID:23458957

  9. Alcohol consumption by nursing students in Honduras Uso de bebidas alcohólicas entre estudiantes de enfermería en Honduras Uso de bebidas alcoólicas em estudantes de enfermagem em Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Camila Matute; Sandra Cristina Pillon

    2008-01-01

    The recreational use of alcohol is very frequent in the life of college students. A descriptive study was carried out with nursing students in Honduras, where the use of psychoactive substances represents a considerable health problem, especially the use of alcohol. This study identified that 74.9% were abstinent. Nevertheless, the study focused on drinkers, whose consumption pattern may be changing over time. According to the sample characteristics, most subjects were young working women, st...

  10. Los ferrocarriles de la República de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Marcela Alejandra

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El desarrollo ferroviario de Honduras respondió, ante todo, a las aspiraciones y necesidades del capital extranjero, fundamentalmente norteamericano. El descubrimiento del oro en California, primero, planteó el interés por abrir vías de comunicación en Centroamérica que comunicasen el Océano Atlántico y el Pacífico. La explotación del banano, después, implicó la explotación de una serie de líneas de ferrocarril que aseguraron el abastecimiento de este producto en el mercado norteamericano. La intención de este trabajo es mostrar la forma en que el desarrollo ferroviario hondureño dependió de las oscilaciones del negocio bananero. Como medio de transporte, adoleció prácticamente de efectos multiplicadores sobre el desarrollo económico y social del país, controlado por las empresas bananeras, concentradas en la región norte del país. Concluido el ciclo alcista de las economías exportadoras y, enfrentado a la competencia de nuevos medios de transporte y a la relativa diversificación económica de la segunda mitad del siglo XX en el marco del Mercado Común Centroamericano, se verá sumido en una crisis de carácter estructural que explica su lamentable estado actual.

  11. Prefeasibility geothermal assessment of Platanares, Department of Copan, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Laughlin, A.W.; Flores, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Platanares geothermal system is located in a region of active Quaternary tectonism in western Honduras. Although the geothermal area is partially blanketed by Miocene ignimbrites (14.5 m.y.), there are no nearby Quaternary volcanic rocks to act as a young magmatic heat source. No acid-sulfate waters, indicative of vapor-dominated conditions, exist in the area. Hot spring activity is most vigorous along a 2 km stretch of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente fault zone. Natural discharge is high (/approximately/3300 l/min), temperatures range from 35 to 100/degree/C, pH ranges from 7 to 9, and totally dissolved solids are low (/approximately/1100 mg/kg). Chemical geothermometers indicate a subsurface reservoir temperature of about 225/degree/C. Three exploration core holes (7.8 cm diameter) have been drilled to a maximum depth of 680 m and maximum temperature of 165/degree/C. Two holes produce copious amounts of water under artesian conditions (/approximately/500 l/min max; 5 bars flowing) from fractured red beds of Cretaceous to Eocene age (Valle de Angeles Group). Maximum power output is /approximately/4.5 MW (thermal) but CO/sub 2/ released during flashing formed some aragonite scale in one hole. The third core hole has an ''apparent'' conductive gradient of 139/degree/C/km at 400 m. Downward continuation of this gradient implies that the minimum depth to the geothermal resource (225/degree/C) is 1.5 to 2.0 km. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tocoa, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tocoa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Tocoa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tocoa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Tocoa at Tocoa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at one bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Tocoa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Tocoa, 552 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Tocoa at Tocoa are 204 square kilometers and 1,987 millimeters, respectively. It was assumed that a portion of the 50-year flood, 200 cubic meters per second, would escape the main channel and flow down a side channel before re-entering the main channel again near the lower end of the study area.

  13. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Catacamas, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Catacamas that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Catacamas. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Catacamas as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/ floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Catacamas at Catacamas were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas, 216 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation because there are no long-term stream-gaging stations on the river from which to estimate the discharge. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas are 45.4 square kilometers and 1,773 millimeters, respectively.

  14. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Siguatepeque, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Siguatepeque that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Siguatepeque as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on each of the streams studied were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at six bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on any of the streams studied; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The 50-year-flood discharges estimated for Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma are 323, 168, 161, 146, and 90 cubic meters per second, respectively.

  15. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choloma, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choloma that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choloma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choloma as part of the in the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Choloma at Choloma were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Choloma; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choloma, 370 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Choloma at Choloma are 89.5 square kilometers and 2,164 millimeters, respectively.

  16. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Olanchito, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Olanchito that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Uchapa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Olanchito as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 243 cubic meters per second on Rio Uchapa at Olanchito were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Uchapa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Uchapa was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Uchapa at Olanchito are 97.1 square kilometers and 1,178 millimeters, respectively.

  17. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Sonaguera, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Sonaguera that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Sonaguera and its tributary, Rio Juan Lazaro. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Sonaguera as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Sonaguera and Rio Juan Lazaro at Sonaguera were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at the bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Sonaguera or Rio Juan Lazaro; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Sonaguera above the confluence with Rio Juan Lazaro, 194 cubic meters per second; for Rio Juan Lazaro at its mouth, 168 cubic meters per second, and for Rio Sonaguera at the downstream end of the study area, 282 cubic meters per second; were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation.

  18. Employment-generating projects for the energy and minerals sectors of Honduras. Proyectos generadores de empleos para los sectores energetico y minero de Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    A mission to Honduras invited by the Government of Honduras and sponsored by the Organization of American States addressed the generation of employment in various areas of interest to the country. The mission was made up of experts from numerous countries and international agencies. In the energy sector, the mission recommended consolidating the sector under a coordinating body; carrying out projects to promote reforestation, tree farms, and rational forest utilization; encouraging industrial energy conservation; developing alternative energy sources; and promoting rural electrification and expansion of the electrical grid. In the mining sector, the mission supported promotion and technical assistance for small gold-leaching and placer operations, the national mineral inventory, detailed exploration of promising sites, and the development of a mining school. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  19. La Persistencia de la Pobreza Rural en Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia: un Fracaso del Neoliberalismo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kay (Cristóbal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLos documentos de estrategia de lucha contra la pobreza, preparados por los gobiernos mediante un proceso en el que participan instituciones internacionales y actores de la sociedad civil, no dieron los resultados previstos. El artículo analiza los casos de Honduras, Nicaragua y Bolivia

  20. Opening the Black Box: Women's Empowerment and Innovative Secondary Education in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to clarify the relationship between education and women's empowerment. Drawing from qualitative data collected in a study of four Garifuna villages on the north coast of Honduras, it argues that education can trigger the empowerment process if it expands women's knowledge and understanding, self-confidence and awareness of gender…

  1. Optimizing the Allocation of Resources among HIV Prevention Interventions in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Beeharry, Girindre; Schwab, Nicole; Akhavan, Dariush; Hernández, Rosalinda; Paredes, Carla

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a model that policymakers can use to determine the resource allocation that will prevent the maximum number of new HIV infections at any given budget level. The optimal allocation exercise was conducted in Honduras, where the epidemic is still concentrated in high-risk groups but has begun spreading into the general population. Most transmissions occur through heterosex...

  2. Creating Sustainable Education Projects in Roatán, Honduras through Continuous Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Arjan; Randolph, Adriane B.; Heil, Shelli

    2010-01-01

    The investigators worked together with permanent residents of Roatán, Honduras on sustainable initiatives to help improve the island's troubled educational programs. Our initiatives focused on increasing the number of students eligible and likely to attend a university. Using a methodology based in continuous process improvement, we developed…

  3. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  4. How Patronage Politics Undermines Parental Participation and Accountability: Community-Managed Schools in Honduras and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how patronage politics affects a popular international education model: community-managed schools (CMS). Focusing on Honduras's CMS initiative, PROHECO (Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria), I demonstrate how patronage can undermine CMS accountability. Whereas supporters argue that CMS increases accountability, partisan…

  5. Brus Laguna virus, a Gamboa bunyavirus from Aedeomyia squamipennis collected in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Sudia, W D

    1988-10-01

    A virus isolate from Aedeomyia squamipennis collected in Honduras in 1967 was identified as a member of the Gamboa serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus). This is the ninth Gamboa serogroup virus and the eighth shown to be a distinct serotype. PMID:2903690

  6. Using "EC-Assess" to Assess a Small Biofuels Project in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngassa, Franklin Chamda

    2010-01-01

    Biofuels may contribute to both rural economic development and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Gota Verde Project in Yoro, Honduras, attempts to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale biofuel production for local use by implementing a distinctive approach to feedstock production that encourages small farm…

  7. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. RESULTS: Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%, treatment efficacy studies (8.1% or epidemiological studies (81%. Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis

  8. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Reiger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design: This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Results: Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01, and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg, from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01. We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01. At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Conclusions: Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for

  9. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  10. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Comayagua, Hondura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Comayagua that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Comayagua as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada at Comayagua were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Humuya at Comayagua, 1,400 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The reasonableness of the regression discharge was evaluated by comparing it with drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated for three long-term Rio Humuya stream-gaging stations. The drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated from the gage records ranged from 946 to 1,365 cubic meters per second. Because the regression equation discharge agrees closely with the high end of the range of discharges estimated from the gaging-station records, it was used for the hydraulic modeling to ensure that the resulting 50-year-flood water-surface elevations would not be underestimated. The 50-year

  11. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Juticalpa, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Juticalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Juticalpa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Juticalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa, 1,360 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Juticalpa en El Torito, located about 2 kilometers upstream from Juticalpa. One discharge, 1,551 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 33 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 486 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 1,310 cubic meters per second. The 50-year flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Juticalpa was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF A MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR HONDURAS: A MODEL FOR REGIONAL STUDIES IN LOW-INCOME ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon-Salin, Delmy

    1999-01-01

    A marketing information system for Honduras was devised. The premise behind this project is to provide timely access to agricultural market prices for the private sector. Daily price information would be generated for major markets in the two largest cities in Honduras-Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula. The collected information would be disseminated publicly within 24 hours of its collection. Prior to initiation of this project, farmers did not have access to current market prices. Procedures i...

  13. Securitization of a president - the coup d'etat in Honduras analyzed through the securitization framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Julie Høj

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aims to explore the usability and shortcomings of Buzan and Wævers securitization theory in explaining the coup d’etat against Manuel Zelaya in Honduras in 2009.! With an outset in the Truth and Reconciliation Commissions report about the coup and an article from Honduran newspaper La Prensa, I investigate how and by whom the coup against Zelaya was sought legitimized. ! Using the concepts of the securitization theory I identify securitizing actors and securitizing speec...

  14. Summary of Coral Cay Conservation's habitat mapping data from Utila, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, S.; Harborne, A.; Afzal, D.; Andrews, M.; RAINES, P.

    2002-01-01

    IIThe coral reefs of Honduras are of vital national and international importance,both ecologically and economically, but are threatened because of rapid economicand population growth.? During work on Utila between 1999 and 2000 (the ?Bay Islands 2000? project),Coral Cay Conservation developed a programme of surveys, training andconservation education aimed at assessing the status of local reefs and improvingenvironmental awareness amongst neighbouring communities.? This summary report provide...

  15. Vernacular Architecture: Pre-Columbian Households of the Middle Chamelecon Drainage, Northwest Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Architectural designs and site-planning principles have been well studied within Mesoamerica, however, predominantly informed from large urban polities, monumental styles, and elite-associated contexts. A standardization of the architectural designs of domestic, rural, and/or household milieus remain underexplored, especially within Southeast Mesoamerica (eastern Guatemala, western Honduras, and El Salvador). The approach of evaluating vernacular architectural traits from this particular re...

  16. EXPLAINING THE ADOPTION AND DISADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: THE CASE OF COVER CROPS IN NORTHERN HONDURAS

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, Sean P.; Lee, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Although technology adoption has been the subject of a great deal of economic research, that focused on the economics of adoption of low-input "sustainable" systems has been much more limited and recent. This paper attempts to explain the recent decline in the use of cover crops using in maize farming in the Department of Atlantida, Honduras. In the early 1970's, farmers in the region began rotating maize with the velvetbean (mucuna ssp.), a system learned from Guatemalan immigrants. Tohe muc...

  17. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Objective: This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH. The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods: Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ. In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results: The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions: The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its

  18. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution

  19. Insufficient water supply in an urban area - case study : Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Coello Midence Balthasar, Zairis Aida

    2011-01-01

    Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, has experienced an unsatisfied water demand during the last three decades. The state owned water utility in charge of the water supply of the country, SANAA, has faced this deficit by providing an intermittent water supply. The intermittent water supply has increased the gap between the rich and the poor, who cannot afford water storage facilities. Theories explain water scarcity either by low precipitation or by lack of investment in water structures. Th...

  20. On-site economic evaluation of soil conservation practices in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Carcamo, Julio A.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger; Norton, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the cost to the farmer of employing soil erosion reduction strategies are examined for the steep hillsides near Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Linear programming and MOT AD are used to examine these factors. Results indicate that some modest reductions in erosion can be achieved at little cost to the farmer by reorganizing production, switching .rotations, and using contour plowing. These modest reductions still lead to extremely high rates of erosion. Sharper reductions may be achi...

  1. Marked seasonality of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections: ten-year observation of hospital cases, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Lagos, Javier; Raudales Santos, Gabriela; Urrutia, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras. Methods Retrospective non interventional hospital-based study analyzed laboratory results from the period 2002 to 2011 of fresh and Ziehl-Nielsen carbolfuchsin stained routine stool samples received for parasitologic examination. Sporadically a sample with numerous oocysts was allowed to sporul...

  2. Quantifying Structural Changes with the Application of Osteopathic Manual Medicine (OMM) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Hardee, Abraham Billy

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to compare quantifiable structural asymmetry to changes visualized in center of pressure (CoP) and/or postural sway by the use of an Isobalance forceplate in order to introduce principles of osteopathic medicine to a Latin America culture. Osteopathic manual medicine (OMM) was used to correct structural dysfunction found in the study participants at the Baxter Institute in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Study participants were students and staff members rangin...

  3. Siting feasible water catchments for small irrigation projects in Western Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Jefferson Valencia

    2016-01-01

    Treball final de Màster Universitari Erasmus Mundus en Tecnologia Geoespacial. Codi: SIW013. Curs academic 2015-2016 In Western Honduras, most of people live in rural areas under extreme conditions of poverty. This area is part of the Centro American dry corridor which is affected by droughts and, therefore, water scarcity. Access to water is limited; which affects human welfare and agricultural production. As a plausible solution, this thesis work provides a tool to identify feasible wate...

  4. CSEM/ADED Valle: An Alternative for Women's Entrepreneurship in the Gulf of Fonseca region, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Agencia de Desarrollo Económico Local , ADED Valle

    2012-01-01

    Through the testimonies of the protagonists, this case study reconstructs the experience of the creation of the Service Center for Women's Entrepreneurship (CSEM), which has been providing technical and financial services to entrepreneurs in the border department of Valle, Honduras, since 2006. CSEM operates from the institutional framework of the Local Economic Development Agency ADED and although born with the support of international cooperation, including programs MyDEL (Women and Local E...

  5. Paleokarst Evaluation in the Upper Albian Calcareous Platforms in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Velázquez B.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation in México, Guatemala and Honduras of theUpper Albian platform carbonate rocks that were exposed to subaerial conditions by the falling of the sea level, exposing the rocks to the physical, chemical and temperature phenomena allowing for some type of karst formation. There is a methodology for the identification of paleokarsts by the petrology, fabrics, geometry and stratigraphy of the breccias. Only at Dengandho in the Actopan Platform there are the evidence...

  6. Cross-level institutional processes and vulnerability to natural hazards in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Segnestam, Lisa; Simonsson, Louise; Rubiano, Jorge; Morales, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch struck Honduras in October 1998 with disastrous results. Lack of accessto adequate land, credit or technical assistance had forced subsistence farmers and semi-urbanpopulations into high-risk marginal areas. Deforestation and inappropriate farming practicesexacerbated their vulnerability. The losses experienced by the country ranged from lost lives,to lost livelihoods, to destroyed infrastructure. Our goal in this study was to identify those factors in Honduran society that ne...

  7. "Ecological Values amid Local Interests: Natural Resource Conservation, Social Differentiation, and Human Survival in Honduras"

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. Gareau

    2007-01-01

    Local peoples living in protected areas often have a different understanding about their natural space than do non-local groups that promote and declare such areas ‘‘protected.’’ By designing pro- tected areas without local involvement, or understandings of local social differentiation and power, natural resources management schemes will likely be unsuccessful. Protected area Cerro Guanacaure in southern Honduras has been subject to many development projects, most of which have failed, and th...

  8. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  9. Lesson's-learned from a 2003-2006 USA-Honduras NGO and University Geosciences Education Partnership in Land use Land / Land Cover Change Analysis using Remote Sensing and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = http://www.fundacionsave.com/home_eng.html In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal

  10. Observing at the Central American Suyapa Astronomical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda de Carias, M. C.

    In June of 1997, within the framework of the VII UN/ESA Workshop on Basic Space Science Workshop held in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, the Central American Suyapa Astronomical Observatory (CASAO) was inaugurated, with the dedication of the Telescope "René Sagastume Castillo", a 42 cm Schmidt Cassegrain Meade LX200 telescope located at Latitude: 14deg 05' N, Longitude: 87deg 09' W and Altitude: 1,077 meters over sea level, for the Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama). In this document we present what has been achieved with this facility, as part of academic activities for outreach, training and now, for research projects in observational astronomy with the international cooperation.

  11. A strategy for implementation of programs for energy efficiency and the the use of energy renewable sources in Honduras; Uma estrategia para a implementacao de programas de eficiencia energetica e do uso de fontes renovaveis de energia em Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Jose Cecilio Carcamo

    2000-07-01

    The electric power sector in Honduras, is in a phase of transition, from a centralized and monopolistic system, to a decentralized and competitive one. The approval of the Electric Law in 1994 brought the separation of the generation, transmission and distribution functions of the electric industry, the creation of new market agents, as well as the function of regulation to the State. From the restructuration of the Honduran electric power sector, the tendency in the production of electricity is the construction of thermoelectric plants. This tendency has caused an increase of imports of fossil fuels and environmental impacts, causing a situation quite unsustainable for the Honduran society, the environment and the economy in general. In order to change the tendency of diffusion of the thermoelectric plants in the electric sector, this work makes a detailed diagnosis of the country energy resources and shows some ways to implement programs of energy efficiency. The diagnosis leads to the understanding of the problems that the agents confront in the electric power sector. With that, it is possible to elaborate a strategy whose goal is the implementation, in a profitable way, of programs of energy efficiency and projects of alternative energy sources. In order to achieve that the strategy will be successful, is necessary the implantation of environmental, economical and institutional measures. If the measures suggested by this strategy will be carry out, the use of alternative energy sources and of programs of energy efficiency will compete in better conditions with traditional energetic sources and they get to the place they belong within the Honduran electric power sector. (author)

  12. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platanares, Honduras. Estudio economico de prefactibilidad del desarrollo de energia geotermica en Platanares, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-09-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Platanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. 8 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  14. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. Bruneau

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  15. Cross-arc geochemical variations in volcanic fields in Honduras C.A.: progressive changes in source with distance from the volcanic front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Lina C.; Carr, Michael J.; Feigenson, Mark D.

    A geochemical traverse across Honduras reveals the heterogeneity of the mantle underneath Central America. Alkali basalts from Lake Yojoa (170km behind the front) have low 87Sr/86Sr but high La/Yb, and elevated incompatible trace element abundances, consistent with derivation from a normal mid-ocean ridge basalt source mantle via low degrees of melting. These lavas lack evidence for an enriched source thought to be intermingled with normal mid-ocean ridge basalt source mantle beneath most of Central America. The amplitude of the subducted slab signature decreases smoothly with distance from the volcanic front. Lavas from Zacate Grande, the area nearest to the volcanic front (17 km behind the arc), display large ion lithophile element enrichment and high field strength element depletion indicating the involvement of subducted material in magma genesis. Components of subducted material are not evident in lavas from Lake Yojoa, the area furthest from the arc. Basalts and basaltic andesites from Tegucigalpa, 102 km behind the volcanic front, are geochemically intermediate between those of Lake Yojoa and Zacate Grande. The lavas from Tegucigalpa show a decreased influence of the subduction component, and are affected by assimilation-fractional crystallization processes at shallow depths. The gradual decrease in the subducted component from the volcanic front to Zacate Grande, Tegucigalpa and finally Lake Yojoa contrasts with the abrupt decrease documented for southeast Guatemala, the only other area in Central America where a cross-arc transect has been studied.

  16. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghebremichael Solomon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis persists as a public health problem in Honduras. A better knowledge of the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains will contribute to understand the transmission dynamics of the disease within the country. The aim of this study was to provide an insight of the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Honduras between 1994 and 2002. Genotyping was performed using spoligotyping and RFLP. The spoligotypes obtained were compared with the SITVIT2 proprietary database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. Results Spoligotyping grouped 84% of the isolates into 27 clusters (2 to 43 strains per cluster. Of the 44 shared international types (SITs identified among the Honduran stains, 8 SITs were newly identified either within the present study or after match with an orphan type previously identified in the SITVIT2 database. In addition, 16 patterns corresponded to orphan, previously unreported isolates. The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM lineage was the most common in this study; 55% of the strains belonged to this family. Other genotypes found were Haarlem (16%, T (16%, X-clade (6%, Unknown signature (5% and S (1%. Only one Beijing strain was identified (0.5%. We observed a high degree of diversity after characterizing the 43 isolates belonging to the main spoligotyping cluster (SIT 33, LAM3 with IS6110-RFLP. A total of 35 different RFLP-fingerprints were detected, of which 6 patterns corresponded to the same number of clusters comprising 14 strains. Conclusions The findings obtained in this study show that tuberculosis transmission in Honduras is due to modern M. tuberculosis lineages with high level of biodiversity.

  17. Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities, Volume 2. City Reports

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  18. Democracia e Autoritarismo em Honduras: o que está em jogo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS FEDERICO DOMÍNGUEZ AVILA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da crise política em Honduras
    após o golpe de Estado de junho último. Argumentase
    que a melhor alternativa para resolver democraticamente
    a crise é o denominado acordo de São José.
    A posição brasileira, especialmente após a concessão
    de apóio e proteção ao presidente José Manuel Zelaya
    na embaixada em Tegucigalpa, é decisiva.

  19. Democracia e Autoritarismo em Honduras: o que está em jogo?

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS FEDERICO DOMÍNGUEZ AVILA

    2009-01-01

    O artigo trata da crise política em Honduras
    após o golpe de Estado de junho último. Argumentase
    que a melhor alternativa para resolver democraticamente
    a crise é o denominado acordo de São José.
    A posição brasileira, especialmente após a concessão
    de apóio e proteção ao presidente José Manuel Zelaya
    na embaixada em Tegucigalpa, é decisiva.

  20. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Fontecha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt “CVMNK” genotype in codons 72-76.

  1. "Ecological Values amid Local Interests: Natural Resource Conservation, Social Differentiation, and Human Survival in Honduras"

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. Gareau

    2007-01-01

    Local peoples living in protected areas often have a different understanding about their natural space than do non-local groups that promote and declare such areas ‘‘protected.’’ By designing pro- tected areas without local involvement, or understandings of local social differentiation and power, natural resources management schemes will likely be unsuccessful. Protected area Cerro Guanacaure in southern Honduras has been subject to many development projects, most of which have failed...

  2. Putsch in Honduras: Störfall in der defekten Demokratie

    OpenAIRE

    Oettler, Anika; Peetz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    "In Honduras werden alle wesentlichen Entscheidungen traditionell zwischen den Fraktionen einer konservativen Elite ausgehandelt. Vor dem Putsch gegen den gewählten Präsidenten Zelaya führten Konflikte im Establishment zum Bruch. Der Präsident war isoliert und versuchte sich mit Hilfe von sozialen Bewegungen und der Unterstützung der radikalpopulistischen Regime der Region durchzusetzen, was zu seiner Absetzung führte. Die Versuche der Konfliktlösung scheinen auf die Wiederherstellung des Eli...

  3. Dinámica del nitrógeno y el fósforo del suelo bajo tres sistemas de uso de la tierra en laderas de Honduras Dynamics of soil nitrogen and phosphorus in three land use systems on hillsides of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracely Castro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se condujo un estudio para determinar el efecto de los principios de manejo del Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ en la dinámica de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P del suelo y el impacto de estos en su productividad en el sur-occidente de Honduras, Centroamérica. Se compararon cinco sistemas: (1 tala-y-quema (TQ; (2, 3 & 4 SAQ de A study was carried out to determine the effect of management principles in the Quesungual Slash and Mulch Agroforestry System (QSMAS on the dynamics of soil nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, and their impact on QSMAS’ productivity in southwestern Honduras, Central America. Five land use systems were compared: (1 Slash-and-burn traditional system; (2, 3 and 4 QSMAS of 10 years old, respectively; and (5 Secondary forest. Local practices were applied to produce maize Zea mays, and bean Phaseolus vulgaris, with (101 kg N + 55 kg P /ha for maize, 46 kg N + 51 kg P /ha for bean and without addition of fertilizers. Measurements included decomposition and nutrient release from biomass, aerobic mineralization of N, sequential fractionation of P, size-density fractionation of soil organic matter, and crop yield. Similarities in N dynamics indicate that QSMAS and slash-and-burn system were equally effective in providing N, although in QSMAS it is also result of a biologically mediated process. P pools in QSMAS were more dynamic and favorable by reducing their flows towards unavailable forms. Based on nutrient availability and grain yields over time, QSMAS could be a suitable option to replace the slash-and-burn system in smallholder agroecosystems.

  4. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  5. Migration, Multiple Sexual Partnerships, and Sexual Concurrency in the Garífuna Population of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Anisha D; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with (1) multiple sexual partnerships and (2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration. PMID:26242612

  6. Dealing with the coffee crisis in Central America - impacts and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Varangis, Panos; Siegel, Paul; Giovannucci, Daniele; Lewin, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Current coffee prices are at record lows and below the cost of production for many producers in Central America. Moreover, the coffee crisis is structural, and changes in supply and demand do not indicate a quick recovery of prices. So, coffee producers in Central America are facing new challenges-as are coffee laborers, coffee exporters, and others linked to the coffee sector. Coffee plays a major economic role in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The coffee crisis...

  7. Evaluación y alternativas del proyecto de restricción vehicular "Hoy no circula" llevado a cabo en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Laínez Bueso, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Honduras, oficialmente República de Honduras, es un país centroamericano con un gobierno republicano presidencialista de aproximadamente 7,8 millones de habitantes, y está entre las que registra un mayor número de crecimiento en Latinoamérica. Debido al incremento del parque vehicular en este país y al crecimiento poblacional, ha surgido una problemática que es el congestionamiento vial en las principales ciudades de Honduras ya que la infraestructura vial en vez de ir mejorand...

  8. Physical and Sexual Violence, Mental Health indicators, and treatment seeking among street-based population groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence.

  9. Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  10. Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 2. Background Papers and Technical Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas adva...

  11. Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 1. Executive Summary and Main Text

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas adva...

  12. Understanding the Limitations of Employer Prevention Programs in Transnational Settings: A Case Study of Women Workers in Canadian-Owned Maquiladoras in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of current studies of ergonomics programs in transnational factories in Honduras to adequately address the issue of prevention, this study examines how the production process in Canadian-owned factories operating in Honduras mitigate against primary and secondary prevention measures. Using a feminist lens and drawing on grounded theory, this study is based on interviews with seven Honduran women workers suffering from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and seven...

  13. Honduras: hacia una reconfiguración del sistema partidario tras las elecciones generales de 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Graciela Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the results of the general elections held on November 24th, 2013 in Honduras in which Juan Orlando Hernández, a member of the conservative National Party, emerged as the winner. The results of these elections, marked by the crisis of 2009, allowed the ruling party to continue in power. The present analysis focuses on the political context in which the elections were held, as well as the main challenges the country faces. The article also discusses the effects of the electoral process on the Honduran party system, highlighting the transition from iron-clad bipartisanship to an incipient multi-party system that will condition the political scene in the years to come.

  14. (Solar energy technology transfer, Guatemala City, Guatemala and Tegucigalpa, Honduras, August 20--August 30, 1989)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-09-05

    I travelled to Guatemala City, Guatemala and to Tegucigalpa, Honduras to gather information regarding the possibility of transferring photovoltaic technology for rural household uses in each respective country. Meetings were held with US government officials in each country mission (USAID and the commercial attaches); with utility officials; cooperative managers; and PVO's. The overall response was very positive; two of the electric utilities interviewed would like to begin program design immediately. A coffee cooperative with 38,000 members also expressed a keen interest in putting into place a program similar to the photovoltaic household energy program established in the Dominican Republic. The purpose of the trip was to establish lines of communication with perspective project cooperators; that objective was accomplished.

  15. Presence of pesticide residues in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to detect the presence of persistent pesticides in water, sediment and biological samples taken from aquatic environments in Honduras during the period 1995-98. Additionally, the LC50 for 2 fungicides and 2 insecticides on post-larval Penaeus vannamei was determined in static water bioassays. A total of 80 water samples, 16 sediment samples and 7 biological samples (fish muscle tissue) were analyzed for detection of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticide residues. The results of sample analyses indicate a widespread contamination of Honduran continental and coastal waters with organochlorine pesticides. Most detections were of low (50 values and were therefore found to be much more toxic to the post-larval shrimp than the fungicides tridemorph and propiconazole. (author)

  16. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainville, Denise Y

    2003-06-01

    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems. PMID:12825438

  17. Asignación de recursos, satisfaccción del visitante, administración y manejo de parques nacionales en Costa Rica, Honduras y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth forecasted of new visitors arriving to Central America national parks will make essential for park managers to consider visitor satisfaction in its planning process. A total of 915 surveys, 312 to local and 603 to foreign visitors were conducted in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, to determine using a gap form of the expectations-disconfirmation model the satisfaction of local and foreign visitors with the infrastructure, services and recreational options. The study found that there were important differences and similarities between local and foreign visitors in socio demographics and in the satisfaction rating awarded to key infrastructure, services and recreational options. Standardized regression model identified using stepwise procedure single out the variables that influence the overall gap in satisfaction with the visit. The material permitted improved resource allocation and management decisions by the parks administrator in terms of the elements they needed to consider in their site main-tenance and investment planning in order to increase the visitor’s satisfaction with the visit.

  18. Civil Society in Hybrid Governance: Non-Governmental Organization (NGO Legitimacy in Mediating Wal-Mart’s Local Produce Supply Chains in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dara Bloom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion that the incorporation of actors from civil society into hybrid governance arrangements improves outcomes and legitimacy. Multi-stakeholder collaborations are a popular hybrid governance approach to development, including NGOs’ work to integrate smallholder farmers into supermarket supply chains. As a result, NGOs’ service provision role has expanded to include market facilitation, often necessitating NGOs act as market intermediaries. This paper explores how this new role may jeopardize NGOs’ organizational legitimacy in the eyes of their constituents, other development organizations, and supermarket partners, and therefore ultimately affect their ability to represent civil society in hybrid governance arrangements. Drawing on qualitative data collected in the Central American country of Honduras, this paper focuses on NGOs’ role organizing producer associations to facilitate access to Wal-Mart supermarkets. Findings suggest that a lack of supply chain transparency, NGOs’ negotiation between commercial and aid-oriented goals, and the potential to exclude producers from development projects threaten NGOs’ legitimacy. These findings illustrate the difficulties of embedding philanthropic activities in market-based systems, and demonstrate how multi-stakeholder collaborations may be influenced more by commercial priorities than the elements of a partnership. Ultimately, development NGOs are products of neoliberal, hybrid governance, even as their activities are expected to ease the transition of small-scale producers into this system.

  19. A Single Early Introduction of HIV-1 Subtype B into Central America Accounts for Most Current Cases

    OpenAIRE

    W. Murillo; Veras, N.; Prosperi, M; de Rivera, I L; Paz-Bailey, G.; Morales-Miranda, S.; Juarez, S. I.; Yang, C; Devos, J.; Marin, J. P.; Mild, M.; J. Albert; Salemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants show considerable geographical separation across the world, but there is limited information from Central America. We provide the first detailed investigation of the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in six Central American countries. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on 625 HIV-1 pol gene sequences collected between 2002 and 2010 in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. Published sequences ...

  20. Attitudes to and visions of civil society/state relations in Central America: implications for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Barry; Hume, Mo

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present results of a research project on civil society held in three Central American states, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras, in July and August, 2009, as part of the Irish Aid funded and DCU led Active Citizenship in Central America project. The paper is based on a wide range of events and interviews held in these three countries, with five distinct populations, many of them involved in the Active Citizenship Project: students of NGO Management and Municipal Leadership D...

  1. Honduras: Request for a Stand-By Arrangement and an Arrangement Under the Standby Credit Facility-Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The economy of Honduras contracted as a result of the global economic crisis. In the economic policy area, the authorities gave priority to strengthening the financial position of the public sector and restarting the external assistance. Measures are taken to strengthen the fiscal position, in particular wage bill control, energy subsidies, public sector tariffs, domestic arrears. Monetary and exchange rate policies will be geared at maintaining low inflation, safeguarding competitiveness, an...

  2. Spatial variation of hermatypic coral assemblages in Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras Variación espacial de los ensamblajes de corales hermatípicos en el archipiélago Cayos Cochinos, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A.; Carlos V. Pérez-de Silva; Miguel A. Ruiz-Zárate; Amílcar L. Cupul-Magaña; Marco Ortiz; Alicia Medina-Hernández; Pablo Rico; María R. Priego-Arenas; Álvaro Hernández-Flores

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variations of hermatypic coral assemblages were evaluated at five sites in Cayos Cochinos Archipelago, Honduras, in February 2008. Richness and coverage of corals and other benthic morpho-functional groups were estimated using 56 videotransects. Topographic complexity and depth were also measured by transect. Twenty-two coral taxa were recorded for Cayos Cochinos. Total species richness was similar (16 and 17 taxa) at all sites, whereas species richness by transect was different among...

  3. [Biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the control of malaria in a health area of the Republic of Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio D Blanco; Colombi, Elide; Flores, Luis Nery; Canales, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The results of the application of biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the reduction of larval densities of Anopheles albimanus as the impact on the epidemiological situation of the disease in health area 2, Sanitary Region 1 of the Ministry of Health Care of Honduras. The biolarvicide was applied in 1999 in five health units which were the most affected by this tropical disease (Ojo del Agua, Villa de San Francisco, San Juan de Flores, Moroceli and El Jicarito). The dose used was 10 ml per square meter of effective breeding area; larval densities were estimated during biological pre- and post-treatment phases. The product showed 100 % effectiveness and a lasting effect up to four months after treatment in the 11 monitored breeding sites. This entomological impact led to a significantly statistical reduction (p control of malarial vectors in the Republic of Honduras. PMID:15849940

  4. TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND CONTAMINATION BY COFFEE PROCESSING A BIOECONOMIC MODEL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL IN HONDURAS

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, Bruno; Hearne, Robert R.; Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Nelson, Andy; Castaneda, Orlando Mejia

    2003-01-01

    In Honduras, traditional coffee processing is the cause of two major problems: poor coffee quality and contaminated water. In this paper we present a method that determines the trade-off between economic efficiency and contamination in a Honduran sub-watershed. The method is a bioeconomic model based on mathematical programming that stimulates the functioning of the interlinked economic and ecological processes in the sub-watershed. We compare various scenarii where the model is given the pos...

  5. Chagas disease: Central American initiative launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    An initiative to interrupt the transmission of Chagas disease in Central America was launched at a meeting held October 22-24, 1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the meeting was attended by government delegates from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The initiative was launched within the framework of Resolution 13 of the Meeting of Ministers of Health of the Central American Countries, held in Belize in September 1997. Detailed plans of activities were prepared for each country for the period 1998-2001, for approval by the various ministries of health, while operational, epidemiological, and entomological research priorities were also agreed upon. Research projects to help improve disease control will be sponsored by TDR. The first meeting of the Technical Intergovernment Commission established to meet annually to assess progress in control activities will occur in October 1998 in Guatemala. Vector and infection rate data are briefly presented on each country represented at the meeting. PMID:12348564

  6. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the Wider Caribbean: a preliminary review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, O.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Findley, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews published and unpublished information on the mortality of cetaceans in gillnets in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean. Data on this incidental mortality are provided from only nine of the 36 nations in the area (Colombia, the Dominican Republic. French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico. Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela); the lack of mortality records from the other countries reflects poor or non-existent documentation. We surveyed those types of passi...

  7. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  8. A GPS and modelling study of deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; DeMets, C.; Rogers, R.; Tenorio, C.; Hernandez, D.

    2009-09-01

    We use GPS measurements at 37 stations in Honduras and El Salvador to describe active deformation of the western end of the Caribbean Plate between the Motagua fault and Central American volcanic arc. All GPS sites located in eastern Honduras move with the Caribbean Plate, in accord with geologic evidence for an absence of neotectonic deformation in this region. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, the other stations in the study area move west to west-northwest at rates that increase gradually from 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in central Honduras to 4.1 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in western Honduras to as high as 11-12 mm yr-1 in southern Guatemala. The site motions are consistent with slow westward extension that has been inferred by previous authors from the north-striking grabens and earthquake focal mechanisms in this region. We examine the factors that influence the regional deformation by comparing the new GPS velocity field to velocity fields predicted by finite element models (FEMs) that incorporate the regional plate boundary faults and known plate motions. Our modelling suggests that the obliquely convergent (~20°) direction of Caribbean-North American Plate motion relative to the Motagua fault west of 90°W impedes the ENE-directed motion of the Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala, giving rise to extension in southern Guatemala and western Honduras. The FEM predictions agree even better with the measured velocities if the plate motion west of the Central American volcanic arc is forced to occur over a broad zone rather than along a single throughgoing plate boundary fault. Our analysis confirms key predictions of a previous numerical model for deformation in this region, and also indicates that the curvature of the Motagua fault causes significant along-strike changes in the orientations of the principal strain-rate axes in the fault borderlands, in accord with earthquake focal mechanisms and conclusions reached in a recent synthesis of the structural and morphologic data

  9. Inconsistent fertility motivations and contraceptive use behaviors among women in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barden-O'Fallon Janine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated that it is common for women to report inconsistent fertility motivations and family planning behaviors. This study examines these inconsistencies among urban Honduran women interviewed at two points in time and presents reasons for inconsistent fertility motivations and contraceptive behaviors at follow-up. Methods Data come from a one-year panel study conducted in Honduras from October 2006 to December 2007. A total of 633 women aged 15-44 years were interviewed at baseline and follow-up and have non-missing information on the key variables of interest. At baseline and follow-up, women were asked how much of a problem it would be (no problem/small problem/big problem if they got pregnant in the next couple of weeks. At follow-up, women were asked an open-ended question on reasons it would be no problem, a small problem, or a big problem. The open-ended question was recoded into a smaller set of response categories. Univariate and bivariate analyses are presented to examine inconsistencies and reasons for stated inconsistencies. Results At follow-up, over half the women using a contraceptive method said that it would be no problem if they got pregnant. Nearly half of the women changed their perceptions between baseline and follow-up. Common reasons for reporting no problem among contraceptive users were that they accepted a child as God's will or that children are a blessing, their last child was old enough and they wanted another child. Common reasons for reporting a big/small problem among non-users of family planning (who have an unmet need for family planning were that they were not in a stable relationship, the husband was not present, and they would expect a negative response from their family. Conclusion Inconsistent fertility motivations and contraceptive behaviors are common among effective contraceptive users. Women who are using contraception and become pregnant will not necessarily

  10. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health. PMID:25922322

  11. Identifying Ancient Settlement Patterns through LiDAR in the Mosquitia Region of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher T; Fernández-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Cohen, Anna S; Neil Cruz, Oscar; Gonzáles, Alicia M; Leisz, Stephen J; Pezzutti, Florencia; Shrestha, Ramesh; Carter, William

    2016-01-01

    The Mosquitia ecosystem of Honduras occupies the fulcrum between the American continents and as such constitutes a critical region for understanding past patterns of socio-political development and interaction. Heavy vegetation, rugged topography, and remoteness have limited scientific investigation. This paper presents prehistoric patterns of settlement and landuse for a critical valley within the Mosquitia derived from airborne LiDAR scanning and field investigation. We show that (i) though today the valley is a wilderness it was densely inhabited in the past; (ii) that this population was organized into a three-tiered system composed of 19 settlements dominated by a city; and, (iii) that this occupation was embedded within a human engineered landscape. We also add to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the utility of LiDAR as means for rapid cultural assessments in undocumented regions for analysis and conservation. Our ultimate hope is for our work to promote protections to safeguard the unique and critically endangered Mosquitia ecosystem and other similar areas in need of preservation. PMID:27560962

  12. Climate-related disaster opens a window of opportunity for rural poor in northeastern Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Kendra; Coomes, Oliver T

    2011-03-29

    Two distinct views are evident in research on how rural communities in developing countries cope with extreme weather events brought by climate change: (i) that the resource-reliant poor are acutely vulnerable and need external assistance to prepare for such events, and (ii) that climate-related shocks can offer windows of opportunity in which latent local adaptive capacities are triggered, leading to systemic improvement. Results from a longitudinal study in a Tawahka community in Honduras before and after Hurricane Mitch (1994-2002) indicate that residents were highly vulnerable to the hurricane--due in part to previous development assistance--and that the poorest households were the hardest hit. Surprisingly, however, the disaster enabled the poor to initiate an institutional change that led to more equitable land distribution, slowed primary forest conversion, and positioned the community well to cope with comparable flooding occurring 10 y later. The study provides compelling evidence that communities can seize on the window of opportunity created by climate-induced shocks to generate sustained social-ecological improvement, and suggests that future interventions should foster local capacities for endogenous institutional change to enhance community resilience to climate shocks. PMID:21402909

  13. Costa Rica Variable Star Observation Program: Continuation of the research started in the Second Astronomical Observation Regional Campaign TAD/IAU Tegucigalpa Honduras, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya Rodriguez, E.

    1998-11-01

    In the last months of January and February, it was the Second Astronomical Observation Regional Campaign TAD/IAU in the Suyapa Astronomical Observatory, Tegucigalpa, Honduras; sponsored by the International Astronomical Union, Honduras Government and the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras. In that opportunity, during the campaign, it began a variable star observation program, according to international regulation of the American Association of Variable Stars Observers (AAVSO). The activities were about the use of general experimental techniques that allow people to do studies naked eye, with telescopes or photometers depending on the observed star magnitude. The continuation in Costa Rica of that research added to some gotten results will be presented in this work.

  14. Actitudes lingüísticas en Honduras. Un estudio sociolingüístico sobre el español de Honduras frente al de otros países de habla hispana

    OpenAIRE

    Hilcia Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de Tegucigalpa, hacia al español de Honduras y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo hace parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America), financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN). La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 info...

  15. Un programa escolar para el control del dengue en Honduras: del conocimiento a la práctica A school program for dengue control in Honduras: from knowledge to action

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Adolfo Ávila Montes; Roxana Araujo; Elli Leontsini; Gabriel Orellana Herrera; Eduardo Fernández Cerna

    2012-01-01

    Se describe el Programa Escolar Ambiental (PEA), una iniciativa de control de dengue enfocada en el ámbito de la escuela -primaria durante el -período de 2005-2010 en varias ciudades de Honduras. El programa fue diseñado para generar mayor conocimiento y destreza en la identificación y el control de criaderos de Aedes aegypti dentro de un contexto de salud ambiental, que incluía además el manejo del agua y los desechos sólidos. Los resultados en él cambio de comportamiento y en la reducción d...

  16. Befindlichkeitsstörungen im frühen Wochenbett im kulturellen Kontext: Eine empirische Untersuchung an Wöchnerinnen in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Arnegger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dysphorische Befindlichkeitsstörungen im frühen Wochenbett werden in westlichen Gesellschaften mit einer Häufigkeit von 25-85% beschrieben. Diese Studie im Rahmen des „Munich Post Partum Project“ an 105 Wöchnerinnen in Honduras zeigte eine Prävalenz des Baby Blues von 50,5%. Als Hauptsymptome traten in Honduras Erschöpfung, Weinerlichkeit, Niedergeschlagenheit, Stimmungslabilität, Traurigkeit und Nachdenklichkeit in den ersten zehn Tagen postpartum auf. Prädisponierende Faktoren, signifikante...

  17. Violence, Rule of Law, and Punitive Policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.

  18. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, James

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on...

  19. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MAHONEY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on differences in the transformation of state and class structures, three types of liberalism are identified: radical liberalism in Guatemala and El Salvador, reformist liberalism in Costa Rica and aborted liberalism in Honduras and Nicaragua. It is argued that these types of liberalism set the Central American countries on contrasting paths of political development, culminating in diverse regime outcomes.Durante el siglo XX, los países de América Central se caracterizaron por tener regímenes políticos muy diferentes: el autoritarismo militar en Guatemala y El Salvador; la democracia progresista en Costa Rica y el autoritarismo tradicional en Honduras y Nicaragua. Este artículo explica los resultados de estos distintos regímenes mediante la exploración de las reformas agrarias y de la construcción del Estado llevadas a cabo por los líderes políticos durante el siglo XIX y principios del periodo de reformas liberales del siglo XX. Basándose en las diferencias de la transformación del Estado y de las estructuras de clases, se pueden identificar tres tipos de liberalismo: liberalismo radical en Guatemala y El Salvador; liberalismo reformista en Costa Rica y liberalismo frustrado en Honduras y Nicaragua. Se argumenta que estos tipos de liberalismo condujeron a los países de América Central a caminos contrarios al desarrollo político, culminando así en regímenes con resultados diversos.

  20. Geology of the Azacualpa geothermal site, Departamento de Comayagua Honduras, Central America: Field report. Geologia del area geotermica de Azacualpa Departamento de Comayagua, Honduras, America Central: Informe de camps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.; Baldridge, S.; Perry, F.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Finch, R.

    1987-03-01

    Thermal waters at the Azacualpa geothermal site are surfacing along fractures in the Atima Formation associated with the main north-south-trending Zacapa fault and the subordinate north-south-trending splays of the main fault. Permeability appears to be related to these fractures rather than to formation permeability in either the limestones of the Atima Formation or the Valle de Angeles Group red beds. Attitudes of lower Valle de Angeles Group red beds do not vary appreciably with distance away from the Zacapa fault, suggesting that the system is not behaving like a listric normal fault at depth. The ''Jaitique structure,'' as conjectured by R. Fakundiny (1985), does not appear to have any manifestation at the surface in terms of structures that can be seen or measured in the bedrock. Its existence is considered unlikely at the present time. Calorimetry calculations indicate that the thermal anomaly at the Azacualpa site is producing approx.4.4 thermal megawatts.

  1. Comentarios sobre las posibilidades de un nuevo programa macroeconómico entre Honduras y el Fondo Monetario Internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Katz

    2008-01-01

    El presente informe analiza de manera sucinta las ponencias efectuadas tanto por las autoridades del gobierno de Honduras como por el representante del Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) en la reunión mantenida por ambas partes el 24 de abril de 2007 en Tegucigalpa. En la exposición se han tomado en cuenta, asimismo, las conversaciones previas mantenidas por el consultor con las autoridades del gobierno en la misión de apoyo realizada en los últimos días de febrero de 2007, así como algunos ...

  2. Rupture directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The main shock caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the rupture and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed rupture propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the

  3. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Vicente Pongitory Gifoni; Dvorak William Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl) Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-po...

  4. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  5. Diffusion of non-traditional cookstoves across western Honduras: A social network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A third of the world's population uses inefficient biomass stoves, contributing to severe health problems, forest degradation, and climate change. Clean burning, fuel-efficient, non-traditional cookstoves (NTCS) are a promising solution; however, numerous projects fail during the diffusion process. We use social network analysis to reveal patterns driving a successful stove intervention in western Honduras. The intervention lacks formal marketing, but has spread across a wide area in just a few years. To understand the process, we map the social network of active community members who drove diffusion across a large swath of the country. We find that most ACMs heard about stoves twice before sharing information about it with others and introducing the stove into their own communities. On average, the social distance between ACMs and the project team is 3 degrees of separation. Both men and women are critical to the diffusion process, but men tend to communicate over longer distances, while women principally communicate over shorter distances. Government officials are also crucial to diffusion. Understanding how information moves through social networks and across geographic space allows us to theorize how knowledge about beneficial technologies spreads in the absence of formal marketing and inform policies for NTCS deployment worldwide. - Highlights: • We build a chain of referrals to track spread of information about non traditional cookstoves. • We find differences among gender and occupations that should inform policy. • People hear about the stoves twice before becoming suppliers of information. • Government officials play a substantial role in the diffusion. • Males play leading role in diffusion over long distances, females in short distances

  6. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Ceiba, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Ceiba that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Cangrejal. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Ceiba as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 1,030 cubic meters per second on Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Cangrejal; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba are 498 square kilometers and 2,306 millimeters, respectively.

  7. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  8. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for El Progreso, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of El Progreso that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Pelo. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of El Progreso as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Pelo at El Progreso were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Pelo; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Pelo, 235 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Pelo at El Progreso are 47.4 square kilometers and 1,920 millimeters, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of female fruit fly attractants in Honduras 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an international effort coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency, a study to evaluate general and relative (percentage of females) efficiency of fruit fly attractants was conducted in four locations in Honduras from 2001 to 2004. Combinations of the food based dry synthetic attractants Ammonium Acetate (AA), Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB), Putrescine (PT) and Trimethylamine (TMA) were compared against NuLure and Torula Yeast, the standard protein lures currently used in surveillance Programmes. In the last year, pulp of hog plum, Spondias mombin was included in the treatments. Attractants were deployed using plastic McPhail-type traps that were checked twice weekly. The combination of AA+PT+TMA was the most efficient for the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, catching 0.74 flies/trap/day (FTP), whereas Torula Yeast caught 0.36 FTP. Both treatments captured over 90% females. For Anastrepha species, no combination of synthetic lures reached this efficiency. AA+PT and variations of it (smaller amounts of ammonia or putrescine released) gave the best results with Anastrepha, in some cases being statistically equal to the standard protein baits. In general, the best combination of AA+PT for each year caught an average of 0.29 FTP for A. obliqua and 0.23 for A. ludens, whereas the standard protein baits caught 0.39 and 0.42 FTP, respectively. Their relative efficiency was 77% females. Hog plum pulp gave good results in attracting Anastrepha flies, especially A. obliqua, performing equally or better than the standard protein baits. However, it only attracts around 60% females. (author)

  10. Metabolic diversity and niche structure in sponges from the Miskito Cays, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Freeman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hosting symbionts provides many eukaryotes with access to the products of microbial metabolism that are crucial for host performance. On tropical coral reefs, many (High Microbial Abundance [HMA] but not all (Low Microbial Abundance [LMA] marine sponges host abundant symbiont communities. Although recent research has revealed substantial variation in these sponge-microbe associations (termed holobionts, little is known about the ecological implications of this diversity. We investigated the expansion of diverse sponge species across isotopic niche space by calculating niche size (as standard ellipse area [SEAc] and assessing the relative placement of common sponge species in bivariate (δ13C and δ15N plots. Sponges for this study were collected from the relatively isolated reefs within the Miskito Cays of Honduras. These reefs support diverse communities of HMA and LMA species that together span a gradient of photosymbiont abundance, as revealed by chlorophyll a analysis. HMA sponges occupied unique niche space compared to LMA species, but the placement of some HMA sponges was driven by photosymbiont abundance. In addition, photosymbiont abundance explained a significant portion of the variation in isotope values, suggesting that access to autotrophic metabolism provided by photosymbionts is an important predictor in the location of species within isotopic space. Host identity accounted for over 70% of the variation in isotope values within the Miskito Cays and there was substantial variation in the placement of individual species within isotopic niche space, suggesting that holobiont metabolic diversity may allow taxonomically diverse sponge species to utilize unique sources of nutrients within a reef system. This study provides initial evidence that microbial symbionts allow sponges to expand into novel physiochemical niche space. This expansion may reduce competitive interactions within coral reefs and promote diversification of these

  11. Hurricane Mitch: Landscape Analysis of Damaged Forest Resources of the Bay Islands and Caribbean Coast of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Michot, Thomas C.; Roetker, Fred; Sullivan, Jason; Melder, Marcus; Handley, Benjamin; Balmat, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The advent of analog and digital video has provided amateur photographers with professional-like technology to capture dynamic images with ease and clarity. Videography is also rapidly changing traditional business and scientific applications. In the natural sciences, camcorders are being used largely to record timely observations of plant and animal behavior or consequence of some catastrophic event. Spectacular video of dynamic events such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and wildfire document the active process and aftermath. Scientists can analyze video images to quantify aspects of a given event, behavior, or response, temporally and spatially. In this study we demonstrate the simple use of an aerial application of videography to record the spatial extent and damage expression of mangrove forest in the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras from wind damage following Hurricane Mitch (1998). In this study, we conducted a video overflight of coastal forests of the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras 14 months after impact by Hurricane Mitch (1998). Coastal areas were identified where damage was evident and described relative to damage extent to forest cover, windfall orientation, and height of downed trees. The variability and spatial extent of impact on coastal forest resources is related to reconstructed wind profiles based on model simulations of Mitch's path, strength, and circulation during landfall.

  12. The Effectiveness of Videotape Programs as a Communication Tool in the Small-Scale Livestock for Rural Farming Women Project, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Dean, Lynn

    This study examines economic development in Third World countries and the use of portable video systems in development projects. The study, conducted in 1985, attempts to measure the level of effectiveness of videotape programs as a communication tool for training rural subsistence women in Honduras in technical aspects of pig-keeping. Classical…

  13. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon

  14. Flood-hazard mapping in Honduras in response to Hurricane Mitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The devastation in Honduras due to flooding from Hurricane Mitch in 1998 prompted the U.S. Agency for International Development, through the U.S. Geological Survey, to develop a country-wide systematic approach of flood-hazard mapping and a demonstration of the method at selected sites as part of a reconstruction effort. The design discharge chosen for flood-hazard mapping was the flood with an average return interval of 50 years, and this selection was based on discussions with the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Honduran Public Works and Transportation Ministry. A regression equation for estimating the 50-year flood discharge using drainage area and annual precipitation as the explanatory variables was developed, based on data from 34 long-term gaging sites. This equation, which has a standard error of prediction of 71.3 percent, was used in a geographic information system to estimate the 50-year flood discharge at any location for any river in the country. The flood-hazard mapping method was demonstrated at 15 selected municipalities. High-resolution digital-elevation models of the floodplain were obtained using an airborne laser-terrain mapping system. Field verification of the digital elevation models showed that the digital-elevation models had mean absolute errors ranging from -0.57 to 0.14 meter in the vertical dimension. From these models, water-surface elevation cross sections were obtained and used in a numerical, one-dimensional, steady-flow stepbackwater model to estimate water-surface profiles corresponding to the 50-year flood discharge. From these water-surface profiles, maps of area and depth of inundation were created at the 13 of the 15 selected municipalities. At La Lima only, the area and depth of inundation of the channel capacity in the city was mapped. At Santa Rose de Aguan, no numerical model was created. The 50-year flood and the maps of area and depth of inundation are based on the estimated 50-year storm tide.

  15. Actitudes lingüísticas en Honduras. Un estudio sociolingüístico sobre el español de Honduras frente al de otros países de habla hispana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilcia Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de Tegucigalpa, hacia al español de Honduras y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo hace parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se muestran los resultados del análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo desde una perspectiva sociolingüística y dejan al descubierto no solo las actitudes lingüísticas positivas y negativas, sino también expresiones de lealtad por la variedad lingüística nacional, opiniones sobre la corrección lingüística y la alta estima hacia el español de Honduras en relación con el español de los demás países hispanohablantes. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Tegucigalpa, towards Spanish spoken in Honduras and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results from the qualitative and quantities analysis are drawn using a sociolinguistic perspective and show not only the positive and negative linguistic attitudes towards specific varieties of Spanish, but also expressions of linguistic loyalty towards the national variety of the Spanish language, opinions about linguistic correctness and the high degree of appreciation towards Honduran Spanish compared to the variants of Spanish spoken in the other Spanish-speaking countries.

  16. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  17. Revision of the species of the genus Cathorops (Siluriformes: Ariidae from Mesoamerica and the Central American Caribbean, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Marceniuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ariid genus Cathorops includes species that occur mainly in estuarine and freshwater habitats of the eastern and western coasts of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The species of Cathorops from the Mesoamerica (Atlantic slope and Caribbean Central America are revised, and three new species are described: C. belizensis from mangrove areas in Belize; C. higuchii from shallow coastal areas and coastal rivers in the Central American Caribbean, from Honduras to Panama; and C. kailolae from río Usumacinta and lago Izabal basins in Mexico and Guatemala. Additionally, C. aguadulce, from the río Papaloapan basin in Mexico, and C. melanopus from the río Motagua basin in Guatemala and Honduras, are redescribed and their geographic distributions are revised.O gênero de ariídeos Cathorops inclui espécies que habitam principalmente águas doces e estuarinas das plataformas orientais e ocidentais do sul do México, Américas do Sul e Central. Neste estudo, se apresenta uma revisão das espécies de Cathorops da Mesoamérica (bacias do Atlântico e Caribe centroamericano, incluindo a descrição de três espécies novas: C. belizensis, de áreas de manglar em Belice; C. higuchii, de águas costeiras rasas e rios costeiros do Caribe centroamericano, desde Honduras até o Panamá; e C. kailolae, das bacias do rio Usumacinta e lago Izabal no México e Guatemala. Adicionalmente, se redescrevem C. aguadulce, da bacia do rio Papaloapan no México, e C. melanopus, da bacia do rio Motagua na Guatemala e Honduras, apresentando-se uma revisão de suas distribuições geográficas.

  18. Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, James

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on...

  19. Novedades taxonómicas y sinopsis del género Digitaria (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae) en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea S. Vega; Zulma E. Rúgolo de Agrasar

    2007-01-01

    Se adicionan 10 nuevas citas: Digitaria abyssinica, D. aequiglumis var. aequiglumis, D. lanuginosa, D. nuda y D. venezuelae var. fendleri en Panamá; D. argillacea var. nulliseta y D. fuscescens en Honduras; D. sacchariflora en El Salvador y Guatemala; D. sanguinalis en Costa Rica; y D. similis en El Salvador, Guatemala y Panamá. Seis de estos taxones constituyen nuevas citas en América Central: D. aequiglumis var. aequiglumis, D. argillacea var. nulliseta, D. lanuginosa, D. saccha...

  20. Diseño de un modelo conceptual sobre la transferencia de resultados de investigación en salud pública en Honduras Design of a conceptual model on the transference of public health research results in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Macías-Chapula, César A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Diseñar un modelo conceptual sobre la comunicación de los resultados de la investigación científica en el área de la salud pública, en un contexto local. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: A través del enfoque de pensamiento de sistemas se utilizó la Metodología de Sistemas Blandos (MSB) y la bibliometría para analizar y resolver una situación problemática relacionada con la transferencia de los resultados de la investigación a los diversos actores del sistema de salud de Honduras. RESULTADOS: Se ...

  1. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach. PMID:12789069

  2. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  3. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the groundwater in the middle part of the Tulian river watershed, Puerto Cortes, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrochemical and isotopic properties of 11 springs are identified, including one thermal spring, in Tulian watershed, located in the city of Puerto Cortes, Cortes, Honduras. The relation in the water between the concentrations of the environmental stable isotopes, deuterium (2H) and oxygen - 18 (18O), has been similar to the relation in global meteoric water, indicating that the water has a meteoric origin. Evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the water reveals that these springs belong to the same hydrogeological system, which comprises a fractured schist and gneiss of the Esquistos Cacaguapa formation. The water of the evaluated springs has been mainly sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate. The isotopic contents have showed without a variation of δ18O as would be expected in the hot spring. (author)

  4. Inversión extranjera directa en el sector agropecuario de Centroamérica: El caso de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Arias; Martín Gurría; Arthur D. Little; Ricardo Arias

    2006-01-01

    La inversión extranjera directa (IED) se ha constituido en un factor importante para el proceso de crecimiento y desarrollo económico de los países de la región centroamericana. El presente trabajo está basado en un análisis básico de los factores que han influenciado la evolución, origen y destino de la IED en el sector agropecuario de Honduras durante los últimos años con el fin de tener una mejor comprensión de la dinámica de la IED en el sector. Las conclusiones y recomendaciones del anál...

  5. Flight plight: an examination of contemporary humanitarian immigration from Honduras, Cuba, and Syria to the United States with considerations for national security

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Catherine Schroeck

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines contemporary U.S. immigration for humanitarian populations from Honduras, Cuba, and Syria. Humanitarian immigration refers to refugees, asylum seekers, and those who are forcibly displaced from their homelands. The study explores how the United States can balance its identity as a nation of immigrants with its increasing security concerns within forced migrant populations. The research describes various philosophie...

  6. The Use of Press Archives in the Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Rainfall-Induced Landslides in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 1980-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Urquia, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of data poses a challenging obstacle for the study of natural disasters, especially in developing countries where the social vulnerability plays as important a role as the physical vulnerability.  The work presented in this thesis is oriented towards the demonstration of the usefulness of press archives as a data source for the temporal and spatial analysis of landslides in Tegucigalpa, Honduras for the period between 1980 and 2005.  In the last four decades, Tegucigalpa has been...

  7. Comparison of HIV-1 resistance profiles in plasma RNA versus PBMC DNA in heavily treated patients in Honduras, a resource-limited country

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Karidia; Murillo, Wendy E; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Albert, Jan; Zhou, Zhiyong; Nkengasong, John; Zhang, Guoqing; Sabatier, Jennifer F; Yang, Chunfu

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization currently does not recommend the use of dried blood spot specimens for drug resistance testing in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, HIV-1 resistance testing using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may be of value in resource-limited settings. We compared genotypic resistance profiles in plasma and PBMCs from patients failing ART in two cities of Honduras (Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula), a resource-limited country. One hundred ...

  8. The US Agency for International Development--Los Alamos National Laboratory--US Geological Survey Central American Geothermal Resources Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Janik, K. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Branch of Igneous and Geothermal Processes)

    1992-01-01

    Interdisciplinary field teams for this energy assistance program consisted of staff from Los Alamos, the US Geological Survey, the country of the study, and consultants; this provided the wide range of expertise necessary for geothermal resource evaluation. The program was successful largely because of the field teams dedication to their goals of verifying new geothermal resources and of sharing exploration techniques with in-country collaborators. Training programs included the geochemical, geophysical, and geological techniques needed for geothermal exploration. However, the most important aspect was long-term field work with in-country collaborators. Four geothermal gradient coreholes were drilled, three in Honduras and one in Guatemala. One of the coreholes was co-financed with Honduras, and showed their commitment to the project. Three of the exploration holes encountered high-temperature fluids, which provided information on the nature and extent of the geothermal reservoirs at promising sites in both countries. A geothermal well logging system was built and is shared between four Central American countries. For the evaluation of geothermal fluids, a geochemistry laboratory was established in Tegucigalpa, Honduras; it is now self-sufficient, and is part of Honduras' energy program. Through the teaching process and by working with counterparts in the field, the team expanded its own experience with a wide variety of geothermal systems, an experience that will be beneficial in the future for both the US investigators and in-country collaborators. At the working-scientists level, new contacts were developed that may flourish and professional ties were strengthened between scientists from a variety of US agencies. Rather than competing for research and field budgets, they worked together toward a common goal.

  9. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  10. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  11. Diseño de un modelo conceptual sobre la transferencia de resultados de investigación en salud pública en Honduras Design of a conceptual model on the transference of public health research results in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Macías-Chapula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Diseñar un modelo conceptual sobre la comunicación de los resultados de la investigación científica en el área de la salud pública, en un contexto local. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: A través del enfoque de pensamiento de sistemas se utilizó la Metodología de Sistemas Blandos (MSB y la bibliometría para analizar y resolver una situación problemática relacionada con la transferencia de los resultados de la investigación a los diversos actores del sistema de salud de Honduras. RESULTADOS: Se definieron y modelaron seis definiciones de raíz relevantes a la situación problemática expresada, las cuales llevaron al diseño del modelo conceptual. Éste identificó cuatro niveles de resolución: el de los investigadores, los profesionales de la información/documentación, los profesionales de la salud y la población abierta/la sociedad. CONCLUSIONES: La MSB ayudó a diseñar el modelo conceptual. El estudio bibliométrico fue relevante en la construcción de una imagen rica de la situación problemática.OBJECTIVE: To design a conceptual model on the transference of public health research results at the local, context level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using systems thinking concepts, a soft systems approach (SSM was used to analyse and solve what was perceived as a problem situation related to the transference of research results within Honduras public health system. A bibliometric analysis was also conducted to enrich the problem situation. RESULTS: Six root definitions were defined and modeled as relevant to the expressed problem situation. This led to the development of the conceptual model. The model obtained identified four levels of resolution as derived from the human activities involved in the transference of research results: 1 those of the researchers; 2 the information/documentation professionals; 3 health staff; and 4 the population/society. These actors/ clients and their activities were essential to the functioning of the

  12. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  13. Measurement of Health Program Equity Made Easier: Validation of a Simplified Asset Index Using Program Data From Honduras and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergo, Alex; Ritter, Julie; Gwatkin, Davidson R; Binkin, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to programs and health services is essential to achieving national and international health goals, but it is rarely assessed because of perceived measurement challenges. One of these challenges concerns the complexities of collecting the data needed to construct asset or wealth indices, which can involve asking as many as 40 survey questions, many with multiple responses. To determine whether the number of variables and questions could be reduced to a level low enough for more routine inclusion in evaluations and research without compromising programmatic conclusions, we used data from a program evaluation in Honduras that compared a pro-poor intervention with government clinic performance as well as data from a results-based financing project in Senegal. In both, the full Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) asset questionnaires had been used as part of the evaluations. Using the full DHS results as the "gold standard," we examined the effect of retaining successively smaller numbers of variables on the classification of the program clients in wealth quintiles. Principal components analysis was used to identify those variables in each country that demonstrated minimal absolute factor loading values for 8 different thresholds, ranging from 0.05 to 0.70. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess correlation. We found that the 111 asset variables and 41 questions in the Honduras DHS could be reduced to 9 variables, captured by only 8 survey questions (kappa statistic, 0.634), without substantially altering the wealth quintile distributions for either the pro-poor program or the government clinics or changing the resulting policy conclusions. In Senegal, the 103 asset variables and 36 questions could be reduced to 32 variables and 20 questions (kappa statistic, 0.882) while maintaining a consistent mix of users in each of the 2 lowest quintiles. Less than 60% of the asset variables in the 2 countries' full DHS asset indices overlapped, and in none of

  14. Stratigraphy, temperature profiles, and flow test data from the PLTG-1 and PLTG-2 coreholes, platanares geothermal system, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Kelkar, S.; Smith, D.; Meert, J.; Heiken, G.; Bargar, K.; Ramos, N.; Truesdell, A.H.; Stallard, M..

    1987-01-01

    Stratigraphy, temperature profiles, and flow test data from the PLTG-1 and PLTG-2 coreholes in Platanares, Honduras, have been used to determine production characteristics from a 160/sup 0/C fluid zone at 625 to 640 m depth and to estimate depth to the source geothermal reservoir. The two coreholes penetrate thin Quaternary deposits and several hundred meters of Miocene volcanics and Cretaceous to Eocene sedimentary rocks. Extrapolation of the deep thermal gradient of 139/sup 0/C/km in PLTG-2 (depth 401 m) indicates the source reservoir of 220 to 240/sup 0/C fluid occurs at 1.2 to 1.5 km depth. Flow tests of PLTG-1 from the 625 to 640 m zone show that 160/sup 0/C geothermal fluids similar in composition to ''end-member'' hot springs originate from fractured meta-conglomerates of the Valle de Angeles Group. Pressure transient analysis indicates this flow zone taps a localized reservoir having a volume on the order of 0.065 km/sup 3/. Maximum thermal power of PLTG-1 is roughly 3 MW/sub t/. Scaling of aragonite results from flashing of the dilute, high pH, high HCO/sub 3/ fluid. Use of the shallow, 160/sup 0/C resource will require binary cycle power plants and, possibly, downhole pumps to successfully extract heat from the fluids for electrical applications.

  15. Environmental concepts in rural Honduras: A case study of their range and application within environmental education design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert Sanders

    1998-12-01

    The rate of environmental degradation in the Third World continues to present residents of countries like Honduras with conditions that threaten the quality of life and ecological systems. How people conceptualize their environment could be a point of entry into a greater understanding of environmental problems. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, this study comprises a qualitative examination of the environmental concepts of a sample of 75 rural Hondurans. Analysis of their concepts was used to construct a tentative interpretation of the rural Honduran worldview characteristics of Self, Other, Relationship, Classification, Causality, Time, and Space. The findings of this investigation indicated that rural Hondurans conceptualize their environment through the worldview lenses of survival and poverty, leading to a sense of fatalism when confronting the complex and multifaceted problems associated with quality of life and environmental quality. Analysis of concepts and worldview also indicated that rural Hondurans generally do not believe their environmental problems are solvable, nor do they appear to understand that these problems are also cultural problems whose solutions will most likely require some revision of their current worldview. An educational approach that fosters the integration of compatible environmental concepts into the rural Honduran worldview is recommended through the application of design strategies for a prospective environmental education process.

  16. Perception and Barriers to Indoor Air Quality and Perceived Impact on Respiratory Health: An Assessment in Rural Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to identify household-specific factors associated with respiratory symptoms and to study the perceived impact of indoor air pollution (IAP as a health issue. Methods. An IRB-approved, voluntary, anonymous 23-item survey was conducted in Spanish at a medical outreach clinic in June 2012 and at the homes of survey respondents N=79. Comparative analyses were performed to investigate relationships between specific house characteristics and respiratory complaints. Results. Seventy-nine surveys were completed. Respiratory symptoms were frequently reported by survey respondents: 42% stated that smoke in their household caused them to have watery eyes, 42% reported household members with coughs within the past two weeks, and 25% stated that there were currently household members experiencing difficulty in breathing. Stove location and kitchen roof construction material were significantly associated with frequency of respiratory symptoms. The vast majority used firewood as their major fuel type. Most respondents indicated that neither indoor air quality was a problem nor did it affect their daily life. Conclusions. Respiratory complaints are common in Yoro, Honduras. Stove location and kitchen roof construction material were significantly associated with frequency of respiratory symptoms; this may have implications for efforts to improve respiratory health in the region.

  17. Searching Before It Is Too Late: A Survey of Blood Parasites in Ctenosaura melanosterna, a Critically Endangered Reptile of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Benz, Andrew C; Ruyle, Leslie E; Kistler, Whitney M; Shock, Barbara C; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    For species at risk of extinction, any parasites they have would be expected to face a similar fate. In such cases, time is running out for efforts to identify and study their parasitic fauna before they are gone. We surveyed the hemoparasite fauna of 50 black-chested, spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura melanosterna), a critically-endangered species, on an island off the coast of Honduras. Blood samples from captured animals were tested for hemoparasites by thin blood smear and molecular analyses. Based on microscopy, two parasites were identified, a Plasmodium sp. in 14% of iguanas and a Hepatozoon sp. in 32%. For both parasites, parasitemia levels were iguanas with microscopy-confirmed Plasmodium infections, sequence analysis of 454 bp of the cytochrome b gene indicated that the Plasmodium species was distinct from known Plasmodium and was most closely related to P. chiricahuae (96.5% similarity) followed by P. mexicanum (95.8% similarity). Efforts to amplify the Hepatozoon parasite using PCR were not successful. Additional surveys and studies of this host-parasite system would be valuable, both to science and to the management of this endangered animal. PMID:27335849

  18. Economics of erosion-control and seed-fertilizer technologies for hillside farming in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Periera, Miguel A.; Sanders, John H.; Baker, Timothy G.; Preckel, Paul V.

    1994-01-01

    With population growth still at very high rates and large-scale commercial farmers and cattle ranchers owning much of the more fertile valley land, small-scale farmers are concentrated on increasingly marginal, steeply sloping hillsides in Central America. The continuing soil erosion and land degradation in these low-input staple crop production hillside farming systems lead many to be pessimistic about increasing the agricultural incomes of these farmers. However, this study shows that the a...

  19. [Mangrove characterization of Central America with remote sensors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G; Amador, J; Soto, R

    2001-12-01

    Satellite images were used to study the mangrove distribution patterns in two different climatic regions of Central America: Gulf of Fonseca in Honduras-El Salvador and Sierpe-Térraba in Costa Rica. The Gulf of Fonseca has higher temperature and solar radiation, and lower precipitation, which can explain the higher structural development and species mixing of the Sierpe-Térraba mangrove. In the latter the transition between species or between heights in the same species is clear. The automatic classification made by the Geographic Information System (IDRISI) fits well the field mangrove distribution, but it was necessary to regroup some subdivisions that represent the same land use as identified by transects and an aerial video. Mixed species and clouds produced less satisfactory results in Sierpe-Térraba indicating a need for better satellite image resolution. PMID:15264547

  20. Biodiversidad de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Honduras. Caracterización agromorfológica, molecular y ecogeográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Linarez, Narcizo

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio de la biodiversidad del frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) en Honduras, que es el segundo de los cultivos de granos básicos en importancia. Dicho estudio se ha realizado mediante una caracterización agromorfológica, molecular y ecogeográfica en una selección de 300 accesiones conservadas en el banco de germoplasma ubicado en la Escuela Agrícola Panamericana (EAP) El Zamorano, y que se colectaron en 13 departamentos del país durante el p...

  1. Tjänar amerikansk media utrikespolitiska maktintressen? : En granskning av två amerikanska tidningars rapportering av statskuppen i Honduras sommaren 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Essay in Political Science, D-level, spring 2010. “Do the American mass media serve foreign policy interests? – A scrutiny of two American newspapers’ coverage of the coup d’état in Honduras in the summer of 2009”, Author: David Scott. Tutor: Anders Broman   The bias of the American mass media has been widely discussed among scholars. Not only has this phenomenon caught the attention of political scientists, but also academics from other scientific fields. Two of the most known resea...

  2. Gestión de los recursos renovables en la zona sur de Honduras: desertificación y manejo del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Garay Romero, Ingrid Carolina

    2009-01-01

    [ES]La presente tesis doctoral es un estudio de la situación de los recursos renovables, concretamente en los aspectos de desertificación y manejo del agua de algunos municipios de la zona sur de la República de Honduras en Centroamérica. La metodología propuesta está basada en el análisis de la percepción de aquellos conceptos y aspectos básicos que manejan los principales actores involucrados, en particular los de las poblaciones locales. La finalidad de esta propuesta está dirigida a p...

  3. Tegucigalpa, espejismo de la modernidad : el impacto de los discursos liberal y neoliberal sobre la capital de Honduras (siglos XIX y XX)

    OpenAIRE

    Cálix, Daniela Navarrete

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo, realizaremos una comparación diacrónica de la ciudad de Tegucigalpa, capital de Honduras y las transformaciones urbanas que se llevaron a cabo a raíz de dos momentos político-históricos: la Reforma Liberal del siglo XIX y el período neoliberal de finales del siglo XX. Se suscita la cuestión de saber cómo se correlacionan los dos discursos modernizantes y las transformaciones urbanas de Tegucigalpa, hechas por el Estado hondureño en el siglo XIX, y por las iniciativas privadas...

  4. Situación y problemática actual de la pesquería y la acuicultura en las zonas costeras de Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Espinoza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a grandes rasgos la situación de la pesca artesanal en las costas norte (Caribe y sur (Pacífico del país. El gobierno de Honduras en colaboración con el gobierno del Japón (JICA ha implementado un Proyecto de Modernización de las Comunidades Costeras para la capacitación y equipamiento de los pescadores artesanales en la Zona Norte del país.

  5. Compensaciones monetarias y conservación de bosques. Pagos por servicios ambientales y pobreza en una comunidad rural en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Tuna, Miguel; Kosoy Daroqui, Nicolás

    2007-01-01

    Este estudio se basa en una experiencia de Pago por Servicios Ambientales (PSA) hídricos en Jesús de Otoro, Honduras. Se estableció el impacto del PSA en la economía de los usuarios de servicios ambientales, así como el grado de cumplimiento de las condiciones del mercado. Para esto se plantearon seis escenarios para evaluar la capacidad de pago de los usuarios, dichos escenarios hacen uso de diferentes niveles de pagos y protegen distintas áreas dentro de la zona de recarga hídrica. Los resu...

  6. Una mirada a la ciencia política en Honduras: la necesidad de sentar bases para su institucionalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Cálix

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo tiene como propósito esbozar, a groso modo, el contexto, los antecedentes, los alcances y los desafíos de la ciencia política en Honduras. A priori, se reconoce en el país un rezago significativo de esta disciplina dentro del campo de las ciencias sociales. Tal aseveración causa mayor preocupación si se observa que el derecho, la sociología, la historia y la psicología -que aparecen como ciencias con mayor despegue relativo en Honduras, ya que cuentan con una mayor institucionalización académica-, no han alcanzado niveles de consolidación adecuada por la escasa acumulación, producción y actualización del conocimiento científico. Aun así, en los últimos cinco años han surgido en el país iniciativas para propiciar un mayor desarrollo de la Ciencia Política, que a pesar de una cierta dispersión de los esfuerzos, ha generado un renovado interés por este campo del conocimiento.Abstract The purpose of this article is to highlight, grosso modo, the background, context, advances and challenges of political science in Honduras. A priori, one has to acknowledge the meaningful setback of this discipline within the field of social sciences. Such an assertion causes great concern if it is considered that the juridical, sociological, historical and psychological sciences, - that appear as sciences with a relative high development in Honduras due to a strong academic institutionalization-, have not reached the right levels of consolidation due to the scarce accumulation, production and update of the scientific knowledge. Nonetheless, during the last five years some initiatives have emerged in the country to propitiate a higher development in political science, which in spite of a certain dispersion of efforts, has generated a renewed interest for this field of the knowledge.

  7. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  8. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. ► Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. ► We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. ► Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. ► The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m2/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country’s total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1–3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with

  9. Distribution of fish in seagrass, mangroves and coral reefs: life-stage dependent habitat use in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxion-Harm, Jessica; Saunders, James; Speight, Martin R

    2012-06-01

    Many coral reef fish exhibit habitat partitioning throughout their lifetimes. Such patterns are evident in the Caribbean where research has been predominantly conducted in the Eastern region. This work addressed the paucity of data regarding Honduran reef fish distribution in three habitat types (seagrass, mangroves, and coral reefs), by surveying fish on the islands of Utila and Cayos Cochinos off the coast of Honduras (part of the Mesoamerican barrier reef). During July 2nd - Aug 27th 2007 and June 22nd - Aug 17th, 2008, visual surveys (SCUBA and snorkel) were performed in belt transects in different areas: eleven coral reef, six seagrass beds, and six mangroves sites. Juvenile densities and total habitat surface area were used to calculate nursery value of seagrass and mangroves. A total of 113 fish species from 32 families were found during underwater surveys. Multi-dimensional analyses revealed distinct clusters of fish communities in each habitat type by separating fish associated with seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs. Coral reefs showed the highest mean fish species richness and were dominated by adult fish, while juvenile fish characterized seagrass beds and mangrove sites. Habitat use differed widely at the fish species level. Scarus iseri (Striped Parrotfish), the most abundant fish in this study, were found in all three habitat types, while Lutjanus apodus (Schoolmaster Snapper) juveniles were located primarily in mangroves before migrating to coral reefs. Many species used seagrass beds and mangroves as nurseries; however, the nursery value could not be generalized at the family level. Furthermore, for some fish species, nursery value varied between islands and sites. Our results suggest that connectivity of seagrass, mangrove, and coral reef sites at a species and site levels, should be taken into consideration when implementing policy and conservation practices. PMID:23894938

  10. Innovation Trajectories in Honduras' Coffee Value Chain. Public and Private Influence on the Use of New Knowledge and Technology among Coffee Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hartwich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, results from a study on the use of improved coffee production technology schemes among smallholder coffee producers in three prominent coffee producing regions in Honduras are presented. The impact of various schemes (trajectories in which different agents influence the producers’ decision to use new technologies was analyzed. In particular, there are differences in the influence of a private coffee buying organizations and b government and public development agencies on the innovation behavior of coffee growers. Drawing from network data that depict the internal and outbound connectedness of producers in three village communities in main coffee producing zones in Honduras, tools of social network analysis were applied to find out how interactions with certain agents, separately and cumulatively, has influenced their use of improved methods in coffee production and marketing. The results suggest that there are significant differences in the way that various providers of knowledge and technology, especially private buyers and development agencies, influence the farmers’ behavior towards innovation. The influence of buyers, according to the data, is focused on certification and quality aspects, whereas development agents focus on improved agronomic practices. Farmers who communicate with the extension branch of input providers tend to be more innovative. These results suggest that development programs should take more seriously into account the role of private actors in innovation among agricultural producers and, hence, design development programs in such a way to allow for collaboration with these agents.

  11. Metodología para la gestión y planificación de un sistema de agua potable con suministro intermitente: Aplicacion a la ciudad de Tegucigalpa (Honduras).

    OpenAIRE

    TAVERA, MARIO

    2013-01-01

    Según fichero complementario. Tavera, M. (2013). Metodología para la gestión y planificación de un sistema de agua potable con suministro intermitente: Aplicacion a la ciudad de Tegucigalpa (Honduras) [Tesis doctoral no publicada]. Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/21067. Alfresco

  12. Trends in adolescent unions and childbearing in four Central American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remez, Lisa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Four low-income Central American nations—El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua—have the highest rates of adolescent fertility in Latin America. More information on time trends in adolescent marital and reproductive behaviors is needed to assess the need for improved information and services to delay marriage and childbearing. Methodology: Data from these countries’ recent Demographic and Health Surveys and Reproductive Health Surveys are used to examine trends in adolescent unions and childbearing by comparing two cohorts roughly a generation apart, 40–44-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds. We tested for significant differences over time, both for women overall and within subgroups, using Pearson Χ2 statistics that take the stratified, cluster sample design into account. Findings: As of 2001–2005/6, adolescent unions, which are far more likely to be consensual than legal, were still widespread in the subregion, as 45–60% of 20–24-year-old women in these four countries had entered into a union before their 20th birthday. Nonetheless, such early unions have fallen significantly over time in all four countries, declining by relatively less in Honduras (by six percentage points than in the other three countries (by 10–15 percentage points. In contrast, no comparable uniform trend emerged in the timing of first births: The proportions giving birth before age 20 fell significantly only in Nicaragua (by eight points; declines were smaller and nonsignificant in the other three countries (2–5 points. At the subgroup level, just one change was significant within area of residence—the 12-point decline in the proportion with any adolescent birth in urban areas in Nicaragua. Although the change was not significant at the population level, adolescent births increased significantly among less-educated women and the poorest women in El Salvador and Honduras, as traditional behaviors likely became more concentrated in those

  13. Refugees from Central American gangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Kennedy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras are among the world’s mostfragile nations, yet they are largely ignored by refugee agencies whounderestimate transnational criminal organisations’ abuses andpowers of control, while overestimating national governments’ abilityand willingness to protect their citizens.

  14. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela Variação em procedências e famílias de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis da Guatemala e Honduras, testadas no Brasil, Colômbia e Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Pongitory Gifoni Moura; William Stephen Dvorak

    2001-01-01

    Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl) Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-po...

  15. Apoyo para políticas y estrategias de manejo integrado de recursos hídricos en América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Aguilar; Fernando López; Nelson Flores; Luis Morgan

    1999-01-01

    El presente informe presenta los resultados de la cooperación técnica no reembolsable BID-CRRH N° ATN/SF-5758-RG. "Apoyo para políticas y estrategias de manejo integrado de recursos hídricos en América Central". El trabajo se sustenta en una serie de entrevistas realizadas en Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua y Panamá. El diálogo establecido por los consultores con los niveles técnicos y políticos, así como con representantes de distintos grupos sociales o sectores inter...

  16. Honduras: vicisitudes en la construcción de una democracia de ciudadanía - doi:10.5102/uri.v7i1.927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Dominguez Ávila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a crise política hondureña gerada pela tentativa de golpe de Estado, en junho-julho de 2009, contra o governo do presidente José Manuel Zelaya Rosales. Serão analisados os aspectos fundamentais da trajetória política recente do país, os atores em conflito e alguns cenários futuros. O principal argumento do artigo é que a atual instabilidade política em Honduras surge da resistencia dos setores tradicionalmente dominantes frente à posibilidades de mudanças estrutrurais direcionadas à construção de uma democracia cidadã.

  17. Multi-Decadal Mangrove Forest Change Detection and Prediction in Honduras, Central America, with Landsat Imagery and a Markov Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Farn Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in providing ecological and socioeconomic services for human society. Coastal development, which converts mangrove forests to other land uses, has often ignored the services that mangrove may provide, leading to irreversible environmental degradation. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of mangrove forests is thus critical for natural resources management of mangrove ecosystems. This study investigates spatiotemporal changes in Honduran mangrove forests using Landsat imagery during the periods 1985–1996, 1996–2002, and 2002–2013. The future trend of mangrove forest changes was projected by a Markov chain model to support decision-making for coastal management. The remote sensing data were processed through three main steps: (1 data pre-processing to correct geometric errors between the Landsat imageries and to perform reflectance normalization; (2 image classification with the unsupervised Otsu’s method and change detection; and (3 mangrove change projection using a Markov chain model. Validation of the unsupervised Otsu’s method was made by comparing the classification results with the ground reference data in 2002, which yielded satisfactory agreement with an overall accuracy of 91.1% and Kappa coefficient of 0.82. When examining mangrove changes from 1985 to 2013, approximately 11.9% of the mangrove forests were transformed to other land uses, especially shrimp farming, while little effort (3.9% was applied for mangrove rehabilitation during this 28-year period. Changes in the extent of mangrove forests were further projected until 2020, indicating that the area of mangrove forests could be continuously reduced by 1,200 ha from 2013 (approximately 36,700 ha to 2020 (approximately 35,500 ha. Institutional interventions should be taken for sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems in this coastal region.

  18. Multi-Decadal Mangrove Forest Change Detection and Prediction in Honduras, Central America, with Landsat Imagery and a Markov Chain Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Farn Chen; Nguyen-Thanh Son; Ni-Bin Chang; Cheng-Ru Chen; Li-Yu Chang; Miguel Valdez; Gustavo Centeno; Carlos Alberto Thompson; Jorge Luis Aceituno

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove forests play an important role in providing ecological and socioeconomic services for human society. Coastal development, which converts mangrove forests to other land uses, has often ignored the services that mangrove may provide, leading to irreversible environmental degradation. Monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of mangrove forests is thus critical for natural resources management of mangrove ecosystems. This study investigates spatiotemporal changes in Honduran mangrove ...

  19. [Neutralization of toxic and enzyme activities of 4 venoms from snakes of Guatemala and Honduras by the polyvalent antivenin produced in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Gené, J A; Gómez, M; Cerdas, L

    1987-06-01

    We studied the ability of the polyvalent antivenom produced in Costa Rica to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, proteolytic, hemolytic, hyaluronidase and fibrinolytic activities of the venoms of Bothrops asper and B. nummifer from Honduras, and of Agkistrodon bilineatus and Crotalus durissus durissus from Guatemala. Neutralizing ability of antivenom was expressed as ED50 (effective dose 50%), defined as the antivenom/venom ratio at which the activity of the venom is reduced 50%. Antivenom is highly effective in the neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic, hemolytic, hyaluronidase, and caseinolytic activities of B. asper, B. nummifer, and C. d. durissus venoms. In the case of B. nummifer venom, neutralization of fibrinolytic effect was only partial, whereas this activity was adequately neutralized when studying the venoms of B. asper and C. d. durissus. The venom of A. bilineatus was adequately neutralized by the antivenom, with the only exception of hemolytic effect that was reduced only partially. However, in quantitative terms, a relatively large volume of antivenom was required to neutralize some effects induced by A. bilineatus venom. Regarding edema-forming activity, antivenom neutralized efficiently the venoms of B. asper and A. bilineatus, whereas that of B. nummifer was neutralized only partially; on the other hand, edema induced by the venom of C. d. durissus was not neutralized at all. Immunochemical results indicate a close immunological relationship between venoms of B. asper, B. nummifer and C. d. durissus collected in Honduras and Guatemala with those of the same species collected in Costa Rica. Interspecies comparison, however, showed variation between venoms obtained from different species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3444924

  20. Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:21905395

  1. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

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    Kathryn Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be the case given the long history and enduring acceptance of cohabitation that is unrelated to modern ideals. While there are studies that have documented this history and current prevalence, there is no research examining the intersecting life course pathways from adolescence through early adulthood that lead to marriage or cohabitation. This is not surprising given that available data for Central American countries are not ideally suited to studying the process. Methods: We use retrospective questions from large, nationally representative Central American surveys (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua to establish the timing of marriage or cohabitation and events that are closely tied to union formation. We utilize additive causespecific hazard models, and predicted transition probabilities based on selected covariate pathways, to study the competing risks of exiting from the status of never in union. Results: Our results identify sexual activity and pregnancy as the primary drivers of union formation and indicate that education serves as a protective factor against union formation. We also find distinct differences among countries and a strong indication that cohabitations are less stable unions.

  2. Biofuels in Central America, a real potential for commercial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.L. (Regional Coordinator Energy and Environmental Partnership with Central America EEP (El Salvador))

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the current capabilities of the Central American countries regarding the production of biofuels, and the real potential in increasing the volumes produced and the impacts that can be generated if a non sustainable policy is followed for achieving the targets of biofuel production. Due to the world oil price crisis, and the fact that Central American counties are fully dependant on oil imports (just Guatemala and Belize produce little amounts of oil), just to mention, in some countries the imports of oil is equivalent to the 40% of the total exports, the region started to look for massive production of biofuels, something that it is not new for us. The countries have started with programs for producing ethanol from sugar cane, because it is one of the most strongest industries in Central America and they have all the infrastructure and financial sources to develop this project. The ethanol is a biofuel that can be mixed with gasoline or a complete substitute. Another biofuel that is currently under develop, is the production of biodiesel, and the main source for it nowadays is the Palm oil, where Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala have already commercial productions of crude palm oil, but the principal use of it is for the food industry, but now it is under assessment for using part of it for biodiesel. EEP is now developing pilot programs for production of biodiesel from a native plant named Jatropha curcas, and up to now we have a commercial plantation in Guatemala, and we started as well in Honduras for start spreading this plantations. In El Salvador we installed a pilot processing plant for biodiesel that can be operated with multiple feed stock, such as Jatropha, palm oil, castor oil, vegetable used oil and others. Currently we have interesting and good results regarding the production of Jatropha, we have developed a methodology for its cropping, harvesting and processing. All the vehicles and equipment involved in the

  3. Contribución de la actualización de competencias de los agricultores en la mitigacion de pobreza: caso de la mancomunidad chorti, copán honduras

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Copan department of Honduras has a low Human Development Index (HDI 0.56) but it is very rich in hydric resources, all ranges in temperature, ecosystems, agricultural and livestock biodiversity, and rural knowledge because its original Mayan ethnic groups (Chorti and Lencas, and mixed race peasants).This article analyzes and evaluates the strategies used in the components of rural production and management of the basin of the Project ‘Local Self-managed Development for PovertyReduction in...

  4. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

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    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  5. A crustal section of northern Central America as inferred from wide angle reflections from shallow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. J.

    A three-layered crustal structure for a portion of northern Central America is derived using both travel time and amplitude data from seismograms recorded at Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The sources are shallow earthquakes that occurred along the Motagua fault in Guatemala 200 to 450 km (25-50 seconds in terms of S-P time) from the station. Since ray paths are almost parallel to the axis of the Middle America trench, approximately 250 km away, a homogeneous, horizontally layered crust may be reasonably assumed. At this distance range, which is far beyond critical distance for reflections from within the crust, shallow sources always generate a small first arrival followed by several large later arrivals. The first arrival is interpreted as Pn (the head wave from the Mohorovicic discontinuity) and the later arrivals are interpreted as wide angle (over-critical) reflections from layer boundaries. Three wide angle reflections (PmP, PiP, and PgP) are identified.

  6. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  7. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  8. Nutrition of Honduran mothers/caretakers La nutrición de madres y guardianas en Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Nestel

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Honduran Ministry of Health conducted a national micronutrient survey of children 12-71 months old, which also included an assessment of the nutrition status of their mothers/caretakers. The 1 126 mothers/caretakers who participated in the survey tended to be short and plump. About 15% of them were at obstetric risk by virtue of their short stature and/or low body weight. About 9% had chronic energy deficiency (CED, but 27% were at least 20% overweight. CED was associated with socioeconomic indicators of poverty. Risk factors for being at least 20% overweight included being over 30 years old, not breast-feeding, having attended no higher than grade 4, 5, or 6 of primary school, coming from a wealthier household, and living in San Pedro Sula or medium-sized cities. Among the women surveyed, 26% of nonpregnant and 32% of pregnant mothers/caretakers were anemic. The likely principal cause of anemia was the low intake of bioavailable iron from food and, in some cases, exces sive iron loss associ ated with intestinal parasites, especially hookworm. Only 50% of the mothers/caretakers participating in this study had received iron during their last pregnancy, and just 13% had received postpartum vitamin A. The results highlight the need to develop and implement an effective program to control iron deficiency anemia in women of reproductive age, including by fortifying such widely consumed foods as processed wheat and maize flour and by routinely administering iron supplements to high-risk groups. Postpartum vitamin A supplementation should be encouraged to protect both the mother and newborn infant against vitamin A deficiency.En 1996, el Ministerio de Salud de Honduras realizó una encuesta nacional sobre los micronutrientes en niños de 12 a 71 meses de edad, en la cual también se evaluó el estado nutricional de las madres o guardianas. Las 1126 madres o guardianas que participaron en la encuesta mostraron la tendencia a ser de estatura

  9. Aplicación de metodologías participativas para el mejoramiento genético de frijol en Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rosas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicación de metodologías participativas para el mejoramiento genético de frijol en Honduras. Aunque se reconoce que los enfoques tradicionales de fitomejoramiento han sido efectivos en incrementar los rendimientos y solucionar problemas de plagas que limitan la producción de cultivos, se argumenta que los niveles de adopción, y los impactos esperados, han sido limitados. Bajo este contexto, se incluyen a los pequeños productores de cultivos básicos, que no poseen los recursos para modificar su ambiente productivo para poder obtener las respuestas en rendimiento de variedades mejoradas de mayor potencial. Sin embargo, en el caso de frijol en Centro América, las variedades mejoradas generadas de manera convencional han sido valiosas en reducir la diseminación de enfermedades que hubieran causado una reducción significativa del rendimiento, pe. el mosaico dorado amarillo. El fitomejoramiento participativo (FP, que involucra una participación activa de los agricultores en el desarrollo de variedades con adaptación específica, se presenta como una alternativa para incrementar el acceso y la adopción de variedades mejoradas para pequeños productores con limitado acceso a las tecnologías y/o bajo uso de insumos. En Centro América, ya existen algunas iniciativas de FP en los cultivos de frijol y maíz; a raíz de estas iniciativas, el interés y las expectativas de los agricultores, organizaciones y donantes ha crecido recientemente. La presente publicación, trata de dar algunas pautas sobre la aplicación de este enfoque de FP en el mejoramiento genético del frijol, con base a la experiencia del Programa de Investigaciones en Frijol de Zamorano, a través de los dos primeros años de actividades de un proyecto conducido con la colaboración de técnicos de una organización no gubernamental y agricultores de comunidades de Yorito y el Lago Yojoa, en Honduras

  10. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  11. Pharmacogenetics in Central American healthy volunteers: interethnic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Ramírez, Ronald; Serrano, Víctor; Fariñas, Humberto; Barrantes, Ramiro; LLerena, Adrián

    2015-03-01

    Ethnicity is one of the major factors involved in interindividual variability to drug response. This study aims to describe the frequency of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in Central American healthy volunteers and to determine its interethnic variability. Twenty-six original research articles on allelic, genotypes or metabolic phenotype frequencies were analyzed, in which a total number of 7611 Central American healthy volunteers were included (6118 were analyzed for genotype and 1799 for metabolic phenotype). No reports were available for population from Belize and Honduras. The CYP2D6*4 and *5 frequencies in Amerindian populations from Costa Rica have shown to be among the highest frequencies so far reported in the world. Furthermore, NAT2*5 and *6 presented higher frequencies in admixed populations than in Amerindians, but, inversely, the NAT2*7 was more frequent in Amerindians compared to an admixed population. Likewise, different patterns of distribution have been shown in HLA-A*02, *03 and HLA-B*07 among Native populations from Latin America. Reports on Central American populations were also found for the CYP2C19, LDLR, CYP2E1, MDR1, G6PD, TP53, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 biomarkers, but no data were available for the other 91 pharmacogenetic biomarkers revised in Central American populations. Differences in the frequency of some pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes were found, showing interethnic variability within Central American and with other Latin American populations. PMID:25490028

  12. Provenance and family variation of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis from Guatemala and Honduras, grown in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela Variação em procedências e famílias de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis da Guatemala e Honduras, testadas no Brasil, Colômbia e Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Pongitory Gifoni Moura

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl Barr. & Golf. is a tropical pine that naturally occurs in lowland areas of Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and eastern Mexico. It has been one of the most studied tropical pines and the one with the most commercial importance in Brazil. The objective of this work was to select the best provenances for plantations and best trees in families for the establishment of seed orchards. For that a trial with five provenances and 47 open-pollinated families was planted near Planaltina, Federal District, in the Cerrado Region of Brazil. The provenances tested were Poptun (Guatemala, Gualjoco, Los Limones, El Porvenir and Santa Cruz de Yojoa (Honduras and assessed at 12 years of age. Poptun and Gualjoco had larger volume, and Los Limones and El Porvenir the lowest incidence of forks and foxtails. Individual tree heritabilities for volume, stem form and branch diameter were 0.34, 0.06, and 0.26 respectively. More than 90% of the trees had defects, common in unimproved P. caribaea. Selection criteria for quality traits need to be relaxed in the first generation of breeding to allow for larger genetic gains in productivity. Results from this test compared with P. caribaea var. hondurensis trials in other Brazilian, Colombian and Venezuelan sites suggest that provenance x site and family x site interactions are not as strong as in other pine species.Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Sénécl Barr. & Golf. é uma espécie tropical que ocorre naturalmente nas terras baixas de Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicarágua e no leste do México. Esta espécie tem sido uma das mais estudadas entre os pinos tropicais e uma das mais importantes comercialmente no centro e norte do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar as melhores procedências para plantios e também as melhores árvores dentro de famílias para o estabelecimento de pomares de semente. Para isso, um experimento com cinco

  13. Divergence in morphology, but not habitat use, despite low genetic differentiation among insular populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, M.L.; Montgomery, Chad E.; Boback, Scott M.; Reed, R.N.; Campbell, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of recently isolated populations are useful because observed differences can often be attributed to current environmental variation. Two populations of the lizard Anolis lemurinus have been isolated on the islands of Cayo Menor and Cayo Mayor in the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago of Honduras for less than 15 000 y. We measured 12 morphometric and 10 habitat-use variables on 220 lizards across these islands in 2 y, 2008 and 2009. The goals of our study were (1) to explore patterns of sexual dimorphism, and (2) to test the hypothesis that differences in environment among islands may have driven divergence in morphology and habitat use despite genetic homogeneity among populations. Although we found no differences among sexes in habitat use, males had narrower pelvic girdles and longer toe pads on both islands. Between islands, males differed in morphology, but neither males nor females differed in habitat use. Our data suggest that either recent selection has operated differentially on males despite low genetic dill'erentiation, or that they display phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation. We suggest that patterns may be driven by variation in intrapopulation density or differences in predator diversity among islands.

  14. Are there trends towards drier hydrological conditions in Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.

    2013-12-01

    A summary of hydrological projections at the end of the century from 30 General Circulation Models (GCMs) is presented; and several hydrometeorological parameters are analyzed to validate if there are hydroclimatological trends during the observational period (1982-2005) consistent with the GCMs results. At the end of the century the median of 30 GCM simulations projects a drier future for Tegucigalpa and San Jose, with a marked increment in evapotranspiration in the first half of the rainy season along with reductions of soil moisture. With respect to the observations (1982-2005): 1) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index showed negative trends in the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the border of Honduras and Nicaragua, and especially in southern Mexico (except the Yucatan Peninsula). Positive trends were found in the several parts of Central America, 2) the Palmer Drought Severity Index showed strong and consistent trends from Nicaragua to the North of Central America and southern Mexico (not including Yucatan), consistent with the direction of GCM projections; 3) negative precipitation trends in satellite data were found in Nicaragua, with strong trends in its Caribbean coast; 4) NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation showed strong negative trends in northern Central America, the Central Valley, the Dry Pacific of Costa Rica and the South-Pacific coast of Nicaragua, all consistent with the direction of GCM projections; and 5) station data showed no significant trends however, and 6) Reanalysis' temperature showed positive trends in southern Mexico (not including Yucatan) and negative trends in El Salvador. It can be concluded that several trends in drought indexes and precipitation are consistent with the future projected by the GCMs; that is, with some exceptions some of the trends were validated towards a drier future for the region, especially in the northern part.

  15. Mejoramiento genético para tolerancia a altas temperaturas y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol común

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Rosas; Aracely Castro; James S. Beaver; Carlos A. P\\u00E9rez; Adri\\u00E1n Morales; Rogelio Lepiz

    2000-01-01

    Mejoramiento genético para tolerancia a altas temperaturas y resistencia a mosaico dorado en frijol común. Entre 1994-95 se identificaron fuentes de frijol tolerantes a altas temperaturas mediante la evaluación de germoplasma y líneas mejoradas en Choluteca y Nacaome (≤ 50 msnm), en la región Sur de Honduras. La tolerancia al calor de los mejores genotipos fue confirmada en Geneva, Nueva York, EE.UU., bajo condiciones de invernadero con temperatura controlada (35...

  16. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  17. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  18. Honduras en la ruta trans-ístmica (Análisis de la propuesta de Juan García de Hermosilla de mudar Nombre de Dios por Puerto Caballos 1556-1570

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizet Payne Iglesias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los proyectos para la construcción de una ruta que conectaría el Caribe y el pacífico para ampliar el comercio con el Perú a través de Honduras entre 1525 y 1570. Resaltando los intereses que se pusieron en juego y las disputas con otros espacios regionales como el de Nombre de Dios - Panamá, además de las razones de su fracaso que marcarían los derroteros de muchas regiones centroamericanas.

  19. Honduras : lente dégradation du pouvoir d'achat des salaires minimums. Etude comparative des salaires minimums, des prix des aliments et des indices de prix (1925-1992)

    OpenAIRE

    Laure, Joseph; Batres de Bonilla, M. del R.

    1994-01-01

    Cette étude a été menée à partir des données disponibles au Honduras (salaires minimums, prix au détail, indices des prix). Y sont analysées : l'évolution comparative des salaires minimums agricoles et urbains, l'évolution du pouvoir d'achat, général et alimentaire, d'un salaire de référence, le salaire minimum industriel, dans la capitale Tégucigalpa, la variation des prix au détail de 35 aliments à Tégucigalpa

  20. Honduras : lento deterioro del poder de compra de los salarios minimos. Estudio comparativo de los salarios minimos, los precios de los alimentos y los indices de precios al consumidor (1925-1992)

    OpenAIRE

    Laure, Joseph; Batres de Bonilla, M. del R.

    1994-01-01

    Cette étude a été menée à partir des données disponibles au Honduras (salaires minimums, prix au détail, indices des prix). Y sont analysées : l'évolution comparative des salaires minimums agricoles et urbains, l'évolution du pouvoir d'achat, général et alimentaire, d'un salaire de référence, le salaire minimum industriel, dans la capitale Tégucigalpa, la variation des prix au détail de 35 aliments à Tégucigalpa

  1. En busca de eficiencia e inclusión financiera en el pago de transferencias de ingreso: Un estudio sobre la costo-efectividad de los mecanismos de pago en el programa Bono 10,000 en Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Tejerina; Pablo Ibarrarán; Fiorella Benedetti; Barbara Buchbinder

    2014-01-01

    En esta nota se describe el piloto realizado por el Programa de Asignación Familiar (PRAF) de Honduras sobre los mecanismos de pago de sus transferencias de ingreso. En el documento reseñan los antecedentes de los programas de transferencias, así como la relevancia de los mecanismos de pago. Posteriormente se describen los pilotos implementados y se presentan los datos recolectados. Luego se analizan los resultados principales en términos de ahorros en tiempo y dinero para las beneficiarias, ...

  2. Flujos de gases de efecto invernadero, potencial de calentamiento global y evaluación de emergía del sistema agroforestal Quesungual en el sur de Lempira, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Catrileo, Oscar Iván

    2008-01-01

    El Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ) es un sistema conservacionista que se practica en el sur de Lempira, Honduras. Se considera como una alternativa viable frente al sistema tradicional de tala y quema, pero se desconocen sus beneficios ambientales como la reducción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero y la utilización de recursos renovables y sostenibles. Se determinaron los flujos de los gases de efecto invernadero: óxido nitroso (N2O), metano (CH4) y dióxido de carbono (CO2...

  3. “Lesbianas y discriminación laboral en América Latina": Con énfasis especial en Colombia, Bolivia, Brasil, Honduras y México. Segunda edición.

    OpenAIRE

    Falú, Ana

    2006-01-01

    La presente publicación contribuye a una mejor comprensión de la diferencia sexual como tema político a través de un análisis integral estadístico, legal, testimonial de la discriminación a las mujeres lesbianas en el mercado laboral, tomando ejemplos de Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, México y Honduras. Las mujeres lesbianas sufren actualmente por lo menos una doble discriminación en el mercado laboral, primero por su condición de mujeres y segundo por su orientación sexual. Esto constituye una v...

  4. Dinámica del nitrógeno y el fósforo del suelo bajo tres sistemas de uso de la tierra en laderas de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Aracely Castro; Juan Carlos Menjívar; Edmundo Barrios; Neuza Asakawa; Gonzalo Borrero; Edwin García; Idupulapati Rao

    2010-01-01

    Se condujo un estudio para determinar el efecto de los principios de manejo del Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ) en la dinámica de nitrógeno (N) y fósforo (P) del suelo y el impacto de estos en su productividad en el sur-occidente de Honduras, Centroamérica. Se compararon cinco sistemas: (1) tala- y-quema (TQ); (2, 3 & 4) SAQ de <2, 5-7 y <10 años, respectivamente; y (5) bosque secundario. Prácticas locales fueron aplicadas para producir maíz, Zea mays,

  5. Bridging Epidemiology and Remote Sensing: A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Land Use and Land Cover Change in Roatán, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuholske, C.; Brooks, T.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever is one of the fastest spreading infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean. As part of a yearlong epidemiological study of dengue, this paper takes the first step to model the relationship between the urban/built environment and incidents of dengue fever in Roatán, Honduras. Roatán has experienced an 80-fold increase in annual tourists since the 1990s, with over 1.2 million people now visiting the island yearly. In tandem, the Caribbean island's population has exploded from fewer than 13,000 people in the 1970s to over 100,000 people today. Using broadband remote sensed satellite imagery, this paper maps and measures how this massive influx of tourists and population has altered the island's landscape. Results from a decision tree classifying technique applied to a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) image from 1985 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image from 2014 suggest a rapid pace of urbanization; built and impervious surface has increased over 300% in the last 30 years. Emerging research suggests, similar to other mosquito-borne diseases, a correlation between built environment and risk to dengue because of the increase in stagnate water that serve as disease-host reservoirs. This remote sensing analysis will be integrated with georeferenced household level data of cases of dengue collected during a year-long cross-sectional study of dengue patients in Roatán. The result will be to model the relationship between dengue fever and urban/built environment.

  6. Determinantes Socieconómicos en la Lucha contra la Malaria en Honduras: ¿Qué Sabemos? ¿Qué Funciona?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés, María Victoria

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe un escaso conocimiento a escala mundial de los determinantes socioeconómicos de la malaria, una tragedia que ha trascendido los límites sanitarios para convertirse en un obstáculo al desarrollo. La evaluación de intervenciones públicas concretas provee importante información pero es insuficiente para lograr un conocimiento extensivo de qué factores socioeconómicos (a nivel del hogar y de la comunidad están más asociados con los diferenciales de incidencia de la malaria; con diferentes prácticas preventivas y curativas; y con el conocimiento de tratamientos e intervenciones públicas eficaces. Este estudio provee ese tipo de conocimiento para Honduras, un país con altos niveles de pobreza y malaria. Para ello, se diseñó y levantó en Agosto del 2004 una encuesta piloto en 29 comunidades localizadas en nueve municipios a lo largo del país. Se encontraron marcadas diferencias socioeconómicas entre los individuos afectados por la malaria, aunque estas diferencias estaban más relacionadas con la localización, género e infraestructura social que con sus niveles de ingreso. La incidencia de la malaria también resultó ser sensible a políticas efectivas, entre otras cosas, porque la población en su conjunto conoce los tratamientos y cuando los comienza, típicamente los completa. Es pues necesario enfatizar la eficiencia más que la cobertura de estas intervenciones. También hay un amplio espacio para mejorar los hábitos higiénicos y la institucionalización de prácticas médicas en áreas de alta incidencia.

  7. Detailed Seismic Reflection Images of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K. D.; Fulthorpe, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    New high-resolution seismic reflection profiles across the Central American volcanic arc (CAVA) reveal an asymmetric deformation pattern with large-scale folding and uplift of basinal strata in the forearc contrasted by intrusive bodies, normal faults, and possible strikes-slip faults in the backarc. Since Miocene times the CAVA has migrated seaward, apparently impinging on the Sandino forearc basin and creating or modifying the low-lying Nicaragua depression, which contains the backarc and much of the arc. However the structural nature of the depression and its possible relationship to forearc sliver movement is poorly known. In November-December 2004 we recorded a large, high-resolution, seismic reflection dataset largely on the Pacific shelf (forearc) area of Central America, extending from NW Costa Rica to the SE edge of El Salvador's territorial waters. We seized an opportunity to study the nature of the CAVA by recording data into the Gulf of Fonseca, a large embayment at the intersection of Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador. With 3 GI airguns and a 2100 m streamer we recorded data with typical penetration of 2-3 seconds in the Sandino basin and frequency content of ~10-250 Hz (at shallow levels). Penetration was limited over the arc summit with high velocity volcanic rocks encountered at depths as shallow as a few hundred meters. To the NE the edge of the Nicaragua depression occurs abruptly; our data show a well-developed sedimentary basin 1.5-3 km thick separated by numerous steeply-dipping faults. The broadband signal and good penetration of this dataset will help us determine the chronology of arc development in this position and the styles of deformation in the forearc, arc, and backarc areas. In turn, this will help us understand the regional tectonic and stratigraphic development of this margin due to the profound affects of the arc.

  8. Estudio descriptivo de factores de riesgo cardiovascular a una muestra de la población de una comunidad indígena de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvin Z. Reyes-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los principales factores de riesgo cardiovasculares en una muestra de la Etnia Lenca del Departamento de Intibucá, Honduras. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en un muestreo a conveniencia de personas mayores de 18 años en San Francisco de Opalaca, Intibucá. Se utilizó consentimiento informado y se aplicó un cuestionario socio demográfico y epidemiológico mediante una entrevista. El cuestionario incluyó los siguientes aspectos: Antecedentes patológicos y nutricionales, hábitos tóxicos y actividad física. Además se hizo un examen físico que incluyó la toma de presión arterial, talla y peso. Se tomaron muestras de sangre venosa para evaluar la glucometría y el perfil lipídico. Resultados: De las 122 personas entrevistadas, 68 (55,7% fueron mujeres y 54 (44,3% hombres. La media para la edad fue de 36,2 años. Un total de 26 personas (21,3% reportaron fumar al momento del estudio (20,5% de los hombres y 1% de las mujeres, p<0,001 y 33 personas (27,0% reportaron uso de alcohol (25,4% de los hombres y 1,6% de las mujeres, p<0,001. La presión arterial se distribuyó de la siguiente manera; 17 (13,9% hipotensión, 95 (77,8% normal, 6 (4,9% prehipertension, 1 (0,8% HTA sistólica aislada y 3 (2,5% HTA grado I. Conclusión: La población estudiada posee factores de riesgo importantes para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dentro de los cuales los más significativos fueron el tabaquismo y alcoholismo.

  9. Neogene north American-Caribbean plate boundary across Northern Central America: Offset along the polochic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Burke

    1983-12-01

    The Polochic fault was a segment of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary across Central America in the Neogene. Its 130 km of left slip was previously determined by matching structures and stratigraphie outcrop patterns of northwest and central Guatemala across the fault. Additional support for the model and the youthfulness of the recorded offset comes from an essentially perfect match of major geomorphic features across the fault. A reconstruction process which eliminates 123 km of left slip brings together rivers and drainage divides that existed before the Polochic became active. With the reconstruction carried across the isthmus on an east-west fault the regional structural geology assumes the coherent pattern of a continuous orogenic belt whose geometry is compatible with the model of collisional tectonics centered on the Motagua "suture zone". Confined within this belt, narrowed to some 60 km by the reconstruction, lie the major Laramide thrusts, folds and tectonically emplaced serpentinites of Guatemala. Crystalline rocks of Guatemala re-join the Chiapas Massif and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, exposed in the core of an almost-continuous anticlinorium, extend from southern Chiapas to Lake Izabal. The Polochic does not bend in eastern Guatemala but continues eastward to the Motagua fault where it dies. Westward drift of the northern block resulted in rifting which extended from eastern Guatemala into the Caribbean along the Cayman trough. The Honduras depression may represent an element of a triple junction along with the Polochic and Izabal-Cayman rift. The Polochic continues westward into the Pacific Ocean and offsets the Middle America trench. The Polochic has offset the Miocene volcanic belt of northern Central America, confirming the previous estimate of a Neogene time of movement. About 300 km of relative east-west Neogene displacement has been recorded on the Mid-Cayman rise, only 130 km of which can be accounted for across the Polochic. It is

  10. Competencias docentes para la atención a la diversidad: investigación-acción en la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán de Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Delgado, Carla Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Se desarrolla una investigación acción, a partir de las necesidades formativas identificadas en relación a la atención a la diversidad y la inclusión en estudiantes de último año de magisterio de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán de Honduras. Posterior a la etapa de diagnóstico del estudio en la que participaron 470 estudiantes se diseñó, implementó y evaluó un plan de acción con 22 alumnos del Grado de Maestro en Educación Básica que tenía por objeto la adquisición y desar...

  11. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  12. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  13. Factores de riesgo relacionados al uso de drogas ilegales: perspectiva crítica de familiares y personas cercanas en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, Honduras Fatores de risco relacionados ao uso de drogas ilegais, perspectiva crítica de familiares e pessoas próximas, em um centro da saúde público em San Pedro Sula, Honduras Risk factors related to the use of illegal drugs: the critial perspective of drug users' relatives and acquaintances at a public health center in San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez Funes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio, se presentan datos cuantitativos del estudio multicéntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal realizado en un centro de salud público en San Pedro Sula, en Honduras. Su objetivo es describir la perspectiva crítica que tienen los familiares o personas, que se consideran afectadas por tener a alguien cercano que usa o ha usado drogas ilegales, con relación a factores de riesgo. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una encuesta con 100 entrevistados. La mayor parte de las personas informantes eran mujeres pobres con baja escolaridad. Los consumidores eran en su mayoría hombres con edad promedio de 23,3 años. La droga más usada fue la marihuana (78% seguida de crack/cocaína (72%, pegamento/inhalantes (27%, alucinógenos (éxtasis/LSD (3%, anfetaminas/estimulantes (1% y heroína (1%. Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron la experiencia previa con alcohol/tabaco, el tener amigos/amigas que usan drogas, la falta de conocimiento, la baja autoestima , la edad, entre otros factores personales, familiares y sociales. Se concluye que es necesario fortalecer las medidas de prevención y protección.São apresentados, aqui, dados quantitativos de um estudo multicêntrico, multimétodos, de corte transversal, realizado em um centro de saúde pública em San Pedro Sula, Honduras. O objetivo foi descrever a perspectiva crítica dos membros da família ou pessoas que se sentem afetadas por terem alguém próximo que usa ou usou drogas ilegais, em relação aos fatores de risco. Os dados foram coletados através de questionário aplicado em 100 indivíduos. A maioria era composta por mulheres pobres, com pouca escolaridade. Os consumidores eram majoritariamente varões, com idade média de 23,3 anos. A droga mais utilizada foi a maconha (78%, seguida por crack/cocaína (72%, cola/inalantes (27%, alucinógenos (ecstasy/LSD (3%, anfetaminas/estimulantes (1%, heroína (1%. Entre os fatores de risco identificados estão: experi

  14. Esperanza - Village Building in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Tehan, George Joseph

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to counteract economic injustice in the world. As an architect, as a creator, it is my responsibility to make the world a better place. I want to help people to help themselves by concentrating their efforts in a constructive way. I desire to create a prototypical solution for a village in an area with high unemployment and desperate poverty as a means to give work to people and to serve as an example for other groups of people wanting to do the same. The site I've chos...

  15. Honduras: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that after a lull last year, the Director General of Mines and Hydrocarbons the drilling is expected to resume this year with two onshore tests. Presumably, one of these will be a wildcat by Venezuela's Cambria Resources in the jungle area of the Mosquitia province along the Caribbean coast. Cambria Resources took over the Brus Laguna concession in this area from Bonavista Oil and Mining Corp. and finished a 348-mi seismic survey in 1989. Venezuela's PDVSA subsidiary, Maraven, also signed a deal in April to explore offshore this same area

  16. To centralize or not to centralize?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Andrew; Kunisch, Sven; Müller-Stewens, Günter

    2011-01-01

    The CEO's dilemma-were the gains of centralization worth the pain it could cause?-is a perennial one. Business leaders dating back at least to Alfred Sloan, who laid out GM's influential philosophy of decentralization in a series of memos during the 1920s, have recognized that badly judged centralization can stifle initiative, constrain the ability to tailor products and services locally, and burden business divisions with high costs and poor service.1 Insufficient centralization can deny bus...

  17. Human Development Programmes in Central America (APPI and APPI/TIPP )

    OpenAIRE

    UNDP-UNOPS EDINFODEC Project, Cooperazione Italiana

    2004-01-01

    This report is excerpted from the sixth UNDP-UNOPS-Cooperazione Italiana Report on Multilateral Human Development Programmes (2004). The APPI/TIPP Programme was launched in 2001 in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In particular, in Nicaragua the APPI/TIPP Programme set up a first Territorial Public Investment Unit (UTIP) in the Department of León; in Guatemala UNDP supported the definition of a national strategy for poverty reduction and in Honduras, through a special project a...

  18. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  19. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  20. Central and peripheral demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Man Mohan Mehndiratta; Natasha Singh Gulati

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to ad...

  1. Genetic Subdivision and Variation in Selfing Rates Among Central American Populations of the Mangrove Rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarenkov, Andrey; Earley, Ryan L; Perlman, Benjamin M; Scott Taylor, D; Turner, Bruce J; Avise, John C

    2015-01-01

    We used 32 polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate how a mixed-mating system affects population genetic structure in Central American populations (N = 243 individuals) of the killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus), 1 of 2 of the world's only known self-fertilizing vertebrates. Results were also compared with previous microsatellite surveys of Floridian populations of this species. For several populations in Belize and Honduras, population structure and genetic differentiation were pronounced and higher than in Florida, even though the opposite trend was expected because populations in the latter region were presumably smaller and highly selfing. The deduced frequency of selfing (s) ranged from s = 0.39-0.99 across geographic locales in Central America. This heterogeneity in selfing rates was in stark contrast to Florida, where s > 0.9. The frequency of outcrossing in a population (t = 1 - s) was tenuously correlated with local frequencies of males, suggesting that males are one of many factors influencing outcrossing. Observed distributions of individual heterozygosity showed good agreement with expected distributions under an equilibrium mixed-mating model, indicating that rates of selfing remained relatively constant over many generations. Overall, our results demonstrate the profound consequences of a mixed-mating system for the genetic architecture of a hermaphroditic vertebrate. PMID:25810121

  2. Overcoming Information Limitations for the Prescription of an Environmental Flow Regime for a Central American River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Opperman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower dam construction is expanding rapidly in Central America because of the increasing demand for electricity. Although hydropower can provide a low-carbon source of energy, dams can also degrade socially valued riverine and riparian ecosystems and the services they provide. Such degradation can be partially mitigated by the release of environmental flows below dams. However, environmental flows have been applied infrequently to dams in Central America, partly because of the lack of information on the ecological, social, and economic aspects of rivers. This paper presents a case study of how resource and information limitations were addressed in the development of environmental flow recommendations for the Patuca River in Honduras below a proposed hydroelectric dam. To develop flow recommendations, we applied a multistep process that included hydrological analysis and modeling, the collection of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK during field trips, expert consultation, and environmental flow workshops for scientists, water managers, and community members. The final environmental flow recommendation specifies flow ranges for different components of river hydrology, including low flows for each month, high-flow pulses, and floods, in dry, normal, and wet years. The TEK collected from local and indigenous riverine communities was particularly important for forming hypotheses about flow-dependent ecological and social factors that may be vulnerable to disruption from dam-modified river flows. We show that our recommended environmental flows would have a minimal impact on the dam's potential to generate electricity. In light of rapid hydropower development in Central America, we suggest that environmental flows are important at the local scale, but that an integrated landscape perspective is ultimately needed to pursue hydropower development in a manner that is as ecologically sustainable as possible.

  3. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  4. CENTRAL ASIA'S POWER DILEMMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Budkin, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    It turned out to be much harder to create new power structures in Central Asia than elsewhere in the post-socialist world: no matter how hard it was for the Central European countries to acquire new political institutions, their advance toward the Western democratic model was much smoother. In the European part of the post-Soviet geopolitical expanse, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova experienced fewer problems than the Central Asian region (CAR for short), though they too had their share of contr...

  5. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  6. On-and offshore tephrostratigraphy and -chronology of the southern Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.; Hemming, S. R.; Wang, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Including the recently drilled CRISP sites (IODP Exp. 334&344) the deep sea drilling programs have produced 69 drill holes at 29 Sites during 9 Legs at the Central American convergent margin, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. The CAVA produced numerous plinian eruptions in the past. Although abundant in the marine sediments, information and data regarding large late Cenozoic explosive eruptions from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala remain very sparse and discontinuous on land. We have established a tephrostratigraphy from recent through Miocene times from the unique archive of ODP/IODP sites offshore Central America in which we identify tephra source regions by geochemical fingerprinting using major and trace element glass shard compositions. Here we present first order correlations of ­~500 tephra layers between multiple holes at a single site as well as between multiple sites. We identified ashes supporting Costa Rican (~130), Nicaraguan (17) and Guatemalan (27) sources as well as ~150 tephra layers from the Galápagos hotspot. Within our marine record we also identified well-known marker beds such as the Los Chocoyos tephra from Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and the Tiribi Tuff from Costa Rica but also correlations to 15 distinct deposits from known Costa Rican and Nicaraguan eruptions within the last 4.1 Ma. These correlations, together with new radiometric age dates, provide the base for an improved tephrochronostratigraphy in this region. Finally, the new marine record of explosive volcanism offshore southern CAVA provides insights into the eruptive history of long-living volcanic complexes (e.g., Barva, Costa Rica) and into the distribution and frequency of large explosive eruptions from the Galápagos hotspot. The integrated approach of Ar/Ar age dating, correlations with on land deposits from CAVA, biostratigraphic ages and sediment accumulation rates improved the age models for the drilling sites.

  7. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Blattner; Dennis C Polley; Frank Ferritto; Elston, Dirk M

    2013-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  8. Central pontine myelinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from one nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick change in the body's sodium ... The nerve damage caused by central pontine myelinolysis is usually ... The disorder can cause serious long-term (chronic) disability.

  9. Central Diffraction at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lämsä, Jerry W

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  10. Central diffraction at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  11. Studies in Annonaceae. XXVIII. Macromorphological variation of recent invaders in northern Central America: the case of Malmea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrou, L

    1997-06-01

    Cluster analysis is used to reveal patterns of macromorphological variation in a species complex of Malmea (Annonaceae) distributed in eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Of 53 characters, 24 are important for the clustering of 238 herbarium specimens into 12 clusters. No cluster is exclusively specified by any character or combination of characters. Neither can any geographical pattern be detected, except for the clustering of specimens from Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biological Station, Veracruz. A new subspecies from this area, M. depressa subsp. abscondita, is described. Malmea gaumeri and M. leiophylla are brought into synonymy with M. depressa. Distribution patterns of Mexican and Central American taxa of Malmea are largely concordant with those of South American taxa, which spread into Cental America after the Pliocene closure of the Isthmus of Panama. A phytogeographical novelty is presented, however, as the distribution of M. depressa subsp. abscondita within the Sierra de los Tuxtlas shows an hitherto unknown pattern: the new subspecies is distributed only on the northeastern slopes of this mountain range, and is geographically separated from M. depressa subsp. depressa, which occurs only on the southwestern slopes. PMID:21708638

  12. A multi-institutional approach to implement fruit fly low prevalence and free areas in Central America: Outcomes and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the purpose of boosting the fruit and vegetable exports of the Central American countries through fruit fly suppression/eradication actions, new approaches are used: - A multilateral alliance instead of isolated efforts. Thus, four international organisations, two donors Government institutions and the region's seven countries joined their efforts, coordinated by the IAEA; - A strategy of incremental enlargement of isolated low prevalence or free areas, instead of the old approach of attempting to eradicate the pest from the entire region; and - The use of pilot experimental areas, on which all elements that play a key role in a pest-free production-exports system are applied, instead of focusing only on some technologies in the field. Outcomes include the implementation of medfly-free areas in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and Panama is also in the process of doing so. Guatemala is presently negotiating with the Mexican Government the export of peach from its fruit fly-free zone in the Department of Quetzaltenango. Major constraints encountered are: - Weak alliances among the international organisations, - Troublesome coordination between Governments and the producers-exporters, - Insufficient trained civil servants in the Government and, - Insufficient funding to transfer the actions to bigger areas. (author)

  13. Dinámica del nitrógeno y el fósforo del suelo bajo tres sistemas de uso de la tierra en laderas de Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asakawa Neuza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se condujo un estudio para determinar el efecto de los principios de manejo del Sistema Agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ en la dinámica de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P del suelo y el impacto de estos en su productividad en el sur-occidente de Honduras, Centroamérica. Se compararon cinco sistemas: (1 tala- y-quema (TQ; (2, 3 & 4 SAQ de <2, 5-7 y <10 años, respectivamente; y (5 bosque secundario. Prácticas locales fueron aplicadas para producir maíz, Zea mays, y frijol, Phaseolus vulgaris, con (101 kg N +

    55 kg P /ha en maíz, y 46 kg N + 51 kg P /ha en frijol y sin fertilización. Las evaluaciones incluyeron descomposición y liberación de nutrientes de la biomasa, mineralización aeróbica de N, fraccionamiento secuencial de P, fraccionamiento por tamaño-densidad de materia orgánica del suelo, y rendimiento. Similitudes en la dinámica del N indican que el SAQ y TQ son igualmente eficientes proveyendo N, aunque en el SAQ como resultado de procesos biológicos. Los reservorios de P fueron más dinámicos y favorables en el SAQ, con menos flujos hacia formas no-disponibles. Basado en la disponibilidad de nutrientes y el rendimiento, el SAQ es una opción factible al sistema TQ en agroecosistemas de pequeña escala.

  14. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk is higher if you: Are in the intensive care unit (ICU) Have a weakened immune system or serious ... unless you have washed your hands. Tell your nurse if your central line: Gets dirty Is coming ...

  15. Central Data Exchange

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Central Data Exchange (CDX) enables fast, efficient and more accurate environmental data submissions from state and local governments, industry and tribes to...

  16. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  17. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  18. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  19. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  20. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  1. EMT Central Offices

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Baeza, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    The brief was the construction of the Central Headquarters of the Municipal Transportation Company of Madrid (EMT) on a site edged by the train lines, near the Atocha train station. = Se trataba de la construcción de la sede central de la empresa EMT de Madrid, en un solar junto a las vías del tren cerca de la estación de Atocha.

  2. Centralization and political accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Jean; Lockwood, Ben

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we abstract from the usual gains and costs of decentralization (e.g. preference matching, spillovers and economies of scale). Instead we compare the political accountability of decentralized governments relative to centralized ones when there is a risk of "bad" governance. We study both the selection and incentive effects of accountability. A key aspect of centralization is to make the politician answerable to multiple constituencies subject to a common budget constraint. Our ma...

  3. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union pol...

  4. Outsourcing central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...

  5. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  6. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  7. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  8. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  9. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  10. ORIC central region calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  11. Hale Central Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  12. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. PMID:24853932

  13. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology. PMID:26990983

  14. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  15. [Central manifestations of dystrophinopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, J-M; Rivier, F

    2015-12-01

    The dystrophin gene involved in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is expressed in three main tissues resulting in clinical manifestations: skeletal muscle, heart and central nervous system. The 6 different existing dystrophins in the brain may play a role in the maturation and plasticity of neuronal synapses in particular by their functions in clustering and stabilization of different receptors at the post synaptic membrane. The possibility of an intellectual deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known from the original description by Duchenne himself. Current data are in line with a constant cognitive impairment with a Gaussian curve shifted intellectual quotient (IQ) at -1 standard deviation from the standard population with an average IQ around 80. Clinical manifestations suggestive of a central nervous system involvement can affect all dystrophinopathies, including isolated central presentations without myopathic sign. The phenotypic spectrum appears broader and more subtle than non specific intellectual deficiency. The isolated or shared involvement of specific cognitive functions is possible (memory functions, executive functions, attention) with or without intellectual deficiency. Autism spectrum disorders are also among the encountered events. In clinical practice, it seems worth to ask for a measurement of serum creatine kinase (CK) in these different situations, keeping in mind that pure forms of central dystrophinopathies with a normal CK level have been recently reported. PMID:26773588

  16. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  17. Centralizers of spin subalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Gerardo; Herrera, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    We determine the centralizers of certain isomorphic copies of spin subalgebras spin(r) in so(dr m), where dr is the dimension of a real irreducible representation of Clr0, the even Clifford algebra determined by the positive definite inner product on Rr, where r, m ∈ N.

  18. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if politica...

  19. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping...... charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  20. Forward central jets correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The azimuthal correlation between forward and central jets has been measured in pp collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at the centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The forward jet is required to be reconstructed in the hadronic forward calorimeter, within the pseudo-rapidity 3.2t>35 GeV. The measurement of the azimuthal angle between the jets is performed for different separations in pseudo-rapidity between the jets, with the largest separation being 7.5 units. The measurement is repeated for two subsamples of events, one in which an additional jet is required between the forward and the central jet, and one where the additional jet is vetoed. The measurement is compared to several different Monte Carlo models and tunes.

  1. Measuring Central Bank Communication:

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi

    2008-01-01

    We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...

  2. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  3. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  4. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  5. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.

    2016-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...

  6. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai; XU; Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  7. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies

    OpenAIRE

    Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...

  8. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed. PMID:26580223

  9. Localidad y globalización en la dinámica migratoria hacia los Estados Unidos desde áreas urbano - marginales y rurales: el caso de los municipios de El Progreso y El Negrito en el departamento de Yoro, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Barahona

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE INFORME SE ENFOCA EN EL FENÓMENO MIGRATORIO HACIA LOS Estados Unidos desde los municipios de El Progreso y El Negrito, en el departamento hondureño de Yoro. Destaca las tendencias y consecuencias principales de dicho fenómeno, los sectores de población a los cuales afecta y las características significativas del contexto social, económico y político en el que éste se produce. Se exploran algunos datos relevantes contenidos en la base de datos –en proceso de construcción– del Equipo de Reflexión, Investigación y Comunicación de la Compañía de Jesús en Honduras (ERIC-SJ.

  10. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  11. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  12. Floods in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs

  14. Central Banking after the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick S. Mishkin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...

  15. Three myths about central banks

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey P. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Do central banks control the business cycle? Should price stability be their only monetary policy goal? Do politicians give up a degree of power and gain nothing personally when they grant central banks independence? This Commentary argues that none of these widely held notions is true. The Commentary is based on a speech presented to participants at the conference on the Origins and Evolution of Central Banking, sponsored by the Central Bank Institute of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland...

  16. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax m...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  17. en los pivotes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque Rodés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión y comentarios sobre las ventajas y limitantes del empleo del LEPA (Low Enery Precision Aplication en los sistemas de riego de pivotes centrales. Estos sistemas o filosofía de manejo del agua para condiciones de escasez o mala calidad del líquido es una alternativa viable para la producción de alimentos. Introducida en la década del 80 en las planicies del sur de Texas, donde la alta evaporación del agua y la necesidad de regar grandes áreas con pivotes centrales obligaba a la búsqueda de una alternativa para incrementar al máximo la eficiencia de aplicación del riego. Aún en fase de estudio e introducción en Cuba para áreas específicas, puede ser una solución de incremento de los rendimientos de los cultivos, empleando menos agua y aguas con calidad limitada

  18. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  19. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  20. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  1. Sucker rod centralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  2. Centralizer for well casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an improved centralizer for centering a well casing in a wellbore. It comprises: a first anchor adapted to fit around and be securely fixed to the casing, the first anchor being threaded on its external surface; a first collar adapted to fit around and be threadedly engaged by the first anchor; a second collar adapted to fit around and free to rotate and move axially with respect to the casing; a second anchor adapted to fit around and be securely fixed to the casing spaced from the first anchor and comprising a bearing surface for restraining axial movement of the second collar along the casing; and metallic straps extending between the first collar and the second collar, and being securely fixed to each

  3. Hope for Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cities surrounding Changsha and Wuhan in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will ally to form a new pilot zone to boost regional economic development China’s fourth pilot zone for compre- hensive and coordinated economic reform will soon debut in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,open- ing a new area to attract foreign investment. The application has been submitted to the State Council for approval. The pilot zone will include two clusters of cities in central China:One consists of Wuhan,capital of Hubei Province,and eight surrounding cities in Hubei,and the other is composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,three major cities in Hunan Province.

  4. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  5. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  6. Republic of Honduras : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) aims to assist the Government implement effective measures to strengthen public financial management, which would result in more effective economic development, and poverty reduction programs. While the implementation of the integrated financial management system has improved the Government's ability to control, and manage expenditure...

  7. Honduras - Transport and Farm to Market

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  8. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  9. CENTRAL EUROPE: Role models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary is one of the newcomers to the CERN fold, having joined in 1992. The country's contributions are naturally in line with its slender resources and are not as immediately visible as those of the major Western European Member States. However the approach used and its consequent successes provide a good role model for a smaller nation in an international research environment. This was reflected on 24 September at a meeting of the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) convened in Budapest, continuing an ECFA tradition of holding meetings in national centres to learn more about the physics programmes of different countries. This tradition started with visits to major West European Centres, but last year ECFA held a meeting in Warsaw, its first in a central European country. By far the largest Hungarian population centre, Budapest is also a hub for national research in this sector, with university centres and the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the National Academy of Sciences. However important research work is also carried out in the eastern city of Debrecen. Hungarians look back to the classic investigations of Eotvos early this century as the starting point of their national tradition in fundamental physics. (In the mid-80s, these experiments briefly came back into vogue when there was a suggestion of an additional 'fifth force' contribution to nuclear masses.)

  10. Central pontine myelinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, M A; King, M; Burns, R J

    1999-03-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) was initially associated with alcoholism. Subsequently other factors, including rapid reversal of hyponatraemia and extreme serum hypoosmolality associated with severe burns, have been identified as other important factors in its pathogenesis. Extra-pontine lesions have also been described. CPM may be found at autopsy, either having been overlooked during life or as an incidental finding. Its precise incidence is not known but the ability to diagnose it during life has been helped by modern neuroimaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain stem. In the past the prognosis for CPM was thought to be invariably fatal. It is clear now that with the greater general awareness of the disorder and the ability to diagnose it during life that some degree of recovery is possible. However, the number who do recover and the degree of recovery is not known. We report a 40-year-old man who developed CPM presenting with quadriparesis and inability to speak and swallow. There were risk factors for CPM and the diagnosis was confirmed by MRI scanning. He made a complete recovery although he remains ataxic. We are reporting this case as we believe it is important to make clinicians aware of the potential for recovery of CPM. While no specific treatment has been shown to influence the degree and rate of recovery of the demyelination, the fact that the quadriplegia and bulbar paralysis can recover fully is of considerable importance. In particular, it means that when the diagnosis is made, complete and vigorous nursing and medical care is warranted. PMID:18639140

  11. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  12. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  13. Central bank independence and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Farvaque, Etienne; Héricourt, Jérôme; Lagadec, Gaël

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the influence of demography and central bank independence on inflation. The recent demographic trends in developed countries are shown to weight more on inflation than central bank independence, while the contrary stands for the period from 1960 to 1979.

  14. Central dose registration in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 the Central Swiss Dose Register of the Federal Health Office took up its activities. The following publication describes the organisation of dosimetry applicable to persons in Switzerland together with a brief history of dose registration, the central dose register and its applications. 2 refs

  15. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  16. SQUARE AND RHOMBUS CENTRAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the flat central configurations of bodies using the characteristic set method. We completely solve two special cases of four planets, namely,the square and the rhombus. For the square case, we obtain that a square is a central configuration only in the case where the masses are equal and there exactly are two different square central configurations determined by the mass and the angular velocity; for the rhombus case, we obtain that if a rhombus is a central configuration, then the masses of the diagonal vertices must be equal. Furthermore, there are two or three or four different rhombus central configurations determined by the masses and the angular velocity.

  17. Central control of body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  18. North Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA

  19. Betweenness centrality profiles in trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy

    2016-01-01

    Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...

  20. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  1. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  2. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently, they...... share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  3. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production is a unique QCD process in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. Several results have been obtained at LHCb for the production of single charmonia, pairs of charmonia, and single bottomonia.

  4. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  5. Congenital nystagmus and central hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Nele; Braat, Elke; de Zegher, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We observed a male newborn with bilateral nystagmus and central hypothyroidism without hypoprolactinemia due to a deletion of chromosome band Xq26.1q26.2, containing FRMD7 and IGSF1. These two loss-of function mutations are known to cause, respectively, congenital nystagmus and the ensemble of central hypothyroidism, hypoprolactinemia and testicular enlargement. These latter two features may not yet be present in early life.

  6. Central Control Over Distributed Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Vissicchio, Stefano; Tilmans, Olivier; Vanbever, Laurent; Rexford, Jennifer; ACM SIGCOMM

    2015-01-01

    Centralizing routing decisions offers tremendous flexibility, but sacrifices the robustness of distributed protocols. In this paper, we present Fibbing, an architecture that achieves both flexibility and robustness through central control over distributed routing. Fibbing introduces fake nodes and links into an underlying link-state routing protocol, so that routers compute their own forwarding tables based on the augmented topology. Fibbing is expressive, and readily supports flexible load b...

  7. Rogoff's 'Conservative' Central Banker Restored

    OpenAIRE

    Herrendorf, Berthold; Lockwood, Ben

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows that delegation of monetary policy to a weight-conservative central banker is optimal, although the government can also use an inflation contract, an employment target, an inflation target, or any combination of these, to control the central banker. The key feature of our model is a stochastic inflation bias, arising when wage-setters receive some information about a supply shock prior to signing nominal wage contracts. Weight-conservatism is shown to be desirable if the stoc...

  8. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  9. Re-Centring Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Grenet, Frantz

    2015-01-01

    The “golden peaches” of Samarkand in the days of Sogdian trade As a cultural area Central Asia was recognized at a late stage, since its emergence as a geographical reality was very slow. The term Central Asia was coined in around 1825, simultaneously in Russia and in France, by the diplomat Georges de Meyendorff and by Julius Klaproth, respectively. It soon gained currency, along with its variant Middle Asia, sometimes preferred in Russia. Reading this nineteenth-century geographic literat...

  10. Audit Committees in Central Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Sullivan; Marie-Therese Camilleri; Tonny Lybek

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the tasks and design of audit committees, increasingly recommended as a way to strengthen financial accountability and good central bank governance. It outlines the motivations for the establishment of audit committees in commercial corporations and public sector entities, and explains how audit committees interact with other governance bodies within a central bank. The paper focuses on the functions of an audit committee, since the terminology of the governance structure i...

  11. Women's Organizations and Local Democracy: Promoting effective participation of women in Central America1

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Clulow

    2007-01-01

    Michael Clulow presents four feminist non-governmental organizations that have played a leading role in democratizing local activities to include the participation of women. Las Dignas and Las Mélidas from El Salvador, CEM-H from Honduras and Grupo Venancia from Nicaragua individually and collectively have successfully developed many tools and approaches to promote women's participation. He suggests at the heart of all their work, and the key to their successes are the building of strong part...

  12. Shocks and Social Protection : Lessons from the Central American Coffee Crisis, Volume 2, Detailed Country Cases

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    A major objective of this report is to provide a deeper, more policy relevant understanding of the welfare impacts of the coffee crisis - including the effects of the crisis on household income, consumption, poverty, as well as on basic human development outcomes, such as education and child nutrition. To do this, the study has generated a body of new empirical evidence, drawing from an unusually rich collection of household survey data from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Th...

  13. Tenor bass, dr02, Central Symphony

    OpenAIRE

    Helmlinger, Aurélie

    2011-01-01

    Tenor bass, dr02, augmented, Central Symphony Steel Orchestra panyard, Government House road, Tobago( erreur dans le nom de fichier : "central_symphony_steel_tenor_bass_1_dr02" ; nom correct ="central_symphony_tenor_bass_1_dr02 " )

  14. La Corte Internacional de Justicia y la intervención de terceros en cuestiones marítimas: A propósito de la decisión en las solicitudes de intervención de Costa Rica y Honduras en la Controversia territorial y marítima (Nicaragua vs. Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Sarmiento Lamus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo 62 del Estatuto de la Corte Internacional de Justicia establece que todo Estado que considere tener un interés de orden jurídico que pueda ser afectado por la decisión de un litigio podrá solicitar interve­nir, siendo la Corte quien decida respecto de dicha solicitud. Los últimos desarrollos jurisprudenciales de la Corte en materia de intervención mos­traban cómo las discusiones surgidas, a escala jurisprudencial y doctrinal, alrededor de la interpretación y aplicación de la intervención parecían haber desaparecido. Sin embargo, las recientes decisiones de la Corte respecto de las solicitudes de intervención de Costa Rica y Honduras en la Controversia Territorial y Marítima entre Nicaragua y Colombia han revivido de nuevo la controversia. Este artículo presenta una introducción general a la institución de la intervención, explicando la aplicación que la Corte ha dado a la misma y analiza cada uno de los requisitos que deben cumplirse para intervenir en asuntos sometidos a la Corte para su solución. Como conclusión, se realiza un comentario y análisis de las decisiones de la Corte en las más recientes solicitudes de intervención.

  15. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  16. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  17. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  18. Coverage centralities for temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex by the proportion of (normal) vertex pairs, the quickest routes between which can (or should) use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bo...

  19. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  20. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  1. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P

    2016-05-01

    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA. PMID:26782104

  2. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sybil Derrible

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the e...

  3. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  4. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  5. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  6. A First for Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FTA gives impetus to China’s trade with Costa Rica and other countries in the region The free trade agreement (FTA) between China and Costa Rica, signed in April 2010,came into effect on August 1.It was the first free trade pact between China and a Central

  7. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  8. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  9. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient and...

  10. From Centrality to Temporary Fame: Dynamic Centrality in Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of the dynamics of link utilization in complex networks using records of communication in a large social network. Counter to the perspective that nodes have particular roles, we find roles change dramatically from day to day. "Local hubs" have a power law degree distribution over time, with no characteristic degree value. Our results imply a significant reinterpretation of the concept of node centrality in complex networks, and among other conclusions su...

  11. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  12. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  13. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  14. Centrality in Interconnected Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases, they require to be modeled by interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions on several levels simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology, from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network. However, defining the centrality of actors in an interconnected structure is not trivial. In this paper, we capitalize on the tensorial formalism, recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, to show how several centrality measures -- well-known in the case of standard ("monoplex") networks -- can be extended naturally to the realm of interconnected multiplexes. We consider diagnostics widely used in different fields, e.g., computer science, biology, communication and social sciences, to cite only some of them. We show, both theoretically and numerically, that using the weighted monoplex obta...

  15. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  16. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√{n}), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √{n}. This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a "Randomized Central Limit Theorem" (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Lévy laws.

  17. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√(n)), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √(n). This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a 'Randomized Central Limit Theorem' (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Levy laws.

  18. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment's Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at √ {s} = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two-pion mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudorapidity |η| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy √ {s} = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging system are presented. Also a possible addition of the RPs to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  19. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  20. Central Asian drug trafficking dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    McGowen, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Tajikistan, a state that is completely landlocked, consists of very rough terrain that is comprised of mountains, cliffs and glaciers. There are very few transportation links through the area that gives Tajikistan limited access to neighboring countries. Security problems resulting from the increasing flow of narcotics illegally smuggled across the 1200 km Tajikistan- Afghanistan border have become critical in understanding the nature of political instability within Central Asia. This thesis ...

  1. Four Central Points About Coevolution

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Much of evolution is about the coevolution of species with each other. In recent years, we have learned that coevolution is much more pervasive, dynamic, and relentless than we previously thought. There are four central points about coevolution that we should teach the next generation of students to help them understand the importance of the coevolutionary process in shaping the web of life. (1) Complex organisms require coevolved interactions to survive and reproduce. (2) Species-rich ecosys...

  2. CENTRAL ASIA: ECONOMIC COOPERATION POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatullina, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The Central Asian republics are rich in energy resources: three of them (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan) can boast of oil and gas deposits, while the other two (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have vast hydropower potential. This means that harmonized energy policy designed to meet their demands in energy, energy exports, and stronger positions in ensuring international energy security makes sense. By the same token, these countries can, potentially, develop metallurgy, machine building,...

  3. Central collisions of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project was performed

  4. Plague in Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.E.; Hudson, B. W.; Turner, R W; Saroso, J. Sulianti; Cavanaugh, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Plague in man occurred from 1968 to 1970 in mountain villages of the Boyolali Regency in Central Java. Infected fleas, infected rats, and seropositive rats were collected in villages with human plague cases. Subsequent isolations of Yersinia pestis and seropositive rodents, detected during investigations of rodent plague undertaken by the Government of Indonesia and the WHO, attested to the persistence of plague in the region from 1972 to 1974.

  5. MR findings of central nerocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central neurocytoma is a reae neuronal differentiated intraventricular tomor of young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristic MR appearance of central neurocytoma. We retrospectively reviewed MR images of 12 patients with central neurocytoma, confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. We analyzed patient age, and on all sequences, tumor location, extension into the third ventricle, involvement of brain parenchyma, cyst, hemorrhage, vascular signal void and signal intensity ; and egree of Gd-enhancement was examined on MR images, pattern of calcification on CT, and neovascularity, tumor staining on angiography. Age distribution was wide ranging from 26 to 64 years ; the most frequent age group was the fourth decade (five patients). All tumors except one (in the third ventricle) were located in the lateral ventricle and most were seen in the region of the foramen of Monro (10 cases). Tumors showed extension into the third ventricle and involvement of parenchyma in three cases. The internal architecture of the tumor was heterogenous and consisted of cysts (83%), hemorrhage (25%) and vascular signal void (25%). The solid portion of the tumor showed variable signal intensity on T1-weighted images and iso or high signal intensity on T2- and proton density-weighted images. On MR imaging, mild to moderate heterogenous Gd-enhancement was seen in ten cases (83%), and on CT, a spotted, amorphous, nodular pattern of calcifications was seen in seven cases (63%). On angiography, neovasevlarity and tumor staining was seen in three cases (100%). The typical location of the lateral and third ventricles and MR imaging characteristics including variable signal intensity and heterogenous internal architecture are helpful in the diagnosis of central neurocytoma in young adults

  6. Seismotectonic model of Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquakes belong to natural disasters which are associated with tectonic processes in the interior of the Earth. They are extremely devastating in populated areas; they cause human losses and damage personal estates and the environment. To mitigate the potential effects of earthquakes it is necessary that relief and mitigation structures operate following an earthquake, but it is also essential to stimulate and enhance preparedness and prevention. Prevention includes the development of scenarios of potential earthquakes, hazard mapping, formulation of regulations, etc. Preparedness includes the installation and operation of warning systems, establishing communication networks to operate before, during, and after earthquakes. As nuclear technology belongs to high-risk technologies with regard to human health and the environment and its hazard substantially increases in consequence of earthquakes, in the siting of a nuclear plant engineering solutions are generally available to mitigate the potential vibratory effects through design. For the choice of a suitable engineering solution, reliable data must be processed by reliable techniques. The IAEA safety guide of the safety series No. 50-SG-S1(Rev. 1) specifies the demands on data and on their processing and also on the regional seismotectonic model. With a view of this the regional seismotectonic model of Central Europe was created. The paper presents regional geological characteristics of Central Europe and a chronological model of neotectonic movements in Central Europe with specification of neotectonic regional units and their present movements. Moreover, it contains earthquake characteristics for Central Europe and the specification of seismogenic movements. It was found that the genesis of local regions with occurrence of the strongest earthquakes is connected with several movement trends in the last 5 Ma. Six more or less tectonically separate regional units were revealed. The earthquake epicenters often

  7. Political centralization and government accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Boffa, Federico; Piolatto, Amedeo; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains why decentralization can undermine accountability and answers three questions: what determines if power should be centralized or decentralized when regions are heterogeneous? How many levels of government should there be? How should state borders be drawn? We develop a model of political agency in which voters differ in their ability to monitor rent-seeking politicians. We find that rent extraction is a decreasing and convex function of the share of informed...

  8. Optimal Central Counterparty Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Haene; Andy Sturm

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect themselves against the potential losses in case of a participant's default and to contain systemic risk, central counterparties (CCPs) need to maintain sufficient financial resources. Typically, these financial resources consist of margin requirements and contributions to a collective default fund. Based on a stylized model of CCP risk management, this article analyzes the main factors affecting the trade-off between margins and default fund. The optimal balance between th...

  9. Wine markets in central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Š BOJNEC

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases...

  10. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  11. Los derechos humanos en las normas sobre el VIH/SIDA en México y Centroamérica: 1993-2000 The inclusion of human rights in AIDS/HIV norms in Mexico and Central America: 1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Magali Cuadra-Hernández

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la situación de los derechos humanos en las normas sobre el VIH/SIDA de México y Centroamérica en el periodo de 1993 a 2000. Material y métodos. Se analizó el contenido de las leyes y normas de la Región relacionadas con la prevención y control del VIH/SIDA. Se tomó como referencia una visión constructivista de los subsistemas jurídicos y de los derechos humanos. Se elaboraron categorías de análisis basadas en la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos y a cada una se le asignaron códigos de significado. Resultados. Durante el periodo se observó una intensa actividad legislativa sobre el control de la transmisión del VIH/SIDA en la Región donde el tema de los derechos humanos fue incorporado. Sin embargo, en algunos casos (la Ley de Panamá y la Propuesta de Honduras contienen apartados que lesionan el derecho a la no discriminación y a la privacidad. Ello marca dos vertientes: una, que garantiza totalmente los derechos humanos, y otra, que se convierte en un contexto que puede volver aún más vulnerables a ciertos grupos. Discusión. Se centra en proponer una resignificación del sujeto social y de la vigilancia epidemiológica con base en una normatividad que incluya el tema de los derechos humanos.Objective. To analyze the inclusion of human rights in HIV/AIDS norms in Mexico and Central America for the 1993-2000 period. Material and Methods. Norms and regulations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in this region were analyzed. A constructivist perspective of judiciary subsystems and human rights was used as a reference framework, to establish categories of analysis with significance codes based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Results. During the study period, human rights were included within a vigorous legislative activity for HIV/AIDS transmission prevention. In some cases (as in the Panama Law and the Honduras Proposal there were passages of law violating the right to non

  12. Sustaining volcanism in Central Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Alex

    Flux-induced melting in the mantle wedge acts as the driving mechanism of arc volcanism in subduction zone environments. The primary control on the geographical position of arc volcanic centers is the depth of the subducting plate beneath the overriding plate. Globally, the average depth to the subducting plate beneath volcanic arcs is estimated at ˜100km. Volcanoes of the Central Kamchatka Depression in Eastern Russia comprise the most active volcanic arc system in the world with the depth of the subducting Pacific plate beneath the arc estimated at 180-200km, greatly in excess of the global average. In my research I attempt to describe the special tectonic circumstances that explain the deviation of the subduction depth constraint on arc volcanism in Central Kamchatka. In my study I rely on geophysical and geochemical data and petrological modeling to propose a new geodynamic model to explain voluminous volcanic activity in Central Kamchatka. In the initial stage of the study I conducted a geophysical investigation using receiver function methodology to map and describe the contact of the subducting Juan de Fuca Plate in the well-instrumented Cascadia subduction zone. I calculated and compiled a database of receiver function profiles from stations along the extent of the Cascadia forearc and mapped a low velocity anisotropic zone proposed to be serpentinized material along the forearc axis. In the second stage of my study I applied a similar methodology to describe the sub-crustal structure of Central Kamchatka. Results of this effort suggested presence of a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle separate from the subducting Pacific plate. I proceeded to investigate the tectonic origin of this feature in the final stage of my dissertation work with the use of receiver function migration, geochemical analysis and petrological modeling. I was able to further constrain the position of the low velocity anomaly and derive geochemical and petrological evidence linking

  13. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...... level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity....

  14. From Centrality to Temporary Fame: Dynamic Centrality in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, D; Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new approach to the study of the dynamics of link utilization in complex networks using records of communication in a large social network. Counter to the perspective that nodes have particular roles, we find roles change dramatically from day to day. "Local hubs" have a power law degree distribution over time, with no characteristic degree value. Our results imply a significant reinterpretation of the concept of node centrality in complex networks, and among other conclusions suggest that interventions targeting hubs will have significantly less effect than previously thought.

  15. Kalmanovitz y la Banca central / Kalmanovitz and central banking

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Muñoz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Salomón Kalmanovitz, Codirector del Banco de la República (B de la R) hasta enero de 2005, uno de los economistas colombianos más brillantes, publicó un libro titulado Ensayos sobre Banca Central, Comportamiento, Independencia e Historia (Norma, 2003). Si los estudiantes de economía de los años 70 y 80 estudiaron a un Kalmanovitz marxista, los estudiantes de hoy estudian a un economista ortodoxo y liberal, igualmente brillante. Kalmanovitz es un partidario de la independencia de la BC para la...

  16. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, PAN

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  17. Neurocitoma no sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Torquato Severo

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com 6 anos de idade, hospitalizada com síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana. Após o exame neuro-radiológico que evidenciou processo expansivo frontal direito, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia, durante a qual ocorreu o óbito. O exame histo-patológico do material retirado durante o ato operatório, permitiu o diagnóstico de neurocitoma, tumor raro no sistema nervoso central.

  18. The ZEUS central tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of ZEUS covers a wide angular range, whilst the Forward Detector - comprising the Forward Tracking Detector (FTD) and electron identification by transition radiation - concentrates on the important forward cone. The RTD (Rear Tracking Detector) provides accurate angle measurement of the recoil electron and the vertex detector (VXD) aims to find particles from heavy flavour decay. To measure momentum accurately the CTD sits in a high magnetic field (B=1,8 T) within the ZEUS calorimeter. (orig./HSI)

  19. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....... classes are realistically taken into account. We argue that empirically plausible specifications of model parameters lead to the conclusion that central clearing does reduce interdealer exposures: the gain from multilateral netting in a CCP overweighs the loss of netting across asset classes in bilateral...

  20. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; J. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  1. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  2. Evidence for Central Regulation of Glucose Metabolism*

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Michelle; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Hawkins, Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for central regulation of glucose homeostasis is accumulating from both animal and human studies. Central nutrient and hormone sensing in the hypothalamus appears to coordinate regulation of whole body metabolism. Central signals activate ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, thereby down-regulating glucose production, likely through vagal efferent signals. Recent human studies are consistent with this hypothesis. The contributions of direct and central inputs to metabolic regulat...

  3. "Christofest" New Yorgi Central Parkis / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    12. II 2005. a. avatakse Christo ja Jeanne-Claude'i keskkonnainstallatsioon "The Gates" New Yorgi Central Parkis. Paralleelselt toimub Metropolitan Muuseumis näitus "Christo and Jeanne-Claude : The Gates, Central Park, New York", kus eksponeeritakse Central Parki installatsiooni ettevalmistavaid materjale: joonistusi, diagramme, fotosid jne

  4. Shocks and Social Protection : Lessons from the Central American Coffee Crisis, Volume 1, Synthesis of Findings and Implications for Policy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    A major objective of this report is to provide a deeper, more policy relevant understanding of the welfare impacts of the coffee crisis - including the effects of the crisis on household income, consumption, poverty, as well as on basic human development outcomes, such as education and child nutrition. To do this, the study has generated a body of new empirical evidence, drawing from an unusually rich collection of household survey data from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Th...

  5. Hazardous pesticides in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, C; Aragón, A; Castillo, L; Corriols, M; Chaverri, F; de la Cruz, E; Keifer, M; Monge, P; Partanen, T J; Ruepert, C; van Wendel de Joode, B

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides are an extensively documented occupational and environmental hazard in Central America. Yet, severe problems persist. Toxic pesticide use in the Region increased during 1985-1999. High exposure levels and ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment evidence the difficulties for risk reduction. Acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and/or long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. The use of hazardous pesticides persists through deficiencies in government-driven assessment and risk management; excessive focus on regional harmonization; short-term economic interests; strong links between industry and governments; aggressive marketing; weak trade unions; and failure of universities to reach decision makers. Regulation based on local data is lacking. An agreement of the Ministries of Health for restricting the most toxic pesticides in Central America has potential for progress. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include development of multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; development of sustainable nonchemical agricultural technologies; evaluation of interventions; extending and sharing of expertise within the Region; strengthening of unions and communities; and redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. PMID:11783858

  6. Central and forward tracking collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this subsystem R ampersand D project is to carry out a detailed study and design of a complete wire chamber tracking system covering pseudorapidity |η| ≤ 2.5 in a solenoidal detector for the SSC. Most of our group are now part of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), so the work has evolved into developing a tracking system conceptual design for the SDC detector. The design discussed in this report uses straw tube drift chambers for the central tracking region. Because of the high rates in the SSC environment, a small cell design is needed for wire chambers in the central region. Straw tubes as small cells offer many advantages because the sense wire is enclosed in a continuous cathode, and the wire tension due to the sense wire only can be supported without a massive structure. The straw tubes are grouped together to form superlayers in order to provide local track segments. The superlayers are composed of modules consisting of about two hundred straw tubes enclosed in a carbon fiber composite shell. Straw tubes have been used in previous experiments for small vertex drift chambers. However, they have never before been used for a large tracking system

  7. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  8. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  9. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  10. WINE MARKETS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š BOJNEC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the tendencies of grapes growing, wine trading and wine price competitiveness in Central European region. Croatia is net exporter of wines, Hungary is net exporter of grapes and wines, and Austria, Slovakia, and Slovenia are net importers of grapes and wines. Reductions in vineyards and increase in yields are found for Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia. More stable developments in vineyards, but decline in yields, are found for Croatia and Slovenia. Grape production increases in Austria, remains stable in Croatia, explores annual oscillations in Hungary, and declines in Slovakia and Slovenia. Export-to-import wine prices deteriorate for Austria and Hungary with most recent stabilization and price similarity, which hold also for Slovakia. Slovenian export-to-import wine prices are unstable, while Croatia experiences a bit higher export than import wine prices. Wine marketing, wine brand image of quality, and wine tourism are seen as tools to improve competitiveness in the wine sector.

  11. Fermilab central helium liquefier operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the use of liquid helium to cool the Fermilab superconducting accelerator. Liquid from the Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) is transported in a six kilometer circular transfer line and each satellite withdraws the amount required to boost its refrigeration capacity to the necessary level. Topics considered include the compressor, the heater, the control system, gas storage, liquid storage, the nitrogen reliquefier, gas purification, initial and early operation, and recent operation. The liquid helium is warmed to near ambient temperature in the satellite heat exchangers. The satellite compressors return the excess inventory to the CHL via a 20 bar gas header. This gas is injected into the high pressure supply to the cold box. Some turbine instabilities have been experienced, including the destruction of a turbine during the initial start-up

  12. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  13. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campiteli, Monica G; Soles, Paulo R C; Soares, Leonardo H D; Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigenvector centrality, specially for the more important nodes that are relevant for ranking purposes, say in Search Machine Optimization. In the thesaurus network, the h index seems even to outperform the Eigenvector centrality measure as evaluated by simple linguistic criteria.

  14. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I; Stadeager, C; Ring-Larsen, H

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed...... according to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood...

  15. Central sleep apnea – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dybala Andrzej; Dyczko Monika; Makaruk Boguslaw; Kicinski Pawel; Bartoszek Elzbieta; Myslinski Wojciech; Rahnama Mansur; Mosiewicz Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a disease characterized by repetitive episodes of the socalled central apneas during sleep. The disease has a very complex etiology. In clinical practice, the most important causes of CSA are disorders of the central nervous system, congestive heart failure or certain pathological changes of the respiratory muscles. We present a case of a 43-year-old male with severe CSA, who was successfully treated with BiPAP ST equipment.

  16. Central sleep apnea – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybala Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central sleep apnea (CSA is a disease characterized by repetitive episodes of the socalled central apneas during sleep. The disease has a very complex etiology. In clinical practice, the most important causes of CSA are disorders of the central nervous system, congestive heart failure or certain pathological changes of the respiratory muscles. We present a case of a 43-year-old male with severe CSA, who was successfully treated with BiPAP ST equipment.

  17. Clarity of Central Bank Communication About Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Ales Bulir; David-Jan Jansen; Martin Cihak

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether the clarity of central bank communication about inflation has changed with the economic environment. We use readability statistics and content analysis to study the clarity of communication on the inflation outlook by seven central banks between 1997 and 2010. Overall, we find no strong indications that central banks were less clear in explaining their policies when faced with higher uncertainty or a less favorable inflation outlook. The global financial crisis, ho...

  18. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  19. Central Neurogenic Respiratory Failure: A Challenging Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flávio A.; Bernardino, Tenille; Maciel, Ricardo O.H.; Felizola, Sérgio F.A.; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Silva, Gisele S

    2011-01-01

    Background Central nervous system lesions are rare causes of respiratory failure. Simple observation of the breathing pattern can help localize the lesion, but the examiner needs to be aware of potential pitfalls such as metabolic or pulmonary alterations. Methods We describe 3 cases in which central neurogenic respiratory failure occurred simultaneously with other alterations or in an unusual presentation. Results All patients were diagnosed with central neurogenic respiratory failure and tr...

  20. Managing human resources - a central bank perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Hickey; Geof Mortlock

    2002-01-01

    The adage that "people are our greatest asset" has been a recurrent theme in many businesses and organisations through history. This is no less true for a central bank. Indeed, people are, without doubt, a central bank's most important resource. Our business relies heavily on the expertise, experience and sound judgement of our staff. A central bank's effectiveness crucially depends on its credibility, and this in turn largely comes down to the quality of its staff. Therefore, managing human ...

  1. Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Sullivan

    2000-01-01

    The IMF's development of the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies and the introduction of safeguards assessments have increased emphasis on transparency of the disclosures made in central bank financial statements. This paper, which updates WP/00/186, looks at the disclosure requirements for central banks under International Financial Reporting Standards and provides practical guidance for those responsible for preparing central bank financial statements.

  2. On the Central Coefficients of Riordan Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We use the Lagrange-Bürmann inversion theorem to characterize the generating function of the central coefficients of the elements of the Riordan group of matrices. We apply this result to calculate the generating function of the central elements of a number of explicit Riordan arrays, defined by rational expressions, and in two cases we use the generating functions thus found to calculate the Hankel transforms of the central elements, which are themselves expressible as combinatorial polynomi...

  3. Urban history and modernity in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klautke, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    This historiographical review discusses recent literature on cities in modern Central Europe – mainly on Berlin and Vienna – which reflects the great variety of approaches to urban history and underlines the importance of urban history for the study of modernity. The history of urbanisation was a central event in the history of modernity. Especially in the Central European capitals of Berlin and Vienna, where modernisation and urban growth started later and then advanced quicker than in West ...

  4. Central banking and the economics of information

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Edward J.

    2001-01-01

    This article concerns the potential relevance of information technology to three aspects of central banking: setting the objectives of monetary policy, ensuring the integrity and security of financial system infrastructure, and maintaining the transparency of decision-making. Regarding integrity and security of infrastructure, a revised role for central banks may be appropriate. However, recent innovations in technology and advances in learning confirm the wisdom of central banks' efforts to ...

  5. The Information Value of Central School Exams

    OpenAIRE

    Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    The central vs. local nature of high-school exit exam systems can have important repercussions on the labor market. By increasing the informational content of grades, central exams may improve the sorting of students by productivity. To test this, we exploit the unique German setting where students from states with and without central exams work on the same labor market. Our difference-in-difference model estimates whether the earnings difference between individuals with high and low grades d...

  6. Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashima Malhotra; Prakash Sharma; Ashvini Kumar; Nikhil Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC) was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were se...

  7. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  8. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  9. A Central Theory of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The history of physiologic cellular–molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis, and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. Seeing such seemingly disparate processes as embryogenesis, chronic disease and dying as the gain and subsequent loss of cell–cell signaling provides a novel perspective for physiology and medicine. It is emblematic of the self-organizing, self-referential nature of life, starting from its origins. Such organizing principles obviate the pitfalls of teleologic evolution, conversely providing a way of resolving such seeming dichotomies as holism and reductionism, genotype and phenotype, emergence and contingence, proximate and ultimate causation in evolution, cells and organisms. The proposed approach is scale-free and predictive, offering a Central Theory of Biology. PMID:25911556

  10. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  11. A partitioned central solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Else of solar energy as substitute for conventional fuels at a competitive cost requires efficient conversion from solar radiation to usable forms of energy. In solar thermal or thermochemical applications, high efficiency usually re- quires high temperature and high concentration of incoming radiation. The main form of energy loss from high temperature solar central receivers is thermal emission ('re radiation'), at an effective temperature close to the maximum receiver temperature. This loss is reduced if the aperture is divided into segments, most of which are maintained at lower temperatures. A two-stage partitioned receiver demonstrating this concept is under construction at the Weizman Solar Tower. The high-temperature stage is the DIAPR (Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver). The low-temperature stage is made of tubular cavity receivers of simpler design. Preliminary optical and thermal design of the partitioned receiver is presented. For the design exit temperature of 1500 K, the aperture size of the partitioned receiver is about 60% of the equivalent single-stage receiver, indicating a significant increase of conversion efficiency. The exit temperature of the low-temperature stage is around 1100 K, allowing simpler design and inexpensive construction. (authors)

  12. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  13. Pyramidal central configurations and perverse solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhifu Xie; Shiqing Zhang

    2004-01-01

    For $n$-body problems, a central configuration (CC) plays an important role. In this paper, we establish the relation between the spatial pyramidal central configuration (PCC) and the planar central configuration. We prove that the base of PCC is also a CC and we also prove that for some given conditions a planar CC can be extended to a PCC. In particular, if the pyramidal central configuration has a regular polygon base, then the masses of base are equal and the distance between the top vert...

  14. The primary Maxillary Central Incisor in the Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Balslev-Olesen, M

    2012-01-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the...... cranium and face. It is not known whether the centrally located permanent incisor is always preceded by a centrally located primary incisor. The aim was to analyse whether a permanent single central incisor in SMMCI is always preceded by a primary single central incisor and to study extra- and intraoral...

  15. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant recharge value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  16. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses...

  17. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  18. Nuclear Energy in Central Europe 98, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional Meeting for Nuclear Energy in Central Europe is an annual meeting of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia. The proceedings contain 63 articles from Slovenia, sorounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: Research Reactors, Nuclear Methods, Reactor Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Structural Analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment, Severe Accidents, NPP Operation and Nuclear Waste disposal

  19. The Cartan Matrix of a Centralizer Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh V Dubey; Amritanshu Prasad; Pooja Singla

    2012-02-01

    The centralizer algebra of a matrix consists of those matrices that commute with it. We investigate the basic representation-theoretic invariants of centralizer algebras, namely their radicals, projective indecomposable modules, injective indecomposable modules, simple modules and Cartan matrices. With the help of our Cartan matrix calculations we determine their global dimensions. Many of these algebras are of infinite global dimension.

  20. A SCALED CENTRAL PATH FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-xiang Yuan

    2001-01-01

    Interior point methods are very efficient methods for solving large scale linear programming problems. The central path plays a very important role in interior point methods. In this paper we propose a new central path, which scales the variables. Thus it has the advantage of forcing the path to have roughly the same distance from each active constraint boundary near the solution.

  1. Improved closeness centrality using arithmetic mean approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Nuraimi; Sharif, Shamshuritawati

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we improved the mathematical formulation of closeness centrality measure for weighted network. The proposed measure is used arithmetic mean approach and the performance is successfully better than the existing closeness centrality. This measure can be used as a measure of influential nodes.

  2. CENTRAL PONTINE MYELINOLYSIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethan Belgur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a clinically heterogeneous condition with difficult clinical and radiological diagnosis. When the condition is found outside pons it is called extrapontine myelinolysis which is together termed as osmotic demyelination syndrome. We present a case of central pontine myelinolysis with characteristic MR imaging features

  3. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  4. Guidance and Orientation Manual : Internal Diseases Ward 11 - Central Finland Central Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Hirjaba, Marina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis is to create an initiation manual for the foreign students, foreign visitors or anyone else interested about Internal Diseases ward 11, Central Finland Central Hospital. The aim of the guidance material is to help the foreign students, who are practicing on ward 11, to become acquainted with the Finnish Healthcare System, Central Finland Central Hospital and to offer orientation upon the nursing and organisation of Internal Diseases ward 11. It is taken i...

  5. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  6. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  7. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I;

    1989-01-01

    was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  8. The central curve in linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    De Loera, Jesús A; Vinzant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The central curve of a linear program is an algebraic curve specified by linear and quadratic constraints arising from complementary slackness. It is the union of the various central paths for minimizing or maximizing the cost function over any region in the associated hyperplane arrangement. We determine the degree, arithmetic genus and defining prime ideal of the central curve, thereby answering a question of Bayer and Lagarias. These invariants, along with the degree of the Gauss image of the curve, are expressed in terms of the matroid of the input matrix. Extending work of Dedieu, Malajovich and Shub, this yields an instance-specific bound on the total curvature of the central path, a quantity relevant for interior point methods. The global geometry of central curves is studied in detail.

  9. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with greater partici- pation in the development and cultivation of food biotechnology techniques are Guatemala (papa- ya, Honduras (beans and maize and Costa Rica (cotton, soybean and pineapple, placing the latter two in the 29 countries with more GMO planting crops worldwide in 2010. Some of the countries of the region have implemented governance structures for the regulation through technical committees on Biosafety. The most important characteristics in terms of trade continue to be those that confer herbicide tolerance or pest resistance. But notice the incur- sion of new products that contain changes in their content, which are emerging as an alternative with great perspectives in the region. These experiences of culture and Biosafety regula- tion at the regional level could be a successful and progressive development of agricultural and food biotechnology in the near future.En la última década, la adopción de Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados (CGM se ha incre- mentado de forma escalonada a nivel mundial. El área sembrada con cultivos biotecnológicos llegó a un total de 148 millones de hectáreas en 2010, aumentando también el número de agricultores que decidieron producir este tipo de cultivos. A nivel regional, se producen respuestas diversas de los órganos gubernamentales mediante reglamen- tos y normativas acordes con la realidad local. En Centroamérica, los países con mayor participación en el desarrollo y cultivo de alimentos utilizando t

  10. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions

  11. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  12. FROM CENTRAL ASIA TO GREAT CENTRAL ASIA: THE GOALS AND ADJUSTMENTS OF U.S. CENTRAL ASIAN STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Robert

    2009-01-01

    To penetrate and maintain peaceful development of the Central Asian region is a consistent goal of the United States for its international interests. With the 9/11 event as the baseline, since 2001 America's awareness of the strategic importance of Central Asia and the latter's weight in U.S. global strategy has been greatly changed. According to Charles Manes, the 9/11 terrorist attack enabled the U.S. to "discover Central Asia. As a result of this discovery the United States effectively gai...

  13. Report of the Central Tracking Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4π detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 1033 cm-2s-1. Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4π detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved

  14. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles. PMID:26143202

  15. Central black hole masses of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5) M(○). Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude,a relation, log(MBH/M(○)) = -(0.25 ± 4.3 × 10-3)MR + (2.98 4 0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.

  16. Central versus institutional self-archiving

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2006-01-01

    NIH's, PLoS's, the Wellcome Trust's and now the UK MRC's unreflective support for PubMed Central (PMC), a Central Repository (CR), as the locus for direct self-archiving by authors is very unfortunate for Institutional Repositories (IRs), for self-archiving, and for Open Access (OA) progress in general. Alma Swan has published key papers on both OA self-archiving policy and institutional versus central self-archiving (IRs vs. CRs) analysing the reasons. (a) Institutional self-archiving and ce...

  17. Searchability of central nodes in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Social networks are discrete systems with a large amount of heterogeneity among nodes (individuals). Measures of centrality aim at a quantification of nodes' importance for structure and function. Here we ask to which extent the most central nodes can be found by purely local search. We find that many networks have close-to-optimal searchability under eigenvector centrality, outperforming searches for degree and betweenness. Searchability of the strongest spreaders in epidemic dynamics tends to be substantially larger for supercritical than for subcritical spreading.

  18. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced in...... observed across central government agencies, when the content of the performance contracts is compared. This makes it interesting to examine how variation in the content of the performance contracts across agencies can be explained? Based on a broad theoretical framework in which variation in...

  19. China and Central Asian Energy Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Javed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available China is immediate neighbour of Central Asian States and has very long history of engagement with the region. A brief history of Chinese engagementis discussed in given paper. China is world largest economy and dependent of imported oil and gas form different part of world and this oiland gas supply is expensive and vulnerable because of various reasons, therefore China is focusing on Central Asia as this region has vast amountof hydrocarbons. Chinese policies and strategies to grab Central Asian oil and gas are also examined in given paper.

  20. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  1. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  2. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  3. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  4. Centrality measures for immunization of weighted networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective immunization of individual communities with minimal cost in vaccination has made great discussion surrounding the realm of complex networks. Meanwhile, proper realization of relationship among people in society and applying it to social networks brings about substantial improvements in immunization. Accordingly, weighted graph in which link weights represent the intensity and intimacy of relationships is an acceptable approach. In this work we employ weighted graphs and a wide variety of weighted centrality measures to distinguish important individuals in contagion of diseases. Furthermore, we propose new centrality measures for weighted networks. Our experimental results show that Radiality-Degree centrality is satisfying for weighted BA networks. Additionally, PageRank-Degree and Radiality-Degree centralities showmoreacceptable performance in targeted immunization of weighted networks.

  5. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  6. Early macroseismic maps in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan; Vaněk, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2013), s. 43-53. ISSN 2330-1740 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : macroseismic maps * intensity scales * Central Europe * 19th century Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  8. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; De Domenico, Manlio; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-06-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  9. Development of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design concept and development of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high crossing-rate, high magnetic field environment. (author)

  10. Ablated tektite from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glass, B.P.; Chapman, D.R.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    ) australites found at Serpentine Lakes and Lake Wilson, Australia, and to some HMg microtektites found in deep-sea sediments from the central Indian Ocean. This discovery supports a previous conclusion that the Australasian tektite strewn field covers most...

  11. EXPLAINING TRAFFIC FLOW PATTERNS USING CENTRALITY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jayasinghe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the capability of centrality parameters of the road network to explain and predict traffic flow by types of vehicles. The case study was conducted in Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka. Study used four centrality parameters i.e. connectivity, global integration, local integration and choice; and three analysis methods i.e. topological, metric and angular which introduced by space syntax analysis method to compute network centrality of the road network. Findings of this study stress that, (1 human beings perceive the space mostly from geometrical distance (topological and angular distance in comparison to metric distance. Further to this, it was found that angular distance is more powerful in global level whereas topological distance is more powerful in local level; (2 it is more appropriate to consider the multiple influences from multiple centrality parameters rather being confined to a single best parameter and influence of each parameter varies based on type of vehicles.

  12. Francis Crick, DNA, and the Central Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olby, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This essay describes how Francis Crick, ex-physicist, entered the field of biology and discovered the structure of DNA. Emphasis is upon the double helix, the sequence hypothesis, the central dogma, and the genetic code. (VW)

  13. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule

  14. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influential nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  15. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  16. Central California 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3-second Central California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  17. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  18. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  19. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  20. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...