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Sample records for cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway

  1. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the non-obese diabetic mouse model

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    Koopman, F. A.; Vosters, J. L.; Roescher, N.; Broekstra, N.; Tak, P. P.; Vervoordeldonk, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been shown to reduce inflammation in animal models, while abrogation of the pathway increases inflammation. We investigated whether modulation of CAP influences inflammation in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for Sjögren's

  2. Neuro-immune interactions via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

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    Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of TNF and other cytokines can cause the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Controlling cytokine synthesis and release is critical for preventing unrestrained inflammation and maintaining health. Recent studies identified an efferent vagus nerve-based mechanism termed “the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” that controls cytokine production and inflammation. Here we review current advances related to the role of this pathway in neuro-immune interactions that prevent excessive inflammation. Experimental evidence indicates that vagus nerve cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling requires alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on non-neuronal cytokine producing cells. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists inhibit cytokine release and protect animals in a variety of experimental lethal inflammatory models. Knowledge related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be exploited in therapeutic approaches directed towards counteracting abnormal chronic and hyper-activated inflammatory responses. PMID:17289087

  3. Neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates disease in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

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    Yaakov A Levine

    Full Text Available The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model.Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed.Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p = 0.02, a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p = 0.02 and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p = 0.01 with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p = 0.02, accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p = 0.01.The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders.

  4. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

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    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Parrish, William R.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Ochani, Mahendar; Puerta, Margot; Ochani, Kanta; Chavan, Sangeeta; Al-Abed, Yousef; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive release of cytokines by the immune system contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent advances in understanding the biology of cytokine toxicity led to the discovery of the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway,” defined as neural signals transmitted via the vagus nerve that inhibit cytokine release through a mechanism that requires the alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Vagus nerve regulation of peripheral functions is controlled by brain nuclei and neural networks, but despite considerable importance, little is known about the molecular basis for central regulation of the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report that brain acetylcholinesterase activity controls systemic and organ specific TNF production during endotoxemia. Peripheral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine significantly reduced serum TNF levels through vagus nerve signaling, and protected against lethality during murine endotoxemia. Administration of a centrally-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist abolished the suppression of TNF by galantamine, indicating that suppressing acetylcholinesterase activity, coupled with central muscarinic receptors, controls peripheral cytokine responses. Administration of galantamine to α7nAChR knockout mice failed to suppress TNF levels, indicating that the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is required for the anti-inflammatory effect of galantamine. These findings show that inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase suppresses systemic inflammation through a central muscarinic receptor-mediated and vagal- and α7nAChR-dependent mechanism. Our data also indicate that a clinically used centrally-acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor can be utilized to suppress abnormal inflammation to therapeutic advantage. PMID:18639629

  5. Nicotine protects kidney from renal ischemia/reperfusion injury through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

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    Claude Sadis

    Full Text Available Kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R is characterized by renal dysfunction and tubular damages resulting from an early activation of innate immunity. Recently, nicotine administration has been shown to be a powerful inhibitor of a variety of innate immune responses, including LPS-induced toxaemia. This cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway acts via the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR. Herein, we tested the potential protective effect of nicotine administration in a mouse model of renal I/R injury induced by bilateral clamping of kidney arteries. Renal function, tubular damages and inflammatory response were compared between control animals and mice receiving nicotine at the time of ischemia. Nicotine pretreatment protected mice from renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner and through the alpha7nAChR, as attested by the absence of protection in alpha7nAChR-deficient mice. Additionally, nicotine significantly reduced tubular damages, prevented neutrophil infiltration and decreased productions of the CXC-chemokine KC, TNF-alpha and the proinflammatory high-mobility group box 1 protein. Reduced tubular damage in nicotine pre-treated mice was associated with a decrease in tubular cell apoptosis and proliferative response as attested by the reduction of caspase-3 and Ki67 positive cells, respectively. All together, these data highlight that nicotine exerts a protective anti-inflammatory effect during kidney I/R through the cholinergic alpha7nAChR pathway. In addition, this could provide an opportunity to overcome the effect of surgical cholinergic denervation during kidney transplantation.

  6. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the non-obese diabetic mouse model.

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    Koopman, F A; Vosters, J L; Roescher, N; Broekstra, N; Tak, P P; Vervoordeldonk, M J

    2015-10-01

    Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been shown to reduce inflammation in animal models, while abrogation of the pathway increases inflammation. We investigated whether modulation of CAP influences inflammation in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome and type 1 diabetes. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) was stimulated with AR-R17779 or nicotine in NOD mice. In a second study, unilateral cervical vagotomy was performed. α7nAChR expression, focus scores, and salivary flow were evaluated in salivary glands (SG) and insulitis score in the pancreas. Cytokines were measured in serum and SG. α7nAChR was expressed on myoepithelial cells in SG. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were reduced in SG after AR-R17779 treatment and tumor necrosis factor production was increased in the SG of the vagotomy group compared to controls. Focus score and salivary flow were unaffected. NOD mice developed diabetes more rapidly after vagotomy, but at completion of the study there were no statistically significant differences in number of mice that developed diabetes or in insulitis scores. Intervention of the CAP in NOD mice leads to minimal changes in inflammatory cytokines, but did not affect overall inflammation and function of SG or development of diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway inhibits neointimal hyperplasia by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress

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    Dong-Jie Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neointimal hyperplasia as a consequence of vascular injury is aggravated by inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR is a orchestrator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP, which refers to a physiological neuro-immune mechanism that restricts inflammation. Here, we investigated the potential role of CAP in neointimal hyperplasia using α7nAChR knockout (KO mice. Male α7nAChR-KO mice and their wild-type control mice (WT were subjected to wire injury in left common carotid artery. At 4 weeks post injury, the injured aortae were isolated for examination. The neointimal hyperplasia after wire injury was significantly aggravated in α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. The α7nAChR-KO mice had increased collagen contents and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs amount. Moreover, the inflammation was significantly enhanced in the neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice relative to WT mice, evidenced by the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-1β, and macrophage infiltration. Meanwhile, the chemokines chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 and chemokine (CXC motif ligand 2 expression was also augmented in the neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Additionally, the depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduced glutathione (GSH, and the upregulation of 3-nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were more pronounced in neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Accordingly, the protein expression of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, was also higher in neointima of α7nAChR-KO mice compared with WT mice. Finally, pharmacologically activation of CAP with a selective α7nAChR agonist PNU-282987, significantly reduced neointima formation, arterial inflammation and oxidative stress after vascular injury in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that α7nAChR-mediated CAP is a neuro-physiological mechanism that inhibits neointima

  8. Fetal cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and necrotizing enterocolitis: the brain-gut connection begins in utero

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    Luca eGarzoni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is an acute neonatal inflammatory disease that affects the intestine and may result in necrosis, systemic sepsis and multisystem organ failure. NEC affects 5-10% of all infants with birth weight ≤ 1500 g or gestational age less than 30 weeks. Chorioamnionitis (CA is the main manifestation of pathological inflammation in the fetus and is strongly associated with NEC. CA affects 20% of full-term pregnancies and up to 60% of preterm pregnancies and, notably, is often an occult finding. Intrauterine exposure to inflammatory stimuli may switch innate immunity cells such as macrophages to a reactive phenotype (‘priming’. Confronted with renewed inflammatory stimuli during labour or postnatally, such sensitized cells can sustain a chronic or exaggerated production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with NEC (two-hit hypothesis. Via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a neurally mediated innate anti-inflammatory mechanism, higher levels of vagal activity are associated with lower systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This effect is mediated by the α7 subunit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on macrophages. The gut is the most extensive organ innervated by the vagus nerve; it is also the primary site of innate immunity in the newborn. Here we review the mechanisms of possible neuroimmunological brain-gut interactions involved in the induction and control of antenatal intestinal inflammatory response and priming. We propose a neuroimmunological framework to 1 study the long-term effects of perinatal intestinal response to infection and 2 to uncover new targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention.

  9. Effect of dexmedetomidine on rats with convulsive status epilepticus and association with activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

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    Xu, Kai-Liang; Liu, Xin-Qiu; Yao, Yu-Long; Ye, Ming-Rong; Han, Yao-Guo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Gang; Lei, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological disease with contraction and extension of limbs, leading to damage of hippocampus and cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the cognitive function and neuroinflammation in CSE rats. All rats were divided into control group, CSE group and DEX group. Morris water maze test was used to measure cognitive function. Acute hippocampal slices were made to detect long-term potentiation (LTP). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), S-100β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results showed that DEX improved the memory damage caused by CSE. DEX reduced seizure severity and increased the amplitudes and sustainable time of LTP, and also inhibited the hippocampal expression of α7-nAChR and IL-1β in CSE rats. DEX treatment decreased serum IL-1β, TNF-α and S-100β levels and increased BDNF levels. The effects of DEX on seizure severity and LTP could be simulated by nicotine or attenuated by concurrent α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) treatment. In conclusions, DEX significantly improved spatial cognitive dysfunction, reduced seizure severity and increased LTP in CSE rats. Improvements by DEX were closely related to enhancement of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway of some non-pharmacological therapies of complementary medicine: possible implications for treatment of rheumatic and autoimmune diseases].

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    Gamus, Dorit

    2011-08-01

    Rheumatologic and autoimmune diseases are among foremost diseases for which patients seek complementary and integrative medicine options. Therefore, physicians should be informed on the advances in research of these therapies, in order to be able to discuss possible indications and contraindications for these treatment modalities with their patients. This review summarizes several therapeutic modalities of complementary medicine that may be involved in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The analysis of systematic reviews of acupuncture for rheumatic conditions has concluded that the evidence is sufficiently sound to warrant positive recommendations of this therapy for osteoarthritis, low back pain and lateral elbow pain. There is relatively strong evidence to support the use of hypnosis in pain treatment, such as in cases of fibromyalgia. A recent controlled study that evaLuated tai-chi in fibromyalgia has reported reductions in pain, improvements in mood, quality of Life, self efficacy and exercise capacity. There is also cumulative evidence that acupuncture, hypnosis and tai-chi may decrease the high frequency of heart rate variability, suggesting enhancement of vagus nerve activity. Hence, it has been hypothesized that these modalities might impact the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway to modulate inflammation. Further clinical and basic research to confirm this hypothesis should be performed in order to validate integration of these therapies in comprehensive treatment for some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  11. [Effects and mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction related to NASH and induced by activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway].

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    Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Fuqiang; Tang, Cuilan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and induced by activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. A mouse model of NASH was established by feeding a high-fat and high-sugar diet.Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway was achieved by nicotine administration to the NASH modeled mice and normal controls. Liver biopsies were taken and the concentrations of cytokines were measured. Isolated liver primary Kupffer cells and RAw264.7 cells were cultured, pre-treated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exposed to nicotine, after which the supernatant concentrations of IL-6 and TNFa were determined by ELISA. The protein expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-NF-kB and I k B were detected in primary cultured Kupffer cells by western blotting. The mouse model of NASH was successfully established, as evidenced by findings from liver biopsy and serum liver function tests. The degree of liver inflammation in the NASH mice decreased after nicotine administration, and the level of serum TNFa also significantly decreased. The levels of serum TNFa were 21.95+/-0.8 pg/mL in nicotine-treated mice and 38.07+/-1.7 pg/mL in the non-nicotine-treated NASH mice (P less than 0.05). The nicotine treatment also significantly reduced the concentration of TNFa in the culture supernatants of Kupffer cells after LPS stimulation; moreover, the supernatant level of TNFa decreased significantly after the nicotine treatment (Pless than 0.05). LPS stimulation of the RAw264.7 cells led to an increased level ofp-NF-kB and a reduced level ofI-kB, suggesting that the NF-kB pathway had been activated; different doses of nicotine pre-treatment led to down-regulation of the p-NF-kB level and up-regulation of the I-kB level, both in dose-dependent manners. Activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway inhibits the NASH-related inflammatory reaction, and the mechanism for this inhibition

  12. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by nicotine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats.

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    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinying; Bao, Junjie; Li, Xiaolan; Ye, Aihua; Zhang, Guozheng; Liu, Huishu

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) exerts a more intense systemic inflammatory response than normal pregnancy. Recently, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in regulating inflammation has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying it. Rats were administered LPS (1.0 μg/kg) via tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Nicotine (1.0 mg/kg/d) and α-bungarotoxin (1.0 μg/kg/d) were injected subcutaneously into the rats from gestational day 14-19. Clinical symptoms were recorded. Serum and placentas were collected to determine cytokine levels using Luminex. The mRNA and protein expression levels of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined using Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in placentas. Nicotine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats (P preeclampsia (P preeclampsia rats. Our findings suggest that the activation of α7nAChR by nicotine attenuates preeclampsia-like symptoms, and this protective effect is likely the result of the inhibition of inflammation via the NF-κB p65 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinergic and cytotoxic effects of Sida rhombifolia.

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    Mah, Siau Hui; Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian

    2017-12-01

    Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time. S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC 50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC 50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC 50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol. The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.

  14. Demodex canis regulates cholinergic system mediated immunosuppressive pathways in canine demodicosis.

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    Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Singh, A; Nakade, U P; Sharma, A; Garg, S K; Singh, S K

    2017-09-01

    Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.

  15. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

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    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  16. Libidibia ferrea mature seeds promote antinociceptive effect by peripheral and central pathway: possible involvement of opioid and cholinergic receptors.

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    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg), naloxone (5 mg/kg) in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  17. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

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    Luis Armando Sawada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Libidibia ferrea (LF is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF, partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueous extract or LPLF was administered systemically at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg. LF aqueous seed extract and LPLF demonstrated a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all tests indicating both peripheral anti-inflammatory and central analgesia properties. Also, the use of atropine (5 mg/kg, naloxone (5 mg/kg in the abdominal writhing test was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of the LPLF, indicating that at least one of LF lipids components is responsible for the dose related antinociceptive action in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. Together, the present results suggested that Libidibia ferrea induced antinociceptive activity is possibly related to its ability to inhibit opioid, cholinergic receptors, and cyclooxygenase-2 pathway, since its main component, linoleic acid, has been demonstrated to produce such effect in previous studies.

  18. The motilin receptor agonist erythromycin stimulates hunger and food intake through a cholinergic pathway.

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    Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P hunger peaks (P hunger feelings through a cholinergic pathway. Moreover, erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02633579. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Anti-allergic role of cholinergic neuronal pathway via α7 nicotinic ACh receptors on mucosal mast cells in a murine food allergy model.

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    Takeshi Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The prevalence of food allergy (FA has increased in developed countries over the past few decades. However, no effective drug therapies are currently available. Therefore, we investigated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as a regulatory system to ameliorate disrupted mucosal immune homeostasis in the gut based on the pathophysiological elucidation of mucosal mast cells (MMCs in a murine FA model. BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin received repeated oral ovalbumin for the development of FA. FA mice developed severe allergic diarrhea and exhibited enhanced type 2 helper T (Th2 cell immune responses in both systemic immunity and mucosal immunity, along with MMCs hyperplasia in the colon. MMCs were localized primarily in the strategic position of the mucosal epithelium. Furthermore, the allergic symptoms did not develop in p85α disrupted phosphoinositide-3 kinase-deficient mice that lacked mast cells in the gut. Vagal stimulation by 2-deoxy-D-glucose and drug treatment with nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR agonists (nicotine and α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 alleviated the allergic symptoms in the FA mice. Nicotine treatment suppressed MMCs hyperplasia, enhanced MPO and upregulated mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the FA mice colon. MMCs, which are negatively regulated by α7 nAChRs, were often located in close proximity to cholinergic CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the FA mice colon. The present results reveal that the cholinergic neuroimmune interaction via α7 nAChRs on MMCs is largely involved in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis and can be a target for a new therapy against mucosal immune diseases with homeostatic disturbances such as FA.

  20. The Cholinergic System Modulates Memory and Hippocampal Plasticity via Its Interactions with Non-Neuronal Cells

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    Sara V. Maurer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer’s disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells. Though the presence of microglia is required for memory, overactivated microglia due to an immune challenge overproduce inflammatory cytokines, which is adverse for memory. Blocking these exaggerated effects, specifically by decreasing the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6, has been shown to prevent inflammation-induced memory impairment. While there is considerable evidence that cholinergic signaling improves memory, fewer studies have linked the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” to memory processes. This review will summarize the current understanding of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as it relates to memory and will argue that one mechanism by which the cholinergic system modulates hippocampal memory processes is its influence on neuroimmune function via the α7 nicotinic ACh receptor.

  1. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  2. Dynamics of cholinergic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanin, I.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics; cholinergic pathways - anatomy of the central nervous system; aging, DSAT and other clinical conditions; cholinergic pre- and post-synaptic receptors; acetylcholine release; cholinesterases, anticholinesterases and reactivators; acetylcholine synthesis, metabolism and precursors; second messenger messenger mechanisms; interaction of acetylcholine with other neurotransmitter systems; cholinergic mechanisms in physiological function, including cardiovascular events; and neurotoxic agents and false transmitters

  3. Neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates disease in rat collagen-induced arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levine, Yaakov A.; Koopman, Frieda A.; Faltys, Michael; Caravaca, April; Bendele, Alison; Zitnik, Ralph; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul Peter

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

  4. Neurotrophin-3 promotes proliferation and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of bone marrow- derived neural stem cells via notch signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Li, Hong-Yan; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Song, Jie; Yang, Jing-Xian

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the potential for neural stem cells (NSCs) to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported; however, the therapeutic effects are modest by virtue of the low neural differentiation rate. In our study, we transfected bone marrow-derived NSCs (BM-NSCs) with Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a superactive neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells, to investigate the effects of NT-3 gene overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron of BM-NSCs in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism. BM-NSCs were generated from BM mesenchymal cells of adult C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. After transfected with NT-3 gene, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR method were used to determine the ability of BM-NSCs on proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron; Acetylcholine Assay Kit was used for acetylcholine (Ach). RT-PCR and WB analysis were used to characterize mRNA and protein level related to the Notch signaling pathway. We found that NT-3 can promote the proliferation and differentiation of BM-NSCs into cholinergic neurons and elevate the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the supernatant. Furthermore, NT-3 gene overexpression increase the expression of Hes1, decreased the expression of Mash1 and Ngn1 during proliferation of BM-NSCs. Whereas, the expression of Hes1 was down-regulated, and Mash1 and Ngn1 expression were up-regulated during differentiation of BM-NSCs. Our findings support the prospect of using NT-3-transduced BM-NSCs in developing therapies for AD due to their equivalent therapeutic potential as subventricular zone-derived NSCs (SVZ-NSCs), greater accessibility, and autogenous attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chlorpyrifos promotes colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth through the activation of EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyo, Tawit; Tachachartvanich, Phum; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-12-02

    Aside from the effects on neuronal cholinergic system, epidemiological studies suggest an association between chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure and cancer risk. This in vitro study examined the effects of CPF and its toxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPF-O), on the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma H508, colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29, normal colon epithelial CCD841, liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and normal liver hepatocyte THLE-3 cells. The results showed that CPF (5-100 μM) concentration-dependently increased viability of H508 and CCD841 cells in serum-free conditions. This increasing trend was not found in HT-29, HepG2 and THLE-3 cells. In contrast, CPF-O (50-100 μM) reduced the viability of all cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed the induction of cells in the S phase, and EdU incorporation assay revealed the induction of DNA synthesis in CPF-treated H508 cells indicating that CPF promotes cell cycle progression. Despite the observation of acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, atropine (a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and N-acetylcysteine (a potent antioxidant) failed to inhibit the growth-promoting effect of CPF. CPF increased the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream effector, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), in H508 cells. AG-1478 (a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and U0126 (a specific MEK inhibitor) completely mitigated the growth promoting effect of CPF. Altogether, these results suggest that EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway involves in CPF-induced colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  8. Learning to Ignore: A Modeling Study of a Decremental Cholinergic Pathway and Its Influence on Attention and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Nicolas; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli is essential to achieving efficient and fluid attention, and serves as the complement to increasing attention to relevant stimuli. The different cholinergic (ACh) subsystems within the basal forebrain regulate attention in distinct but complementary ways. ACh projections from the substantia innominata/nucleus…

  9. Impairment of the nerve growth factor pathway driving amyloid accumulation in cholinergic neurons: the incipit of the Alzheimer′s disease story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Triaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF alterations in sporadic Alzheimer′s disease (AD, an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN, is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD. NGF signaling dysfunctions have been thought for decades to occur in AD late stages, as a mere consequence of amyloid-driven disruption of the retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophins to BFCN. Nowadays, a wealth of knowledge is potentially opening a new scenario: NGF signaling impairment occurs at the onset of AD and correlates better than amyloid load with cognitive decline. The recent acceleration in the characterization of anatomical, functional and molecular profiles of early AD is aimed at maximizing the efficacy of existing treatments and setting novel therapies. Accordingly, the elucidation of the molecular events underlying APP metabolism regulation by the NGF pathway in the septo-hippocampal system is crucial for the identification of new target molecules to slow and eventually halt mild cognitive impairment (MCI and its progression toward AD.

  10. [Modulation of the cholinergic system during inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhinskaia, G I; Vladykin, A L; Sapronov, N S

    2008-01-01

    This review describes the effects of realization of the central and peripheral "cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway" in a model of endotoxic and anaphylactic shock. Under endotoxic shock conditions, a pharmacological correction by means of the central m-cholinomimetic action (electrical stimulation of the distal ends of nervus vagus after bilateral cervical vagotomy, surgical implantation of the stimulant devise, activation of efferent vagal neurons by means of muscarinic agonist) is directed toward the elimination of LPS-induced hypotension. During the anaphylaxis, peripheral effects of the cholinergic system induced by blocking m-AChR on the target cells (neuronal and non-neuronal lung cells) and acetylcholinesterase inhibition are related to suppression of the bronchoconstrictor response. The role of immune system in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock is associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, increase in IgM concentration, and complement activation, while the role in the pathogenesis of anaphylactic shock is associated with IgE, IgG1 augmentation. Effects of B cell stimulation may be important in hypoxia and in the prophylaxis of stress ulcers and other diseases. Plasma proteins can influence the effects of the muscarinic antagonist methacine: IgG enhance its action while albumin and CRP abolish it.

  11. Modeling of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effect within signaling pathways and miRNA-regulation pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available To date, it is widely recognized that Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs can exert considerable anti-tumor effects regarding many types of cancers. The prolonged use of NSAIDs is highly associated with diverse side effects. Therefore, tailoring down the NSAID application onto individual patients has become a necessary and relevant step towards personalized medicine. This study conducts the systemsbiological approach to construct a molecular model (NSAID model containing a cyclooxygenase (COX-pathway and its related signaling pathways. Four cancer hallmarks are integrated into the model to reflect different developmental aspects of tumorigenesis. In addition, a Flux-Comparative-Analysis (FCA based on Petri net is developed to transfer the dynamic properties (including drug responsiveness of individual cellular system into the model. The gene expression profiles of different tumor-types with available drug-response information are applied to validate the predictive ability of the NSAID model. Moreover, two therapeutic developmental strategies, synthetic lethality and microRNA (miRNA biomarker discovery, are investigated based on the COX-pathway. In conclusion, the result of this study demonstrates that the NSAID model involving gene expression, gene regulation, signal transduction, protein interaction and other cellular processes, is able to predict the individual cellular responses for different therapeutic interventions (such as NS-398 and COX-2 specific siRNA inhibition. This strongly indicates that this type of model is able to reflect the physiological, developmental and pathological processes of an individual. The approach of miRNA biomarker discovery is demonstrated for identifying miRNAs with oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions for individual cell lines of breast-, colon- and lung-tumor. The achieved results are in line with different independent studies that investigated miRNA biomarker related to diagnostics of cancer

  12. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086388 Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Ko....csml) Show Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. PubmedID 18086388 Title ...Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Authors K

  13. Acid-gastric antisecretory effect of the ethanolic extract from Arctium lappa L. root: role of H+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+ influx and the cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Burci, Ligia de Moura; Crestani, Sandra; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca; Dartora, Nessana; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; André, Eunice; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2018-04-01

    Arctium lappa L., popularly known as burdock, is a medicinal plant used worldwide. The antiulcer and gastric-acid antisecretory effects of ethanolic extract from roots of Arctium lappa (EET) were already demonstrated. However, the mechanism by which the extract reduces the gastric acid secretion remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antisecretory mode of action of EET. The effects of EET on H + , K + -ATPase activity were verified in vitro, whereas the effects of the extract on cholinergic-, histaminergic- or gastrinergic-acid gastric stimulation were assessed in vivo on stimulated pylorus ligated rats. Moreover, ex vivo contractility studies on gastric muscle strips from rats were also employed. The incubation with EET (1000 µg/ml) partially inhibited H + , K + -ATPase activity, and the intraduodenal administration of EET (10 mg/kg) decreased the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by bethanechol, histamine, and pentagastrin. EET (100-1000 µg/ml) did not alter the gastric relaxation induced by histamine but decreased acetylcholine-induced contraction in gastric fundus strips. Interestingly, EET also reduced the increase in the gastric muscle tone induced by 40 mM KCl depolarizing solution, as well as the maximum contractile responses evoked by CaCl 2 in Ca 2+ -free depolarizing solution, without impairing the effect of acetylcholine on fundus strips maintained in Ca 2+ -free nutritive solution. Our results reinforce the gastric antisecretory properties of preparations obtained from Arctium lappa, and indicate that the mechanisms involved in EET antisecretory effects include a moderate reduction of the H + , K + -ATPase activity associated with inhibitory effects on calcium influx and of cholinergic pathways in the stomach muscle.

  14. The cholinergic pathway alleviates acute oxygen and glucose deprivation induced renal tubular cell injury by reducing the secretion of inflammatory medium of macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming WU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of cholinergic pathway on acute renal tubular cell injury induced by acute oxygen and glucose deprivation. Methods Rat kidney macrophages were isolated and cultured for constructing macrophages and renal epithelial cells co-cultivating model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, and the model cells were divided into three groups: OGD alone group, acetylcholine (ACh 100μmol/L+OGD group and ACh + galantamine (Gal 10μmol/L+OGD group. The cells underwent OGD treatment for 1 hour, and normally cultured for 24 hours. The expressions of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 in supernatant fluid were detected by ELISA, the renal tubular cell viability was determined by MTT assay, the expression of acetylcholine esterase (AChE mRNA and protein were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The activity of AChE was determined by colorimetric method. Results The expressions of TNF alpha (pg/ml in OGD, Ach+OGD group, Ach+Gal+OGD groups were 140.2±44.81, 119.46±4.42 and 103.31±1.62 respectively (P0.05; The values of renal tubular cell proliferation were 55.02%±6.28%, 66.65%±6.47%, and 79.75%±4.22% respectively (P0.05; those of AchE protein were 0.66±0.07, 0.74±0.04 and 0.67±0.06 respectively (P>0.05; The activity of AChE (kU/L was 0.51±0.02, 0.35±0.05 and 0.32±0.04 respectively (P=0.001, 0.001 and 0.368. Conclusions ACh and Gal could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory mediators and cholinesterase activity and can reduce the acute hypoxic renal tubular cell injury. The modulation of the cholinergic pathway in macrophages may be the important treatment method for acute renal injury in the future. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.01

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine are mediated through the regulation of the arachidonic acid pathway in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2012-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent antioxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study (U.C. Yadav et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48:1423-1434, 2010) indicates a novel role for benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of benfotiamine in regulating arachidonic acid (AA) pathway-generated inflammatory lipid mediators in RAW264.7 macrophages. Benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 and release of AA metabolites such as leukotrienes, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane 2 (TXB2), and prostacyclin (PGI2) in macrophages. Further, LPS-induced expression of AA-metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2, LOX-5, TXB synthase, and PGI2 synthase was significantly blocked by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of transcription factors NF-κB and Egr-1. Benfotiamine also prevented the LPS-induced oxidative stress and protein-HNE adduct formation. Most importantly, compared to specific COX-2 and LOX-5 inhibitors, benfotiamine significantly prevented LPS-induced macrophage death and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, our studies indicate that the dual regulation of the COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism could be a novel mechanism by which benfotiamine exhibits its potential anti-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Benfotiamine are Mediated Through the Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent anti-oxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study indicates a novel role of benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of benfotiamine in regulating the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway generated inflammatory lipid mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 and release of AA metabolites such as leukotrienes (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxanes 2 (TXB2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in macrophages. Further, LPS-induced expressions of AA metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2, LOX-5, TXB synthase and PGI2 synthase were significantly blocked by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of transcription factors NF-kB, and Egr-1. Benfotiamine also prevented the LPS-induced oxidative stress and protein-HNE adducts formation. Most importantly, as compared to specific COX-2 and LOX-5 inhibitors, benfotiamine significantly prevented the LPS-induced macrophage death and monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, our studies indicate that the dual regulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism could be a novel mechanism by which benfotiamine exhibits its potential anti-inflammatory response. PMID:22067901

  17. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Role for Ginkgolide B in Asthma via Inhibition of the ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolide B is an anti-inflammatory extract of Ginkgo biloba and has been used therapeutically. It is a known inhibitor of platelet activating factor (PAF, which is important in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, a non-infectious mouse model of asthma is used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of ginkgolide B (GKB and characterize the interaction of GKB with the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. BALB/c mice that were sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin (OVA were treated with GKB (40 mg/kg one hour before they were challenged with OVA. Our study demonstrated that GKB may effectively inhibit the increase of T-helper 2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Furthermore, the eosinophil count in BALF significantly decreased after treatment of GKB when compared with the OVA-challenged group. Histological studies demonstrated that GKB substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue and mucus hyper-secretion by goblet cells in the airway. These results suggest that ginkgolide B may be useful for the treatment of asthma and its efficacy is related to suppression of extracellular regulating kinase/MAPK pathway.

  18. DMPD: Endogenous anti-inflammatory substances, inter-alpha-inhibitor and bikunin. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17132099 Endogenous anti-inflammatory substances, inter-alpha-inhibitor and bikunin.... Kobayashi H. Biol Chem. 2006 Dec;387(12):1545-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous anti-inflam...matory substances, inter-alpha-inhibitor and bikunin. PubmedID 17132099 Title Endogenous anti-inflammatory s

  19. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18...336664 Title Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macro

  20. DMPD: Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecular mechanisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17981503 Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmol...) (.html) (.csml) Show Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecular mech...anisms. PubmedID 17981503 Title Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insight

  1. CHOLINERGIC NEUROPHARMACOLOGY - AN UPDATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PALACIOS, JM; BODDEKE, HWGM; POMBOVILLAR, E

    1991-01-01

    The current status of the pharmacology of central cholinergic transmission is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that have been or are potential candidates as therapeutic agents for the treatment of mental disorders, particularly senile dementia. Compounds affecting

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1: A potential anti-inflammatory pathway in obesity-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan-Vinh; Linderholm, Angela; Haczku, Angela; Kenyon, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Alterations in arginine metabolism and accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), crucial mechanisms in obesity-related asthma, can be modulated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). l-arginine dysregulation in obesity promotes inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress leads to production of AGEs, that bind to their receptor (RAGE) further potentiating inflammation. By binding to its widely distributed receptor, GLP-1 blunts the effects of RAGE activation and arginine dysregulation. The GLP-1 pathway, while comprehensively studied in the endocrine and cardiovascular literature, is under-recognized in pulmonary research. Insights into GLP-1 and the lung may lead to novel treatments for obesity-related asthma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Benfotiamine are Mediated Through the Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent anti-oxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study indicates a novel role of benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of...

  4. Scandoside Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect Via Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The iridoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism has not be thoroughly studied. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiments and molecular docking analyses. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.

  5. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  6. Whole-body vibration improves the anti-inflammatory status in elderly subjects through toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Collado, Pilar S; Almar, Mar; Martinez-Florez, Susana; de Paz, José A; González-Gallego, Javier; Cuevas, María J

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical exercise has anti-inflammatory effects in elderly subjects. Yet, the inflammatory responses after whole body vibration (WBV) training, a popular exercise paradigm for the elderly, remain to be elucidated. This study assessed the effects of WBV training on the inflammatory response associated with toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways. Twenty-eight subjects were randomized to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). TG followed an 8-week WBV training program. Blood samples were obtained before and after the training period in both groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, and mRNA and protein levels of makers involved in the TLR2/TLR4 myeloid differentiation primary response gen 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (TRIF)-dependent pathways were analyzed. Plasma TNFα and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed. The WBV program reduced protein expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p65, TRIF and heat shock protein (HSP) 60, while HSP70 content increased. IL-10 mRNA level and protein concentration were upregulated, and TNFα protein content decreased, after WBV training. Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and TNFα decreased in the TG. The current data suggest WBV may improve the anti-inflammatory status of elderly subjects through an attenuation of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLRs signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of α-galactosylceramide analogs in activated microglia: involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Hui Jeong

    Full Text Available Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 α-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-α production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activities.

  8. Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate mouse brown adipose tissue metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: DMH cholinergic neurons directly send efferent signals to sympathetic premotor neurons in the Rpa. Elevated cholinergic input to this area reduces BAT activity through activation of M2 mAChRs on serotonergic neurons. Therefore, the direct DMHACh–Rpa5-HT pathway may mediate physiological heat-defense responses to elevated environmental temperature.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun Ju; Kim, Su Jung; Hong, Seung Bok; Park, Jin-Kyu; Rhee, Man Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated. Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang-Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Shi-Cui [Jinhu Food and Drug Administration, Jiangsu (China); Wei, Shao-Hua [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Zhu-Nan, E-mail: biopharmacology@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing (China); Ao, Gui-Zhen [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Soochow University, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-10-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE{sub 2}, LTB{sub 4} in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway.

  11. The anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees on pelvic inflammatory disease in rats through down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Xiao, Zuoqi; Wen, Xiaoke; Luo, Jieying; Chen, Shuqiong; Cheng, Zeneng; Xiang, Daxiong; Hu, Jian; He, Jingyu

    2016-11-25

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (APN), a principal constituent of a famous traditional Chinese medicine Fukeqianjin tablet which is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. However, whether it has pharmacological effect on PID in vivo is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the anti-inflammatory effect of APN and illuminate a potential mechanism. Thirty-six female specific pathogen-free SD rats were randomly divided into control group, PID group, APN1 group, APN2 group, APN3 group and prednisone group. Pathogen-induced PID rats were constructed. The APN1, APN2 and APN3 group rats were orally administrated with APN extract at different levels. The prednisone group rats were administrated with prednisone. Eight days after the first infection, the histological examination of upper genital tract was carried out, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out using homogenate of the uterus and fallopian tube. Furthermore, immunohistochemical evaluations of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α in uterus was conducted. APN obviously suppressed the infiltrations of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and it could significantly reduce the excessive production of cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, APN could block the pathogen-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. APN showed potent anti-inflammatory effect on pathogen-induced PID in rats, with a potential mechanism of inhibiting the NF-κB signal pathway.

  12. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of KYKZL-1 via MAPK and NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guang-Lin; Du, Yi-Fang; Cheng, Jing; Huan, Lin; Chen, Shi-Cui; Wei, Shao-Hua; Gong, Zhu-Nan; Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting; Ao, Gui-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the anti-inflammatory activity test focusing on its modulation of inflammatory mediators as well as intracellular MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In acute ear edema model, pretreatment with KYKZL-1 (p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the xylene-induced ear edema in mice with a higher inhibition than diclofenac. In a three-day TPA-induced inflammation, KYKZL-1 also showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition ranging between 20% and 64%. In gastric lesion test, KYKZL-1 elicited markedly fewer stomach lesions with a low index of ulcer as compared to diclofenac in rats. In further studies, KYKZL-1 was found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, PGE 2 , LTB 4 in LPS challenged RAW264.7, which is parallel to its attenuation of the expression of iNOS, COX-2, 5-LOX mRNAs or proteins and inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. Taken together, our data indicate that KYKZL-1 comprises dual inhibition of COX and 5-LOX and exerts an obvious anti-inflammatory activity with an enhanced gastric safety profile via simultaneous inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and activation of NF-κB. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 inhibits NO, PGE 2 and LTB 4 and iNOS, COX-2 and 5-LOX mRNAs and MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inhibits phosphorylation of MAPKs. • KYKZL-1 inactivates NF-κB pathway

  13. Astrocytes mediate in vivo cholinergic-induced synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Navarrete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission represents the cellular basis of learning and memory. Astrocytes have been shown to regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, their involvement in specific physiological processes that induce LTP in vivo remains unknown. Here we show that in vivo cholinergic activity evoked by sensory stimulation or electrical stimulation of the septal nucleus increases Ca²⁺ in hippocampal astrocytes and induces LTP of CA3-CA1 synapses, which requires cholinergic muscarinic (mAChR and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR activation. Stimulation of cholinergic pathways in hippocampal slices evokes astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations, postsynaptic depolarizations of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and LTP of transmitter release at single CA3-CA1 synapses. Like in vivo, these effects are mediated by mAChRs, and this cholinergic-induced LTP (c-LTP also involves mGluR activation. Astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations and LTP are absent in IP₃R2 knock-out mice. Downregulating astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal by loading astrocytes with BAPTA or GDPβS also prevents LTP, which is restored by simultaneous astrocyte Ca²⁺ uncaging and postsynaptic depolarization. Therefore, cholinergic-induced LTP requires astrocyte Ca²⁺ elevations, which stimulate astrocyte glutamate release that activates mGluRs. The cholinergic-induced LTP results from the temporal coincidence of the postsynaptic activity and the astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal simultaneously evoked by cholinergic activity. Therefore, the astrocyte Ca²⁺ signal is necessary for cholinergic-induced synaptic plasticity, indicating that astrocytes are directly involved in brain storage information.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Durbadal; Mukherjee, Hemanta; Mondal, Supriya; Jena, Aditya; Dwivedi, Ved Prakash; Mondal, Keshab C; Malhotra, Bharti; Samanta, Amalesh; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB) for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA), using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12). Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB), and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα) by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  15. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea, E-mail: avillar@iib.uam.es [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBm) (CSIC/UAM), C/ Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERdem), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ardiles, Alejandro E., E-mail: ale_csic@gmail.com [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica Antonio González, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Casilla 121, Iquique 1110939 (Chile); Arroba, Ana I., E-mail: aarroba@iib.uam.es [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBm) (CSIC/UAM), C/ Arturo Duperier 4, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERdem), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique, E-mail: enheji@gmail.com [Tumor Immunology Laboratory (IdiPAZ), 28029 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERres), ISCIII, 28029 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2016-12-15

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25 μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation. - Highlights: • Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. • C18 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased HO1 expression. • C25 inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, members of the MAPKs family. • C25 reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β. • C18 and C25 may be therapeutic agents for diseases linked to inflammation.

  16. Friedelane-type triterpenoids as selective anti-inflammatory agents by regulation of differential signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar-Lorenzo, Andrea; Ardiles, Alejandro E.; Arroba, Ana I.; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25 μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Instead, C18 enhanced and prolonged nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the expression of its target genes including hemeoxigenase 1 (HO1). C25 efficiently inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, without affecting NFκB or Nrf2 signaling pathways. Both compounds reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β (IL1β) proform, reflecting their ability to target the inflammasome. C25 also counteracted LPS effects on iNOS expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA levels in Bv-2 microglial cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of both compounds was also assessed in human macrophages. Our results suggest that triterpenoids C18 and C25 possess anti-inflammatory effects, which may be therapeutically relevant for diseases linked to inflammation. - Highlights: • Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exert anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. • C18 enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased HO1 expression. • C25 inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ERK, members of the MAPKs family. • C25 reduced LPS-mediated processing of caspase-1 and the cleavage of interleukin 1β. • C18 and C25 may be therapeutic agents for diseases linked to inflammation.

  17. Procyanidin B2 ameliorates carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats via anti-inflammatory and activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Renzong; Wang, Jiye

    2017-11-04

    Prostatitis is one of the most prevalent problems in andriatry and urinary surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of procyanidin B2 (PB) on carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats. Results showed that PB significantly decreased the prostatic index and enhanced the body weight inhibited by carrageenan. Biochemical results revealed that PB significantly lowered the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and alleviated oxidative stress in serum. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in prostatic homogenate were also significantly decreased after PB treatment. We also found evidence that PB treatment reversed the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increased the expressions of NQO1 and HO-1 in the prostate glands. In conclusion, treatment with PB attenuates carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis via anti-inflammatory and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determining the Molecular Pathways Underlying the Protective Effect of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease: A Bioinformatics Approach

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    Alejo J Nevado-Holgado

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD represents a substantial unmet need, due to increasing prevalence in an ageing society and the absence of a disease modifying therapy. Epidemiological evidence shows a protective effect of non steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAID drugs, and genome wide association studies (GWAS show consistent linkage to inflammatory pathways; both observations suggesting anti-inflammatory compounds might be effective in AD therapy although clinical trials to date have not been positive.In this study, we use pathway enrichment and fuzzy logic to identify pathways (KEGG database simultaneously affected in both AD and by NSAIDs (Sulindac, Piroxicam, Paracetamol, Naproxen, Nabumetone, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Aspirin. Gene expression signatures were derived for disease from both blood (n = 344 and post-mortem brain (n = 690, and for drugs from immortalised human cell lines exposed to drugs of interest as part of the Connectivity Map platform. Using this novel approach to combine datasets we find striking overlap between AD gene expression in blood and NSAID induced changes in KEGG pathways of Ribosome and Oxidative Phosphorylation. No overlap was found in non NSAID comparison drugs. In brain we find little such overlap, although Oxidative Phosphorylation approaches our pre-specified significance level.These findings suggest that NSAIDs might have a mode of action beyond inflammation and moreover that their therapeutic effects might be mediated in particular by alteration of Oxidative Phosphorylation and possibly the Ribosome pathway. Mining of such datasets might prove increasingly productive as they increase in size and richness. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, NSAID, Inflammation, Fuzzy logic, Ribosome

  19. Recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor exerts anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects in murine pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, F. E.; Brands, X.; Schultz, M. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Roelofs, J. J. T. H.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia and a major cause of sepsis. Recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI) attenuates sepsis-induced coagulation and has been evaluated in clinical trials involving patients

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for a number of diseases including lung cancer and respiratory infections. Paradoxically, it also contains nicotine, an anti-inflammatory alkaloid. There is increasing evidence that smokers have a lower incidence of some inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis, and the protective effect involves the activation of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that requires the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on immune cells. Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Nicotine significantly improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in genetically obese and diet-induced obese mice, which is associated with suppressed adipose tissue inflammation. Inflammation that results in disruption of the epithelial barrier is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease, and nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis. This article summarizes current evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Selective agonists for the α7nAChR could represent a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of inflammation in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine could be mediated via the expression of several nAChRs on a particular target cell.

  1. Intermittent fasting combined with supplementation with Ayurvedic herbs reduces anxiety in middle aged female rats by anti-inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Kaur, Taranjeet; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2017-08-01

    Intermittent fasting-dietary restriction (IF-DR) is an increasingly popular intervention to promote healthy aging and delay age associated decline in brain functions. Also, the use of herbal interventions is gaining attention due to their non-pharmacological approach to treat several abnormalities and promote general health with least side effects. The present study was aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of IF-DR regimen with herbal supplementation on anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation in middle aged female rats. We used dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera and dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia for our study. The rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group fed ad libitum (AL); (2) rats deprived of food for full day and fed ad libitum on every alternate day (IF-DR); and (3) IF-DR and herbal extract (DRH) group in which rats were fed ad libitum with herbal extract supplemented diet, every alternate day. Post regimen, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior and further used for study of key inflammatory molecules (NFκB, Iba1, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and glial marker (GFAP) in hippocampus and piriform cortex regions of brain. The study was further extended to explore the effect of DRH regimen on stress response protein (HSP70) and calcium dependent regulators of synaptic plasticity (CaMKIIα, Calcineurin). Our data demonstrated that DRH regimen reduced anxiety-like behavior in middle age female rats and associated neuroinflammation by ameliorating key inflammatory cytokines and modulated stress response. The present data may provide scientific validation for anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory potential of herbal intervention combined with short term IF-DR regimen.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Odina wodier Roxb, an Indian folk remedy, through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Ojha

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of self-limiting non-specific immune response, which occurs during bodily injury. In some disorders the inflammatory process becomes continuous, leading to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer etc. Several Indian tribes used the bark of Odina wodier (OWB for treating inflammatory disorders. Thus, we have evaluated the immunotherapeutic potential of OWB methanol extract and its major constituent chlorogenic acid (CA, using three popular in vivo antiinflammatory models: Carrageenan- and Dextran-induced paw edema, Cotton pellet granuloma, and Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability. To elucidate the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of action we determine the level of major inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 or PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Further, we determine the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, nuclear factor kappa-B cells (NF-κB, and NF-kB inhibitor alpha (IK-Bα by protein and mRNA expression, and Western blot analysis in drug treated LPS-induced murine macrophage model. Moreover, we determined the acute and sub-acute toxicity of OWB extract in BALB/c mice. Our study demonstrated a significant anti-inflammatory activity of OWB extract and CA along with the inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 expressions. Further, the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, MyD88, iNOS and COX-2 molecules were reduced in drug-treated groups, but not in the LPS-stimulated untreated or control groups, Thus, our results collectively indicated that the OWB extract and CA can efficiently inhibit inflammation through the down regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.

  3. A randomized, double blind, placebo and active comparator controlled pilot study of UP446, a novel dual pathway inhibitor anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampalis John S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current use of prescribed or over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for pain and osteoarthritis (OA have untoward gastrointestinal and cardiovascular related side effects, as a result the need for a safe and effective alternative has become unequivocally crucial. Method A randomized, double blind, placebo and active controlled pilot study of a novel dual pathway, COX1/2 and LOX, inhibitor anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin, UP446 was conducted. Sixty subjects (age 40-75 with symptomatic OA of the hip or knee were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 15; Group A0 (Placebo, CMC capsule, Group A1 (UP446 250 mg/day, Group A2 (UP446 500 mg/day and Group A3 (Celecoxib, 200 mg/day. MOS-SF-36 and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC data were collected at baseline and after 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment as a measure of efficacy. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, plasma thrombin time (PTT, fructosamine, Hematology, clinical chemistry and fecal occult blood were monitored for safety. Results Statistically significant decrease in WOMAC pain score were observed for Group A1 at day 90, Group A2 at 30 and 90 days and Group A3 at 60 and 90 days. Statistically significant decrease in WOMAC stiffness score were observed for Group A1 and Group A2 at 30, 60 and 90 days; but not for Group A0 and Group A3. The mean change in WOMAC functional impairment scores were statistically significant for Group A1 and Group A2 respectively at 30 days (p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, at 60 days (p = 0.016 and p = 0.002 and at 90 days (p = 0.018 and p = 0.002, these changes were not significant for Group A0 and Group A3. Based on MOS -SF-36 questionnaires, statistically significant improvements in physical function, endurance and mental health scores were observed for all active treatment groups compared to placebo. No significant changes suggestive of toxicity in routine hematologies

  4. Cholinergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine function and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Gregory P; Shabani, Shkelzen; Dobbs, Lauren K; Hansen, Stephen T

    2011-07-25

    The substantial health risk posed by obesity and compulsive drug use has compelled a serious research effort to identify the neurobiological substrates that underlie the development these pathological conditions. Despite substantial progress, an understanding of the neurochemical systems that mediate the motivational aspects of drug-seeking and craving remains incomplete. Important work from the laboratory of Bart Hoebel has provided key information on neurochemical systems that interact with dopamine (DA) as potentially important components in both the development of addiction and the expression of compulsive behaviors such as binge eating. One such modulatory system appears to be cholinergic pathways that interact with DA systems at all levels of the reward circuit. Cholinergic cells in the pons project to DA-rich cell body regions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantial nigra (SN) where they modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and reward processing. The DA terminal region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a small but particularly important group of cholinergic interneurons, which have extensive dendritic arbors that make synapses with a vast majority of NAc neurons and afferents. Together with acetylcholine (ACh) input onto DA cell bodies, cholinergic systems could serve a vital role in gating information flow concerning the motivational value of stimuli through the mesolimbic system. In this report we highlight evidence that CNS cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in behaviors that are motivated by both natural and drug rewards. We argue that the search for underlying neurochemical substrates of compulsive behaviors, as well as attempts to identify potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to combat them, must include a consideration of central cholinergic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Neoglycoconjugate Containing the Human Milk Sugar LNFPIII Drives Anti-Inflammatory Activation of Antigen Presenting Cells in a CD14 Dependent Pathway.

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    Smanla Tundup

    Full Text Available The milk pentasaccharide LNFPIII has therapeutic action for metabolic and autoimmune diseases and prolongs transplant survival in mice when presented as a neoglycoconjugate. Within LNFPIII is the Lewisx trisaccharide, expressed by many helminth parasites. In humans, LNFPIII is found in human milk and also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. LNFPIII-NGC drives alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells via NFκB activation in a TLR4 dependent mechanism. However, the connection between LNFPIII-NGC activation of APCs, TLR4 signaling and subsequent MAP kinase signaling leading to anti-inflammatory activation of APCs remains unknown. In this study we determined that the innate receptor CD14 was essential for LNFPIII-NGC induction of both ERK and NFkB activation in APCs. Induction of ERK activation by LNFPIII-NGC was completely dependent on CD14/TLR4-Ras-Raf1/TPL2-MEK axis in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. In addition, LNFPIII-NGC preferentially induced the production of Th2 "favoring" chemokines CCL22 and matrix metalloprotease protein-9 in a CD14 dependent manner in BMDCs. In contrast, LNFPIII-NGC induces significantly lower levels of Th1 "favoring" chemokines, MIP1α, MIP1β and MIP-2 compared to levels in LPS stimulated cells. Interestingly, NGC of the identical human milk sugar LNnT, minus the alpha 1-3 linked fucose, failed to activate APCs via TLR4/MD2/CD14 receptor complex, suggesting that the alpha 1-3 linked fucose in LNFPIII and not on LNnT, is required for this process. Using specific chemical inhibitors of the MAPK pathway, we found that LNFPIII-NGC induction of CCL22, MMP9 and IL-10 production was dependent on ERK activation. Over all, this study suggests that LNFPIII-NGC utilizes CD14/TLR4-MAPK (ERK axis in modulating APC activation to produce anti-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in a manner distinct from that seen for the pro-inflammatory PAMP LPS. These pathways may explain the in vivo

  6. Repositioning of Memantine as a Potential Novel Therapeutic Agent against Meningitic E. coli-Induced Pathogenicities through Disease-Associated Alpha7 Cholinergic Pathway and RNA Sequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Host Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Yu

    bacterial infection through modulation of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways.

  7. SIRT1 induces resistance to apoptosis in human granulosa cells by activating the ERK pathway and inhibiting NF-κB signaling with anti-inflammatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Luo, Haining; Wang, Hui; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yunshan

    2017-10-01

    SIRT1, a member of the sirtuin family, has recently emerged as a vital molecule in controlling ovarian function. The aims of the present study were to investigate SIRT1 expression and analyze SIRT1-mediated apoptosis in human granulosa cells (GCs). Human ovarian tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for localization of SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 knockdown in a human ovarian GC tumor line (COV434) was achieved by small interfering RNA, and the relationship between apoptosis and SIRT1 was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. We further detected SIRT1 expression in human luteinized GCs. Associations among SIRT1 knockdown, SIRT1 stimulation (resveratrol) and expression of ERK1/2 and apoptotic regulatory proteins were analyzed in cell lines and luteinized GCs. Resveratrol downregulated the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB/p65, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by suppressing SIRT1 activity. The NF-κB/p65 inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate achieved similar anti-apoptosis effects. These results suggest that SIRT1 might play an anti-apoptotic role in apoptosis processes in GCs, possibly by sensing and regulating the ERK1/2 pathway, which has important clinical implications. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic link, whereby activation of SIRT1 function might help to sustain human reproduction by maintaining GCs as well as oocytes, offering a novel approach for developing a new class of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

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    Do-Wan Shim

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation.

  9. Regulation of drugs affecting striatal cholinergic activity by corticostriatal projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladinsky, H.

    1986-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the chronic degeneration of the corticostriatal excitatory pathway makes the cholinergic neurons of the striatum insensitive to the neuropharmacological action of a number of different drugs. Female rats were used; they were killed and after the i.v. infusion of tritium-choline precursor, choline acetyltransferase activity was measured. Striatal noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin content was measured by electrochemical detection coupled with high pressure liquid chromatography. Uptake of tritium-glutamic acid was estimated. The data were analyzed statistically. It is shown that there is evidence that the effects of a number of drugs capable of depressing cholinergic activity through receptor-mediated responses are operative only if the corticostriatal pathway is integral. Neuropharmacological responses in the brain appear to be the result of an interaction between several major neurotransmitter systems

  10. Cholinergic signalling in gut immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhawan, Shobhit; Cailotto, Cathy; Harthoorn, Lucien F.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    The gut immune system shares many signalling molecules and receptors with the autonomic nervous system. A good example is the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), for which many immune cell types express cholinergic receptors (AChR). In the last decade the vagal nerve has emerged as an

  11. Cholinergic enhancement of visual attention and neural oscillations in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Markus; Kluge, Christian; Bach, Dominik; Bradbury, David; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2012-03-06

    Cognitive processes such as visual perception and selective attention induce specific patterns of brain oscillations. The neurochemical bases of these spectral changes in neural activity are largely unknown, but neuromodulators are thought to regulate processing. The cholinergic system is linked to attentional function in vivo, whereas separate in vitro studies show that cholinergic agonists induce high-frequency oscillations in slice preparations. This has led to theoretical proposals that cholinergic enhancement of visual attention might operate via gamma oscillations in visual cortex, although low-frequency alpha/beta modulation may also play a key role. Here we used MEG to record cortical oscillations in the context of administration of a cholinergic agonist (physostigmine) during a spatial visual attention task in humans. This cholinergic agonist enhanced spatial attention effects on low-frequency alpha/beta oscillations in visual cortex, an effect correlating with a drug-induced speeding of performance. By contrast, the cholinergic agonist did not alter high-frequency gamma oscillations in visual cortex. Thus, our findings show that cholinergic neuromodulation enhances attentional selection via an impact on oscillatory synchrony in visual cortex, for low rather than high frequencies. We discuss this dissociation between high- and low-frequency oscillations in relation to proposals that lower-frequency oscillations are generated by feedback pathways within visual cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactions of TLR4 and PPARγ, Dependent on AMPK Signalling Pathway Contribute to Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Vaccariae Hypaphorine in Endothelial Cells

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    Haijian Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aims: Accumulating evidence indicates that endothelial inflammation is one of the critical determinants in pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our previous studies had demonstrated that Vaccariae prevented high glucose or oxidative stress-triggered endothelial dysfunction in vitro. Very little is known about the potential effects of hypaphorine from Vaccariae seed on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Vaccariae hypaphorine (VH on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-challenged endothelial EA.hy926 cells. The inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 were measured by real-time PCR (RT-PCR. The expressions of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ were detected by Western blotting or immunofluorescence. Results: We showed that LPS stimulated the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, VCAM-1 and TLR4, but attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC as well as PPARγ protein levels, which were reversed by VH pretreatment. Moreover, we observed that LPS-upregulated TLR4 protein expressions were inhibited by PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, and the downregulated PPARγ expressions in response to LPS were partially restored by knockdown of TLR4. The negative regulation loop between TLR4 and PPARγ response to LPS was modulated by AMPK agonist AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine or A769662. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggested that VH ameliorated LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production in endothelial cells via inhibition of TLR4 and activation of PPARγ, dependent on AMPK signalling pathway.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Gastroprotective Roles of Rabdosia inflexa through Downregulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways

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    Md Rashedunnabi Akanda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, gastric ulcer is a vital health hazard for a human. Rabdosia inflexa (RI has been used in traditional medicine for inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and related molecular mechanism of RI using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 cells and HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer in mice. We applied 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC, and Western blot analyses to evaluate the protective role of RI. Study revealed that RI effectively attenuated LPS-promoted NO and ROS production in RAW 246.7 cells. In addition, RI mitigated gastric oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating NO, and decreasing gastric inflammation. RI significantly halted elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in gastric tissue. Likewise, RI markedly attenuated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation, COX-2 expression, phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor kappa B (IκBα and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB. Thus, experimental findings suggested that the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of RI might contribute to regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.

  14. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

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    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  15. Brain Region–Specific Alterations in the Gene Expression of Cytokines, Immune Cell Markers and Cholinergic System Components during Peripheral Endotoxin–Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Harold A; Dancho, Meghan; Regnier-Golanov, Angelique; Nasim, Mansoor; Ochani, Mahendar; Olofsson, Peder S; Ahmed, Mohamed; Miller, Edmund J; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Golanov, Eugene; Metz, Christine N; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions characterized by excessive peripheral immune responses are associated with diverse alterations in brain function, and brain-derived neural pathways regulate peripheral inflammation. Important aspects of this bidirectional peripheral immune–brain communication, including the impact of peripheral inflammation on brain region–specific cytokine responses, and brain cholinergic signaling (which plays a role in controlling peripheral cytokine levels), remain unclear. To provide insight, we studied gene expression of cytokines, immune cell markers and brain cholinergic system components in the cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and thalamus in mice after an intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection. Endotoxemia was accompanied by elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and other cytokines and brain region–specific increases in Il1b (the highest increase, relative to basal level, was in cortex; the lowest increase was in cerebellum) and Il6 (highest increase in cerebellum; lowest increase in striatum) mRNA expression. Gene expression of brain Gfap (astrocyte marker) was also differentially increased. However, Iba1 (microglia marker) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions in parallel with morphological changes, indicating microglia activation. Brain choline acetyltransferase (Chat ) mRNA expression was decreased in the striatum, acetylcholinesterase (Ache) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and increased in the hippocampus, and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Chrm1) mRNA expression was decreased in the cortex and the brainstem. These results reveal a previously unrecognized regional specificity in brain immunoregulatory and cholinergic system gene expression in the context of peripheral inflammation and are of interest for designing future antiinflammatory approaches. PMID:25299421

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Tanshinone IIA on Atherosclerostic Vessels of Ovariectomized ApoE-/- Mice are Mediated by Estrogen Receptor Activation and Through the ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-03-01

    expression of p-ERK1/2. Tanshinone IIA had no effect of level of serum 17ß-estradiol levels. All of the effects of Tanshinone IIA were similar to estrogen and were inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780. Conclusion: Tanshinone IIA may play an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress role in OVX atherosclerotic apoE-/- mice by activating the estrogen receptor through the ERK signaling pathway. Therefore, Tanshinone IIA, as a phytoestrogen, could be used for estrogen replacement therapy for cardiovascular disease of postmenopausal women.

  17. Oleoylethanolamide exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced THP-1 cells by enhancing PPARα signaling and inhibiting the NF-κB and ERK1/2/AP-1/STAT3 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichao; Guo, Han; Li, Ying; Meng, Xianglan; Yan, Lu; Dan Zhang; Wu, Sangang; Zhou, Hao; Peng, Lu; Xie, Qiang; Jin, Xin

    2016-10-10

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory actions of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 cells. The cells were stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml) in the presence or absence of OEA (10, 20 and 40 μM). The pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The THP-1 cells were transiently transfected with PPARα small-interfering RNA, and TLR4 activity was determined with a blocking test using anti-TLR4 antibody. Additionally, a special inhibitor was used to analyse the intracellular signaling pathway. OEA exerted a potent anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TLR4 expression, and by enhancing PPARα expression. The modulatory effects of OEA on LPS-induced inflammation depended on PPARα and TLR4. Importantly, OEA inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation, IκBα degradation, expression of AP-1, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3. In summary, our results demonstrated that OEA exerts anti-inflammatory effects by enhancing PPARα signaling, inhibiting the TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, and interfering with the ERK1/2-dependent signaling cascade (TLR4/ERK1/2/AP-1/STAT3), which suggests that OEA may be a therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methylpenicinoline from a Marine Isolate of Penicillium sp. (SF-5995: Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages and BV2 Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a search for anti-inflammatory metabolites from marine-derived fungi, methylpenicinoline (1 was isolated from a marine isolate of Penicillin sp. Compound 1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia. It also attenuated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner (from 10 μM to 80 μM without affecting cell viability. In addition, compound 1 reduced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β. In a further study designed to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effects, compound 1 was shown to block nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-α (IκB-α, thereby suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB dimers, namely p50 and p65, that are known to be crucial molecules associated with iNOS and COX-2 expression. In addition, compound 1 inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Taken together, the results suggest that compound 1 might be a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and anti-neuroinflammatory diseases.

  19. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  20. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Six Curcuma Rhizomes: A Possible Curcuminoid-independent Pathway Mediated by Curcuma phaeocaulis Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Tohda, Chihiro; Nakayama, Natsuki; Hatanaka, Fumiyuki; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of six species of Curcuma drugs using adjuvant arthritis model mice. When orally administered 1 day before the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling and the serum haptoglobin concentration in adjuvant arthritis mice. Also when orally administered 1 day after the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling. Other C...

  1. BMP9 ameliorates amyloidosis and the cholinergic defect in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rebecca M; Norman, Timothy A; Haydar, Tarik F; Slack, Barbara E; Leeman, Susan E; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Mellott, Tiffany J

    2013-11-26

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) promotes the acquisition of the cholinergic phenotype in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) during development and protects these neurons from cholinergic dedifferentiation following axotomy when administered in vivo. A decline in BFCN function occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contributes to the AD-associated memory deficits. We infused BMP9 intracerebroventricularly for 7 d in transgenic AD model mice expressing green fluorescent protein specifically in cholinergic neurons (APP.PS1/CHGFP) and in wild-type littermate controls (WT/CHGFP). We used 5-mo-old mice, an age when the AD transgenics display early amyloid deposition and few cholinergic defects, and 10-mo-old mice, by which time these mice exhibit established disease. BMP9 infusion reduced the number of Aβ42-positive amyloid plaques in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 5- and 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice and reversed the reductions in choline acetyltransferase protein levels in the hippocampus of 10-mo-old APP.PS1/CHGFP mice. The treatment increased cholinergic fiber density in the hippocampus of both WT/CHGFP and APP.PS1/CHGFP mice at both ages. BMP9 infusion also increased hippocampal levels of neurotrophin 3, insulin-like growth factor 1, and nerve growth factor and of the nerve growth factor receptors, tyrosine kinase receptor A and p75/NGFR, irrespective of the genotype of the mice. These data show that BMP9 administration is effective in reducing the Aβ42 amyloid plaque burden, reversing cholinergic neuron abnormalities, and generating a neurotrophic milieu for BFCN in a mouse model of AD and provide evidence that the BMP9-signaling pathway may constitute a therapeutic target for AD.

  2. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  3. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Lu; Liu, Ke

    2009-04-21

    Arctigenin, a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) which has been widely used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine for dispelling wind and heat included in Chinese Pharmacophere, was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities but its molecular mechanism remains unknown yet. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and THP-1 cells were used for the experiments. Griess assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was used to determine the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was tested by colorimetric method. Western blot was used to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. Arctigenin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, including TNF-alpha and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also strongly inhibited the expression of iNOS and iNOS enzymatic activity, whereas the expression of COX-2 and COX-2 enzymatic activity were not affected by arctigenin. These results indicated that potent inhibition on NO, TNF-alpha and IL-6, but not COX-2 expression and COX-2 activity, might constitute the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Arctigenin suppressed the overproduction of NO through down-regulation of iNOS expression and iNOS enzymatic activity in LPS-stimulated macrophage.

  4. Inhibition of the transcription factor c-Jun by the MAPK family, and not the NF-κB pathway, suggests that peanut extract has anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Anglès, Neus; Morelló, Jose Ramón; Yebras, Martí; Solà, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is involved in inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis. We propose an in vitro cellular assay to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of potential modifiers such as food extracts. In the current model we assessed an anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenol-rich peanut extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 monocytes. THP-1 monocytes were incubated with peanut extract (5, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) consisting of 39% flavonols, 37% flavanols and 24% phenolic acid (or BAY 11-7082 (5 μM) as experiment control) for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (500 ng/mL) for 4 h. Cytotoxicity was measured as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity release. NF-κB and MAPK family were determined by TransAm kit while TNF-α mRNA levels and its mRNA stability by RT-PCR. Intra- and extracellular TNF-α protein was measured by ELISA, and TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) activity by a fluorimetric assay. Peanut extract inhibited the maximal LPS-induced extracellular TNF-α protein secretion by 18%, 29% and 47% at 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively (P<0.05). LPS stimulation revealed that 85% of TNF-α was released extracellularly while 15% remained intracellular. Peanut extract did not modify NF-κB but, instead, reduced c-Jun transcription factor activity (P<0.05), decreased TNF-α mRNA (albeit non-significantly) and had no effect on mRNA stability and TACE activity. Polyphenol-rich peanut extract reduces extracellular TNF-α protein by inhibiting c-Jun transcription factor from MAPK family, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. The proposed THP-1 monocyte model could be used to assess food extract impact (site and size effects) on the inflammation pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antidepressant-like properties of sildenafil in a genetic rat model of depression: Role of cholinergic cGMP-interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebenberg, Nico; Brink, Christiaan; Brand, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Background: The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway has been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. Recently we suggested a possible complex interaction between the cholinergic and NO-cGMP pathways in the antidepressant-like response....... Conclusions: Using a genetic animal model of depression, we have confirmed the antidepressant-like property of sildenafil following “unmasking” by concomitant block of muscarinic receptors. These findings hint at a novel interaction between the cGMP and cholinergic systems in depression, and suggest...

  6. Cholinergic stimulation prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes: Evidence for the modulation of Th17 effector cells via an IFNgamma-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junu George

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type I diabetes (T1D results from T cell-mediated damage of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin production. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway represents a physiological link connecting the central nervous and immune systems via vagus nerve, and functions to control the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Using the multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ model to induce experimental autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the potential of regulating the development of hyperglycemia through administration of paraoxon, a highly specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI. We demonstrate that pretreatment with paraoxon prevented hyperglycemia in STZ-treated C57BL/6 mice. This correlated with a reduction in T cell infiltration into pancreatic islets and preservation of the structure and functionality of β-cells. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed that increased peripheral cholinergic activity prevented STZ-mediated loss of insulin production, this being associated with a reduction in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Intracellular cytokine analysis in splenic T cells demonstrated that inhibition of AChE led to a shift in STZ-induced immune response from a predominantly disease-causing IL-17-expressing Th17 cells to IFNγ-positive Th1 cells. Consistent with this conclusion, inhibition of AChE failed to prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia in IFNγ-deficient mice. Our results provide mechanistic evidence for the prevention of murine T1D by inhibition of AChE and suggest a promising strategy for modulating disease severity.

  7. Cholinergic dysfunction and amnesia in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Bergmann, Jürgen; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Kronbichler, Martin; Kraus, Jörg; Caleri, Francesca; Tezzon, Frediano; Ladurner, Gunther; Golaszewski, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    The specific neurochemical substrate underlying the amnesia in patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is still poorly defined. Memory impairment has been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the cholinergic system. A transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol, the short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), may give direct information about the function of some cholinergic pathways in the human motor cortex. In the present study, we measured SAI in eight alcoholics with WKS and compared the data with those from a group of age-matched healthy individuals; furthermore, we correlated the individual SAI values of the WKS patients with memory and other cognitive functions. Mean SAI was significantly reduced in WKS patients when compared with the controls. SAI was increased after administration of a single dose of donezepil in a subgroup of four patients. The low score obtained in the Rey Complex Figure delayed recall test, the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Corsi's Block Span subtest of the WAIS-R documented a severe impairment in the anterograde memory and short-term memory. None of the correlations between SAI values and these neuropsychological tests reached significance. We provide physiological evidence of cholinergic involvement in WKS. However, this putative marker of central cholinergic activity did not significantly correlate with the memory deficit in our patients. These findings suggest that the cholinergic dysfunction does not account for the memory disorder and that damage to the cholinergic system is not sufficient to cause a persisting amnesic syndrome in WKS.

  8. The cholinergic system, circadian rhythmicity, and time memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, R. A.; Van der Zee, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the interaction between the mammalian cholinergic system and circadian system, and its possible role in time memory. Several studies made clear that circadian (daily) fluctuations in acetylcholine (ACh) release, cholinergic enzyme activity and cholinergic receptor

  9. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  10. Lansoprazole protects and heals gastric mucosa from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy by inhibiting mitochondrial as well as Fas-mediated death pathways with concurrent induction of mucosal cell renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Pallab; Bindu, Samik; Choubey, Vinay; Alam, Athar; Mitra, Kalyan; Goyal, Manish; Dey, Sumanta; Guha, Mithu; Pal, Chinmay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2008-05-23

    We have investigated the mechanism of antiapoptotic and cell renewal effects of lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, to protect and heal gastric mucosal injury in vivo induced by indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Lansoprazole prevents indomethacin-induced gastric damage by blocking activation of mitochondrial and Fas pathways of apoptosis. Lansoprazole prevents indomethacin-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic Bax and Bak and down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl(xL) to maintain the normal proapoptotic/antiapoptotic ratio and thereby arrests indomethacin-induced mitochondrial translocation of Bax and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential followed by cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Lansoprazole also inhibits indomethacin-induced Fas-mediated mucosal cell death by down-regulating Fas or FasL expression and inhibiting caspase-8 activation. Lansoprazole favors mucosal cell renewal simultaneously by stimulating gene expression of prosurvival proliferating cell nuclear antigen, survivin, epidermal growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. The up-regulation of Flt-1 further indicates that lansoprazole activates vascular epidermal growth factor-mediated controlled angiogenesis to repair gastric mucosa. Lansoprazole also stimulates the healing of already formed ulcers induced by indomethacin. Time course study of healing indicates that it switches off the mitochondrial death pathway completely but not the Fas pathway. However, lansoprazole heals mucosal lesions almost completely after overcoming the persisting Fas pathway, probably by favoring the prosurvival genes expression. This study thus provides the detailed mechanism of antiapoptotic and prosurvival effects of lansoprazole for offering gastroprotection against indomethacin-induced gastropathy.

  11. Adenosine Receptors as a Biological Pathway for the Anti-Inflammatory and Beneficial Effects of Low Frequency Low Energy Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Varani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies explored the biological effects of low frequency low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs on human body reporting different functional changes. Much research activity has focused on the mechanisms of interaction between PEMFs and membrane receptors such as the involvement of adenosine receptors (ARs. In particular, PEMF exposure mediates a significant upregulation of A2A and A3ARs expressed in various cells or tissues involving a reduction in most of the proinflammatory cytokines. Of particular interest is the observation that PEMFs, acting as modulators of adenosine, are able to increase the functionality of the endogenous agonist. By reviewing the scientific literature on joint cells, a double role for PEMFs could be hypothesized in vitro by stimulating cell proliferation, colonization of the scaffold, and production of tissue matrix. Another effect could be obtained in vivo after surgical implantation of the construct by favoring the anabolic activities of the implanted cells and surrounding tissues and protecting the construct from the catabolic effects of the inflammatory status. Moreover, a protective involvement of PEMFs on hypoxia damage in neuron-like cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells have suggested the hypothesis of a positive impact of this noninvasive biophysical stimulus.

  12. Nuclear factor kappa B: a pro-inflammatory, transcription factor-mediated signalling pathway in lung carcinogenesis and its inhibition by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Shruti; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-01-01

    9,10-Dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA), when injected intratracheally once at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, is found to induce lung cancer in rats. Two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), indomethacin and etoricoxib, are given orally daily as chemopreventive agents at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg body weight and 2 mg/kg body weight, respectively, along with DMBA. Morphologic and histologic analysis revealed the occurence of tumors and intense cellular proliferation in the DMBA-treated animals, whereas no such features were observed in the other groups. Nuclear factor κB, a nuclear transcription factor, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a cell proliferation antigen, were studied by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry and their levels were markedly elevated in the DMBA group compared with the others. Oxidative stress parameters, as studied by the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were found to be suppressed in the DMBA group. Furthermore, fluorescent staining of the isolated lung cells from bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to study apoptosis and alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the DMBA-induced lung cancer was found to be associated with high inner mitochondrial membrane potential and a suppressed level of apoptosis.

  13. Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Six Curcuma Rhizomes: A Possible Curcuminoid-independent Pathway Mediated by Curcuma phaeocaulis Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Tohda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of six species of Curcuma drugs using adjuvant arthritis model mice. When orally administered 1 day before the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling and the serum haptoglobin concentration in adjuvant arthritis mice. Also when orally administered 1 day after the injection of adjuvant, the methanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis significantly inhibited paw swelling. Other Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma wenyujin, Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aromatica had no significant inhibitory effects on adjuvant-induced paw swelling. Cyclooxygenase (COX-2 activity was significantly inhibited by the methanol extract of C. phaeocaulis. Curcuminoids' (curcumin, bis-demethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin were rich in C. longa, but less in C. phaeocaulis and C. aromatica, not in C. wenyujin, C. kwangsiensis and C. zedoaria, suggesting that curcuminoids' contents do not relate to inhibition of arthritis swelling. Therefore, C. phaeocaulis may be a useful drug among Curcuma species for acute inflammation, and the active constituents of C. phaeocaulis are not curcuminoids.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages Stimulated with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansu Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Myristicin (1-allyl-5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene is an active aromatic compound found in nutmeg (the seed of Myristica fragrans, carrot, basil, cinnamon, and parsley. Myristicin has been known to have anti-cholinergic, antibacterial, and hepatoprotective effects, however, the effects of myristicin on virus-stimulated macrophages are not fully reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of myristicin on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-stimulated macrophages was examined. Myristicin did not reduce the cell viability of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages at concentrations of up to 50 µM. Myristicin significantly inhibited the production of calcium, nitric oxide (NO, interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, interferon inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, MCP-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and leukemia inhibitory factor in dsRNA [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid]-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.05. In conclusion, myristicin has anti-inflammatory properties related with its inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA-stimulated macrophages via the calcium pathway.

  15. Morin protects gastric mucosa from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin induced inflammatory damage and apoptosis by modulating NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Krishnendu; Sadhukhan, Pritam; Saha, Sukanya; Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sil, Parames C

    2015-04-01

    Deregulation in prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, severe oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. Unfortunately, most of the prescribed anti-ulcer drugs generate various side effects. In this scenario, we could consider morin as a safe herbal potential agent against IND-gastropathy and rationalize its action systematically. Rats were pretreated with morin for 30 min followed by IND (48 mgkg(-1)) administration for 4 h. The anti-ulcerogenic nature of morin was assessed by morphological and histological analysis. Its effects on the inflammatory (MPO, cytokines, adhesion molecules), ulcer-healing (COXs, PGE(2)), and signaling parameters (NF-κB and apoptotic signaling) were assessed by biochemical, RP-HPLC, immunoblots, IHC, RT-PCR, and ELISA at the time points of their maximal changes due to IND administration. IND induced NF-κB and apoptotic signaling in rat's gastric mucosa. These increased proinflammatory responses, but reduced the antioxidant enzymes and other protective factors. Morin reversed all the adverse effects to prevent IND-induced gastric ulceration in a PGE2 independent manner. Also, it did not affect the absorption and/or primary pharmacological activity of IND. The gastroprotective action of morin is primarily attributed to its potent antioxidant nature that also helps in controlling several IND-induced inflammatory responses. For the first time, the study reveals a mechanistic basis of morin mediated protective action against IND-induced gastropathy. As morin is a naturally abundant safe antioxidant, future detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are expected to establish it as a gastroprotective agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  17. Activation of Phosphoinositide Metabolism by Cholinergic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-15

    most notably calcium. Cholinergic agonist-induced seizures; Brain second messenger systems; Neurotransmitter/ Neuromodulator interactions; RAV; Lab...have been described: modulation by protein kinase C and modulation by neurotransmitter (or neuromodulator ) interactions. Agents which stimulate...phosphoinositide hydrolysis that has been identified consists of interactions among neurotransmitter systems or neuromodulators . Perhaps those most widely

  18. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2016-12-17

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer's disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Multiple defects in negative regulation of the PKB/Akt pathway sensitise human cancer cells to the antiproliferative effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lincová, Eva; Hampl, Aleš; Pernicová, Zuzana; Staršíchová, Andrea; Krčmář, P.; Machala, M.; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 6 (2009), s. 561-572 ISSN 0006-2952 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1557; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : PKB/Akt signaling pathway * NSAIDs * prostate cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.254, year: 2009

  20. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [ 11 C]MP4A and [ 11 C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [ 123 I]5IA SPECT for the α 4 β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [ 123 I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  1. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  2. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  3. Chaoborus and gasterosteus anti-predator responses in Daphnia pulex are mediated by independent cholinergic and gabaergic neuronal signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Weiss

    Full Text Available Many prey species evolved inducible defense strategies that protect effectively against predation threats. Especially the crustacean Daphnia emerged as a model system for studying the ecology and evolution of inducible defenses. Daphnia pulex e.g. shows different phenotypic adaptations against vertebrate and invertebrate predators. In response to the invertebrate phantom midge larvae Chaoborus (Diptera D. pulex develops defensive morphological defenses (neckteeth. Cues originating from predatory fish result in life history changes in which resources are allocated from somatic growth to reproduction. While there are hints that responses against Chaoborus cues are transmitted involving cholinergic neuronal pathways, nothing is known about the neurophysiology underlying the transmission of fish related cues. We investigated the neurophysiological basis underlying the activation of inducible defenses in D. pulex using induction assays with the invertebrate predator Chaoborus and the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Predator-specific cues were combined with neuro-effective substances that stimulated or inhibited the cholinergic and gabaergic nervous system. We show that cholinergic-dependent pathways are involved in the perception and transmission of Chaoborus cues, while GABA was not involved. Thus, the cholinergic nervous system independently mediates the development of morphological defenses in response to Chaoborus cues. In contrast, only the inhibitory effect of GABA significantly influence fish-induced life history changes, while the application of cholinergic stimulants had no effect in combination with fish related cues. Our results show that cholinergic stimulation mediates signal transmission of Chaoborus cues leading to morphological defenses. Fish cues, which are responsible for predator-specific life history adaptations involve gabaergic control. Our study shows that both pathways are independent and thus potentially

  4. Involvement of cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the branchial immune response of experimentally infected silver catfish with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Doleski, P H; Moreira, K L S; da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-01-01

    It has been recognized that the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems have an essential role in immune and inflammatory responses during bacterial fish pathogens, such as the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which are responsible for catalysis of the anti-inflammatory molecules acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine (Ado) respectively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the immune response and inflammatory process in gills of experimentally infected Rhamdia quelen with Streptococcus agalactiae. Acetylcholinesterase activity decreased, while ACh levels increased in gills of infected animals compared to uninfected animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in ADA activity with a concomitant decrease in Ado levels was observed in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, we concluded that infection by S. agalactiae in silver catfish alters the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems, suggesting the involvement of AChE and ADA activities on immune and inflammatory responses, regulating the ACh and Ado levels. In summary, the downregulation of AChE activity exerts an anti-inflammatory profile in an attempt to reduce or prevent the tissue damage, while the upregulation of ADA activity exerts a pro-inflammatory profile, contributing to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Anti-inflammatory function of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcoholic hepatitis through glucocorticoid receptor related nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Li, Jingwei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Congyuan; Heng, Yang; Zhang, Meijin; Hu, Jinfeng; Wei, Guining; Li, Yueting; Chen, Naihong

    2015-09-15

    Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. Since ancient times, ginseng has been used as one kind of treatment drug or tonic in China and even other eastern countries like Korea and Japan. Pharmacological active chemical ingredients and its extract of ginseng are a mixture of triterpenoid saponins, collectively called ginsenosides. Among them, ginsenoside Rg1 is the most pharmacological active one. Based on prior experimental results and the understanding of alcoholic hepatitis, the major aim of this study is to investigate whether Rg1 is beneficial in a rodent model mimic alcoholic hepatic injury associated with binge drinking and explore the underlying possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given oral consumption of 6g/kg alcohol 1h after treated with Rg1 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. According to our data, Rg1 treatment significantly reversed the high mortality rate induced by alcohol consumption and also alleviated liver impairment as evidenced by the decrease of serum parameters. Meanwhile, histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic groups showed hepatocellular impairment but restored in Rg1-treated groups. Overproductive inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by Rg1 in alcohol-intoxicated mouse livers. In addition, changes of GR related NF-κB pathway, including phospho-IκB-α, were also modulated to normal levels. This study demonstrates that Rg1 might promote GR mediating the repression of NF-κB and inhibit the inflammatory reactions in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beta-amyloid and cholinergic neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Vladimír; Kašparová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, 3-4 (2003), s. 499-506 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/01/0283; GA AV ČR IAA5011206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cholinergic neurons * AlzheimerŽs disease * beta-amyloid Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2003

  7. Identification of cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve Hervé; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    A major criteria initially used to localize cholinergic neuronal elements in nervous systems tissues that involve acetylcholine (ACh) as neurotransmitter is mainly based on immunochemical studies using choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an enzyme which catalyzes ACh biosynthesis and the ACh degradative enzyme named acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Immunochemical studies using anti-ChAT monoclonal antibody have allowed the identification of neuronal processes and few types of cell somata that contain ChAT protein. In situ hybridization using cRNA probes to ChAT or AChE messenger RNA have brought new approaches to further identify cell bodies transcribing the ChAT or AChE genes. Combined application of all these techniques reveals a widespread expression of ChAT and AChE activities in the insect central nervous system and peripheral sensory neurons which implicates ACh as a key neurotransmitter. The discovery of the snake toxin alpha-bungatoxin has helped to identify nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In fact, nicotine when applied to insect neurons, resulted in the generation of an inward current through the activation of nicotinic receptors which were blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin. Thus, insect nAChRs have been divided into two categories, sensitive and insensitive to this snake toxin. Up to now, the recent characterization and distribution pattern of insect nAChR subunits and the biochemical evidence that the insect central nervous system contains different classes of cholinergic receptors indicated that ACh is involved in several sensory pathways.

  8. Cholinergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic components of the nervous system of Discocotyle sagittata (Monogenea:Polyopisthocotylea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J; Marks, N J; Halton, D W; Shaw, C; Johnston, C F; Tinsley, R C; Gannicott, A M

    1996-12-01

    Cholinergic, serotoninergic (5-HT) and peptidergic neuronal pathways have been demonstrated in both central and peripheral nervous systems of adult Discocotyle sagittata, using enzyme histochemistry and indirect immunocytochemistry in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Antisera to 2 native flatworm neuropeptides, neuropeptide F and the FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), GNFFRFamide, were employed to detect peptide immunoreactivity. The CNS is composed of paired cerebral ganglia and connecting dorsal commissure, together with several paired longitudinal nerve cords. The main longitudinal nerve cords (lateral, ventral and dorsal) are interconnected at intervals by a series of annular cross-connectives, producing a ladder-like arrangement typical of the platyhelminth nervous system. At the level of the haptor, the ventral cords provide nerve roots which innervate each of the 9 clamps. Cholinergic and peptidergic neuronal organisation was similar, but distinct from that of the serotoninergic components. The PNS and reproductive system are predominantly innervated by peptidergic neurones.

  9. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  10. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  11. Modeling Parkinson's disease falls associated with brainstem cholinergic systems decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) also contributes to impaired gait and falls, here we assessed the effects of selective cholinergic PPN lesions in combination with striatal DA loss or BF cholinergic cells loss as well as losses in all 3 regions. Results indicate that all combination losses that included the BF cholinergic system slowed traversal and increased slips and falls. However, the performance of rats with losses in all 3 regions (PPN, BF, and DA) was not more severely impaired than following combined BF cholinergic and striatal DA lesions. These results confirm the hypothesis that BF cholinergic-striatal disruption of attentional-motor interactions is a primary source of falls. Additional losses of PPN cholinergic neurons may worsen posture and gait control in situations not captured by the current testing conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

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    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  13. Increased phencyclidine-induced hyperactivity following cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Lindqvist, Eva; Ogren, Sven Ove; Olson, Lars

    2005-11-07

    Altered cholinergic function is considered as a potential contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We hypothesize that cortical cholinergic denervation may result in changes in glutamatergic activity. Therefore, we lesioned the cholinergic corticopetal projections by local infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of rats. Possible effects of this lesion on glutamatergic systems were examined by phencyclidine-induced locomotor activity, and also by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding. We find that cholinergic lesioning of neocortex leads to enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine in the form of a dramatic increase in horizontal activity. Further, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding is unaffected in denervated rats. These results suggest that aberrations in cholinergic function might lead to glutamatergic dysfunctions, which might be of relevance for the pathophysiology for schizophrenia.

  14. Estrogen-cholinergic interactions: Implications for cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul; Dumas, Julie

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". While many studies in humans have investigated the effects of estrogen and hormone therapy on cognition, potential neurobiological correlates of these effects have been less well studied. An important site of action for estrogen in the brain is the cholinergic system. Several decades of research support the critical role of CNS cholinergic systems in cognition in humans, particularly in learning and memory formation and attention. In humans, the cholinergic system has been implicated in many aspects of cognition including the partitioning of attentional resources, working memory, inhibition of irrelevant information, and improved performance on effort-demanding tasks. Studies support the hypothesis that estradiol helps to maintain aspects of attention and verbal and visual memory. Such cognitive domains are exactly those modulated by cholinergic systems and extensive basic and preclinical work over the past several decades has clearly shown that basal forebrain cholinergic systems are dependent on estradiol support for adequate functioning. This paper will review recent human studies from our laboratories and others that have extended preclinical research examining estrogen-cholinergic interactions to humans. Studies examined include estradiol and cholinergic antagonist reversal studies in normal older women, examinations of the neural representations of estrogen-cholinergic interactions using functional brain imaging, and studies of the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen to interact with cholinergic-mediated cognitive performance. We also discuss the implications of these studies for the underlying hypotheses of cholinergic-estrogen interactions and cognitive aging, and indications for prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may exploit these effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The basal forebrain cholinergic system in aging and dementia : Rescuing cholinergic neurons from neurotoxic amyloid-beta 42 with memantine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakas, Csaba; Granic, Ivica; Halmy, Laszlo G.; Banerjee, Pradeep; Luiten, Paul G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The dysfunction and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and their cortical projections are among the earliest pathological events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The evidence pointing to cholinergic impairments come from studies that report a decline in the activity of

  16. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27999310

  17. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kwakowsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Basic and modern concepts on cholinergic receptor: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic system is an important system and a branch of the autonomic nervous system which plays an important role in memory, digestion, control of heart beat, blood pressure, movement and many other functions. This article serves as both structural and functional sources of information regarding cholinergic receptors and provides a detailed understanding of the determinants governing specificity of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor to researchers. The study helps to give overall information about the fundamentals of the cholinergic system, its receptors and ongoing research in this field.

  19. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by ¹⁸F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.

  20. GABAergic actions on cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, K A; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pontine laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) play a critical role in regulation of behavioral state. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms that control their activity is vital for understanding of how switching between wakefulness, sleep and anesthetic states is effectuated....... In vivo studies suggest that GABAergic mechanisms within the pons play a critical role in behavioral state switching. However, the postsynaptic, electrophysiological actions of GABA on LDT neurons, as well as the identity of GABA receptors present in the LDT mediating these actions is virtually unexplored...... neurons. Post-synaptic location of GABA(A) receptors was demonstrated by persistence of muscimol-induced inward currents in TTX and low Ca(2+) solutions. THIP, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist with a preference for d-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors, induced inward currents, suggesting...

  1. Cholinergic mechanisms in spinal cord and muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, S.M.; Askmark, H.; Gilberg, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Current knowledge regarding the distribution of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) cholineacetyltranferase (ChAT) and cholinergic receptors in the spinal cord is presented as well as changes in these markers coupled to the degenerations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The principal changes in ChAT and nicotonic receptors in rat hindleg muscles during denervation and reinnervation is discussed as a background for quantitative studies in human muscle biopsies. It is noted that thefirst published autoradiograph on spinal cord muscarinic receptors was from the rat, depicting an intense binding of radiolabeled quinuclikiny benzilate (tritium-QNB) in the ventral horn, and expecially in an apical part of the dorsal horn claimed to correspond to correspond to sustantia gelatinosa

  2. Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in basal ganglia function

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    Paola eBonsi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction.Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

  3. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  4. Cholinergic connectivity: it’s implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eScarr

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focussing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system.

  5. Neostigmine interactions with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Sierralta, Fernando; Pinardi, Gianni

    2002-04-01

    1. The common mechanism of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the inhibition of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase (COX), however, this inhibition is not enough to completely account for the efficacy of these agents in several models of acute pain. 2. It has been demonstrated that cholinergic agents can induce antinociception, but the nature of the interaction between these agents and NSAIDs drugs has not been studied. The present work evaluates, by isobolographic analysis, the interactions between the cholinergic indirect agonist neostigmine (NEO) and NSAIDs drugs, using a chemical algesiometric test. 3. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) administration of NEO and of the different NSAIDs produced dose-dependent antinociception in the acetic acid writhing test of the mouse. 4. The i.p. or i.t. co-administration of fixed ratios of ED(50) fractions of NSAIDs and NEO, resulted to be synergistic or supra-additive for the combinations ketoprofen (KETO) and NEO, paracetamol (PARA) and NEO) and diclofenac (DICLO) and NEO administered i.p. However, the same combinations administered i.t. were only additive. In addition, the combinations meloxicam (MELO) and NEO and piroxicam (PIRO) and NEO, administered either i.p. or i.t., were additive. 5. The results suggest that the co-administration of NEO with some NSAIDs (e.g. KETO, PARA or DICLO) resulted in a synergistic interaction, which may provide evidence of supraspinal antinociception modulation by the increased acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft of cholinergic interneurons. The interaction obtained between neostigmine and the NSAIDs could carry important clinical implications.

  6. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Myotropic Effects of Cholinergic Muscarinic Agonists and Antagonists in the Beetle Tenebrio molitor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Both antagonists, when injected to haemolymph at concentration 10-5 M, caused delayed and prolonged cardioinhibitory effects on heart contractility in ortho- and antidromic phases of heart activity in T. molitor pupa what was observed as negative chrono- and inotropic effects. Agonist of muscarinic receptors - carbachol evoked opposite effect and increased contraction rate but only in antidromic phase. Pilocarpine, the second agonist induced weak negative chronotropic effects in the antiand orthodromic phases of heart activity. However, neither agonists had an effect on semi-isolated beetle heart in vitro. Only atropine at the highest tested concentrations slightly decreased the frequency of myocardial contractions. These suggest the regulation of heart activity by muscarinic system indirectly. The tested compounds also affected the contractility of the oviduct and hindgut, but the responses of these organs were varied and depended on the concentration of the applied compounds. These pharmacological experiments suggest the possible modulation of insect visceral muscle contractility by the cholinergic nervous system and indirectly indicate the presence of muscarinic receptor(s) in the visceral organs of the beetle T. molitor. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Cholinergic modulation of epithelial integrity in the proximal colon of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Szilvia; Wessler, Ignaz; Gäbel, Gotthold; Petto, Carola; Pfannkuche, Helga

    2013-01-01

    Within the gut, acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesised by enteric neurons, as well as by 'non-neuronal' epithelial cells. In studies of non-intestinal epithelia, ACh was involved in the generation of an intact epithelial barrier. In the present study, primary cultured porcine colonocytes were used to determine whether treatment with exogenous ACh or expression of endogenous epithelium-derived ACh may modulate epithelial tightness in the gastrointestinal tract. Piglet colonocytes were cultured on filter membranes for 8 days. The tightness of the growing epithelial cell layer was evaluated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). To determine whether ACh modulates the tightness of the cell layer, cells were treated with cholinergic, muscarinic and/or nicotinic agonists and antagonists. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), cholinergic receptors and ACh were determined by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and HPLC, respectively. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 µm) and the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (10 µM) resulted in significantly higher TEER values compared to controls. The effect was completely inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Application of atropine alone (without any agonist) led to significantly lower TEER values compared to controls. Synthesis of ACh by epithelial cells was proven by detection of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mRNAs, immunohistochemical detection of ChAT and detection of ACh by HPLC. ACh is strongly involved in the regulation of epithelial tightness in the proximal colon of pigs via muscarinic pathways. Non-neuronal ACh seems to be of particular importance for epithelial cells forming a tight barrier. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Endogenous cholinergic neurotransmission contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica Bajic

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is critical for behavioral adaptations associated with opioid reward and addiction. These processes may be influenced by cholinergic transmission arising from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg, a main source of acetylcholine to mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. To examine this possibility we asked if chronic systemic morphine administration affects expression of genes in ventral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray at the level of the LDTg using rtPCR. Specifically, we examined gene expression changes in the area of interest using Neurotransmitters and Receptors PCR array between chronic morphine and saline control groups. Analysis suggested that chronic morphine administration led to changes in expression of genes associated, in part, with cholinergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, using a quantitative immunofluorescent technique, we found that chronic morphine treatment produced a significant increase in immunolabeling of the cholinergic marker (vesicular acetylcholine transporter in neurons of the LDTg. Finally, systemic administration of the nonselective and noncompetitive neuronal nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (0.5 or 2 mg/kg dose-dependently blocked the expression, and to a lesser extent the development, of locomotor sensitization. The same treatment had no effect on acute morphine antinociception, antinociceptive tolerance or dependence to chronic morphine. Taken together, the results suggest that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic neurotransmission selectively contributes to behavioral sensitization to morphine and this process may, in part, involve cholinergic neurons within the LDTg.

  10. The anti-inflammatory effects of the tellurium redox modulating compound, AS101, are associated with regulation of NFκB signaling pathway and nitric oxide induction in macrophages

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    Sredni Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LPS-activated macrophages produce mediators which are involved in inflammation and tissue injury, and especially those associated with endotoxic shock. The non toxic tellurium compound ammonium tri-chloro(dioxoethylene-O,O'-tellurate, AS101, has been recently shown to exert profound anti-inflammatory properties in animal models, associated with its Te(IV redox chemistry. This study explores the anti-inflammatory properties of AS101 with respect to modulation of inflammatory cytokines production and regulation of iNOS transcription and expression in activated macrophages via targeting the NFkB complex. Results AS101 decreased production of IL-6 and in parallel down-regulated LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO secretion by macrophages. AS101 reduced IkB phosphorylation and degradation, and reduced NFkB nuclear translocalization, albeit these effects were exerted at different kinetics. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that AS101 treatment attenuated p50-subunit ability to bind DNA at the NFkB consensus site in the iNOS promotor following LPS induction. Conclusions Besides AS101, the investigation of therapeutic activities of other tellurium(IV compounds is scarce in the literature, although tellurium is the fourth most abundant trace element in the human body. Since IKK and NFkB may be regulated by thiol modifications, we may thus envisage, inview of our integrated results, that Te(IV compounds, may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body and represent a new class of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  11. The cholinergic ligand binding material of axonal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mautner, H.G.; Coronado, R.; Jumblatt, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and hydrolysis of ACh, are present in nerve fibers. In crustacean peripheral nerves, release of ACh from cut nerve fibers has been demonstrated. Previously closed membrane vesicles have been prepared from lobster walking leg nerve plasma membrane and saturable binding of cholinergic agonsist and antagonists to such membranes have been demonstrated. This paper studies this axonal cholinergic binding material, and elucidates its functions. The binding of tritium-nicotine to lobster nerve plasma membranes was antagonized by a series of cholinergic ligands as well as by a series of local anesthetics. This preparation was capable of binding I 125-alpha-bungarotoxin, a ligand widely believed to be a specific label for nicotinic ACh receptor. The labelling of 50 K petide band with tritium-MBTA following disulfide reduction is illustrated

  12. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with [ 3 H]choline accumulated [ 3 H]choline and synthesized [ 3 H]acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. [ 3 H]Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum

  13. Cortical cholinergic innervation: Distribution and source in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, R.G.; Cork, L.C.; Coyle, J.T.; Lehmann, J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Price, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its late-life variant, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), the predominant neurochemical abnormalities are marked decrements in the activities of ChAT and AChE, the high affinity uptake of tritium-choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine. Two studies are undertaken to delineate more clearly the variability of cortical cholinergic innervation and the contribution of the Ch system, particularly the Ch4, to this cholinergic innervation. In the first study, ChAT activity was assessed in multiple samples of neocortex from seven normal cynomolgus monkeys. In the second study, the nbM was lesioned in order to determine the contribution of the Ch system to cortical cholinergic innervation

  14. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W. (Genentech, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF.

  15. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Cholinergic Neurons From Basal Forebrain Identifies Changes in Expression of Genes Between Sleep and Wake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V; Gilliland, Jason DA; Tanis, Keith Q; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Rigby, Alison M; Galante, Raymond J; Finney, Eva M; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Pack, Allan I; Winrow, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    To assess differences in gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain cells between sleeping and sleep-deprived mice sacrificed at the same time of day. Tg(ChAT-eGFP)86Gsat mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under control of the choline acetyltransferase (Chat) promoter were utilized to guide laser capture of cholinergic cells in basal forebrain. Messenger RNA expression levels in these cells were profiled using microarrays. Gene expression in eGFP(+) neurons was compared (1) to that in eGFP(-) neurons and to adjacent white matter, (2) between 7:00 am (lights on) and 7:00 pm (lights off), (3) between sleep-deprived and sleeping animals at 0, 3, 6, and 9 hours from lights on. There was a marked enrichment of ChAT and other markers of cholinergic neurons in eGFP(+) cells. Comparison of gene expression in these eGFP(+) neurons between 7:00 am and 7:00 pm revealed expected differences in the expression of clock genes (Arntl2, Per1, Per2, Dbp, Nr1d1) as well as mGluR3. Comparison of expression between spontaneous sleep and sleep-deprived groups sacrificed at the same time of day revealed a number of transcripts (n = 55) that had higher expression in sleep deprivation compared to sleep. Genes upregulated in sleep deprivation predominantly were from the protein folding pathway (25 transcripts, including chaperones). Among 42 transcripts upregulated in sleep was the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein. Cholinergic cell signatures were characterized. Whether the identified genes are changing as a consequence of differences in behavioral state or as part of the molecular regulatory mechanism remains to be determined. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Radioiodinated 2-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(4-phenylpiperidinyl)propane: potential radiotracer for mapping central cholinergic innervation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Dutta, A.K.; Michelson, R.H.; Thomas, J.R.; Boudreau, R.J.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodinated 2-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(4-phenylpiperidinyl)propane, (4-HIPP), was synthesized and evaluated as a simple vesamicol-like radiotracer for mapping cholinergic pathways in the brain. Both enantiomers of 4-HIPP exhibit significant accumulation (approx. 2% of injected dose) and prolonged retention (t 1/2 > 3h) within the rat brain. The accumulation of radioiodinated 4-HIPP in the rat brain was reduced by up to 70% in the presence of vesamicol and its analogs. The levorotary isomer (-)-4-[ 123 I]HIPP exhibits significant accumulation in the monkey brain, with a half-life of about 9 h. Radioiodinated 4-HIPP may therefore be a useful tool for studying cholinergic pathways in the brain. (author)

  18. The catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis of bipolar disorder revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Janowsky, David S; Olivier, Berend; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a unique illness characterized by fluctuations between mood states of depression and mania. Originally, an adrenergic-cholinergic balance hypothesis was postulated to underlie these different affective states. In this review, we update this hypothesis with recent findings from human and animal studies, suggesting that a catecholaminergic-cholinergic hypothesis may be more relevant. Evidence from neuroimaging studies, neuropharmacological interventions, and genetic associations support the notion that increased cholinergic functioning underlies depression, whereas increased activations of the catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) underlie mania. Elevated functional acetylcholine during depression may affect both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a compensatory fashion. Increased functional dopamine and norepinephrine during mania on the other hand may affect receptor expression and functioning of dopamine reuptake transporters. Despite increasing evidence supporting this hypothesis, a relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems that could explain cycling between states of depression and mania is missing. Future studies should focus on the influence of environmental stimuli and genetic susceptibilities that may affect the catecholaminergic-cholinergic balance underlying cycling between the affective states. Overall, observations from recent studies add important data to this revised balance theory of bipolar disorder, renewing interest in this field of research. PMID:25107282

  19. Cypermethrin Poisoning and Anti-cholinergic Medication- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Sudip Parajuli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years old male was brought to emergency department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal with alleged history of consumption of pyrethroid compound ‘cypermethrin’. It was found to be newer insecticide poisoning reported in Nepal. We reported this case to show effectiveness of anti-cholinergic like hyosciane and chlorpheniramine maleate in the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning.

  20. Simulated Cholinergic Reinnervation of β (INS-1 Cells: Antidiabetic Utility of Heterotypic Pseudoislets Containing β Cell and Cholinergic Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Jiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons can functionally support pancreatic islets in controlling blood sugar levels. However, in islet transplantation, the level of cholinergic reinnervation is significantly lower compared to orthotopic pancreatic islets. This abnormal reinnervation affects the survival and function of islet grafts. In this study, the cholinergic reinnervation of beta cells was simulated by 2D and 3D coculture of INS-1 and NG108-15 cells. In 2D culture conditions, 20 mM glucose induced a 1.24-fold increase (p<0.0001 in insulin secretion from the coculture group, while in the 3D culture condition, a 1.78-fold increase (p<0.0001 in insulin secretion from heterotypic pseudoislet group was observed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from 2D INS-1 cells showed minimal changes when compared to 3D structures. E-cadherin expressed in INS-1 and NG108-15 cells was the key adhesion molecule for the formation of heterotypic pseudoislets. NG108-15 cells hardly affected the proliferation of INS-1 cells in vitro. Heterotypic pseudoislet transplantation recipient mice reverted to normoglycemic levels faster and had a greater blood glucose clearance compared to INS-1 pseudoislet recipient mice. In conclusion, cholinergic cells can promote insulin-secreting cells to function better in vitro and in vivo and E-cadherin plays an important role in the formation of heterotypic pseudoislets.

  1. Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide on energy metabolism in murine microglial N9 and cholinergic SN56 neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska-Łata, Joanna; Gul-Hinc, Sylwia; Bielarczyk, Hanna; Ronowska, Anna; Zyśk, Marlena; Grużewska, Katarzyna; Pawełczyk, Tadeusz; Szutowicz, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    endogenously inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), aconitase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. However, it caused none or small suppressions of acetyl-CoA and microglial viability, respectively. Microglia-derived NO inhibited same enzymes in cholinergic neuronal cells causing marked viability loss because of acetyl-CoA deficits evoked by its competitive consumption by energy producing and acetylcholine/N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) synthesizing pathways. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Cholinergic PET imaging in infections and inflammation using {sup 11}C-donepezil and {sup 18}F-FEOBV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Nis Pedersen; Hoegsberg Schleimann, Mariane [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus (Denmark); Alstrup, Aage K.O.; Knudsen, Karoline; Jakobsen, Steen; Bender, Dirk; Gormsen, Lars C.; Borghammer, Per [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Mortensen, Frank V. [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Aarhus (Denmark); Madsen, Line Bille [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Histopathology, Aarhus (Denmark); Breining, Peter [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Aarhus (Denmark); Petersen, Mikkel Steen [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Clinical Immunology, Aarhus (Denmark); Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik [Aarhus University, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Immune cells utilize acetylcholine as a paracrine-signaling molecule. Many white blood cells express components of the cholinergic signaling pathway, and these are up-regulated when immune cells are activated. However, in vivo molecular imaging of cholinergic signaling in the context of inflammation has not previously been investigated. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using the glucose analogue 18F-FDG, and 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV, markers of acetylcholinesterase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, respectively. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with Staphylococcus aureus, and PET scanned at 24, 72, 120, and 144 h post-inoculation. Four pigs with post-operative abscesses were also imaged. Finally, we present initial data from human patients with infections, inflammation, and renal and lung cancer. In mice, the FDG uptake in abscesses peaked at 24 h and remained stable. The 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV uptake displayed progressive increase, and at 120-144 h was nearly at the FDG level. Moderate 11C-donepezil and slightly lower 18F-FEOBV uptake were seen in pig abscesses. PCR analyses suggested that the 11C-donepezil signal in inflammatory cells is derived from both acetylcholinesterase and sigma-1 receptors. In humans, very high 11C-donepezil uptake was seen in a lobar pneumonia and in peri-tumoral inflammation surrounding a non-small cell lung carcinoma, markedly superseding the 18F-FDG uptake in the inflammation. In a renal clear cell carcinoma no 11C-donepezil uptake was seen. The time course of cholinergic tracer accumulation in murine abscesses was considerably different from 18F-FDG, demonstrating in the 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV image distinct aspects of immune modulation. Preliminary data in humans strongly suggest that 11C-donepezil can exhibit more intense accumulation than 18F-FDG at sites of chronic inflammation. Cholinergic PET imaging may therefore have potential applications for basic research into cholinergic

  3. Cholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote Wakefulness by Actions on Neighboring Non-Cholinergic Neurons: An Opto-Dialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zant, Janneke C; Kim, Tae; Prokai, Laszlo; Szarka, Szabolcs; McNally, James; McKenna, James T; Shukla, Charu; Yang, Chun; Kalinchuk, Anna V; McCarley, Robert W; Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika

    2016-02-10

    Understanding the control of sleep-wake states by the basal forebrain (BF) poses a challenge due to the intermingled presence of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. All three BF neuronal subtypes project to the cortex and are implicated in cortical arousal and sleep-wake control. Thus, nonspecific stimulation or inhibition studies do not reveal the roles of these different neuronal types. Recent studies using optogenetics have shown that "selective" stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons increases transitions between NREM sleep and wakefulness, implicating cholinergic projections to cortex in wake promotion. However, the interpretation of these optogenetic experiments is complicated by interactions that may occur within the BF. For instance, a recent in vitro study from our group found that cholinergic neurons strongly excite neighboring GABAergic neurons, including the subset of cortically projecting neurons, which contain the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV) (Yang et al., 2014). Thus, the wake-promoting effect of "selective" optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons could be mediated by local excitation of GABA/PV or other non-cholinergic BF neurons. In this study, using a newly designed opto-dialysis probe to couple selective optical stimulation with simultaneous in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated that optical stimulation of cholinergic neurons locally increased acetylcholine levels and increased wakefulness in mice. Surprisingly, the enhanced wakefulness caused by cholinergic stimulation was abolished by simultaneous reverse microdialysis of cholinergic receptor antagonists into BF. Thus, our data suggest that the wake-promoting effect of cholinergic stimulation requires local release of acetylcholine in the basal forebrain and activation of cortically projecting, non-cholinergic neurons, including the GABAergic/PV neurons. Optogenetics is a revolutionary tool to assess the roles of particular groups of neurons in behavioral

  4. Cholinergic effects of HI-6 in Soman poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.M.; Lockwood, P.A.; Lundy, P.M.; Valdes, J.J.; Whalley, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors conduct studies to determine the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the antidotal effects of HI-6 in soman poisoning. The effects of HI-6 were studied in discrete brain areas and elevation of acetylcholine or choline levels in vivo as well as on muscarinic receptor binding and high affinity Ch uptake (HAChT) in vitro. The effect of pralidoxime chloride was studied on the same cholinergic mechanisms to compare its effects with HI-6. Methyl-tritium-choline chloride and tritium-quinuclidinyl benzilate were used in the experiments on male Wistar rats. The influence of antidotal treatments on time to death in soman intoxicated rats is shown. The effects of soman and its antidotal treatments on regional bain ChE activity are shown. The most significant protection was afforded by simultaneous treatment with both HI-6 and ATS

  5. Cholinergic modulation of the hippocampal region and memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2017-08-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in memory function and has been implicated in aging-related dementia, in which the impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning strongly manifests. Cholinergic neurons densely innervate the hippocampus, mediating the formation of episodic as well as semantic memory. Here, we will review recent findings on acetylcholine's modulation of memory function, with a particular focus on hippocampus-dependent learning, and the circuits involved. In addition, we will discuss the complexity of ACh actions in memory function to better understand the physiological role of ACh in memory. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Cholinergic receptor binding in the frontal cortex of suicide victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.

    1986-01-01

    Because there is a high incidence of individuals diagnosed as having an affective disorder who subsequently commit suicide, the author thought it would be of interest to determine QNB binding in the brains of a large sample of suicide victims, and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group. Brain samples were obtained at autopsy from 22 suicide victims and 22 controls. Frontal cortex samples were diseected, frozen, and stored until assayed. Samples of tissue homogenate were incubated in duplicate with 10 concentrations of tritium-QNB. Specific binding was determined with and without atropine. The results confirmed previous studies in which no changes were noted in suicide versus control brains. While the findings neither disprove nor support the cholinergic hypothesis of depression, they do suggest that the neurochemical basis for the in vivo observations of increased responsivity of depressed individuals to muscarinic cholinergic agents might not involve changes in receptors estimated by QNB binding

  7. Genetically-induced cholinergic hyper-innervation enhances taste learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin eNeseliler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA. The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work—that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability—would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in subregions of the basal forebrain (BF. We first demonstrate that the p75-/- abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyperinnervation of GC in the mutant mice—hyperinnervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75-/- and wild-type mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75-/- mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than wild-type mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning.

  8. PET study of cholinergic system in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a method to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, a functional marker for cholinergic system, by positron emission tomography (PET) and carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate. Kinetic analysis of the radioactivity in the brain and the plasma yielded a rate constant ``k 3`` as an index of AChE activity. The ratios for the k 3 values for the cerebral cortex/thalamus/cerebellum/striatum found in healthy participants were 1/ 3/ 8/ 10, respectively, corresponding well with AChE activity ratios in the brain at necropsy (1/ 3/ 8/ 38), except for the striatum. In 23 healthy volunteers (age range: 24-89 years), there was no age-related decline of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex, suggesting AChE activity is preserved in aged cerebral cortex. In 11 patients with Alzheimer`s disease, there was a significant reduction (-24%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, suggesting a loss of ascending cholinergic system from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In 16 patients with Parkinson`s disease, there was a significant reduction (-18%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex. In 10 patients with progressive supra nuclear palsy, there was a significant reduction (-38%) of k 3 values in the thalamus. This technique is useful for investigating central cholinergic system in neuro degenerative disorders with dementia. (author)

  9. PET study of cholinergic system in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a method to measure acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, a functional marker for cholinergic system, by positron emission tomography (PET) and carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate. Kinetic analysis of the radioactivity in the brain and the plasma yielded a rate constant ''k 3'' as an index of AChE activity. The ratios for the k 3 values for the cerebral cortex/thalamus/cerebellum/striatum found in healthy participants were 1/ 3/ 8/ 10, respectively, corresponding well with AChE activity ratios in the brain at necropsy (1/ 3/ 8/ 38), except for the striatum. In 23 healthy volunteers (age range: 24-89 years), there was no age-related decline of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex, suggesting AChE activity is preserved in aged cerebral cortex. In 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, there was a significant reduction (-24%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, suggesting a loss of ascending cholinergic system from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In 16 patients with Parkinson's disease, there was a significant reduction (-18%) of k 3 values in the cerebral cortex. In 10 patients with progressive supra nuclear palsy, there was a significant reduction (-38%) of k 3 values in the thalamus. This technique is useful for investigating central cholinergic system in neuro degenerative disorders with dementia. (author)

  10. Cholinergic neuromodulation controls directed temporal communication in neocortex in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Roopun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12 – 80 Hz. Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex.

  11. Cholinergic Neuromodulation Controls Directed Temporal Communication in Neocortex in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopun, Anita K.; LeBeau, Fiona E.N.; Rammell, James; Cunningham, Mark O.; Traub, Roger D.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12–80 Hz). Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex. PMID:20407636

  12. A cholinergic hypothesis of the unconscious in affective disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa eVakalopoulos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between distinct pharmacological systems are proposed as a key dynamic in the formation of unconscious memories underlying rumination and mood disorder, but also reflect the plastic capacity of neural networks that can aid recovery. An inverse and reciprocal relationship is postulated between cholinergic and monoaminergic receptor subtypes. M1-type muscarinic receptor transduction facilitates encoding of unconscious, prepotent behavioural repertoires at the core of affective disorders and ADHD. Behavioural adaptation to new contingencies is mediated by the classic prototype receptor: 5-HT1A (Gi/o and its modulation of m1-plasticity. Reversal of learning is dependent on increased phasic activation of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and is a function of hippocampal theta. Acquired hippocampal dysfunction due to abnormal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis predicts deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory and executive function and further impairments to cognitive inhibition. Encoding of explicit memories is mediated by Gq/11 and Gs signalling of monoamines only. A role is proposed for the phasic activation of the basal forebrain cholinergic nucleus by cortical projections from the complex consisting of the insula and claustrum. Although controversial. recent studies suggest a common ontogenetic origin of the two structures and a functional coupling. Lesions of the region result in loss of motivational behaviour and familiarity based judgements. A major hypothesis of the paper is that these lost faculties result indirectly, from reduced cholinergic tone.

  13. Cholinergic Inputs from Basal Forebrain Add an Excitatory Bias to Odor Coding in the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Markus; Carey, Ryan M.; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic modulation of central circuits is associated with active sensation, attention, and learning, yet the neural circuits and temporal dynamics underlying cholinergic effects on sensory processing remain unclear. Understanding the effects of cholinergic modulation on particular circuits is complicated by the widespread projections of cholinergic neurons to telencephalic structures that themselves are highly interconnected. Here we examined how cholinergic projections from basal forebrain to the olfactory bulb (OB) modulate output from the first stage of sensory processing in the mouse olfactory system. By optogenetically activating their axons directly in the OB, we found that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain regulate OB output by increasing the spike output of presumptive mitral/tufted cells. Cholinergic stimulation increased mitral/tufted cell spiking in the absence of inhalation-driven sensory input and further increased spiking responses to inhalation of odorless air and to odorants. This modulation was rapid and transient, was dependent on local cholinergic signaling in the OB, and differed from modulation by optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain, which led to a mixture of mitral/tufted cell excitation and suppression. Finally, bulbar cholinergic enhancement of mitral/tufted cell odorant responses was robust and occurred independent of the strength or even polarity of the odorant-evoked response, indicating that cholinergic modulation adds an excitatory bias to mitral/tufted cells as opposed to increasing response gain or sharpening response spectra. These results are consistent with a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in dynamically regulating the sensitivity to or salience of odors during active sensing of the olfactory environment. PMID:24672011

  14. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of [3H] inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats. Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of [3H]QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with [3H]pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%

  15. Cholinergic drugs as therapeutic tools in inflammatory diseases: participation of neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) from acetylcoenzime A and choline. This reaction occurs not only in pre-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system and post-ganglionic parasympathetic nervous fibers but also in non neuronal cells. This knowledge led to expand the role of ACh as a neurotransmitter and to consider it as a "cytotransmitter" and also to evaluate the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system comprising ACh, ChAT, acetylcholinesterase, and the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors, outside the nervous system. This review analyzes the participation of cholinergic system in inflammation and discusses the role of different muscarinic and nicotinic drugs that are being used to treat skin inflammatory disorders, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as, intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases, among others, to assess the potential application of these compounds as therapeutic tools.

  16. Effects of Pyridostigmine in Flinders Line Rats Differing in Cholinergic Sensitivity (AIBS GWI 0055)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overstreet, David

    1999-01-01

    .... The second aim was to determine whether pyridostigmine had prophylactic effects against the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diisopropylfluorophosphate regardless of innate cholinergic sensitivity...

  17. Brain Cholinergic Function and Response to Rivastigmine in Patients With Chronic Sequels of Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östberg, Anna; Virta, Jere; Rinne, Juha O

    2018-01-01

    subjects for more than 1 year after at least moderate traumatic brain injury. Ten of the subjects were respondents and 7 nonrespondents to cholinergic medication. DESIGN:: Cholinergic function was assessed with [methyl-C] N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate-PET (C-MP4A-PET), which reflects the activity...... was notably lower throughout the cortex in both respondents and nonrespondents, without significant differences between them. CONCLUSION:: Our study suggests that frontal cholinergic dysfunction is associated with the clinical response to cholinergic stimulation in patients with traumatic brain injury....

  18. Cortical cholinergic deficiency enhances amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the accumbens but not striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Olson, Lars; Svensson, Torgny H; Schilström, Björn

    2007-11-01

    Cholinergic dysfunction has been implicated as a putative contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recently, we showed that cholinergic denervation of the neocortex in adult rats leads to a marked increase in the behavioral response to amphetamine. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine seen after cortical cholinergic denervation was paralleled by an increased amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and/or striatum. The corticopetal cholinergic projections were lesioned by intraparenchymal infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult rats. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens or striatum was monitored by in vivo microdialysis 2 to 3 weeks after lesioning. We found that cholinergic denervation of the rat neocortex leads to a significantly increased amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, the cholinergic lesion did not affect amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the striatum. The enhanced amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in the cholinergically denervated rats could be reversed by administration of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, but not nicotine, prior to the amphetamine challenge, suggesting that loss of muscarinic receptor stimulation is likely to have caused the observed effect. The results suggest that abnormal responsiveness of dopamine neurons can be secondary to cortical cholinergic deficiency. This, in turn, might be of relevance for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provides a possible link between cholinergic disturbances and alteration of dopamine transmission.

  19. Development of myenteric cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Marlene M; Bornstein, Joel C; Young, Heather M

    2013-10-01

    Cholinergic neurons are the major excitatory neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and include intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons, and excitatory motor neurons. Cholinergic neurons have been detected in the embryonic ENS; however, the development of these neurons has been difficult to study as they are difficult to detect prior to birth using conventional immunohistochemistry. In this study we used ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice to examine the development of cholinergic neurons in the gut of embryonic and postnatal mice. Cholinergic (YFP+) neurons were first detected at embryonic day (E)11.5, and the proportion of cholinergic neurons gradually increased during pre- and postnatal development. At birth, myenteric cholinergic neurons comprised less than half of their adult proportions in the small intestine (25% of myenteric neurons were YFP+ at P0 compared to 62% in adults). The earliest cholinergic neurons appear to mainly project anally. Projections into the presumptive circular muscle were first observed at E14.5. A subpopulation of cholinergic neurons coexpress calbindin through embryonic and postnatal development, but only a small proportion coexpressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Our study shows that cholinergic neurons in the ENS develop over a protracted period of time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Antrodia cinnamomea powder and the underlying molecular mechanisms via Nrf2- and NF-κB-dominated pathways in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M T; Lin, W C; Wang, S Y; Lin, L J; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2018-04-17

    improvement of immunomodulatory-related capacity by ACP. Furthermore, ACP could induce the Nrf2-dependent pathway and decrease the NF-κB-dominated inflammatory signaling pathway. Antioxidant and immune capacity in terms of antioxidant enzymes and cell tolerance also was elevated by ACP. Concomitantly, body weight increasing with ACP supplementation as compared to the corresponding control group further implied the promising effects exerted by ACP.

  1. Role of α7 nicotinic receptor in the immune system and intracellular signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowski, Robert; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata; Ujazdowska, Dominika; Lewicka, Aneta; Lewicki, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been well known as one of the most exemplary neurotransmitters. In humans, this versatile molecule and its synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, have been found in various non-neural tissues such as the epithelium, endothelium, mesothelium muscle, blood cells and immune cells. The non-neuronal acetylcholine is accompanied by the expression of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic/muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence of the non-neuronal acetylcholine system found throughout the last few years has indicated this neurotransmitter as one of the major cellular signaling molecules (associated e.g. with kinases and transcription factors activity). This system is responsible for maintenance and optimization of the cellular function, such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, intercellular contact and apoptosis. Additionally, it controls proper activity of immune cells and affects differentiation, antigen presentation or cytokine production (both pro- and anti-inflammatory). The present article reviews recent findings about the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the field of immune system and intracellular signaling pathways.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cajaninstilbene Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Yan; Lin, Jing; Lu, Kuo; Xu, Hong-Gui; Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Ping-Hua; Chen, Wei-Min

    2016-04-13

    Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) is one of the active components isolated from pigeon pea leaves. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of CSA and its synthesized derivatives were fully valued with regard to their activities on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro cell model, as well as their impacts on the migration of neutrophils and macrophages in fluorescent protein labeled zebrafish larvae model by live image analysis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this type of compounds was clarified by western-blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that CSA, as well as its synthesized derivatives 5c, 5e and 5h, exhibited strong inhibition activity on the release of NO and inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. CSA and 5c greatly inhibited the migration of neutrophils and macrophages in injury zebrafish larvae. CSA and 5c treatment greatly inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Moreover, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibitor GW9662 could reverse partly the roles of CSA and 5c, and CSA and 5c treatment greatly resist the decrease of PPARγ mRNA and protein induced by LPS stimulation. Our results identified the promising anti-inflammatory effects of CSA and its derivatives, which may serve as valuable anti-inflammatory lead compound. Additionally, the mechanism studies demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of CSA and its derivative is associated with the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK pathways, relying partly on resisting the LPS-induced decrease of PPARγ through improving its expression.

  3. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Synergistic effect of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A mixture: multistep inhibition of the NF-κB signalling pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory effect of Scutellaria root flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomofumi; Shibuya, Nobuhiko; Narukawa, Yuji; Oshima, Naohiro; Hada, Noriyasu; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2018-01-01

    Scutellaria root, the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a crude drug used for inflammatory diseases. In our previous report, the combination of flavonoids contained in Scutellaria root have been found to inhibit PGE 2 production more strongly than individual flavonoids. Here, to investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect, we examined the effects of an equimolar mixture (F-mix) of baicalein (1), wogonin (2) and oroxylin A (3) on the production of PGE 2 in LPS-treated J774.1 cells. Although 1 and 3 inhibited COX-2 activity, the F-mix showed no synergistic effect on COX-2 inhibition. Therefore, we investigated the steps leading to the activation of COX-2 protein. Compounds 1-3 and F-mix inhibited the expression of COX-2 protein. However, only 2 inhibited the expression of COX-2 mRNA among the flavonoids, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Only 1 inhibited NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, and the F-mix showed no synergistic effect. Although 2 did not affect NF-κB translocation, it strongly inhibited NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity, and the F-mix inhibited the activity slightly more than 2. Compounds 1-3 also inhibited NO production, and the F-mix showed a synergistic effect. However, the effects of each flavonoid on the expression of iNOS mRNA were not consistent with those on COX-2 mRNA. Because the flavonoids inhibit different steps in the production of PGE 2 and NO, and their mixture did not show apparent synergistic effects in each step, we conclude that the synergistic effect of the flavonoid mixture reflects the total effect of the flavonoids inhibiting different steps in the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  5. Hippocampal long term memory: effect of the cholinergic system on local protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Daniele; Cerbai, Francesca; Di Russo, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Giannetti, Ambra; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing a link between the cholinergic system and the pathway of mTOR and its downstream effector p70S6K, likely actors in long term memory encoding. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test (IA) in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions, and immunohistochemistry on hippocampal slices to evaluate the level and the time-course of mTOR and p70S6K activation. We also examined the effect of RAPA, inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, and of the acetylcholine (ACh) muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP) or ACh nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MECA) on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition test was performed 30 min after i.c.v. injection of RAPA, a time sufficient for the drug to diffuse to CA1 pyramidal neurons, as demonstrated by MALDI-TOF-TOF imaging. Recall test was performed 1 h, 4 h or 24 h after acquisition. To confirm our results we performed in vitro experiments on live hippocampal slices: we evaluated whether stimulation of the cholinergic system with the cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CCh) activated the mTOR pathway and whether the administration of the above-mentioned antagonists together with CCh could revert this activation. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in the hippocampus were involved in long term memory formation; (2) RAPA administration caused inhibition of mTOR activation at 1 h and 4 h and of p70S6K activation at 4 h, and long term memory impairment at 24 h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine treatment caused short but not long term memory impairment with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine plus scopolamine treatment caused short term memory impairment at 1 h and 4 h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1 h and 4 h; (5

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Snophia Suresh; Satya Narayana; P Jayakumar; Uma Sudhakar; V Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of De...

  7. An antiinflammatory actions of exenatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Chaudhuri A, Ghanim H, Vora M, Sia CL, Korzeniewski K, Dhindsa S, Makdissi A, Dandona P. Exenatide exerts a potent antiinflammatory effect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan; 97(1: 198-207.

  8. Cholinergic Machinery as Relevant Target in Acute Lymphoblastic T Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Dobrovinskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of non-neuronal cells, including tumors, are able to produce acetylcholine (ACh, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. T lymphocytes represent a key component of the non-neuronal cholinergic system. T cells-derived ACh is involved in a stimulation of their activation and proliferation, and acts as a regulator of immune response. The aim of the present work was to summarize the data about components of cholinergic machinery in T lymphocytes, with an emphasis on the comparison of healthy and leukemic T cells. Cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemias of T lineage (T-ALL were found to produce a considerably higher amount of ACh than healthy T lumphocytes. Additionally, ACh produced by T-ALL is not efficiently hydrolyzed, because acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity is drastically decreased in these cells. Up-regulation of muscarinic ACh receptors was also demonstrated at expression and functional level, whereas nicotinic ACh receptors seem to play a less important role and not form functional channels in cells derived from T-ALL. We hypothesized that ACh over-produced in T-ALL may act as an autocrine growth factor and play an important role in leukemic clonal expansion through shaping of intracellular Ca2+ signals. We suggest that cholinergic machinery may be attractive targets for new drugs against T-ALL. Specifically, testing of high affinity antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors as well as antagomiRs, which interfere with miRNAs involved in the suppression of AChE expression, may be the first choice options.

  9. Nitric oxide and the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Pelckmans, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the first evidence was reported demonstrating neurally mediated responses in the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists, leading to the introduction of the concept of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmission. The inhibitory component of this part of the

  10. Involvement of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons and M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ztaou, Samira; Maurice, Nicolas; Camon, Jeremy; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne; Liberge, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2016-08-31

    Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blockade by scopolamine produces similar anti-parkinsonian effects. To decipher which of the mAChR subtypes provides these beneficial effects, systemic and intrastriatal administration of the selective M1 and M4 mAChR antagonists telenzepine and tropicamide, respectively, were tested in the same model of Parkinson's disease. The two compounds alleviate 6-OHDA lesion-induced motor deficits. Telenzepine produces its beneficial effects by blocking postsynaptic M1 mAChRs expressed on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) at the origin of the indirect striatopallidal and direct striatonigral pathways. The anti-parkinsonian effects of tropicamide were almost completely abolished in mutant lesioned mice that lack M4 mAChRs specifically in dopamine D1-receptor-expressing neurons, suggesting that postsynaptic M4 mAChRs expressed on direct MSNs mediate the antiakinetic action of tropicamide. The present results show that altered cholinergic transmission via M1 and M4 mAChRs of the dorsal striatum plays a pivotal role in the occurrence of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The striatum, where dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact, is the pivotal structure of basal ganglia involved in pathophysiological changes underlying Parkinson's disease. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we investigated the involvement of striatal

  11. Ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by regulating COX-2/iNOS, inflammatory cytokine expression, MAP kinase pathways, the cell cycle and anti-oxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Dong Seob; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Hee Seob; Bae, Chang Joon; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinesis (A. cochinchinesis) is a medicine traditionally used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although numerous studies of the anti-inflammatory effects of A. cochinchinesis have been conducted, the underlying mechanisms of such effects in macrophages remain to be demonstrated. To investigate the mechanism of suppressive effects on the inflammatory response in macrophages, alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) level, the cell viability, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels, inflammatory cytokine expression, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate extract from A. cochinchinesis root (EaEAC). RAW264.7 cells pretreated two different concentrations of EaEAC prior to LPS treatment exhibited no significant toxicity. The concentration of NO was significantly decreased in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. A similar decrease in mRNA transcript level of COX-2, iNOS, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10) was detected in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group, although the decrease rate varied. Enhancement of the phosphorylation of MAPK family members following LPS treatment was partially rescued in the EaEAC pretreated group, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the EaEAC pretreated group exhibited a reduced level of ROS generation compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC suppresses inflammatory responses through inhibition of NO production, COX-2 expression and ROS production, as well as

  12. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12432.001 PMID:26705699

  13. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Kaufman

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity, followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  14. Long-term Relationships between Cholinergic Tone, Synchronous Bursting and Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A.; Ziv, Noam E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited. PMID:22911726

  15. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A; Ziv, Noam E

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  16. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 μM, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. 45 Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated 45 Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 μM) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant

  17. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  18. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    Full Text Available The cholinoceptive system in the hypothalamus, in particular in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, plays a role in regulating food intake. Neurons in the ARC contain multiple neuropeptides, amines, and neurotransmitters. To study molecular and neurochemical heterogeneity of ARC neurons, we combine single-cell qRT-PCR and single-cell whole transcriptome amplification methods to analyze expression patterns of our hand-picked 60 genes in individual neurons in the ARC. Immunohistochemical and single-cell qRT-PCR analyses show choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons in the ARC. Gene expression patterns are remarkably distinct in each individual cholinergic neuron. Two-thirds of cholinergic neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (Th mRNA. A large subset of these Th-positive cholinergic neurons is GABAergic as they express the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter transcripts. Some cholinergic neurons also express the vesicular glutamate transporter transcript gene. POMC and POMC-processing enzyme transcripts are found in a subpopulation of cholinergic neurons. Despite this heterogeneity, gene expression patterns in individual cholinergic cells appear to be highly regulated in a cell-specific manner. In fact, membrane receptor transcripts are clustered with their respective intracellular signaling and downstream targets. This novel population of cholinergic neurons may be part of the neural circuitries that detect homeostatic need for food and control the drive to eat.

  19. Orexin receptor activation generates gamma band input to cholinergic and serotonergic arousal system neurons and drives an intrinsic Ca2+-dependent resonance in LDT and PPT cholinergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eIshibashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the waking state is a shift in EEG power to higher frequencies with epochs of synchronized intracortical gamma activity (30-60 Hz - a process associated with high-level cognitive functions. The ascending arousal system, including cholinergic laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculopontine (PPT tegmental neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR neurons, promotes this state. Recently, this system has been proposed as a gamma wave generator, in part, because some neurons produce high-threshold, Ca2+-dependent oscillations at gamma frequencies. However, it is not known whether arousal-related inputs to these neurons generate such oscillations, or whether such oscillations are ever transmitted to neuronal targets. Since key arousal input arises from hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin neurons, we investigated whether the unusually noisy, depolarizing orexin current could provide significant gamma input to cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, and whether such input could drive Ca2+-dependent oscillations. Whole-cell recordings in brain slices were obtained from mice expressing Cre-induced fluorescence in cholinergic LDT and PPT, and serotonergic DR neurons. After first quantifying reporter expression accuracy in cholinergic and serotonergic neurons, we found that the orexin current produced significant high frequency, including gamma, input to both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Then, by using a dynamic clamp, we found that adding a noisy orexin conductance to cholinergic neurons induced a Ca2+-dependent resonance that peaked in the theta and alpha frequency range (4 - 14 Hz and extended up to 100 Hz. We propose that this orexin current noise and the Ca2+ dependent resonance work synergistically to boost the encoding of high-frequency synaptic inputs into action potentials and to help ensure cholinergic neurons fire during EEG activation. This activity could reinforce thalamocortical states supporting arousal, REM sleep and intracortical

  20. Optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic projection neurons as an alternative for deep brain stimulation for Alzheimer's treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, James; Chen, Yuanxin; Zhao, Zhen; Li, Xuping; Xue, Zhong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2013-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the cholinergic nuclei has emerged as a powerful potential treatment for neurodegenerative disease and is currently in a clinical trial for Alzheimer's therapy. While effective in treatment for a number of conditions from depression to epilepsy, DBS remains somewhat unpredictable due to the heterogeneity of the projection neurons that are activated, including glutamatergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic neurons, leading to unacceptable side effects ranging from apathy to depression or even suicidal behavior. It would be highly advantageous to confine stimulation to specific populations of neurons, particularly in brain diseases involving complex network interactions such as Alzheimer's. Optogenetics, now firmly established as an effective approach to render genetically-defined populations of cells sensitive to light activation including mice expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 specifically in cholinergic neurons, provides just this opportunity. Here we characterize the light activation properties and cell density of cholinergic neurons in healthy mice and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease in order to evaluate the feasibility of using optogenetic modulation of cholinergic synaptic activity to slow or reverse neurodegeneration. This paper is one of the very first reports to suggest that, despite the anatomical depth of their cell bodies, cholinergic projection neurons provide a better target for systems level optogenetic modulation than cholinergic interneurons found in various brain regions including striatum and the cerebral cortex. Additionally, basal forebrain channelrhodopsin-expressing cholinergic neurons are shown to exhibit normal distribution at 60 days and normal light activation at 40 days, the latest timepoints observed. The data collected form the basis of ongoing computational modeling of light stimulation of entire populations of cholinergic neurons.

  1. Maternal exposure to hexachlorophene targets intermediate-stage progenitor cells of the hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring via dysfunction of cholinergic inputs by myelin vacuolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of maternal exposure to HCP on rat hippocampal neurogenesis was examined. • HCP induces myelin vacuolation of nerve tracts in the septal–hippocampal pathway. • Myelin changes suppress Chrnb2-mediated cholinergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. • SGZ apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway and targets type-2b cells. • Dysfunction of cholinergic inputs is related to type-2b SGZ cell apoptosis. - Abstract: Hexachlorophene (HCP) is known to induce myelin vacuolation corresponding to intramyelinic edema of nerve fibers in the central and peripheral nervous system in animals. This study investigated the effect of maternal exposure to HCP on hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring using pregnant rats supplemented with 0 (controls), 100, or 300 ppm HCP in the diet from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, the numbers of T box brain 2 + progenitor cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling + apoptotic cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) decreased in female offspring at 300 ppm, which was accompanied by myelin vacuolation and punctate tubulin beta-3 chain staining of nerve fibers in the hippocampal fimbria. In addition, transcript levels of the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic beta 2 (Chrnb2) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) decreased in the dentate gyrus. HCP-exposure did not alter the numbers of SGZ proliferating cells and reelin- or calcium-binding protein-expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron subpopulations in the dentate hilus on PND 21 and PND 77. Although some myelin vacuolation remained, all other changes observed in HCP-exposed offspring on PND 21 disappeared on PND 77. These results suggest that maternal HCP exposure reversibly decreases type-2b intermediate-stage progenitor cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in offspring hippocampal neurogenesis at 300 ppm HCP. Neurogenesis may be affected by dysfunction

  2. The muscarinic stimulation of phospholipid labeling in hippocampus is independent of its cholinergic input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.K.; Boast, C.A.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have examined the role of cholinergic innervation on the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced 'phospholipid labeling effect' (PLE) in synaptosomes derived from the hippocampus. The hippocampus supports a robust PLE and its sole cholinergic input from the septal nuclei can be readily disrupted by the placement of lesions in the fornix. The lesion is expected to cause degeneration of cholinergic presynaptic fibers, but should have little effect on the integrity of postsynaptic structures, and thus provide a means of further localizing the synaptosomal PLE. (Auth.)

  3. The involvement of cholinergic neurons in the spreading of tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eSimon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long time ago, it was described the selective loss of cholinergic neurons during the development of Alzheimer disease. Recently, it has been suggested that tau protein may play a role in that loss of cholinergic neurons through a mechanism involving the interaction of extracellular tau with M1/M3 muscarinic receptors present in the cholinergic neurons. This interaction between tau and muscarinic receptors may be a way, although not the only one, to explain the spreading of tau pathology occurring in Alzheimer disease.

  4. Cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation does not produce long-term changes in glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, L.E.; Davis, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Decreased glucose metabolism is found in Alzheimer's disease associated with a loss of cholinergic neurons. The relationship between the chronic cholinergic denervation produced by medial septal lesions and glucose metabolism was studied using 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]glucose in the rat hippocampal formation. Hippocampal glucose metabolism was increased 1 week after medial septal lesions. Three weeks after lesions, glucose metabolism was profoundly suppressed in all regions. By 3 months, intraregional hippocampal glucose metabolism had returned to control values. Our results demonstrate that chronic cholinergic denervation of the hippocampal formation does not result in permanent alterations of metabolic activity

  5. Enhanced memory in Wistar rats by virgin coconut oil is associated with increased antioxidative, cholinergic activities and reduced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nur Syafiqah; Lim, Siong Meng; Mani, Vasudevan; Abdul Majeed, Abu Bakar; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2017-12-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress properties. Capitalizing on these therapeutic effects, this study investigated for the first time the potential of VCO on memory improvement in vivo. Thirty male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups (n = six per group). Treatment groups were administered with 1, 5 and 10 g/kg VCO for 31 days by oral gavages. The cognitive function of treated-rats were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brains were removed, homogenized and subjected to biochemical analyses of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx)], lipid peroxidase [malondialdehyde (MDA)] as well as nitric oxide (NO). α-Tocopherol (αT; 150 mg/kg) was also included for comparison purposes. VCO-fed Wistar rats exhibited significant (p  33%) and NO (≥ 34%). Overall, memory improvement by VCO was comparable to αT. VCO has the potential to be used as a memory enhancer, the effect of which was mediated, at least in part, through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidants level and reduced oxidative stress.

  6. Cholinergic PET imaging in infections and inflammation using "1"1C-donepezil and "1"8F-FEOBV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, Nis Pedersen; Hoegsberg Schleimann, Mariane; Alstrup, Aage K.O.; Knudsen, Karoline; Jakobsen, Steen; Bender, Dirk; Gormsen, Lars C.; Borghammer, Per; Mortensen, Frank V.; Madsen, Line Bille; Breining, Peter; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Immune cells utilize acetylcholine as a paracrine-signaling molecule. Many white blood cells express components of the cholinergic signaling pathway, and these are up-regulated when immune cells are activated. However, in vivo molecular imaging of cholinergic signaling in the context of inflammation has not previously been investigated. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) using the glucose analogue 18F-FDG, and 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV, markers of acetylcholinesterase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, respectively. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with Staphylococcus aureus, and PET scanned at 24, 72, 120, and 144 h post-inoculation. Four pigs with post-operative abscesses were also imaged. Finally, we present initial data from human patients with infections, inflammation, and renal and lung cancer. In mice, the FDG uptake in abscesses peaked at 24 h and remained stable. The 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV uptake displayed progressive increase, and at 120-144 h was nearly at the FDG level. Moderate 11C-donepezil and slightly lower 18F-FEOBV uptake were seen in pig abscesses. PCR analyses suggested that the 11C-donepezil signal in inflammatory cells is derived from both acetylcholinesterase and sigma-1 receptors. In humans, very high 11C-donepezil uptake was seen in a lobar pneumonia and in peri-tumoral inflammation surrounding a non-small cell lung carcinoma, markedly superseding the 18F-FDG uptake in the inflammation. In a renal clear cell carcinoma no 11C-donepezil uptake was seen. The time course of cholinergic tracer accumulation in murine abscesses was considerably different from 18F-FDG, demonstrating in the 11C-donepezil and 18F-FEOBV image distinct aspects of immune modulation. Preliminary data in humans strongly suggest that 11C-donepezil can exhibit more intense accumulation than 18F-FDG at sites of chronic inflammation. Cholinergic PET imaging may therefore have potential applications for basic research into cholinergic

  7. Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of the rhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Janita; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2005-02-08

    Excitotoxic lesion studies have confirmed that the rhinal cortex is essential for visual recognition ability in monkeys. To evaluate the mnemonic role of cholinergic inputs to this cortical region, we compared the visual recognition performance of monkeys given rhinal cortex infusions of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, ME20.4-SAP, with the performance of monkeys given control infusions into this same tissue. The immunotoxin, which leads to selective cholinergic deafferentation of the infused cortex, yielded recognition deficits of the same magnitude as those produced by excitotoxic lesions of this region, providing the most direct demonstration to date that cholinergic activation of the rhinal cortex is essential for storing the representations of new visual stimuli and thereby enabling their later recognition.

  8. Outcome of Patients with Cholinergic Insecticide Poisoning Treated with Gastric Lavage: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkattukunnel Andrews

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Number or timing of GL does not show any association with mortality while multiple GL had protective effect against development of late RF and IMS. Hence, GL might be beneficial in cholinergic insecticide poisoning.

  9. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance....... In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition. CONCLUSION: Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic...

  11. Modeling Parkinson’s Disease Falls Associated With Brainstem Cholinergic Systems Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Kucinski, Aaron; Sarter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the primary disease-defining symptoms, approximately half of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) suffer from postural instability, impairments in gait control and a propensity for falls. Consistent with evidence from patients, we previously demonstrated that combined striatal dopamine (DA) and basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic cell loss causes falls in rats traversing dynamic surfaces. Because evidence suggests that degeneration of brainstem cholinergic neurons arising from t...

  12. Higher sensitivity to cadmium induced cell death of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Garbriela; Anadon, María José; Capo, Miguel Andrés; Díaz, María Jesús; García, Jimena; Frejo, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant, which is a cause of concern because it can be greatly concentrated in the organism causing severe damage to a variety of organs including the nervous system which is one of the most affected. Cadmium has been reported to produce learning and memory dysfunctions and Alzheimer like symptoms, though the mechanism is unknown. On the other hand, cholinergic system in central nervous system (CNS) is implicated on learning and memory regulation, and it has been reported that cadmium can affect cholinergic transmission and it can also induce selective toxicity on cholinergic system at peripheral level, producing cholinergic neurons loss, which may explain cadmium effects on learning and memory processes if produced on central level. The present study is aimed at researching the selective neurotoxicity induced by cadmium on cholinergic system in CNS. For this purpose we evaluated, in basal forebrain region, the cadmium toxic effects on neuronal viability and the cholinergic mechanisms related to it on NS56 cholinergic mourine septal cell line. This study proves that cadmium induces a more pronounced, but not selective, cell death on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on cholinergic neurons. Moreover, MTT and LDH assays showed a dose dependent decrease of cell viability in NS56 cells. The ACh treatment of SN56 cells did not revert cell viability reduction induced by cadmium, but siRNA transfection against AChE partially reduced it. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of cadmium on the function and viability of neurons, and the possible relevance of cadmium in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases

  13. Cholinergic axon length reduced by 300 meters in the brain of an Alzheimer mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Gitte; Jensen, Morten Skovgaard; West, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Modern stereological techniques have been used to show that the total length of the cholinergic fibers in the cerebral cortex of the APPswe/PS1deltaE9 mouse is reduced by almost 300 meters at 18 months of age and has a nonlinear relationship to the amount of transgenetically-induced amyloidosis. ....... These data provide rigorous quantitative morphological evidence that Alzheimer's-like amyloidosis affects the axons of the cholinergic enervation of the cerebral cortex....

  14. Synthesis of (±)-I-125-iodobenzovesamicol - A cholinergic neuron marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.W.; Van Dort, M.E.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are focusing efforts on developing markers for the cholinergic neuron. Vesamicol (VA) has been adopted as a basis for the design of a presynaptic cholinergic nerve marker. Benzovesamicol, an analog of VA, is equipotent with VA and displays remarkable bulk tolerance in the 5-position. They have synthesized (±)-[I-125]-5-iodobenzovesamicol, and have conducted in vivo screening with it in mice

  15. Rationale for anti-inflammatory therapy in dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, C S; Pflugfelder, S C

    2008-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial condition that results in a dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Changes in tear composition including increased cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases and the number of T cells in the conjunctiva are found in dry eye patients and in animal models. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. There are several anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye that target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified and are discussed in detail.

  16. Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Hamlin

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer's disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic or uncued (idiothetic recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze, and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Evaluating the evidence surrounding pontine cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Grace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of rapid eye movement (REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the ‘pontine REM sleep generator’ by cholinergic inputs. Here we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PFT is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv Cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail.

  18. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists.

  19. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsiung Pan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities. When given orally to rats at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, the extract showed a significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema in rats ...

  3. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Lee, S H; Shin, K H

    2001-03-01

    In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as beta-sitosterol.

  4. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A; Horner, Richard L

    2015-10-07

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K(+) (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K(+) current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASK(f/f) mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30-50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30-50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASK(f/f) mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity. Basal forebrain

  5. Co-expression of Cholinergic and Noradrenergic Phenotypes in Human and Non-Human Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Weihe, Eberhard; Schütz, Burkhard; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Anlauf, Martin; Schäfer, Martin K.; Eiden, Lee E.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that the sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands is cholinergic in most mammalian species, and that during development, rodent sympathetic cholinergic sweat gland innervation transiently expresses noradrenergic traits. We show here that some noradrenergic traits persist in cholinergic sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands in rodents, but that lack of expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter renders these cells functionally non-noradrenergic. Adult hum...

  6. Variable expression of GFP in different populations of peripheral cholinergic neurons of ChATBAC-eGFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T Christopher; Bond, Cherie E; Hoover, Donald B

    2018-03-01

    Immunohistochemistry is used widely to identify cholinergic neurons, but this approach has some limitations. To address these problems, investigators developed transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) directed by the promoter for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme. Although, it was reported that these mice express GFP in all cholinergic neurons and non-neuronal cholinergic cells, we could not detect GFP in cardiac cholinergic nerves in preliminary experiments. Our goals for this study were to confirm our initial observation and perform a qualitative screen of other representative autonomic structures for the presences of GFP in cholinergic innervation of effector tissues. We evaluated GFP fluorescence of intact, unfixed tissues and the cellular localization of GFP and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a specific cholinergic marker, in tissue sections and intestinal whole mounts. Our experiments identified two major tissues where cholinergic neurons and/or nerve fibers lacked GFP: 1) most cholinergic neurons of the intrinsic cardiac ganglia and all cholinergic nerve fibers in the heart and 2) most cholinergic nerve fibers innervating airway smooth muscle. Most cholinergic neurons in airway ganglia stained for GFP. Cholinergic systems in the bladder and intestines were fully delineated by GFP staining. GFP labeling of input to ganglia with long preganglionic projections (vagal) was sparse or weak, while that to ganglia with short preganglionic projections (spinal) was strong. Total absence of GFP might be due to splicing out of the GFP gene. Lack of GFP in nerve projections from GFP-positive cell bodies might reflect a transport deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in learning and memory-related brain regions and impaired learning in SAMP8 mice with trigeminal nerve damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan He; Jihong Zhu; Fang Huang; Liu Qin; Wenguo Fan; Hongwen He

    2014-01-01

    The tooth belongs to the trigeminal sensory pathway. Dental damage has been associated with impairments in the central nervous system that may be mediated by injury to the trigeminal nerve. In the present study, we investigated the effects of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, an important peripheral nerve in the trigeminal sensory pathway, on learning and memory be-haviors and structural changes in related brain regions, in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Inferior alveolar nerve transection or sham surgery was performed in middle-aged (4-month-old) or elderly (7-month-old) senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. When the middle-aged mice reached 8 months (middle-aged group 1) or 11 months (middle-aged group 2), and the elderly group reached 11 months, step-down passive avoidance and Y-maze tests of learn-ing and memory were performed, and the cholinergic system was examined in the hippocampus (Nissl staining and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry) and basal forebrain (choline acetyltrans-ferase immunohistochemistry). In the elderly group, animals that underwent nerve transection had fewer pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, fewer cholinergic ifbers in the CA1 and dentate gyrus, and fewer cholinergic neurons in the medial septal nucleus and vertical limb of the diagonal band, compared with sham-operated animals, as well as showing impairments in learning and memory. Conversely, no signiifcant differences in histology or be-havior were observed between middle-aged group 1 or group 2 transected mice and age-matched sham-operated mice. The present ifndings suggest that trigeminal nerve damage in old age, but not middle age, can induce degeneration of the septal-hippocampal cholinergic system and loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and ultimately impair learning ability. Our results highlight the importance of active treatment of trigeminal nerve damage in elderly patients and those with Alzheimer’s disease, and

  8. Angiotensin II inhibits cortical cholinergic function: Implications for cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.M.; Barnes, N.M.; Costall, B.; Horovitz, Z.P.; Ironside, J.W.; Naylor, R.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present studies we have shown that angiotensin II (AT II), in a concentration-dependent manner in rat tissue (10(-9)-10(-5) M) or at a single concentration in human tissue (10(-6) M), can inhibit potassium-stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine ( [3H]Ach) from slices of rat entorhinal cortex and human temporal cortex preloaded with [3H]choline for the biochemical analyses. The inhibitory effects of AT II (10(-6) M) were antagonised by the specific AT II receptor antagonist [1-sarcosine, 8-threonine]AT II in a concentration-dependent manner in rat tissue (10(-11)-10(-8) M) and at the single concentration employed in the human studies (10(-7) M). Also demonstrated were other components of the angiotensin system in the human temporal cortex; ACE activity was present (1.03 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein), as were AT II recognition sites (Bmax = 8.6 fmol mg-1 protein). It is hypothesised that the potential cognitive enhancing properties of ACE inhibitors may reflect their action to prevent the formation of AT II and so remove an inhibitory modulator of cholinergic function

  9. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  10. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4. These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4, CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  11. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Owald, David; Felsenberg, Johannes; Brain, Ruth; Moszynski, John-Paul; Talbot, Clifford B; Perrat, Paola N; Waddell, Scott

    2016-03-16

    Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior. Local ACh application, or direct Kenyon cell activation, evokes activity in mushroom body output neurons (MBONs). MBON activation depends on VAChT expression in Kenyon cells and is blocked by ACh receptor antagonism. Furthermore, reducing nicotinic ACh receptor subunit expression in MBONs compromises odor-evoked activation and redirects odor-driven behavior. Lastly, peptidergic corelease enhances ACh-evoked responses in MBONs, suggesting an interaction between the fast- and slow-acting transmitters. Therefore, olfactory memories in Drosophila are likely stored as plasticity of cholinergic synapses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  13. Illuminating the role of cholinergic signaling in circuits of attention and emotionally salient behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eLuchicchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh signaling underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. Alterations in ACh signaling are involved in the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. In the central nervous system, ACh transmission is mainly guaranteed by dense innervation of select cortical and subcortical regions from disperse groups of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain (e.g. diagonal band, medial septal, nucleus basalis and the pontine-mesencephalic nuclei, respectively. Despite the fundamental role of cholinergic signaling in the CNS and the long standing knowledge of the organization of cholinergic circuitry, remarkably little is known about precisely how ACh release modulates cortical and subcortical neural activity and the behaviors these circuits subserve. Growing interest in cholinergic signaling in the CNS focuses on the mechanism(s of action by which endogenously released ACh regulates cognitive functions, acting as a neuromodulator and /or as a direct transmitter via nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The development of optogenetic techniques has provided a valuable toolbox with which we can address these questions, as it allows the selective manipulation of the excitability of cholinergic inputs to the diverse array of cholinergic target fields within cortical and subcortical domains. Here, we review recent papers that use the light-sensitive opsins in the cholinergic system to elucidate the role of ACh in circuits related to attention and emotionally salient behaviors. In particular, we highlight recent optogenetic studies which have tried to disentangle the precise role of ACh in the modulation of cortical-, hippocampal- and striatal-dependent functions.

  14. Early presymptomatic cholinergic dysfunction in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Manzano, Raquel; Mancuso, Renzo; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic and familiar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases presented lower cholinergic activity than in healthy individuals in their still preserved spinal motoneurons (MNs) suggesting that cholinergic reduction might occur before MN death. To unravel how and when cholinergic function is compromised, we have analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) from early presymptomatic stages of the SOD1G93A ALS mouse model by confocal immunohistochemistry. The analysis showed an early reduction in ChAT content in soma and presynaptic boutons apposed onto MNs (to 76%) as well as in cholinergic interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of the 30-day-old SOD1G93A mice. Cholinergic synaptic stripping occurred simultaneously to the presence of abundant surrounding major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II)-positive microglia and the accumulation of nuclear Tdp-43 and the appearance of mild oxidative stress within MNs. Besides, there was a loss of neuronal MHC-I expression, which is necessary for balanced synaptic stripping after axotomy. These events occurred before the selective raise of markers of denervation such as ATF3. By the same time, alterations in postsynaptic cholinergic-related structures were also revealed with a loss of the presence of sigma-1 receptor, a Ca2+ buffering chaperone in the postsynaptic cisternae. By 2 months of age, ChAT seemed to accumulate in the soma of MNs, and thus efferences toward Renshaw interneurons were drastically diminished. In conclusion, cholinergic dysfunction in the local circuitry of the spinal cord may be one of the earliest events in ALS etiopathogenesis. PMID:23531559

  15. Cholinergic Hypofunction in Presbycusis-Related Tinnitus With Cognitive Function Impairment: Emerging Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei; Zhang, Weibin; Ruan, Jian; Liu, Chunhui; Zhang, Ruxin

    2018-01-01

    Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity. Observations from experimental rodent models indicate that recovery of cholinergic function can improve memory and other cognitive functions via acetylcholine-mediated GABAergic inhibition enhancement, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated anti-inflammation, glial activation inhibition and neurovascular protection. The loss of cholinergic innervation of various brain structures may provide a common link between tinnitus seen in presbycusis-related tinnitus and age-related cognitive impairment. We hypothesize a key component of the condition is the withdrawal of cholinergic input to a subtype of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurogliaform cells. Cholinergic denervation might not only cause the degeneration of NPY neurogliaform cells, but may also result in decreased AChR activation in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. This, in turn, would lead to reduced GABA release and inhibitory regulation of neural networks. Reduced nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation due to the loss of nicotinic innervation might lead to the transformation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators, lowering the buffering of extracellular potassium and glutamate metabolism. Further research will provide evidence for the recovery of cholinergic function with the use of cholinergic input enhancement alone or in combination with other rehabilitative interventions to reestablish inhibitory regulation mechanisms of

  16. Cholinergic Hypofunction in Presbycusis-Related Tinnitus With Cognitive Function Impairment: Emerging Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwei Ruan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity. Observations from experimental rodent models indicate that recovery of cholinergic function can improve memory and other cognitive functions via acetylcholine-mediated GABAergic inhibition enhancement, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation, glial activation inhibition and neurovascular protection. The loss of cholinergic innervation of various brain structures may provide a common link between tinnitus seen in presbycusis-related tinnitus and age-related cognitive impairment. We hypothesize a key component of the condition is the withdrawal of cholinergic input to a subtype of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron, neuropeptide Y (NPY neurogliaform cells. Cholinergic denervation might not only cause the degeneration of NPY neurogliaform cells, but may also result in decreased AChR activation in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. This, in turn, would lead to reduced GABA release and inhibitory regulation of neural networks. Reduced nAChR-mediated anti-inflammation due to the loss of nicotinic innervation might lead to the transformation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators, lowering the buffering of extracellular potassium and glutamate metabolism. Further research will provide evidence for the recovery of cholinergic function with the use of cholinergic input enhancement alone or in combination with other rehabilitative interventions to reestablish inhibitory regulation

  17. Changes in cholinergic and nitrergic systems of defunctionalized colons after colostomy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Vural, İsmail Mert; Özen, İbrahim Onur; Öztürk, Gökçe; Sarıoğlu, Yusuf; Başaklar, Abdullah Can

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess smooth muscle function and motility in defunctionalized colonic segments and subsequent changes in pathways responsible for gastrointestinal motility. Two-month-old New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into control and study groups. Sigmoid colostomies were performed in the study group. After a 2-month waiting period, colonic segments were harvested in both groups. For the in vitro experiment, the isolated circular muscle strips which were prepared from the harvested distal colon were used. First, contraction responses were detected using KCl and carbachol; relaxation responses were detected using papaverine, sodium nitroprusside, sildenafil, and l-arginine. The neurologic responses of muscle strips to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were evaluated in an environment with guanethidine and indomethacin. EFS studies were then repeated with atropine, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, atropine, and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester-added environments. Although macroscopic atrophy had developed in the distal colonic segment of the colostomy, the contraction and relaxation capacity of the smooth muscle did not change. EFS-induced nitrergic-peptidergic, cholinergic-peptidergic, and noncholinergic nonnitrergic responses significantly decreased at all frequencies (0.5-32 Hz) in the study group compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). Although the contraction capacity of the smooth muscle was not affected, the motility of the distal colon deteriorated owing to the defective secretion of presynaptic neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, nitric oxide, and neuropeptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, glial cells, and regional cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, S P; Hoover, D B

    2012-09-27

    Very little is known about the development of cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth of cholinergic neurons and nerve fibers in mouse hearts from embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) through postnatal day 21(P21). Cholinergic perikarya and varicose nerve fibers were identified in paraffin sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Satellite cells and Schwann cells in adjacent sections were identified by immunostaining for S100β calcium binding protein (S100) and brain-fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP). We found that cardiac ganglia had formed in close association to the atria and cholinergic innervation of the atrioventricular junction had already begun by E18.5. However, most cholinergic innervation of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, developed postnatally (P0.5-P21) along with a doubling of the cross-sectional area of cholinergic perikarya. Satellite cells were present throughout neonatal cardiac ganglia and expressed primarily B-FABP. As they became more mature at P21, satellite cells stained strongly for both B-FABP and S100. Satellite cells appeared to surround most cardiac parasympathetic neurons, even in neonatal hearts. Mature Schwann cells, identified by morphology and strong staining for S100, were already present at E18.5 in atrial regions that receive cholinergic innervation at later developmental times. The abundance and distribution of S100-positive Schwann cells increased postnatally along with nerve density. While S100 staining of cardiac Schwann cells was maintained in P21 and older mice, Schwann cells did not show B-FABP staining at these times. Parallel development of satellite cells and cholinergic perikarya in the cardiac ganglia and the increase in abundance of Schwann cells and varicose cholinergic nerve fibers in the atria suggest that neuronal-glial interactions could be important for development of the parasympathetic nervous

  19. Cholinergic and VIPergic effects on thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid gland is known to harbor cholinergic and VIPergic nerves. In the present study, the influences of cholinergic stimulation by carbachol, cholinergic blockade by methylatropine and stimulation with various VIP sequences on basal, TSH-induced and VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in vivo in mice. The mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was inhibited by both carbachol and methylatropine. Furthermore, TSH-induced radioiodine secretion was inhibited already by a low dose of carbachol. Moreover, a high dose of carbachol could inhibit VIP-induced radioiodine secretion. Methylatropine did not influence TSH- or VIP-stimulated radioiodine secretion, but counteracted the inhibitory action of carbachol on TSH- and VIP-induced radioiodine release. In addition, contrary to VIP, six various synthesized VIP fragments had no effect on basal or stimulated radioiodine release. It is concluded that basal thyroid hormone secretion is inhibited by both cholinergic activation and blockade. Furthermore, TSH-induced thyroid hormone secretion is more sensitive to inhibition with cholinergic stimulation than is VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion. In addition, the VIP stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion seems to require the full VIP sequence

  20. Cognitive performance as a zeitgeber: cognitive oscillators and cholinergic modulation of the SCN entrain circadian rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Gritton

    Full Text Available The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior.

  1. Measurement of functional cholinergic innervation in rat heart with a novel vesamicol receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffeen, Paul R.; Efange, S.M.N.; Haidet, George C.; McKnite, Scott; Langason, Rosemary B.; Khare, A.B.; Pennington, Jennifer; Lurie, Keith G.

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in cholinergic activity in the cardiac conduction system have been difficult to study. We tested the utility of (+)-m-[ 125 I]iodobenzyl)trozamicol(+)-[ 125 I]MIBT), a novel radioligand that binds to the vesamicol receptor located on the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic cholinergic neurons, as a functional marker of cholinergic activity in the conduction system. The (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT was injected intravenously into four rats. Three hours later, the rats were killed and their hearts were frozen. Quantitative autoradiography was performed on 20-micron-thick sections that were subsequently stained for acetylcholinesterase to identify specific conduction-system elements. Marked similarities existed between (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake and acetylcholinesterase-positive regions. Optical densitometric analysis of regional (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake revealed significantly greater (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT binding (nCi/mg) in the atrioventricular node (AVN) and His bundle regions compared with other conduction and contractile elements (AVN: 3.43 ± 0.37; His bundle: 2.16 ± 0.30; right bundle branch: 0.95 ± 0.13; right atrium: 0.68 ± 0.05; right ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; and left ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; p 125 I]MIBT binds avidly to cholinergic nerve tissue innervating specific conduction-system elements. Thus, (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT may be a useful functional marker in studies on cholinergic innervation in the cardiac conduction system

  2. Internal cholinergic regulation of learning and recall in a model of olfactory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licurgo Benemann Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory system, cholinergic modulation has been associated with contrast modulation and changes in receptive fields in the olfactory bulb, as well the learning of odor associations in olfactory cortex. Computational modeling and behavioral studies suggest that cholinergic modulation could improve sensory processing and learning while preventing pro-active interference when task demands are high. However, how sensory inputs and/or learning regulate incoming modulation has not yet been elucidated. We here use a computational model of the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex (PC and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB to explore how olfactory learning could regulate cholinergic inputs to the system in a closed feedback loop. In our model, the novelty of an odor is reflected in firing rates and sparseness of cortical neurons in response to that odor and these firing rates can directly regulate learning in the system by modifying cholinergic inputs to the system. In the model, cholinergic neurons reduce their firing in response to familiar odors – reducing plasticity in the PC, but increase their firing in response to novel odor – increasing PC plasticity. Recordings from HDB neurons in awake behaving rats reflect predictions from the model by showing that a subset of neurons decrease their firing as an odor becomes familiar.

  3. Chronic Cerebral Ischaemia Forms New Cholinergic Mechanisms of Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Zakharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was a comparative analysis of cholinergic synaptic organization following learning and memory in normal and chronic cerebral ischaemic rats in the Morris water maze model. Choline acetyltransferase and protein content were determined in subpopulations of presynapses of “light” and “heavy” synaptosomal fractions of the cortex and the hippocampus, and the cholinergic projective and intrinsic systems of the brain structures were taken into consideration. We found a strong involvement of cholinergic systems, both projective and intrinsic, in all forms of cognition. Each form of cognition had an individual cholinergic molecular profile and the cholinergic synaptic compositions in the ischaemic rat brains differed significantly from normal ones. Our data demonstrated that under ischaemic conditions, instead of damaged connections new key synaptic relationships, which were stable against pathological influences and able to restore damaged cognitive functions, arose. The plasticity of neurochemical links in the individual organization of certain types of cognition gave a new input into brain pathology and can be used in the future for alternative corrections of vascular and other degenerative dementias.

  4. Nucleus Ambiguus Cholinergic Neurons Activated by Acupuncture: Relation to Enkephalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Li, Min; Longhurst, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture regulates autonomic function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi–Neiguan acupoints (P5–P6, underlying the median nerve) inhibits central sympathetic outflow and attenuates excitatory cardiovascular reflexes, in part, through an opioid mechanism. It is unknown if EA at these acupoints influences the parasympathetic system. Thus, using c-Fos expression, we examined activation of nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) neurons by EA, their relation to cholinergic (preganglionic parasympathetic) neurons and those containing enkephalin. To enhance detection of cell bodies containing enkephalin, colchicine (90–100 μg/kg) was administered into the subarachnoid space of cats 30 hr prior to EA or sham-operated controls for EA. Following bilateral barodenervation and cervical vagotomy, either EA for 30 min at P5–P6 acupoints or control stimulation (needle placement at P5–P6 without stimulation) was applied. While perikarya containing enkephalin were observed in some medullary nuclei (e.g., râphe), only enkephalin-containing neuronal processes were found in the NAmb. Compared to controls (n=4), more c-Fos immunoreactivity, located principally in close proximity to fibers containing enkephalin was noted in the NAmb of EA-treated cats (n=5; P<0.01). Moreover, neurons double-labeled with c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase in the NAmb were identified in EA-treated, but not the control animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that EA activates preganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the NAmb. Because of their close proximity, these EA-activated neurons likely interact with nerve fibers containing enkephalin. These results suggest that EA at the P5–P6 acupoints has the potential to influence parasympathetic outflow and cardiovascular function, likely through an enkephalinergic mechanism. PMID:22306033

  5. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using a LOX-inhibitor screening assay kit according to the ... and the Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Antimicrobial activities ..... the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the.

  7. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced 155 Eu: 3+ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor

  8. Cholinergic Neurons - Keeping Check on Amyloid beta in the Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saak V. Ovsepian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological relevance of the uptake of ligands with no apparent trophic functions via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR remains unclear. Herein, we propose a homeostatic role for this in clearance of amyloid β (Aβ in the brain. We hypothesize that uptake of Aβ in conjunction with p75NTR followed by its degradation in lysosomes endows cholinergic basalo-cortical projections enriched in this receptor a facility for maintaining physiological levels of Aβ in target areas. Thus, in addition to the diffuse modulator influence and channeling of extra-thalamic signals, cholinergic innervations could supply the cerebral cortex with an elaborate system for Aβ drainage. Interpreting the emerging relationship of new molecular data with established role of cholinergic modulator system in regulating cortical network dynamics should provide new insights into the brain physiology and mechanisms of neuro-degenerative diseases.

  9. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, S; Tadenuma, T; Tanaka, Y; Fukui, F; Kobayashi, S; Ohashi, Y; Kawabata, T

    2001-10-15

    The effects of a carnitine derivative, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), on the cognitive and cholinergic activities of aging rats were examined. Rats were given ALCAR (100 mg/kg) per os for 3 months and were subjected to the Hebb-Williams tasks and a new maze task, AKON-1, to assess their learning capacity. The learning capacity of the ALCAR-treated group was superior to that of the control. Cholinergic activities were determined with synaptosomes isolated from the cortices. The high-affinity choline uptake by synaptosomes, acetylcholine synthesis in synaptosomes, and acetylcholine release from synaptosomes on membrane depolarization were all enhanced in the ALCAR group. This study indicates that chronic administration of ALCAR increases cholinergic synaptic transmission and consequently enhances learning capacity as a cognitive function in aging rats. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohanich, G P; Cada, D A

    1989-12-01

    Androgens have been found to inhibit lordosis activated by estrogen treatment of ovariectomized female rats. In the present experiments, dihydrotestosterone propionate (200 micrograms for 3 days) inhibited the incidence of lordosis in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (1 microgram for 3 days). This inhibition of lordosis was reversed 15 min after bilateral intraventricular infusion of physostigmine (10 micrograms/cannula), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or carbachol (0.5 microgram/cannula), a cholinergic receptor agonist. This reversal of inhibition appears to be mediated by cholinergic muscarinic receptors since pretreatment with scopolamine (4 mg/kg, ip), a muscarinic receptor blocker, prevented the reversal of androgen inhibition by physostigmine. These results indicate that androgens may inhibit estrogen-activated lordosis through interference with central cholinergic muscarinic mechanisms.

  11. Selective Activation of Cholinergic Interneurons Enhances Accumbal Phasic Dopamine Release: Setting the Tone for Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cachope

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays a critical role in motor control, addiction, and reward-seeking behaviors, and its release dynamics have traditionally been linked to changes in midbrain dopamine neuron activity. Here, we report that selective endogenous cholinergic activation achieved via in vitro optogenetic stimulation of nucleus accumbens, a terminal field of dopaminergic neurons, elicits real-time dopamine release. This mechanism occurs via direct actions on dopamine terminals, does not require changes in neuron firing within the midbrain, and is dependent on glutamatergic receptor activity. More importantly, we demonstrate that in vivo selective activation of cholinergic interneurons is sufficient to elicit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, the control of accumbal extracellular dopamine levels by endogenous cholinergic activity results from a complex convergence of neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems that may ultimately synergize to drive motivated behavior.

  12. A cholinergic contribution to the circulatory responses evoked at the onset of handgrip exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianna, Lauro C; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response......-induced fall in SVR and, thereby, augmented the pressor response (+13 ± 3 mmHg at 10 s; P exercise. These findings suggest that a cholinergic mechanism is important for the BP...... resistance (SVR) in young healthy males, while performing either 20 s of isometric handgrip contraction at 40% maximum voluntary contraction (protocol 1; n = 9) or 20 s of low-intensity leg cycling exercise (protocol 2; n = 8, 42 ± 8 W). Exercise trials were conducted under control (no drug) conditions...

  13. Asynchronous Cholinergic Drive Correlates with Excitation-Inhibition Imbalance via a Neuronal Ca2+ Sensor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-inhibition imbalance in neural networks is widely linked to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, how genetic factors alter neuronal activity, leading to excitation-inhibition imbalance, remains unclear. Here, using the C. elegans locomotor circuit, we examine how altering neuronal activity for varying time periods affects synaptic release pattern and animal behavior. We show that while short-duration activation of excitatory cholinergic neurons elicits a reversible enhancement of presynaptic strength, persistent activation results to asynchronous and reduced cholinergic drive, inducing imbalance between endogenous excitation and inhibition. We find that the neuronal calcium sensor protein NCS-2 is required for asynchronous cholinergic release in an activity-dependent manner and dampens excitability of inhibitory neurons non-cell autonomously. The function of NCS-2 requires its Ca2+ binding and membrane association domains. These results reveal a synaptic mechanism implicating asynchronous release in regulation of excitation-inhibition balance.

  14. Localization of pre- and postsynaptic cholinergic markers in rodent forebrain : A brief history and comparison of rat and mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, E. A.; Keijser, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Rat and mouse models are widely used for studies in cognition and pathophysiology, among others. Here, we sought to determine to what extent these two model species differ for cholinergic and cholinoceptive features. For this purpose, we focused on cholinergic innervation patterns based on choline

  15. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

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    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    hippocampal pyramidal layer thickness and live neurons in IBO induced rats, with slight pathological changes in the entorhinal cortex (EC of rat brain, which was prevented on RSV administration. Our study thus concludes that RSV administration significantly ameliorated the deleterious effects in the IBO lesioned rat model for AD by alleviating cholinergic pathways, reducing oxidative stress and thereby improving spatial memory.

  16. Cholinergic enhancement reduces functional connectivity and BOLD variability in visual extrastriate cortex during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bernardi, Giulio; Pietrini, Pietro; Furey, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cholinergic function improves performance on various cognitive tasks and alters neural responses in task specific brain regions. We have hypothesized that the changes in neural activity observed during increased cholinergic function reflect an increase in neural efficiency that leads to improved task performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by assessing neural efficiency based on cholinergically-mediated effects on regional brain connectivity and BOLD signal variability. Nine subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover fMRI study. Following an infusion of physostigmine (1 mg/h) or placebo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) was conducted as participants performed a selective attention task. During the task, two images comprised of superimposed pictures of faces and houses were presented. Subjects were instructed periodically to shift their attention from one stimulus component to the other and to perform a matching task using hand held response buttons. A control condition included phase-scrambled images of superimposed faces and houses that were presented in the same temporal and spatial manner as the attention task; participants were instructed to perform a matching task. Cholinergic enhancement improved performance during the selective attention task, with no change during the control task. Functional connectivity analyses showed that the strength of connectivity between ventral visual processing areas and task-related occipital, parietal and prefrontal regions reduced significantly during cholinergic enhancement, exclusively during the selective attention task. Physostigmine administration also reduced BOLD signal temporal variability relative to placebo throughout temporal and occipital visual processing areas, again during the selective attention task only. Together with the observed behavioral improvement, the decreases in connectivity strength throughout task-relevant regions and BOLD variability within stimulus

  17. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for mediation of the arousing action of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Zoltán; Abdurakhmanova, Shamsiiat; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2017-09-18

    The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin. In eight Han-Wistar rats with implanted electroencephalogram/electromyogram (EEG/EMG) electrodes and guide cannulas for microdialysis probes, 0.23 μg 192 IgG-saporin was administered into the basal forebrain, while the eight control animals received artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Two weeks later, a microdialysis probe targeted into the basal forebrain was perfused with cerebrospinal fluid on the baseline day and for 3 h with 0.3 mmNMDA on the subsequent day. Sleep-wake activity was recorded for 24 h on both days. NMDA exhibited a robust arousing effect in both the intact and the lesioned rats. Wakefulness was increased and both non-REM and REM sleep were decreased significantly during the 3-h NMDA perfusion. Destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones did not abolish the wake-enhancing action of NMDA. Thus, the cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for the mediation of the arousing action of glutamate. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in mice

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    Chun eYang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic & PV neurons with the size (>20 µm and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2 min bath application of adenosine (100 μM decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1 μM. Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1-receptor mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically-projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required for

  19. Participation of the cholinergic system in the ethanol-induced suppression of paradoxical sleep in rats

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    L.A. Papale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is among the many consequences of ethanol abuse in both humans and rodents. Ethanol consumption can reduce REM or paradoxical sleep (PS in humans and rats, respectively. The first aim of this study was to develop an animal model of ethanol-induced PS suppression. This model administered intragastrically (by gavage to male Wistar rats (3 months old, 200-250 g 0.5 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol. The 3.5 g/kg dose of ethanol suppressed the PS stage compared with the vehicle group (distilled water during the first 2-h interval (0-2 h; 1.3 vs 10.2; P < 0.001. The second aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which ethanol suppresses PS. We examined the effects of cholinergic drug pretreatment. The cholinergic system was chosen because of the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmitters in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. A second set of animals was pretreated with 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg pilocarpine (cholinergic agonist or atropine (cholinergic antagonist. These drugs were administered 1 h prior to ethanol (3.5 g/kg or vehicle. Treatment with atropine prior to vehicle or ethanol produced a statistically significant decrease in PS, whereas pilocarpine had no effect on minutes of PS. Although the mechanism by which ethanol induces PS suppression is not fully understood, these data suggest that the cholinergic system is not the only system involved in this interaction.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sanghuangporus sanghuang Mycelium

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    Wang-Ching Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1, believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 and Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor Nrf2/Kelch Like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  1. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Holm; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael Linnemann

    2014-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved...... in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7–P15), nicotine induced larger...... intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15–P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells...

  2. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

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    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  4. Cognitive impairment as a central cholinergic deficit in patients with Myasthenia Gravis

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    Antonia Kaltsatou

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: VCmax and ACmax are governed mainly by the action of the Parasympathetic Nervous System, through acetylcholine. The results of this study demonstrate that the CNS may be affected in MG and support the hypothesis that MG has central cholinergic effects manifested by cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Activation of vascular cholinergic and adrenergic receptors induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, G.

    1999-10-01

    Activation of vascular cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors plays an important role in vasomotoricity and peripheric vascular resistance. These factors are essential in maintaining a stable blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the radiosensitivity differences between vascular cholinergic receptors and adrenoceptors, and consequently to determinate the effects of ionizing radiation (whole body irradiation) on contractile response regulation of vascular smooth muscle fibers VSMF isolated from rat portal vein. Our results show that Clonidine, (non-specific adrenergic agonist), and phenylephrine which is more specific α1-adrenoceptor agonist, increase the VSMF contractions. The maximum effect is obtained at 10 -5 - 3.10 -5 M. On irradiated rats (1-3-5 Gy), there is an important shift thus, the maximal response (E m ax) can be obtained in lower concentrations of clonidine and phenylephrine. Irradiation deceases the contractile responses of VSMF mediated by cholinergic stimulation, in a dose dependant manner. With E m ax 1 Gy>E m ax 3 Gy>E m ax 5 Gy. Irradiated muscular fibers became less sensitive to acetylcholine, thus 3.10 -8 M. A. ch induced more than 50% of contraction force increase in normal conditions. This concentration induce generally a negligible effect after irradiation. The results reveal the existence of radiosensitivity differences between vascular cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. (author)

  6. Cholinergic Modulation of Cortical Microcircuits Is Layer-Specific: Evidence from Rodent, Monkey and Human Brain

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    Joshua Obermayer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence. From recent discoveries in the mouse, rat, monkey and human brain, a picture emerges in which the basal forebrain (BF cholinergic system targets the neocortex with much more spatial and temporal detail than previously considered. Fast cholinergic synapses acting on a millisecond time scale are abundant in the mammalian cerebral cortex, and provide BF cholinergic neurons with the possibility to rapidly alter information flow in cortical microcircuits. Finally, recent studies have outlined novel mechanisms of how cholinergic projections from the BF affect synaptic strength in several brain areas of the rodent brain, with behavioral consequences. This review highlights these exciting developments and discusses how these findings translate to human brain circuitries.

  7. Cholinergic enhancement modulates neural correlates of selective attention and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Thiel, Christiane M; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J

    2003-09-01

    Neocortical cholinergic afferents are proposed to influence both selective attention and emotional processing. In a study of healthy adults we used event-related fMRI while orthogonally manipulating attention and emotionality to examine regions showing effects of cholinergic modulation by the anticholinesterase physostigmine. Either face or house pictures appeared at task-relevant locations, with the alternative picture type at irrelevant locations. Faces had either neutral or fearful expressions. Physostigmine increased relative activity within the anterior fusiform gyrus for faces at attended, versus unattended, locations, but decreased relative activity within the posterolateral occipital cortex for houses in attended, versus unattended, locations. A similar pattern of regional differences in the effect of physostigmine on cue-evoked responses was also present in the absence of stimuli. Cholinergic enhancement augmented the relative neuronal response within the middle fusiform gyrus to fearful faces, whether at attended or unattended locations. By contrast, physostigmine influenced responses in the orbitofrontal, intraparietal and cingulate cortices to fearful faces when faces occupied task-irrelevant locations. These findings suggest that acetylcholine may modulate both selective attention and emotional processes through independent, region-specific effects within the extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, cholinergic inputs to the frontoparietal cortex may influence the allocation of attention to emotional information.

  8. Control of cerebral cortical blood flow by stimulation of basal forebrain cholinergic areas in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Harumi; Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Maruyama, Naoki

    2011-05-01

    We examined whether activity of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) regulates regional cerebral cortical blood flow (rCBF) in mice, using laser speckle and laser Doppler flowmetry. In anesthetized mice, unilateral focal stimulation, either electrical or chemical, of the NBM increased rCBF of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, independent of changes in systemic blood pressure. Most of vasodilative responses to low intensity stimuli (2 times threshold intensity: 2T) were abolished by atropine (a muscarinic cholinergic blocker), whereas responses to higher intensity stimuli (3T) were abolished by atropine and mecamylamine (a nicotinic cholinergic blocker). Blood flow changes were largest when the tip of the electrode was located within the area containing cholinergic neurons shown by choline acetyltransferase-immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain neurons in mice cause vasodilation in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex by a combination of muscarinic and nicotinic mechanisms, as previously found in rats and cats.

  9. Hypo Activity of Cholinergic System in Patients with Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidescu, L.; Codorean, I.; Matei, C.; Barret, O.; Mazere, J.; Guyot, M.; Rimbu, A.; Allard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Objective A cholinergic dysfunction was documented in advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease. In order to specify the cholinergic involvement in early stages, we performed a presynaptic imaging study of the cholinergic system using a vesicular Acetylcholine transporter ligand labelled with iodine 123 ( 123 I-IBVM - Iodobenzovesamicol) Materials And Methods Eight patients (5 women and 3 men, 74-89 years, MMS>23) and 8 controls (6 women and 2 men, 72-80 years, MMS>30) have been evaluated using the neuropsychological tests; cerebral SPECT was performed 6 hours after intravenous injection of 218±19 MBq of 123 I - IBVM (30 min, 3 volume, 128x128) and the 3D MRI (T1 weighted images). Acquisition data were processed by filtered retroprojection (Butterworth 5.35) and analysed with SPM software. Each examination was co-registered with the MRI of the patient, normalised in the MNI template and smoothed (10mm). Results The analyse of the group (two sample T-test, p 123 I-IBVM has been detected in the patients group, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results indicate that cholinergic dysfunctions appear very early in the development of Alzheimer's disease and affect the cortical structures involved in the attention process. Some studies are in progress to analyze imaging data with cognitive impairments of each patient. (author)

  10. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  11. Cholinergic Septo-Hippocampal Innervation Is Required for Trace Eyeblink Classical Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan-Lozano, Angela; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro; Carrion, Angel Manuel; Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of a selective lesion in rats, with 192-IgG-saporin, of the cholinergic neurons located in the medial septum/diagonal band (MSDB) complex on the acquisition of classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms. The MSDB lesion induced a marked deficit in the acquisition, but not in the retrieval, of eyeblink classical…

  12. Cholinergic stimulation enhances Bayesian belief updating in the deployment of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossel, Simone; Bauer, Markus; Mathys, Christoph; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J; Stephan, Klaas E; Friston, Karl J

    2014-11-19

    The exact mechanisms whereby the cholinergic neurotransmitter system contributes to attentional processing remain poorly understood. Here, we applied computational modeling to psychophysical data (obtained from a spatial attention task) under a psychopharmacological challenge with the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (Reminyl). This allowed us to characterize the cholinergic modulation of selective attention formally, in terms of hierarchical Bayesian inference. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject, crossover design, 16 healthy human subjects performed a modified version of Posner's location-cueing task in which the proportion of validly and invalidly cued targets (percentage of cue validity, % CV) changed over time. Saccadic response speeds were used to estimate the parameters of a hierarchical Bayesian model to test whether cholinergic stimulation affected the trial-wise updating of probabilistic beliefs that underlie the allocation of attention or whether galantamine changed the mapping from those beliefs to subsequent eye movements. Behaviorally, galantamine led to a greater influence of probabilistic context (% CV) on response speed than placebo. Crucially, computational modeling suggested this effect was due to an increase in the rate of belief updating about cue validity (as opposed to the increased sensitivity of behavioral responses to those beliefs). We discuss these findings with respect to cholinergic effects on hierarchical cortical processing and in relation to the encoding of expected uncertainty or precision. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415735-08$15.00/0.

  13. Modulation of cholinergic airway reactivity and nitric oxide production by endogenous arginase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Herman; Hamer, M.A M; Pethe, S; Vadon-Le Goff, S; Boucher, J.-L; Zaagsma, Hans

    1 Cholinergic airway constriction is functionally antagonized by agonist-induced constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO). Since cNOS and arginase, which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, use L-arginine as a common substrate, competition between both enzymes

  14. Cholinergic Modulation during Acquisition of Olfactory Fear Conditioning Alters Learning and Stimulus Generalization in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, Eloisa; Gooch, Allison; Lee, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in olfactory fear learning. Mice receiving pairings of odor and foot shock displayed fear to the trained odor the following day. Pretraining injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine had no effect on subsequent freezing, while the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly…

  15. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logemann, H.N.A.; Bocker, K.B.E.; Deschamps, P.K.H.; Kemner, C.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible.

  16. Hippocampal “cholinergic interneurons” visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Catudio-Garrett, Elizabeth; Gábriel, Robert; Wilhelm, Marta; Erdelyi, Ferenc; Szabo, Gabor; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations. PMID:25798106

  17. Hippocampal "cholinergic interneurons" visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Catudio-Garrett, Elizabeth; Gábriel, Robert; Wilhelm, Marta; Erdelyi, Ferenc; Szabo, Gabor; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations.

  18. Hippocampal cholinergic interneurons visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eYi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Release of acetylcholine (ACh in the hippocampus (HC occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlapping with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-Rosa and ChAT-tauGFP mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations.

  19. Cholinergic markers in the cortex and hippocampus of some animal species and their correlation to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Cuellar-Lemus, C A; Díaz-Cintra, S; Feria-Velasco, A I

    2014-10-01

    The cholinergic system includes neurons located in the basal forebrain and their long axons that reach the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. This system modulates cognitive function. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ageing, cognitive impairment is associated with progressive damage to cholinergic fibres, which leads us to the cholinergic hypothesis for AD. The AD produces alterations in the expression and activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), enzymes specifically related to cholinergic system function. Both proteins play a role in cholinergic transmission, which is altered in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus due to ageing and AD. Dementia disorders are associated with the severe destruction and disorganisation of the cholinergic projections extending to both structures. Specific markers, such as anti-ChAT and anti-AChE antibodies, have been used in light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy assays to study this system in adult members of certain animal species. This paper reviews the main immunomorphological studies of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in some animal species with particular emphasis on the cholinergic system and its relationship with the AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Acetylcholine produces contraction mediated by cyclooxigenase pathway in arterial vessels in the marine fish (Isacia conceptionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Moraga

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons. Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC for Ach (10–13 to 10–3 M, and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway.

  1. Dynamic changes in GABAA receptors on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons following sleep deprivation and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Barbara E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basal forebrain (BF cholinergic neurons play an important role in cortical activation and arousal and are active in association with cortical activation of waking and inactive in association with cortical slow wave activity of sleep. In view of findings that GABAA receptors (Rs and inhibitory transmission undergo dynamic changes as a function of prior activity, we investigated whether the GABAARs on cholinergic cells might undergo such changes as a function of their prior activity during waking vs. sleep. Results In the brains of rats under sleep control (SC, sleep deprivation (SD or sleep recovery (SR conditions in the 3 hours prior to sacrifice, we examined immunofluorescent staining for β2–3 subunit GABAARs on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunopositive (+ cells in the magnocellular BF. In sections also stained for c-Fos, β2–3 GABAARs were present on ChAT+ neurons which expressed c-Fos in the SD group alone and were variable or undetectable on other ChAT+ cells across groups. In dual-immunostained sections, the luminance of β2–3 GABAARs over the membrane of ChAT+ cells was found to vary significantly across conditions and to be significantly higher in SD than SC or SR groups. Conclusion We conclude that membrane GABAARs increase on cholinergic cells as a result of activity during sustained waking and reciprocally decrease as a result of inactivity during sleep. These changes in membrane GABAARs would be associated with increased GABA-mediated inhibition of cholinergic cells following prolonged waking and diminished inhibition following sleep and could thus reflect a homeostatic process regulating cholinergic cell activity and thereby indirectly cortical activity across the sleep-waking cycle.

  2. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, F; Tayebati, S K

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely diffused in central, peripheral, autonomic and enteric nervous system. This paper has reviewed the main mechanisms of ACh synthesis, storage, and release. Presynaptic choline transport supports ACh production and release, and cholinergic terminals express a unique transporter critical for neurotransmitter release. Neurons cannot synthesize choline, which is ultimately derived from the diet and is delivered through the blood stream. ACh released from cholinergic synapses is hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetyl coenzyme A and almost 50% of choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a high-affinity choline transporter. Parallel with the development of cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, cholinergic precursor loading strategy was tried for treating cognitive impairment occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Controlled clinical studies denied clinical usefulness of choline and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), whereas for other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) or alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine (choline alphoscerate) a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in adult-onset dementia disorders is documented. These inconsistencies have probably a metabolic explanation. Free choline administration increases brain choline availability but it does not increase ACh synthesis/or release. Cholinergic precursors to serve for ACh biosynthesis should be incorporate and stored into phospholipids in brain. It is probable that appropriate ACh precursors and other correlated molecules (natural or synthesized) could represent a tool for developing therapeutic strategies by revisiting and updating treatments/supplementations coming out from this therapeutic stalemate.

  3. Effects of acute exposure to chlorpyrifos on cholinergic and non-cholinergic targets in normal and high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakala, Sandeep; Lee, Jung Hwa; Ross, Matthew K; Howell, George E

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States with 36.5% of adults being classified as obese. Compared to normal individuals, obese individuals have noted pathophysiological alterations which may alter the toxicokinetics of xenobiotics and therefore alter their toxicities. However, the effects of obesity on the toxicity of many widely utilized pesticides has not been established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine if the obese phenotype altered the toxicity of the most widely used organophosphate (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPS). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed normal or high-fat diet for 4weeks and administered a single dose of vehicle or CPS (2.0mg/kg; oral gavage) to assess cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase activities) and non-cholinergic (carboxylesterase and endocannabinoid hydrolysis) endpoints. Exposure to CPS significantly decreased red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, but not brain AChE activity, in both diet groups. Further, CPS exposure decreased hepatic carboxylesterase activity and hepatic hydrolysis of a major endocannabinoid, anandamide, in a diet-dependent manner with high-fat diet fed animals being more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition. These in vivo studies were corroborated by in vitro studies using rat primary hepatocytes, which demonstrated that fatty acid amide hydrolase and CES activities were more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition than 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolase activity. These data demonstrate hepatic CES and FAAH activities in high-fat diet fed mice were more potently inhibited than those in normal diet fed mice following CPS exposure, which suggests that the obese phenotype may exacerbate some of the non-cholinergic effects of CPS exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mark H.; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael L.; Leonard, Christopher S.; Kohlmeier, Kristi A.

    2015-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on several parameters affecting LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7-P15), nicotine was found to induce larger intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15-P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells to a greater degree in younger animals, possibly linked to development associated differences found in nicotinic effects on action potential shape and afterhyperpolarization. We conclude that in addition to age-associated alterations of several properties expected to affect resting cell excitability, parameters affecting cell excitability are altered by nicotine differentially across ontogeny. Taken together, our data suggest that nicotine induces a larger excitatory response in cholinergic LDT neurons from the youngest animals, which could result in a greater excitatory output from these cells to target regions involved in development of addiction. Such output would be expected to be promotive of addiction; therefore, ontogenetic differences in nicotine-mediated increases in the excitability of the LDT could contribute to the differential susceptibility to nicotine addiction seen across age. PMID:24863041

  5. Muscarinic receptors as targets for anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, María Elena

    2010-11-01

    ACh, the main neurotransmitter in the neuronal cholinergic system, is synthesized by pre-ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system and by post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers. There is increasing experimental evidence that ACh is widely expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic non-neuronal cells. The neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems comprise ACh, choline acetyltransferase and cholinesterase, enzymes that synthesize and catabolize ACh, and the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs, respectively), which are the targets for ACh action. This review analyzes the participation of the cholinergic system, particularly through mAChRs, in inflammation, and discusses the role of the different mAChR antagonists that have been used to treat skin inflammatory disorders, asthma and COPD, as well as intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases, to assess the potential application of these compounds as therapeutic tools.

  6. Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid: Pentacyclic Terpenoids with Promising Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Dharambir; Sharma, Ajay; Tuli, Hardeep S; Punia, Sandeep; Sharma, Anil K

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived products are not only served as dietary components but also used to treat and prevent the inflammatory associated diseases like cancer. Among the natural products pentacyclic terpenoids including ursolic acid and oleanolic acid are considered as the promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. The current review extensively discusses the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of these pentacyclic moieties along with their proposed mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the relevant patents have also been listed to present the health benefits of these promising therapeutic agents to pin down the inflammatory diseases. Expert opinion: Pentacyclic terpenoids are known to negatively down-regulate a variety of extracellular and intracellular molecular targets associated with disease progression. The major anti-inflammatory effects of these molecules have been found to be mediated via inactivation of NFkB, STAT3/6, Akt/mTOR pathways. A number of patents on UA & OA based moieties have been reported between 2010 and 2016. Still there have been only a few compounds which meet the need of sufficient hydro solubility and bioavailability along with higher anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, it is essential to develop novel derivatives of terpenpoids which may not only overcome the solubility issues but also may improve their therapeutic effects. In addition, scientific community may utilize nanotechnology based drug delivery systems so as to increase the bio-availability, selectivity and dosages related problems.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Mysrayn Y. F. A.; dos Santos, Simone M.; Silva, Danielle R.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. Ferraz; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Hallwass, Fernando; Bianchi, Otávio; Silva, Alexandre G.; Melo, Janaína V.; Machado, Giovanna; Saraiva, Karina L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Babassu oil extraction is the main income source in nut breakers communities in northeast of Brazil. Among these communities, babassu oil is used for cooking but also medically to treat skin wounds and inflammation, and vulvovaginitis. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of babassu oil and develop a microemulsion system with babassu oil for topical delivery. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mice ear edema using PMA, arachidonic acid, ethyl phenylpropiolate, phenol, and capsaicin as phlogistic agents. A microemulsion system was successfully developed using a Span® 80/Kolliphor® EL ratio of 6 : 4 as the surfactant system (S), propylene glycol and water (3 : 1) as the aqueous phase (A), and babassu oil as the oil phase (O), and analyzed through conductivity, SAXS, DSC, TEM, and rheological assays. Babassu oil and lauric acid showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice ear edema, through inhibition of eicosanoid pathway and bioactive amines. The developed formulation (39% A, 12.2% O, and 48.8% S) was classified as a bicontinuous to o/w transition microemulsion that showed a Newtonian profile. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of microemulsified babassu oil was markedly increased. A new delivery system of babassu microemulsion droplet clusters was designed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of vegetable oil. PMID:29430254

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysrayn Y. F. A. Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Babassu oil extraction is the main income source in nut breakers communities in northeast of Brazil. Among these communities, babassu oil is used for cooking but also medically to treat skin wounds and inflammation, and vulvovaginitis. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of babassu oil and develop a microemulsion system with babassu oil for topical delivery. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mice ear edema using PMA, arachidonic acid, ethyl phenylpropiolate, phenol, and capsaicin as phlogistic agents. A microemulsion system was successfully developed using a Span® 80/Kolliphor® EL ratio of 6 : 4 as the surfactant system (S, propylene glycol and water (3 : 1 as the aqueous phase (A, and babassu oil as the oil phase (O, and analyzed through conductivity, SAXS, DSC, TEM, and rheological assays. Babassu oil and lauric acid showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice ear edema, through inhibition of eicosanoid pathway and bioactive amines. The developed formulation (39% A, 12.2% O, and 48.8% S was classified as a bicontinuous to o/w transition microemulsion that showed a Newtonian profile. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of microemulsified babassu oil was markedly increased. A new delivery system of babassu microemulsion droplet clusters was designed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of vegetable oil.

  9. Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    administration of UII into the PPT nucleus increases REM sleep without inducing changes in the cortical blood flow. Intracerebroventricular injection of UII enhances both REM sleep and wakefulness and reduces slow-wave sleep 2. Intracerebroventricular, but not local, administration of UII increases cortical...... dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that the UII system is involved in functions regulated by acetylcholine, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that UII influences cholinergic PPT neuron activity and alters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns in rats. Local...... synaptic transmission because it persisted in the presence of TTX and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors. Collectively, these results suggest that UII plays a role in the regulation of REM sleep independently of its cerebrovascular actions by directly activating cholinergic...

  10. Uranium chronic contamination effects on the cholinergic system: in vivo and in vitro approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, H.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal which occurs naturally in the environment. It is both a chemical and a radiological toxicant. The aim of this work was: (i) to assess the effects of U chronic exposure on the cholinergic system (biosynthesis and breakdown enzymes, receptors and on behaviour of adult, young or predisposed to neuro-degenerative illness (ApoE KO) rodents; (ii) to grasp the neurotoxic effects of U on human neuronal cells. In vivo, this work shows a structure- (cortex more sensitive than hippocampus), rodent model- (young more sensitive than adults), time- (sub-chronic exposure more harmful than chronic exposure), exposure level- and isotope-dependent effect of U. In vitro, the study underlined the neuro-cytotoxic U potential and the presence of uranium precipitates in cells. These results show the deleterious impact of U on neuronal cells, and demonstrate that U induces impairments on the cholinergic system and the behaviour of rodents. (author)

  11. Brain cholinergic involvement during the rapid development of tolerance to morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Z. Z.; Oriaku, E. T.; Soliman, S. F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated administration of morphine on the activities of the cholinergic enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in specific brain regions were studied in rats treated with 10 mg/kg morphine for one or two days. Repeated administration of morphine was associated with a decline in the degree of analgesia produced and with a significant increase of AChE activity of the medulla oblongata. A single injection of morphine resulted in a significant decline in ChAT activity in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata regions. After two consecutive injections, no decline in ChAT was observed in these regions, while in the cerebral cortex the second administration elicited a significant decline. The results suggest that the development of tolerance to morphine may be mediated through changes in ChAT activity and lend support to the involvement of the central cholinergic system in narcotic tolerance.

  12. Cholinergic neuromodulation changes phase response curve shape and type in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus M Stiefel

    Full Text Available Spike generation in cortical neurons depends on the interplay between diverse intrinsic conductances. The phase response curve (PRC is a measure of the spike time shift caused by perturbations of the membrane potential as a function of the phase of the spike cycle of a neuron. Near the rheobase, purely positive (type I phase-response curves are associated with an onset of repetitive firing through a saddle-node bifurcation, whereas biphasic (type II phase-response curves point towards a transition based on a Hopf-Andronov bifurcation. In recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, cholinergic action, consistent with down-regulation of slow voltage-dependent potassium currents such as the M-current, switched the PRC from type II to type I. This is the first report showing that cholinergic neuromodulation may cause a qualitative switch in the PRCs type implying a change in the fundamental dynamical mechanism of spike generation.

  13. Effect of bite-raised condition on the hippocampal cholinergic system of aged SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tasuku; Mori, Daisuke; Miyake, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Shuu; Ono, Yumie; Takahashi, Toru; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2012-06-27

    Occlusal disharmony induces chronic stress, which results in learning deficits in association with the morphologic changes in the hippocampus, e.g., neuronal degeneration and increased hypertrophied glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. To investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired hippocampal function resulting from occlusal disharmony, we examined the effects of the bite-raised condition on the septohippocampal cholinergic system by assessing acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the medial septal nucleus in aged SAMP8 mice that underwent the bite raising procedure. Aged bite-raised mice showed decreased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and a reduced number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons in the medial septal nucleus compared to age-matched control mice. These findings suggest that the bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice enhances the age-related decline in the septohippocampal cholinergic system, leading to impaired learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on rat's cerebral neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xue Yilong; Luo Yun; Tian Lei; Pan Jingkun; Cui Xin

    2004-01-01

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSC) was examined. NSC isolated from two months old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum was cultivated in a DMEM/F12 medium containing EGF and bFGF, and was identified with morphological character and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, cultivating the NSC with the BMP4-added medium for 7-8 days, then the microscopical change were observed, ChAT and nestin double-labelling immunocytochemistry test was done. Results showed that about 34% NSC of neuron-like character was observed by microscope in the paper. That ChAT-positive cells coexist with nestin-positive cells was found by immunocytochemistry test. There were 28% ChAT-positive cells and 38% nestin-positive cells in the study. Cholinergic neurons differentiated from NSC could be induced by adding BMP4 to the medium

  15. Neuropharmacology of memory consolidation and reconsolidation: Insights on central cholinergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M G; Krawczyk, M C; Baratti, C M; Boccia, M M

    2014-01-01

    Central cholinergic system is critically involved in all known memory processes. Endogenous acetylcholine release by cholinergic neurons is necessary for modulation of acquisition, encoding, consolidation, reconsolidation, extinction, retrieval and expression. Experiments from our laboratory are mainly focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which acetylcholine modulates memory processes. Blockade of hippocampal alpha-7-nicotinic receptors (α7-nAChRs) with the antagonist methyllycaconitine impairs memory reconsolidation. However, the administration of a α7-nAChR agonist (choline) produce a paradoxical modulation, causing memory enhancement in mice trained with a weak footshock, but memory impairment in animals trained with a strong footshock. All these effects are long-lasting, and depend on the age of the memory trace. This review summarizes and discusses some of our recent findings, particularly regarding the involvement of α7-nAChRs on memory reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cholinergic modulation of visual and attentional brain responses in Alzheimer's disease and in health

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, P.; Driver, J.; Dolan, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Visuo-attentional deficits occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are considered more responsive to pro-cholinergic therapy than characteristic memory disturbances. We hypothesised that neural responses in AD during visual attentional processing would be impaired relative to controls, yet partially susceptible to improvement with cholinesterase inhibition. We studied 16 mild AD patients and 17 age-matched healthy controls, using fMRI-scanning to enable within-subject placebo-controlled c...

  17. Selective effects of cholinergic modulation on task performance during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Pietrini, Pietro; Haxby, James V; Drevets, Wayne C

    2008-03-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmitter system is critically linked to cognitive functions including attention. The current studies were designed to evaluate the effect of a cholinergic agonist and an antagonist on performance during a selective visual attention task where the inherent salience of attended/unattended stimuli was modulated. Two randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies were performed, one (n=9) with the anticholinesterase physostigmine (1.0 mg/h), and the other (n=30) with the anticholinergic scopolamine (0.4 mc/kg). During the task, two double-exposure pictures of faces and houses were presented side by side. Subjects were cued to attend to either the face or the house component of the stimuli, and were instructed to perform a matching task with the two exemplars from the attended category. The cue changed every 4-7 trials to instruct subjects to shift attention from one stimulus component to the other. During placebo in both studies, reaction time (RT) associated with the first trial following a cued shift in attention was longer than RT associated with later trials (pattention to houses condition (pattention to faces. Scopolamine increased RT relative to placebo selectively during trials greater than one (pattention to faces condition (pselective attention (ie trials greater than 1). Moreover, effects of cholinergic manipulation depend on the selective attention condition (ie faces vs houses), which may suggest that cholinergic activity interacts with stimulus salience. The findings are discussed within the context of the role of acetylcholine both in stimulus processing and stimulus salience, and in establishing attention biases through top-down and bottom-up mechanisms of attention.

  18. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  19. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Pranay [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Yadav, Rajesh S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Department of Crimnology and Forensic Science, Harisingh Gour University, Sagar 470 003 (India); Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Dwivedi, Hari N. [Babu Banarasi Das University, BBD City, Faizabad Road, Lucknow 227 015 (India); Pant, Aditiya B. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Khanna, Vinay K., E-mail: vkkhanna1@gmail.com [CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  20. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  1. Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kana Okada; Kayo Nishizawa; Tomoko Kobayashi; Shogo Sakata; Kazuto Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remai...

  2. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos + D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos + non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypoglycemia induced changes in cholinergic receptor expression in the cerebellum of diabetic rats

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    Anju TR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is found to be associated with central and peripheral nerve system dysfunction. Changes in acetylcholine receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study we showed the effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cerebellar cholinergic receptors, GLUT3 and muscle cholinergic activity. Results showed enhanced binding parameters and gene expression of Muscarinic M1, M3 receptor subtypes in cerebellum of diabetic (D and hypoglycemic group (D + IIH and C + IIH. α7nAchR gene expression showed a significant upregulation in diabetic group and showed further upregulated expression in both D + IIH and C + IIH group. AchE expression significantly upregulated in hypoglycemic and diabetic group. ChAT showed downregulation and GLUT3 expression showed a significant upregulation in D + IIH and C + IIH and diabetic group. AchE activity enhanced in the muscle of hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. Our studies demonstrated a functional disturbance in the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 in the cerebellum during insulin induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. Altered expression of muscarinic M1, M3 and α7nAchR and increased muscle AchE activity in hypoglycemic rats in cerebellum is suggested to cause cognitive and motor dysfunction. Hypoglycemia induced changes in ChAT and AchE gene expression is suggested to cause impaired acetycholine metabolism in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. The results shows that cerebellar cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and the hypoglycemia is causing more prominent imbalance in cholinergic neurotransmission which is suggested to be a cause of cerebellar

  4. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

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    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  5. Methyl-CpG binding-protein 2 function in cholinergic neurons mediates cardiac arrhythmogenesis.

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    Herrera, José A; Ward, Christopher S; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-15

    Sudden unexpected death occurs in one quarter of deaths in Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). People with RTT show a variety of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities and mouse models show similar problems including QTc interval prolongation and hypothermia. To explore the role of cardiac problems in sudden death in RTT, we characterized cardiac rhythm in mice lacking Mecp2 function. Male and female mutant mice exhibited spontaneous cardiac rhythm abnormalities including bradycardic events, sinus pauses, atrioventricular block, premature ventricular contractions, non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and increased heart rate variability. Death was associated with spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and complete conduction block. Atropine treatment reduced cardiac arrhythmias in mutant mice, implicating overactive parasympathetic tone. To explore the role of MeCP2 within the parasympathetic neurons, we selectively removed MeCP2 function from cholinergic neurons (MeCP2 ChAT KO), which recapitulated the cardiac rhythm abnormalities, hypothermia, and early death seen in RTT male mice. Conversely, restoring MeCP2 only in cholinergic neurons rescued these phenotypes. Thus, MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons is necessary and sufficient for autonomic cardiac control, thermoregulation, and survival, and targeting the overactive parasympathetic system may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent sudden unexpected death in RTT.

  6. Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

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    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-03-16

    A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy. Also, potential risks including uncontrolled growth of stem cells could be disastrous. In our novel protocol, we used basal forebrain cholinergic progenitor cells (BFCN) derived from human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hC-MSCs) which made it possible to obtain high-quality population of cholinergic neurons and in vivo in much shorter time period than previous established methods. Remarkably, the transplanted progenitors fully differentiated to cholinergic neurons which in turn integrated in higher cortical networks of host brains, resulting in significant improvement in cognitive assessments. This method may have profound implications in cell therapies for any other neurodegenerative disorders. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Acetylcholine content and viability of cholinergic neurons are influenced by the activity of protein histidine phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The first mammalian protein histidine phosphatase (PHP) was discovered in the late 90s of the last century. One of the known substrates of PHP is ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), which is responsible - amongst other functions - for providing acetyl-CoA for acetylcholine synthesis in neuronal tissues. It has been shown in previous studies that PHP downregulates the activity of ACL by dephosphorylation. According to this our present work focused on the influence of PHP activity on the acetylcholine level in cholinergic neurons. Results The amount of PHP in SN56 cholinergic neuroblastoma cells was increased after overexpression of PHP by using pIRES2-AcGFP1-PHP as a vector. We demonstrated that PHP overexpression reduced the acetylcholine level and induced cell death. The acetylcholine content of SN56 cells was measured by fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Overexpression of the inactive H53A-PHP mutant also induced cell damage, but in a significantly reduced manner. However, this overexpression of the inactive PHP mutant did not change the acetylcholine content of SN56 cells significantly. In contrast, PHP downregulation, performed by RNAi-technique, did not induce cell death, but significantly increased the acetylcholine content in SN56 cells. Conclusions We could show for the first time that PHP downregulation increased the acetylcholine level in SN56 cells. This might be a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases involving cholinergic deficits like Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22436051

  8. Topographic Organization of Cholinergic Innervation From the Basal Forebrain to the Visual Cortex in the Rat

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    Frédéric Huppé-Gourgues

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter for the regulation of visual attention, plasticity, and perceptual learning. It is released in the visual cortex predominantly by cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, where stimulation may produce potentiation of visual processes. However, little is known about the fine organization of these corticopetal projections, such as whether basal forebrain neurons projecting to the primary and secondary visual cortical areas (V1 and V2, respectively are organized retinotopically. The aim of this study was to map these basal forebrain-V1/V2 projections. Microinjections of the fluorescent retrograde tracer cholera toxin b fragment in different sites within V1 and V2 in Long–Evans rats were performed. Retrogradely labeled cell bodies in the horizontal and vertical limbs of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB and VDB, respectively, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and substantia innominata (SI, were mapped ex vivo with a computer-assisted microscope stage controlled by stereological software. Choline acetyltranferase immunohistochemistry was used to identify cholinergic cells. Our results showed a predominance of cholinergic projections coming from the HDB. These projections were not retinotopically organized but projections to V1 arised from neurons located in the anterior HDB/SI whereas projections to V2 arised from neurons located throughout the whole extent of HDB/SI. The absence of a clear topography of these projections suggests that BF activation can stimulate visual cortices broadly.

  9. Cholinergic and dopaminergic activities in senile dementia of Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E K; Marshall, E; Perry, R H; Irving, D; Smith, C J; Blessed, G; Fairbairn, A F

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of brain tissue in a recently identified group of elderly demented patients suggest a neurochemical basis for some of the clinical features. Senile dementia of the Lewy body type (SDLT) can be distinguished from classical Alzheimer disease (AD) clinically by its acute presentation with confusion frequently accompanied by visual hallucinations, and neuropathologically by the presence of Lewy bodies and senile plaques (but not generally neurofibrillary tangles) in the cerebral cortex. Reductions in the cortical cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase were more pronounced in individuals with (80%) compared to those without (50%) hallucinations and correlated strongly with mental test scores in the group as a whole. In the caudate nucleus, dopamine levels were related to the number of neurons in the substantia nigra, there being a 40-60% loss of both in SDLT--probably accounting for mild extrapyramidal features in some of these cases--compared with an 80% loss in Parkinson disease and no change in AD. The cholinergic correlates of mental impairment in SDLT together with the relative absence of cortical neurofibrillary tangles and evidence for postsynaptic cholinergic receptor compensation raise the question of whether this type of dementia may be more amenable to cholinotherapy than classical AD.

  10. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  11. Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors

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    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Wen, Y.F.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to pulsed, circularly polarized microwaves (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses at 500 pps, power density 1 mW/cm2, at an averaged, whole-body SAR of 0.6 W/kg) induced biphasic changes in the concentration of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions. These findings, which confirm earlier work in the authors' laboratory, were extended to include pretreatment of rats with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone (1 mg/kg, IP) before each session of exposure. The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems.

  12. The benefits of cholinergic enhancement during perceptual learning are long-lasting

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    Ariel eRokem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh regulates many aspects of cognition, including attention and memory. Previous research in animal models has shown that plasticity in sensory systems often depends on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus and/or task. However, experimentally increasing ACh release in the cortex can result in experience-dependent plasticity, even in the absence of behavioral relevance. In humans, the pharmacological enhancement of ACh transmission by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil during performance of a perceptual task increases the magnitude of perceptual learning (PL and its specificity to physical parameters of the stimuli used for training. Behavioral effects of PL have previously been shown to persist for many months. In the present study, we tested whether enhancement of PL by donepezil is also long-lasting. Healthy human subjects were trained on a motion direction discrimination task during cholinergic enhancement, and follow-up testing was performed 5-15 months after the end of training and without additional drug administration. Increases in performance associated with training under donepezil were evident in follow-up retesting, indicating that cholinergic enhancement has beneficial long-term effects on PL. These findings suggest that cholinergic enhancement of training procedures used to treat clinical disorders should improve long-term outcomes of these procedures.

  13. Is There a Canonical Cortical Circuit for the Cholinergic System? Anatomical Differences Across Common Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Jennifer J; Disney, Anita A

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function-a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable. However, comparative anatomy both within and across species reveals important differences in the structure of the cholinergic system. Here, we will review anatomical data including innervation patterns, receptor expression, synthesis and release compared across species and cortical area with a focus on rodents and primates. We argue that these data suggest no canonical cortical model system exists for the cholinergic system. Further, we will argue that as a result, care must be taken both in combining data from studies across cortical areas and species, and in choosing the best model systems to improve our understanding and support of human health.

  14. Is There a Canonical Cortical Circuit for the Cholinergic System? Anatomical Differences Across Common Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Coppola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function—a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable. However, comparative anatomy both within and across species reveals important differences in the structure of the cholinergic system. Here, we will review anatomical data including innervation patterns, receptor expression, synthesis and release compared across species and cortical area with a focus on rodents and primates. We argue that these data suggest no canonical cortical model system exists for the cholinergic system. Further, we will argue that as a result, care must be taken both in combining data from studies across cortical areas and species, and in choosing the best model systems to improve our understanding and support of human health.

  15. Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes on Drosophila melanogaster larval heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Cole A; Ritter, Kyle; Robinson, Jonathan; English, Connor; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue. In insects, ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of sensory neurons and is also prominent in the CNS. A full understanding regarding the regulation of the Drosophila cardiac physiology by the cholinergic system remains poorly understood. Here we use semi-intact D. melanogaster larvae to study the pharmacological profile of cholinergic receptor subtypes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), in modulating heart rate (HR). Cholinergic receptor agonists, nicotine and muscarine both increase HR, while nAChR agonist clothianidin exhibits no significant effect when exposed to an open preparation at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In addition, both nAChR and mAChR antagonists increase HR as well but also display capabilities of blocking agonist actions. These results provide evidence that both of these receptor subtypes display functional significance in regulating the larval heart's pacemaker activity.

  16. Spontaneous Vesicle Fusion Is Differentially Regulated at Cholinergic and GABAergic Synapses

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    Haowen Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The locomotion of C. elegans is balanced by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain the balance of synaptic transmission remain enigmatic. Here, we investigated the function of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in triggering spontaneous release at cholinergic and GABAergic synapses. Recordings of the miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs, respectively showed that UNC-2/CaV2 and EGL-19/CaV1 channels are the two major triggers for spontaneous release. Notably, however, Ca2+-independent spontaneous release was observed at GABAergic but not cholinergic synapses. Functional screening led to the identification of hypomorphic unc-64/Syntaxin-1A and snb-1/VAMP2 mutants in which mEPSCs are severely impaired, whereas mIPSCs remain unaltered, indicating differential regulation of these currents at cholinergic and GABAergic synapses. Moreover, Ca2+-independent spontaneous GABA release was nearly abolished in the hypomorphic unc-64 and snb-1 mutants, suggesting distinct mechanisms for Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent spontaneous release.

  17. Reorganization of Motor Cortex by Vagus Nerve Stimulation Requires Cholinergic Innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Daniel R; Hays, Seth A; Khodaparast, Navid; Ruiz, Andrea; Das, Priyanka; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with forelimb training drives robust, specific reorganization of movement representations in the motor cortex. The mechanisms that underlie VNS-dependent enhancement of map plasticity are largely unknown. The cholinergic nucleus basalis (NB) is a critical substrate in cortical plasticity, and several studies suggest that VNS activates cholinergic circuitry. We examined whether the NB is required for VNS-dependent enhancement of map plasticity in the motor cortex. Rats were trained to perform a lever pressing task and then received injections of the immunotoxin 192-IgG-saporin to selectively lesion cholinergic neurons of the NB. After lesion, rats underwent five days of motor training during which VNS was paired with successful trials. At the conclusion of behavioral training, intracortical microstimulation was used to document movement representations in motor cortex. VNS paired with forelimb training resulted in a substantial increase in the representation of proximal forelimb in rats with an intact NB compared to untrained controls. NB lesions prevent this VNS-dependent increase in proximal forelimb area and result in representations similar to untrained controls. Motor performance was similar between groups, suggesting that differences in forelimb function cannot account for the difference in proximal forelimb representation. Together, these findings indicate that the NB is required for VNS-dependent enhancement of plasticity in the motor cortex and may provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of VNS therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture

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    Freek J. Zijlstra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of β-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 are discussed.

  19. Cholinergic Potentiation and Audiovisual Repetition-Imitation Therapy Improve Speech Production and Communication Deficits in a Person with Crossed Aphasia by Inducing Structural Plasticity in White Matter Tracts.

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    Berthier, Marcelo L; De-Torres, Irene; Paredes-Pacheco, José; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María J; Alfaro, Francisco; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; López-Barroso, Diana; Dávila, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Donepezil (DP), a cognitive-enhancing drug targeting the cholinergic system, combined with massed sentence repetition training augmented and speeded up recovery of speech production deficits in patients with chronic conduction aphasia and extensive left hemisphere infarctions (Berthier et al., 2014). Nevertheless, a still unsettled question is whether such improvements correlate with restorative structural changes in gray matter and white matter pathways mediating speech production. In the present study, we used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to study treatment-induced brain changes in gray matter and white matter tracts in a right-handed male with chronic conduction aphasia and a right subcortical lesion (crossed aphasia). A single-patient, open-label multiple-baseline design incorporating two different treatments and two post-treatment evaluations was used. The patient received an initial dose of DP (5 mg/day) which was maintained during 4 weeks and then titrated up to 10 mg/day and administered alone (without aphasia therapy) during 8 weeks (Endpoint 1). Thereafter, the drug was combined with an audiovisual repetition-imitation therapy (Look-Listen-Repeat, LLR) during 3 months (Endpoint 2). Language evaluations, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were performed at baseline and at both endpoints in JAM and once in 21 healthy control males. Treatment with DP alone and combined with LLR therapy induced marked improvement in aphasia and communication deficits as well as in selected measures of connected speech production, and phrase repetition. The obtained gains in speech production remained well-above baseline scores even 4 months after ending combined therapy. Longitudinal DWI showed structural plasticity in the right frontal aslant tract and direct segment of the arcuate fasciculus with both interventions. VBM revealed no structural changes in other white matter tracts nor in cortical areas linked by these tracts. In

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Paresh; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Mohanty, Priya; Ghanim, Husam

    2007-07-01

    This review deals with the recent observations on the pro-inflammatory effects of glucose and the anti-inflammatory actions of insulin. Apart from being novel, they are central to our understanding of why hyperglycemia is a prognosticator of bad clinical outcomes including patients with acute coronary syndromes, stroke and in patients in the intensive care unit. The pro-inflammatory effect of glucose as well as that of other macronutrients including fast food meals provides the basis of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation in the obese and their propensity to atherosclerotic disease. The anti-inflammatory action of insulin provides a neutralizing effect to balance macronutrient induced inflammation on the one hand and the possibility of using insulin as an anti-inflammatory drug on the other. The actions of macronutrients and insulin described above explain why insulin resistant states like obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerosis. They also suggest that insulin may be antiatherogenic.

  1. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer' and Sjogren's diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  2. The role of muscarinic cholinergic signaling in cost-benefit decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura

    Animals regularly face decisions that affect both their immediate success and long term survival. Such decisions typically involve some form of cost-benefit analysis and engage a number of high level cognitive processes, including learning, memory and motivational influences. While decision making has been a focus of study for over a century, it's only in the last 20 years that researchers have begun to identify functional neural circuits that subserve different forms of cost-benefit decision making. Even though the cholinergic system is both functionally and anatomically positioned to modulate cost-benefit decision circuits, the contribution of the cholinergic system to decision making has been little studied. In this thesis, I investigated the cognitive and neural contribution of muscarinic cholinergic signaling to cost-benefit decision making. I, first, re-examined the effects of systemic administration of 0.3 mg/kg atropine on delay and probability discounting tasks and found that blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by atropine induced suboptimal choices (impulsive and risky) in both tasks. Since the effect on delay discounting was restricted to the No Cue version of the delay discounting task, I concluded that muscarinic cholinergic signaling mediates both forms of cost-benefit decision making and is selectively engaged when decisions require valuation of reward options whose costs are not externally signified. Second, I assessed the impact of inactivating the nucleus basalis (NBM) on both forms decision making and the effect of injecting atropine locally into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), or nucleus accumbens (NAc) core during the No Cue version of the delay discounting task. I discovered that although NBM inactivation failed to affect delay discounting, it induced risk aversion in the probability discounting task; and blockade of intra- NAc core, but not intra-OFC or intra-BLA, muscarinic cholinergic signaling lead to

  3. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  4. Alpha-1 antitrypsin: a potent anti-inflammatory and potential novel therapeutic agent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergin, David A

    2012-04-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has long been thought of as an important anti-protease in the lung where it is known to decrease the destructive effects of major proteases such as neutrophil elastase. In recent years, the perception of this protein in this simple one dimensional capacity as an anti-protease has evolved and it is now recognised that AAT has significant anti-inflammatory properties affecting a wide range of inflammatory cells, leading to its potential therapeutic use in a number of important diseases. This present review aims to discuss the described anti-inflammatory actions of AAT in modulating key immune cell functions, delineate known signalling pathways and specifically to identify the models of disease in which AAT has been shown to be effective as a therapy.

  5. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    possible modulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different histaminergic receptor antagonists, the selective histaminergic H1 receptor antagonist, i.e., chlorpheniramine (CHL) or the H2 receptor antagonist, i.e., cimetidine (CIM) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR resulted from the i.c.v. cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (PHY) were also examined in order to confirm and to analyze effects of cross interaction between central histaminergic and cholinergic systems on CSR. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) Standalone microinjection of different selective cholinergic receptor antagonists (PRZ, MTR or HEX) or different selective histaminergic receptor antagonists (CHL or CIM) into the NTS with each given dose had no effects on the CSR function and on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, respectively (P > 0.05). (2) The pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS with each corresponding dose could attenuate CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA in some degrees, which remarkably moved the posterior half range of ISP-MAP relationship curve downwards (P CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA were more obvious than those with PRZ (P CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA (P > 0.05). (3) The effects of pretreatment of CHL or CIM into the NTS with each corresponding dose on CSR resetting made by i.c.v. PHY were similar to those of pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS on CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA, and the decreasing effects of pretreatment with CHL into the NTS on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. PHY were more remarkable than those with CIM (P CSR resetting resulted from either HA or PHY into the lateral ventricle may partly involve the descending histaminergic or cholinergic pathway from the hypothalamus to NTS, which might evoke a cross activation of the cholinergic system in the NTS, via cholinergic M1 and M2 receptors mediation, especially the M2 receptors showing actions, or trigger another cross activation of the

  6. Is there a future for andrographolide to be an anti-inflammatory drug? Deciphering its major mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W S Daniel; Liao, Wupeng; Zhou, Shuo; Wong, W S Fred

    2017-09-01

    Andrographis paniculata has long been part of the traditional herbal medicine system in Asia and in Scandinavia. Andrographolide was isolated as a major bioactive constituent of A. paniculata in 1951, and since 1984, andrographolide and its analogs have been scrutinized with modern drug discovery approach for anti-inflammatory properties. With this accumulated wealth of pre-clinical data, it is imperative to review and consolidate different sources of information, to decipher the major anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action in inflammatory diseases, and to provide direction for future studies. Andrographolide and its analogs have been shown to provide anti-inflammatory benefits in a variety of inflammatory disease models. Among the diverse signaling pathways investigated, inhibition of NF-κB activity is the prevailing anti-inflammatory mechanism elicited by andrographolide. There is also increasing evidence supporting endogenous antioxidant defense enhancement by andrographolide through Nrf2 activation. However, the exact pathway leading to NF-κB and Nrf2 activation by andrographolide has yet to be elucidated. Validation and consensus on the major mechanistic actions of andrographolide in different inflammatory conditions are required before translating current findings into clinical settings. There are a few clinical trials conducted using andrographolide in fixed combination formulation which have shown anti-inflammatory benefits and good safety profile. A concerted effort is definitely needed to identify potent andrographolide lead compounds with improved pharmacokinetics and toxicological properties. Taken together, andrographolide and its analogs have great potential to be the next new class of anti-inflammatory agents, and more andrographolide molecules are likely moving towards clinical study stage in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of Egr-1, c-Fos and c-Jun in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cong; Dong, Liming; Lv, Jingwei; Wang, Yan; Fan, Bei; Wang, Fengzhong; Liu, Xinmin

    2018-01-05

    20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved. In this study, mice were pretreated with PPD (20 and 40 μmol/kg) and donepezil (1.6 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14 days. Then, open field test was used to assess the effect of PPD on the locomotor activity and mice were daily injected with SCOP (0.75 mg/kg) to induce cognitive deficits and then subjected to behavioral tests by object location recognition (OLR) experiment and Morris water maze (MWM) task. The cholinergic system function, oxidative stress biomarkers and protein expression of Egr-1, c-Fos, and c-Jun in mouse hippocampus were examined. PPD was found to significantly improve the performance of amnesia mice in OLR and MWM tests. PPD regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting SCOP-induced elevation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, decline of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and decrease of acetylcholine (Ach) level. PPD suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lowering maleic diadehyde (MDA) level. Additionally, PPD significantly elevated the expression of Egr-1, c-Fos, and c-Jun in hippocampus at protein level. Taken together, all these results suggested that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) may be a candidate compound for the prevention against memory loss in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the striatum reveals regulation of behaviour by cholinergic-glutamatergic co-transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica S Guzman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurons in the striatum are thought to play major regulatory functions in motor behaviour and reward. These neurons express two vesicular transporters that can load either acetylcholine or glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Consequently cholinergic neurons can release both neurotransmitters, making it difficult to discern their individual contributions for the regulation of striatal functions. Here we have dissected the specific roles of acetylcholine release for striatal-dependent behaviour in mice by selective elimination of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT from striatal cholinergic neurons. Analysis of several behavioural parameters indicates that elimination of VAChT had only marginal consequences in striatum-related tasks and did not affect spontaneous locomotion, cocaine-induced hyperactivity, or its reward properties. However, dopaminergic sensitivity of medium spiny neurons (MSN and the behavioural outputs in response to direct dopaminergic agonists were enhanced, likely due to increased expression/function of dopamine receptors in the striatum. These observations indicate that previous functions attributed to striatal cholinergic neurons in spontaneous locomotor activity and in the rewarding responses to cocaine are mediated by glutamate and not by acetylcholine release. Our experiments demonstrate how one population of neurons can use two distinct neurotransmitters to differentially regulate a given circuitry. The data also raise the possibility of using VAChT as a target to boost dopaminergic function and decrease high striatal cholinergic activity, common neurochemical alterations in individuals affected with Parkinson's disease.

  9. Optogenetic activation of septal cholinergic neurons suppresses sharp wave ripples and enhances theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Marie; Varga, Viktor; Berényi, Antal; Papp, Edit; Barthó, Péter; Venance, Laurent; Freund, Tamás F; Buzsáki, György

    2014-09-16

    Theta oscillations in the limbic system depend on the integrity of the medial septum. The different populations of medial septal neurons (cholinergic and GABAergic) are assumed to affect different aspects of theta oscillations. Using optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre mice, we investigated their effects on hippocampal local field potentials in both anesthetized and behaving mice. Cholinergic stimulation completely blocked sharp wave ripples and strongly suppressed the power of both slow oscillations (0.5-2 Hz in anesthetized, 0.5-4 Hz in behaving animals) and supratheta (6-10 Hz in anesthetized, 10-25 Hz in behaving animals) bands. The same stimulation robustly increased both the power and coherence of theta oscillations (2-6 Hz) in urethane-anesthetized mice. In behaving mice, cholinergic stimulation was less effective in the theta (4-10 Hz) band yet it also increased the ratio of theta/slow oscillation and theta coherence. The effects on gamma oscillations largely mirrored those of theta. These findings show that medial septal cholinergic activation can both enhance theta rhythm and suppress peri-theta frequency bands, allowing theta oscillations to dominate.

  10. On the effect of minocycline on the depressive-like behavior of mice repeatedly exposed to malathion: interaction between nitric oxide and cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Amirkhanloo, Roya; Arefidoust, Alireza; Yaftian, Rahele; Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of minocycline in mice exposed to organophosphate pesticide malathion and possible involvement of nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in this paradigm. Mice were administered specific doses of malathion once daily for 7 consecutive days. After induction of depression, different doses of minocycline were daily injected alone or combined with non-specific NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, specific inducible NOS inhibitor, AG, NO precursor, L-arginine, and PDE5I, sildenafil. After locomotion assessment in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the FST and TST. Moreover, hippocampal nitrite concentrations and acetylcholinesterase activity were measured. The results showed that repeated exposure to malathion induces depressive-like behavior at dose of 250 mg/kg. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility times in FST and TST (P minocycline (80 mg/kg) with either L-NAME (3 mg/kg) or AG (25 mg/kg) significantly exerted a robust antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST (P minocycline at the same dose which has antidepressant-like effect, significantly reduced hippocampal nitrite concentration. The investigation indicates the essential role for NO/cGMP pathway in malathion-induced depressive-like behavior and antidepressant-like effect of minocycline. Moreover, the interaction between nitrergic and cholinergic systems are suggested to be involved in malathion-induced depression.

  11. Nature is the best source of anti-inflammatory drugs: indexing natural products for their anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Miran; Rayan, Mahmoud; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Falah, Mizied; Raiyn, Jamal; Abdallah, Ziyad; Rayan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to index natural products for less expensive preventive or curative anti-inflammatory therapeutic drugs. A set of 441 anti-inflammatory drugs representing the active domain and 2892 natural products representing the inactive domain was used to construct a predictive model for bioactivity-indexing purposes. The model for indexing the natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity was constructed using the iterative stochastic elimination algorithm (ISE). ISE is capable of differentiating between active and inactive anti-inflammatory molecules. By applying the prediction model to a mix set of (active/inactive) substances, we managed to capture 38% of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the top 1% of the screened set of chemicals, yielding enrichment factor of 38. Ten natural products that scored highly as potential anti-inflammatory drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the PubMed revealed that only three molecules (Moupinamide, Capsaicin, and Hypaphorine) out of the ten were tested and reported as anti-inflammatory. The other seven phytochemicals await evaluation for their anti-inflammatory activity in wet lab. The proposed anti-inflammatory model can be utilized for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for indexing natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Meckes, M; Pérez, C; Susunaga, A; Zavala, M A

    2005-10-31

    Lippia dulcis hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models. Hexane extract showed to be inactive, but the ethanol extract at doses of 400 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and reduced the weight of cotton pellet-induced granuloma, moreover, the topical application of 0.5 mg/ear of this extract inhibited the edema induced with TPA by 49.13%, an effect which is of less intensity than that produced by indomethacine at the same dose.

  13. Novel anti-inflammatory agents in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukides, Stelios; Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD related inflammation is less responsive to inhaled steroids compared to asthma. There are three major novel anti-inflammatory approaches to the management of COPD. The first approach is phosphodiesterase...... on these strategies exist at the moment. A third potential approach involves novel agents whose mechanism of action is closely related to COPD mechanisms and pathophysiology. Such novel treatments are of great interest since they may treat both COPD and co-morbidities. Several novel agents are currently under...

  14. Medicinal herbs as possible sources of anti-inflammatory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds that can be valuable for research in the chemistry field of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review describes several plants from international and national flora that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in various clinical trials. The paper includes: general aspects regarding the vegetal source, compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, mechanism of action and clinical trials carried out with extracts or products containing standardized extracts.

  15. Potentiation by cholinesterase inhibitors of cholinergic activity in rat isolated stomach and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Emma M; Cellek, Selim; Sanger, Gareth J

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors stimulate gastrointestinal (GI) motility and are potential treatments of conditions associated with inadequate GI motility. The ability of itopride to facilitate neuronally (predominantly cholinergic) mediated contractions of rat isolated stomach, evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS), has been compared with other cholinesterase inhibitors and with tegaserod, a clinically effective prokinetic and non-selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonist which also facilitates GI cholinergic function. Neostigmine greatly increased EFS-evoked contractions over a narrow concentration range (0.01-1 microM; 754+/-337% facilitation at 1 microM); higher concentrations (1, 3 microM) also increased muscle tension. Donepezil increased EFS-evoked contractions gradually over the full range of concentrations (0.01-10 microM; maximum increase 516+/-20% at 10 microM). Itopride increased the contractions even more gradually, rising to 188+/-84% at 10 microM. The butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor iso-OMPA 0.01-10 microM also increased EFS-evoked contractions, to a maximum of 36+/-5.0% at 10 microM, similar to that caused by tegaserod (35+/-5.2% increase at 1 microM). The effects of tegaserod, but not itopride were inhibited by the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB-204070A 0.3 microM. In rat isolated colon, neostigmine was again the most efficacious, causing a defined maximum increase in EFS-evoked contractions (343+/-82% at 10 microM), without changing muscle tension. Maximum increases caused by donepezil and itopride were, respectively, 57.6+/-20 and 43+/-15% at 10 microM. These data indicate that the abilities of different AChE inhibitors to increase GI cholinergic activity differ markedly. Understanding the reasons is essential if AChE inhibitors are to be optimally developed as GI prokinetics.

  16. Differentiated NSC-34 motoneuron-like cells as experimental model for cholinergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Oliver; Böhm, Julia; Dahm, Michael; Brück, Stefan; Beyer, Cordian; Johann, Sonja

    2013-06-01

    Alpha-motoneurons appear to be exceedingly affected in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Morphological and physiological degeneration of this neuronal phenotype is typically characterized by a marked decrease of neuronal markers and by alterations of cholinergic metabolism such as reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. The motoneuron-like cell line NSC-34 is a hybrid cell line produced by fusion of neuroblastoma with mouse motoneuron-enriched primary spinal cord cells. In order to further establish this cell line as a valid model system to investigate cholinergic neurodegeneration, NSC-34 cells were differentiated by serum deprivation and additional treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Cell maturation was characterized by neurite outgrowth and increased expression of neuronal and cholinergic markers, including MAP2, GAP-43 and ChAT. Subsequently, we used differentiated NSC-34 cells to study early degenerative responses following exposure to various neurotoxins (H2O2, TNF-α, and glutamate). Susceptibility to toxin-induced cell death was determined by means of morphological changes, expression of neuronal marker proteins, and the ratio of pro-(Bax) to anti-(Bcl-2) apoptotic proteins. NSC-34 cells respond to low doses of neurotoxins with increased cell death of remaining undifferentiated cells with no obvious adverse effects on differentiated cells. Thus, the different vulnerability of differentiated and undifferentiated NSC-34 cells to neurotoxins is a key characteristic of NSC-34 cells and has to be considered in neurotoxic studies. Nonetheless, application of atRA induced differentiation of NSC-34 cells and provides a suitable model to investigate molecular events linked to neurodegeneration of differentiated neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the central amygdala induces antinociception in the guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite-Panissi C.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA in the modulation of defensive behavior and in antinociceptive regulation. In a previous study, we demonstrated the existence of a cholinergic-opioidergic interaction in the CEA, modulating the defensive response of tonic immobility in guinea pigs. In the present study, we investigated a similar interaction in the CEA, but now involved in the regulation of the nociceptive response. Microinjection of carbachol (2.7 nmol and morphine (2.2 nmol into the CEA promoted antinociception up to 45 min after microinjection in guinea pigs as determined by a decrease in the vocalization index in the vocalization test. This test consists of the application of a peripheral noxious stimulus (electric shock into the subcutaneous region of the thigh that provokes the emission of a vocalization response by the animal. Furthermore, the present results demonstrated that the antinociceptive effect of carbachol (2.7 nmol; N = 10 was blocked by previous administration of atropine (0.7 nmol; N = 7 or naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 7 into the same site. In addition, the decrease in the vocalization index induced by the microinjection of morphine (2.2 nmol; N = 9 into the CEA was prevented by pretreatment with naloxone (1.3 nmol; N = 11. All sites of injection were confirmed by histology. These results indicate the involvement of the cholinergic and opioidergic systems of the CEA in the modulation of antinociception in guinea pigs. In addition, the present study suggests that cholinergic transmission may activate the release of endorphins/enkephalins from interneurons of the CEA, resulting in antinociception.

  18. Neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh S; Chandravanshi, Lalit P; Shukla, Rajendra K; Sankhwar, Madhu L; Ansari, Reyaz W; Shukla, Pradeep K; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2011-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that curcumin protects arsenic induced neurotoxicity by modulating oxidative stress, neurotransmitter levels and dopaminergic system in rats. As chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans, the present study has been carried out to implore the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats. Rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) exhibited a significant decrease in the learning activity, assessed by passive avoidance response associated with decreased binding of (3)H-QNB, known to label muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in hippocampus (54%) and frontal cortex (27%) as compared to controls. Decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (46%) and frontal cortex (33%), staining of Nissl body, immunoreactivity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and expression of ChAT protein in hippocampal region was also observed in arsenic treated rats as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic and curcumin (100mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) increased learning and memory performance associated with increased binding of (3)H-QNB in hippocampus (54%), frontal cortex (25%) and activity of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus (41%) and frontal cortex (29%) as compared to arsenic treated rats. Increase in the expression of ChAT protein, immunoreactivity of ChAT and staining of Nissl body in hippocampal region was also observed in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. The results of the present study suggest that curcumin significantly modulates arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in brain and also exhibits neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of visual information processing in monkey V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimegi, Satoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Sato, Akinori; Aoyama, Chisa; Mizuyama, Ryo; Tsunoda, Keisuke; Ueda, Fuyuki; Araki, Sera; Goya, Ryoma; Sato, Hiromichi

    2016-09-01

    The brain dynamically changes its input-output relationship depending on the behavioral state and context in order to optimize information processing. At the molecular level, cholinergic/monoaminergic transmitters have been extensively studied as key players for the state/context-dependent modulation of brain function. In this paper, we review how cortical visual information processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkey, which has a highly differentiated laminar structure, is optimized by serotonergic and cholinergic systems by examining anatomical and in vivo electrophysiological aspects to highlight their similarities and distinctions. We show that these two systems have a similar layer bias for axonal fiber innervation and receptor distribution. The common target sites are the geniculorecipient layers and geniculocortical fibers, where the appropriate gain control is established through a geniculocortical signal transformation. Both systems exert activity-dependent response gain control across layers, but in a manner consistent with the receptor subtype. The serotonergic receptors 5-HT1B and 5HT2A modulate the contrast-response curve in a manner consistent with bi-directional response gain control, where the sign (facilitation/suppression) is switched according to the firing rate and is complementary to the other. On the other hand, cholinergic nicotinic/muscarinic receptors exert mono-directional response gain control without a sign reversal. Nicotinic receptors increase the response magnitude in a multiplicative manner, while muscarinic receptors exert both suppressive and facilitative effects. We discuss the implications of the two neuromodulator systems in hierarchical visual signal processing in V1 on the basis of the developed laminar structure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Cholinergic Nociceptive Mechanisms in Rat Meninges and Trigeminal Ganglia: Potential Implications for Migraine Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhina, Irina; Mikhailov, Nikita; Abushik, Polina; Nurullin, Leniz; Nikolsky, Evgeny E; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic innervation of meninges and ability of carbachol, acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR) agonist, to induce headaches suggests contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to primary headaches. However, neurochemical mechanisms of cholinergic regulation of peripheral nociception in meninges, origin place for headache, are almost unknown. Using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunohistochemistry, and staining of meningeal mast cells, we studied effects of cholinergic agents on peripheral nociception in rat hemiskulls and isolated trigeminal neurons. Both ACh and carbachol significantly increased nociceptive firing in peripheral terminals of meningeal trigeminal nerves recorded by local suction electrode. Strong nociceptive firing was also induced by nicotine, implying essential role of nicotinic AChRs in control of excitability of trigeminal nerve endings. Nociceptive firing induced by carbachol was reduced by muscarinic antagonist atropine, whereas the action of nicotine was prevented by the nicotinic blocker d-tubocurarine but was insensitive to the TRPA1 antagonist HC-300033. Carbachol but not nicotine induced massive degranulation of meningeal mast cells known to release multiple pro-nociceptive mediators. Enzymes terminating ACh action, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, were revealed in perivascular meningeal nerves. The inhibitor of AChE neostigmine did not change the firing per se but induced nociceptive activity, sensitive to d-tubocurarine, after pretreatment of meninges with the migraine mediator CGRP. This observation suggested the pro-nociceptive action of endogenous ACh in meninges. Both nicotine and carbachol induced intracellular Ca 2+ transients in trigeminal neurons partially overlapping with expression of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors. Trigeminal nerve terminals in meninges, as well as dural mast cells and trigeminal ganglion neurons express a repertoire of pro-nociceptive nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs, which

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sleep and dreaming: induction and mediation of REM sleep by cholinergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A

    1992-12-01

    The most important recent work on the neurobiology of sleep has focused on the precise cellular and biochemical mechanisms of rapid eye movement sleep mediation. Direct and indirect evidence implicates acetylcholine-containing neurons in the peribrachial pons as critical in the triggering and maintenance of rapid eye movement sleep. Other new studies provide support for the hypothesis that the cholinergic generator system is gated during waking by serotonergic and noradrenergic influences. A growing consensus regarding the basic neurobiology has stimulated new thinking about the brain basis of consciousness during waking and dreaming.

  3. Sympathetic ingrowth: A result of cholinergic nerve injury in the adult mammalian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes sympathetic ingrowth, its regulation and function. The study leads to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that probably underlie the regulation of other neuronal rearrangements. The authors examine tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the hippocampal formation after septal leasions. Preliminary experiments suggest that the septo-hippocampal fibers do influence tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake throughout the hippocampal formation in normal animals. If sympathetic ingrowth also can influence this uptake, this could provide further evidence for an adaptive role of this noradrenergic replacement of cholinergic neurons

  4. The role of the intrinsic cholinergic system of the striatum: What have we learned from TAN recordings in behaving animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Paul

    2017-09-30

    Cholinergic interneurons provide rich local innervation of the striatum and play an important role in controlling behavior, as evidenced by the variety of movement and psychiatric disorders linked to disrupted striatal cholinergic transmission. Much progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of how these interneurons contribute to the processing of information in the striatum. In particular, investigation of the activity of presumed striatal cholinergic interneurons, identified as tonically active neurons or TANs in behaving animals, has pointed to their role in the signaling and learning of the motivational relevance of environmental stimuli. Although the bulk of this work has been conducted in monkeys, several studies have also been carried out in behaving rats, but information remains rather disparate across studies and it is still questionable whether rodent TANs correspond to TANs described in monkeys. Consequently, our current understanding of the function of cholinergic transmission in the striatum is challenged by the rapidly growing, but often confusing literature on the relationship between TAN activity and specific behaviors. As regards the precise nature of the information conveyed by the cholinergic TANs, a recent influential view emphasized that these local circuit neurons may play a special role in the processing of contextual information that is important for reinforcement learning and selection of appropriate actions. This review provides a summary of recent progress in TAN physiology from which it is proposed that striatal cholinergic interneurons are crucial elements for flexible switching of behaviors under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide precursor protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA in the amygdala in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Sabrina; Seney, Marianne L; Argibay, Pablo; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    The amygdala is innervated by the cholinergic system and is involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). Evidence suggests a hyper-activate cholinergic system in MDD. Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide (HCNP) regulates acetylcholine synthesis. The aim of the present work was to investigate expression levels of HCNP-precursor protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA and other cholinergic-related genes in the postmortem amygdala of MDD patients and matched controls (females: N = 16 pairs; males: N = 12 pairs), and in the mouse unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model that induced elevated anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors (females: N = 6 pairs; males: N = 6 pairs). Results indicate an up-regulation of HCNP-pp mRNA in the amygdala of women with MDD (p < 0.0001), but not males, and of UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p = 0.037). HCNP-pp protein levels were investigated in the human female cohort, but no difference was found. There were no differences in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscarinic (mAChRs) or nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) between MDD subjects and controls or UCMS and control mice, except for an up-regulation of AChE in UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p = 0.044). Exploratory analyses revealed a baseline expression difference of cholinergic signaling-related genes between women and men (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, elevated amygdala HCNP-pp expression may contribute to mechanisms of MDD in women, potentially independently from regulating the cholinergic system. The differential expression of genes between women and men could also contribute to the increased vulnerability of females to develop MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Src Is a Prime Target Inhibited by Celtis choseniana Methanol Extract in Its Anti-Inflammatory Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis choseniana is the traditional plant used at Korea as a herbal medicine to ameliorate inflammatory responses. Although Celtis choseniana has been traditionally used as a herbal medicine at Korea, no systemic research has been conducted on its anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the present study explored an anti-inflammatory effect and its underlying molecular mechanism using Celtis choseniana methanol extract (Cc-ME in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Cc-ME was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, pam3CSK4 (Pam3, or poly(I:C. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Cc-ME was investigated using acute inflammatory disease mouse models, such as LPS-induced peritonitis and HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis. The molecular mechanism of Cc-ME-mediated anti-inflammatory activity was examined by Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation using whole cell and nuclear fraction prepared from the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and HEK293 cells. Cc-ME inhibited NO production and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in the RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages induced by LPS, pam3, or poly(I:C without cytotoxicity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that Cc-ME contained anti-inflammatory flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol. Among those, the content of luteolin, which showed an inhibitory effect on NO production, was highest. Cc-ME suppressed the NF-κB signaling pathway by targeting Src and interrupting molecular interactions between Src and p85, its downstream kinase. Moreover, Cc-ME ameliorated the morphological finding of peritonitis and gastritis in the mouse disease models. Therefore, these results suggest that Cc-ME exerted in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages and mouse models of

  7. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza Silva, M. A.; Dolga, Amalia; Pieri, I.; Marchetti, L.; Eisel, U. L. M.; Huston, J. P.; Dere, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that glutamatergic and cholinergic systems interact functionally at the level of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. The subunit composition of NMDA-R of cholinergic cells in the

  8. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Variation in Inflammatory Genes, and Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Witte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that prostatic inflammation plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer. It remains controversial whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Here, we investigate how a previously reported inverse association between NSAID use and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer is modulated by variants in several inflammatory genes. We found that NSAIDs may have differential effects on prostate cancer development, depending on one’s genetic makeup. Further study of these inflammatory pathways may clarify the mechanisms through which NSAIDs impact prostate cancer risk.

  9. Thyroid hormone modulates the development of cholinergic terminal fields in the rat forebrain: relation to nerve growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J D; Butcher, L L; Woolf, N J

    1991-04-24

    Hyperthyroidism, induced in rat pups by the daily intraperitoneal administration of 1 microgram/g body weight triiodothyronine, facilitated the development of ChAT fiber plexuses in brain regions innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to an earlier and increased expression of cholinergic markers in those fibers in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. A similar enhancement was seen in the caudate-putamen complex. This histochemical profile was correlated with an accelerated appearance of ChAT-positive telencephalic puncta, as well as with a larger total number of cholinergic terminals expressed, which persisted throughout the eight postnatal week, the longest time examined in the present study. Hypothyroidism was produced in rat pups by adding 0.5% propylthiouracil to the dams' diet beginning the day after birth. This dietary manipulation resulted in the diminished expression of ChAT in forebrain fibers and terminals. Hypothyroid treatment also reduced the quantity of ChAT puncta present during postnatal weeks 2 and 3, and, from week 4 and continuing through week 6, the number of ChAT-positive terminals in the telencephalic regions examined was actually less than the amount extant during the former developmental epoch. Immunostaining for nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R), which is associated almost exclusively with ChAT-positive somata and fibers in the basal forebrain, demonstrated a different time course of postnatal development. Forebrain fibers and terminals demonstrating NGF-R were maximally visualized 1 week postnatally, a time at which these same neuronal elements evinced minimal ChAT-like immunopositivity. Thereafter and correlated with increased immunoreactivity for ChAT, fine details of NGF-R stained fibers were observed less frequently. Although propylthiouracil administration decreased NGF-R immunodensity, no alteration in the development of that receptor was observed as a function of triiodothyronine treatment. Cholinergic

  10. Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil isolated from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds. Biological activity showed that the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The nitric oxide (NO) inhibition rate reached 67.46% when the concentration of the essential oil was 200 μg mL -1 . Further analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa might be exerted through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK (JNK and ERK1/2) signaling pathways to decrease NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) production. Thus, the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa is a good source of a natural product with a beneficial effect against inflammation, and it may be applied as a food supplement and/or functional ingredient.

  11. The investigation of anti-inflammatory activity of Yi Guanjian decoction by serum metabonomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Sufang; Cai, Xiaorong; Huang, Rongqing; Xiao, Bingkun; Yang, Jianyun

    2017-01-30

    Yi Guanjian (YGJ), one of the Chinese herbal medicines most commonly used in western countries, reported to possess significant anti-inflammatary effects that inhibit the process of inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammation effects remain largely unresolved. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of YGJ and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms by serum metabonomics approach. An xylene-induced mouse right-ear-edema model was used as an inflammatory response in vivo model. Ear edema, prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) and Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-alpha (TNF-α) were detected. Then, serum metabolic profiling was analyzed and pathway analysis performed on the biomarkers reversed after YGJ administration and further integration of metabolic networks. The results showed that YGJ alleviated ear edema and decreased serum PGE 2 and TNF-α levels. Fourteen biomarkers were screened, and the levels were all reversed to different degrees after YGJ administration. These biomarkers were mainly related to linoleic acid metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and citrate cycle (TCA cycle). In metabolic networks, glycine and pyruvate were node molecules. This indicated that YGJ could significantly inhibit inflammatory response triggered by acute local stimulation and exerted anti-inflammatory activity mainly by regulating node molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Snophia; Narayana, Satya; Jayakumar, P; Sudhakar, Uma; Pramod, V

    2013-01-01

    Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of Department of Periodontics, Thaimoogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Thirty patients selected were grouped into two groups, Group-I consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and on statin medication and Group-II consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-1β using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean GCF IL-1β levels in generalized chronic periodontitis patients who are on statin medication (Group-I) were lower than the generalized chronic periodontitis patients without statin medication (Group-II). Reduction of GCF IL-1β levels in statin users indicate that statins have anti-inflammatory effect on periodontal disease.

  13. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Ranking by Nondeterministic Assessments of Probabilistic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina luiza MOLDOVEANU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With a number of common therapeutic prescriptions, common mechanisms, common pharmacological effects - analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory (acetaminophen excepted, common side effects (SE (platelet dysfunction, gastritis and peptic ulcers, renal insufficiency in susceptible patients, water and sodium retention, edemas, nephropathies, and only a few different characteristics – different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and different therapeutic possibility, different selectivities according to cyclooxygenase pathway 1 and 2, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs similarities are more apparent than differences. Being known that in a correct treatment benefits would exceed risks, the question “Which anti-inflammatory drug presents the lowest risks for a patient?” is just natural. By the Global Risk Method (GRM and the Maximum Risk Method (MRM we have determined the ranking of fourteen NSAIDs considering the risks presented by each particular NSAID. Nimesulide, Etoricoxib and Celecoxib safety level came superior to the other NSAIDs, whereas Etodolac and Indomethacin present an increased side effects risk.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Melittin on Porphyromonas Gingivalis LPS-Stimulated Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woon-Hae; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Gwon, Mi-Gyeong; Gu, Hyemin; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Min-Kyung; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2018-02-05

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that contributes to the destruction of the gingiva. Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ) can cause periodontitis via its pathogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. However, the role of melittin in the inflammatory response has not been elucidated in periodontitis-like human keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin on a P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-treated HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The cytotoxicity of melittin was measured using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, and a Cell Counting Kit-8. The effect of melittin on PgLPS-induced inflammation was determined with Western blot, real-time quantitative PCT, and immunofluorescence. PgLPS increased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Moreover, PgLPS induced activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B/Akt. Melittin also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, ERK, and Akt. Melittin attenuates the PgLPS-induced inflammatory response and could therefore be applied in the treatment of periodontitis for anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of fisetin in human gingival fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Sánchez, Anabel; Ventura-Arroyo, Jairo Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Fisetin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid; however, its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not yet understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of fisetin and its association with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-beta pathways in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cell signaling, cell viability, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression of HGFs treated with various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 μM) of fisetin were measured by cell viability assay (MTT), Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis on COX-2. We found that fisetin significantly reduced the synthesis and expression of prostaglandin E2 in HGFs treated with LPS. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK was suppressed consistently by fisetin in HGFs treated with LPS. The data indicate that fisetin inhibits MAPK activation and COX-2 expression without affecting cell viability. These findings may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of the effect of fisetin on periodontal disease.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

    2014-06-01

    Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p. o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i. p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation

  17. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldini, Rita; Budriesi, Roberta; Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  18. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati ePaul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine, glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention.

  19. Evaluation of Cholinergic Deficiency in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Using Pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Frost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical cholinergic deficiency is prominent in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and published findings of diminished pupil flash response in AD suggest that this deficiency may extend to the visual cortical areas and anterior eye. Pupillometry is a low-cost, noninvasive technique that may be useful for monitoring cholinergic deficits which generally lead to memory and cognitive disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate pupillometry for early detection of AD by comparing the pupil flash response (PFR in AD (N=14 and cognitively normal healthy control (HC, N=115 participants, with the HC group stratified according to high (N=38 and low (N=77 neocortical amyloid burden (NAB. Constriction phase PFR parameters were significantly reduced in AD compared to HC (maximum acceleration p<0.05, maximum velocity p<0.0005, average velocity p<0.005, and constriction amplitude p<0.00005. The high-NAB HC subgroup had reduced PFR response cross-sectionally, and also a greater decline longitudinally, compared to the low-NAB subgroup, suggesting changes to pupil response in preclinical AD. The results suggest that PFR changes may occur in the preclinical phase of AD. Hence, pupillometry has a potential as an adjunct for noninvasive, cost-effective screening for preclinical AD.

  20. Specific multi-nutrient enriched diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansev, Mehmet; van Wijk, Nick; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Orhan, Fulya; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2015-01-01

    Fortasyn Connect (FC) is a specific nutrient combination designed to target synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease by providing neuronal membrane precursors and other supportive nutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FC on hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in association with its effects on synaptic membrane formation in aged rats. Eighteen-month-old male Wistar rats were randomized to receive a control diet for 4 weeks or an FC-enriched diet for 4 or 6 weeks. At the end of the dietary treatments, acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in the right hippocampi. On completion of microdialysis studies, the rats were sacrificed, and the left hippocampi were obtained to determine the levels of choline, ACh, membrane phospholipids, synaptic proteins, and choline acetyltransferase. Our results revealed that supplementation with FC diet for 4 or 6 weeks, significantly enhanced basal and stimulated hippocampal ACh release and ACh tissue levels, along with levels of phospholipids. Feeding rats the FC diet for 6 weeks significantly increased the levels of choline acetyltransferase, the presynaptic marker Synapsin-1, and the postsynaptic marker PSD-95, but decreased levels of Nogo-A, a neurite outgrowth inhibitor. These data show that the FC diet enhances hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission in aged rats and suggest that this effect is mediated by enhanced synaptic membrane formation. These data provide further insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms by which FC may support memory processes in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopaminergic/cholinergic interactions in the baboon brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Schlyer, D.J.; King, P.T.; Alexoff, D.L.; Volkow, N.D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between the dopaminergic D2 receptor system and the muscarinic cholinergic system in the corpus striatum of adult female baboons (Papio anubis) were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with [18F]N-methylspiroperidol [( 18F]NMSP) (to probe D2 receptor availability) and [N-11C-methyl]benztropine (to probe muscarinic cholinergic receptor availability). Pretreatment with benztropine, a long-lasting anticholinergic drug, bilaterally reduced the incorporation of radioactivity in the corpus striatum but did not alter that observed in the cerebellum or the rate of metabolism of [18F]NMSP in plasma. Pretreatment with unlabelled NMSP, a potent dopaminergic antagonist, reduced the incorporation of [N-11C-methyl]benztropine in all brain regions, with the greatest effect being in the corpus striatum greater than cortex greater than thalamus greater than cerebellum, but did not alter the rate of metabolism of the labelled benztropine in the plasma. These reductions in the incorporation of either [18F]NMSP or [N-11C-methyl]benztropine exceeded the normal variation in tracer incorporation in repeated studies in the same animal. This study demonstrates that PET can be used as a tool for investigating interactions between neurochemically different yet functionally linked neurotransmitters systems in vivo and provides insight into the consequences of multiple pharmacologic administration

  2. Adaptive processes of the central and autonomic cholinergic neurotransmitter system: Age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuna, S.; Pintor, A.; Michalek, H.

    1991-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of the ileum strip longitudinal and circular muscle to repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The response was measured in terms of both biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase-AChE inhibition, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites-mAChRs, choline acetyltransferase-ChAT) and functional responsiveness (contractility of the isolated ileum stimulated by cholinergic agonists). The biochemical data were compared with those obtained for the cerebral cortex. In the ileum strip of control rats there was a significant age-related decline of AChE, maximal density of 3 H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) and ChAT. During the first week of DFP treatment the cholinergic syndrome was more pronounced in aged than in young rats, resulting in 35% and 10% mortality, respectively; subsequently the syndrome attenuated. At the end of DFP treatment ileal AChE were inhibited by about 30%; the down-regulation of mAChRs was about 50% in young and 35% in aged rats. No significant differences in the recovery rate of AChE were noted between young and aged rats. On the contrary, mAChRs normalized within 5 weeks in young and 3 weeks in aged rats

  3. Outcomes from two forms of training for first-responder competency in cholinergic crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Klotz, Jessica J; Madsen, James M; Hurst, Charles G; Talbot, Thomas B

    2015-04-01

    Military and civilian first responders must be able to recognize and effectively manage mass disaster casualties. Clinical management of injuries resulting from nerve agents provides different challenges for first responders than those of conventional weapons. We evaluated the impact of a mixed-methods training program on competency acquisition in cholinergic crisis clinical management using multimedia with either live animal or patient actor examples, and hands-on practice using SimMan3G mannequin simulators. A purposively selected sample of 204 civilian and military first responders who had not previously completed nerve agent training were assessed pre- and post-training for knowledge, performance, self-efficacy, and affective state. We conducted analysis of variance with repeated measures; statistical significance p 20%, performance > 50%, self-efficacy > 34%, and affective state > 15%. There were no significant differences between the live animal and patient actor groups. These findings could aid in the specification of training for first-responder personnel in military and civilian service. Although less comprehensive than U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense courses, the training outcomes associated with this easily distributed program demonstrate its value in increasing the competency of first responders in recognizing and managing a mass casualty cholinergic event. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Bucci, David J; Gorman, Linda K; Wiley, Ronald G; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were given injections of either 192 IgG-saporin, an apparently selective toxin for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (LES), or vehicle (CON) into either the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (nBM/SI). Place discrimination in the Morris water maze assessed spatial learning, and a trial-unique matching-to-place task in the water maze assessed memory for place information over varying delays. MS/VDB-LES and nBM/SI-LES rats were not impaired relative to CON rats in acquisition of the place discrimination, but were mildly impaired relative to CON rats in performance of the memory task even at the shortest delay, suggesting a nonmnemonic deficit. These results contrast with effects of less selective lesions, which have been taken to support a role for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in learning and memory. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

    2013-06-15

    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  6. Catalpol Induces Neuroprotection and Prevents Memory Dysfunction through the Cholinergic System and BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role and mechanism of catalpol on neuroprotective effects and memory enhancing effects simultaneously, neuroprotective effects of catalpol were assessed by neurological deficits score, TTC staining, and cerebral blood flow detecting. Morris water maze was employed to investigate its effects on learning and memory and then clarify its possible mechanisms relating the central cholinergic system and BDNF. Edaravone and oxiracetam were used for positive control drugs based on its different action. Results showed that catalpol and edaravone significantly facilitated neurological function recovery, reduced infarction volume, and increased cerebral blood flow in stroke mice. Catalpol and oxiracetam decreased the escape latency significantly and increased the numbers of crossing platform obviously. The levels of ACh, ChAT, and BDNF in catalpol group were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and AChE declined with a U-shaped dose-response curve. Moreover, the levels of muscarinic AChR subtypes M1 and M2 in hippocampus were considerably raised by catalpol. These results demonstrated that catalpol may be useful for neuroprotection and memory enhancement, and the mechanism may be related to the central cholinergic system.

  7. Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in dementia of Alzheimer, Parkinson and Lewy body types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E K; Smith, C J; Court, J A; Perry, R H

    1990-01-01

    Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptor binding were measured in post mortem human brain tissue, using low (nM) concentrations of (3H)-nicotine to detect predominately the high affinity nicotinic site and (3H)-N-methylscopolamine in the presence and absence of 3 x 10(-4) M carbachol to measure both the low and high affinity agonist subtypes of the muscarinic receptor group. Consistent with most previous reports, the nicotinic but not muscarinic binding was reduced in the different forms of dementia associated with cortical cholinergic deficits, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and Down's syndrome (over 50 years). Analysis of (3H)-nicotine binding displaced by a range of carbachol concentrations (10(-9)-10(-3) M) indicated 2 binding sites for nicotine and that the high affinity rather than low affinity site was reduced in Alzheimer's disease. In all 3 cortical areas investigated (temporal, parietal and occipital) there were increases in the low affinity muscarinic site in Parkinson's disease and SDLT but not Alzheimer's disease or middle-aged Down's syndrome. This observation raised the question of whether the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (evident in the latter but not former 2 disorders) is incompatible with denervation-induced muscarinic supersensitivity in cholinoceptive neurons which include cortical pyramids generally affeted by tangle formation.

  8. [3H]cytisine binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabreza, L.A.; Dhawan, S.; Kellar, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cytisine, a ganglionic agonist, competes with high affinity for brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors labeled by any of several nicotinic 3 H-agonist ligands. Here we have examined the binding of [ 3 H]cytisine in rat brain homogenates. [ 3 H]Cytisine binds with high affinity (Kd less than 1 nM), and specific binding represented 60-90% of total binding at all concentrations examined up to 15 nM. The nicotinic cholinergic agonists nicotine, acetylcholine, and carbachol compete with high affinity for [ 3 H]cytisine binding sites, whereas among nicotinic receptor antagonists only dihydro-beta-erythroidine competes with high affinity (in the nanomolar range). Comparison of binding in several brain regions showed that [ 3 H]cytisine binding is higher in the thalamus, striatum, and cortex than in the hippocampus, cerebellum, or hypothalamus. The pharmacology and brain regional distribution of [ 3 H]cytisine binding sites are those predicted for neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist recognition sites. The high affinity and low nonspecific binding of [ 3 H]cytisine should make it a very useful ligand for studying neuronal nicotinic receptors

  9. Neural stem cells was induced to differentiate into cholinergic neurons in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Xu Yilong; Pan Jingkun; Tian Lei; Gao Yuhong; Guo Shuilong

    2004-01-01

    The cholinergic-inducing effect of BMP4 on isolated and cultivated rat's cerebral neural stem cells (NSCs) was examined. NSCs which were isolated from two month's old rat's brain region like hippocampus and striatum were cultivated in a medium containing EGF and bFGF, and were identified with morphological character by microscope and nestin immunocytochemistry test. After 24 hours, half NSCs were cultivated with a BMP4-added medium as a experimental group instead of the primary medium, while the an other half NSCs being cultivated with the primary medium as a control group. After 8 days the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of the cultivated cells was observated by indirect immunofluorescence test. Results showed that more positive cells were found in the experimental group, and the fluorescence intensity were stronger; while less positive cells were found in the control group, and the fluorescence intensity was weaker. The differentiational efficiency of the NSCs was examined by FITC-labelled Flow Cytometry. The results showed that about 16% cells of the experimental group appeared ChAT-positive, while that of control group only 7%. So BMP4 may have the function of inducing NSCs to differentiate into neurons with cholinergic characteristic. (authors)

  10. Memory and learning seems to be related to cholinergic dysfunction in the JE rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Chandravanshi, Lalit Pratap; Khanna, Vinay Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Cognitive changes have been known in encephalitis but in Japanese encephalitis (JE) such studies are limited. This study aims at evaluating the spatial memory and learning and correlate with markers of cholinergic activity in the brain.12day old Wistar rats were inoculated with dose of 3×10(6)pfu/ml of JE virus. On 10, 33 and 48days post-inoculation (dpi), spatial memory and learning was assessed by Y maze. Brain biopsies from frontal cortex, corpus striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were taken. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor was assayed by Quinuclidinyl benzylate (H3-QNB) binding, CHRM2 gene expression by real time PCR and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by Western blot. Spatial learning and memory showed significant decline in rats inoculated with JEV on 10 and 33dpi (47.5%, pmemory were found at different dpi. There was transient spatial learning and memory impairment which was associated with reduction of total muscarinic receptor binding, CHRM2 gene and ChAT expression in different brain region of rat infected with JE Virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Sparks

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh and serotonin (5-HT have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  12. Opposing Cholinergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Layer 6 in Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Daniel W; Tian, Michael K; Sargin, Derya; Venkatesan, Sridevi; Intson, Katheron; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is a hub for attention processing and receives abundant innervation from cholinergic and serotonergic afferents. A growing body of evidence suggests that acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) have opposing influences on tasks requiring attention, but the underlying neurophysiology of their opposition is unclear. One candidate target population is medial prefrontal layer 6 pyramidal neurons, which provide feedback modulation of the thalamus, as well as feed-forward excitation of cortical interneurons. Here, we assess the response of these neurons to ACh and 5-HT using whole cell recordings in acute brain slices from mouse cortex. With application of exogenous agonists, we show that individual layer 6 pyramidal neurons are bidirectionally-modulated, with ACh and 5-HT exerting opposite effects on excitability across a number of concentrations. Next, we tested the responses of layer 6 pyramidal neurons to optogenetic release of endogenous ACh or 5-HT. These experiments were performed in brain slices from transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin in either ChAT-expressing cholinergic neurons or Pet1-expressing serotonergic neurons. Light-evoked endogenous neuromodulation recapitulated the effects of exogenous neurotransmitters, showing opposing modulation of layer 6 pyramidal neurons by ACh and 5-HT. Lastly, the addition of 5-HT to either endogenous or exogenous ACh significantly suppressed the excitation of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal layer 6. Taken together, this work suggests that the major corticothalamic layer of prefrontal cortex is a substrate for opposing modulatory influences on neuronal activity that could have implications for regulation of attention.

  13. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  14. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible. In the current study we investigated the effect of facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine (Nicorette Freshmint 2mg, polacrilex chewing gum) on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of bias and disengagement. Sixteen non-smoking participants performed in a Visual Spatial Cueing (VSC) task while EEG was recorded. A randomized, single-blind, crossover design was implemented. Based on the scarce literature, it was expected that nicotine would specifically augment disengagement related processing, especially manifest as an increase of the modulation of the Late Positive Deflection (LPD) by validity of cueing. No effect was expected on bias related components (cue-locked: EDAN, LDAP; target-locked: P1 and N1 modulations). Results show weak indications for a reduction of the reaction time validity effect by nicotine, but only for half of the sample in which the validity effect on the pretest was largest. Nicotine reduced the result of bias as indexed by a reduced P1 modulation by validity, especially in subjects with strong peripheral responses to nicotine. Nicotine did not affect ERP manifestations of the directing of bias (EDAN, LDAP) or disengagement (LPD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive processes of the central and autonomic cholinergic neurotransmitter system: Age-related differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, S.; Pintor, A.; Michalek, H. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of the ileum strip longitudinal and circular muscle to repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The response was measured in terms of both biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase-AChE inhibition, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites-mAChRs, choline acetyltransferase-ChAT) and functional responsiveness (contractility of the isolated ileum stimulated by cholinergic agonists). The biochemical data were compared with those obtained for the cerebral cortex. In the ileum strip of control rats there was a significant age-related decline of AChE, maximal density of {sup 3}H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) and ChAT. During the first week of DFP treatment the cholinergic syndrome was more pronounced in aged than in young rats, resulting in 35% and 10% mortality, respectively; subsequently the syndrome attenuated. At the end of DFP treatment ileal AChE were inhibited by about 30%; the down-regulation of mAChRs was about 50% in young and 35% in aged rats. No significant differences in the recovery rate of AChE were noted between young and aged rats. On the contrary, mAChRs normalized within 5 weeks in young and 3 weeks in aged rats.

  16. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Di Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  17. Libidibia ferrea Mature Seeds Promote Antinociceptive Effect by Peripheral and Central Pathway: Possible Involvement of Opioid and Cholinergic Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Luis Armando; Monteiro, Vanessa Sâmia da Conçeição; Rabelo, Guilherme Rodrigues; Dias, Germana Bueno; Da Cunha, Maura; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins; Bastos, Gilmara de Nazareth Tavares

    2014-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea (LF) is a medicinal plant that holds many pharmacological properties. We evaluated the antinociceptive effect in the LF aqueous seed extract and Lipidic Portion of Libidibia ferrea (LPLF), partially elucidating their mechanisms. Histochemical tests and Gas chromatography of the LPLF were performed to characterize its fatty acids. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, formalin-induced pain, and hot-plate test in mice were employed in the study. In all experiments, aqueou...

  18. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  1. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  2. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim and objectives: Leaf extracts and fractions of S. bispinosa were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in mice using acute and chronic anti-inflammatory models with aspirin as a reference drug. Materials and methods: Methanol, chloroform and hexane were used to prepare leaf extracts by soxhlet extraction method, ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the Amorphophallus Bulbifer in Wistar rats and mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohol extract of A. bulbifer whole plant at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in rats was determined with a plethysmograph paw volume ...

  4. Bioassay guided isolation and identification of anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study describes the anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity and lipophilic profile with acute toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. Successive extraction of the leaves with organic solvents of increasing polarity and their screening for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity was assessed. Hexane extract ...

  5. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil’s claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle.

  6. Skeletal muscle secretome in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a pivotal anti-inflammatory role of adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, S; Abou-Samra, M; Boursereau, R; Noel, L; Brichard, S M

    2017-07-01

    Persistent inflammation exacerbates the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The hormone, adiponectin (ApN), which is decreased in the metabolic syndrome, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on skeletal muscle and alleviates the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice. Here, we investigate whether ApN retains its anti-inflammatory action in myotubes obtained from DMD patients. We unravel the underlying mechanisms by studying the secretome and the early events of ApN. Primary cultures of myotubes from DMD and control patients were treated or not by ApN after an inflammatory challenge. Myokines secreted in medium were identified by cytokine antibody-arrays and ELISAs. The early events of ApN signaling were assessed by abrogating selected genes. ApN retained its anti-inflammatory properties in both dystrophic and control myotubes. Profiling of secretory products revealed that ApN downregulated the secretion of two pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα and IL-17A), one soluble receptor (sTNFRII), and one chemokine (CCL28) in DMD myotubes, while upregulating IL-6 that exerts some anti-inflammatory effects. These changes were explained by pretranslational mechanisms. Earlier events of the ApN cascade involved AdipoR1, the main receptor for muscle, and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis leading, besides alteration of the myokine profile, to the upregulation of utrophin A (a dystrophin analog). ApN retains its beneficial properties in dystrophic muscles by activating the AdipoR1-AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway, thereby inducing a shift in the secretion of downstream myokines toward a less inflammatory profile while upregulating utrophin. ApN, the early events of the cascade and downstream myokines may be therapeutic targets for the management of DMD.

  7. Studies on anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, constant use of NSAID may lead to some side effects like gastrointestinal ulcers, bleeding and renal disorders. This study evaluates analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in female Wistar rats. Diclofenac sodium was used as a standard drug for comparison. L. rhamnosus, drugs and vehicle were administered orally. Acetic acid-induced writhing test and carrageenan-induced paw edema model were used for evaluation. Paw edema and number of writhes were measured subsequently. Pro-inflammatory (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were estimated in serum after 24 h. Results showed that L. rhamnosus significantly decreased the paw thickness at t=24 h by 28.66 % while drug decreased by 19.33 %. Also, L. rhamnosus treatment and standard drug showed a protection of 66.66 % and 41.66 %, respectively. L. rhamnosus and diclofenac sodium treatment significantly down-regulated pro-inflammatory and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines at prhamnosus was more pronounced in comparison to diclofenac sodium. The present study clearly suggests that L. rhamnosus suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema after second phase and decreased the acetic acid-induced writhings. It ameliorated the inflammatory pathways by down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, additional clinical investigations are needed to prove the efficacy of L. rhamnosus in treatment/management of inflammatory joint diseases.

  8. Subtle learning and memory impairment in an idiopathic rat model of Alzheimer's disease utilizing cholinergic depletions and β-amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S H; Weishaupt, N; Regis, A M; Hong, N S; Keeley, R J; Balog, R J; Bye, C M; Himmler, S M; Whitehead, S N; McDonald, R J

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease of complex etiology, involving multiple risk factors. When these risk factors are presented concomitantly, cognition and brain pathology are more severely compromised than if those risk factors were presented in isolation. Reduced cholinergic tone and elevated amyloid-beta (Aβ) load are pathological hallmarks of AD. The present study sought to investigate brain pathology and alterations in learning and memory when these two factors were presented together in rats. Rats received either sham surgeries, cholinergic depletions of the medial septum, intracerebroventricular Aβ25-35 injections, or both cholinergic depletion and Aβ25-35 injections (Aβ+ACh group). The Aβ+ACh rats were unimpaired in a striatal dependent visual discrimination task, but had impaired acquisition in the standard version of the Morris water task. However, these rats displayed normal Morris water task retention and no impairment in acquisition of a novel platform location during a single massed training session. Aβ+ACh rats did not have exacerbated brain pathology as indicated by activated astroglia, activated microglia, or accumulation of Aβ. These data suggest that cholinergic depletions and Aβ injections elicit subtle cognitive deficits when behavioural testing is conducted shortly after the presentation of these factors. These factors might have altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity and thus resemble early AD pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-Mee, Wipawee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai

    2014-01-01

    To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism. PMID:24672632

  10. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv. At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

  11. Role of the thalamic parafascicular nucleus cholinergic system in the modulation of acute corneal nociception in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of microinjections of acetylcholine (a cholinergic agonist, physostigmine (a cholinesterase inhibitor, atropine (an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and hexamethonium (an antagonist of nicotinic cholinergic receptors into the parafascicular nucleus of thalamus on the acute corneal nociception in rats. Acute corneal nociception was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution onto the corneal surface of the eye and the number of eye wipes was counted during the first 30s. Both acetylcholine and physostigmine at the same doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 μg significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the number of eye wipes. The intensity of corneal nociception was not changed when atropine and hexamethonium were used alone. Atropine (4 μg, but not hexamethonium (4 μg significantly (P < 0.05 prevented acetylcholine (2 μg- and physostigmine (2 μg-induced antinociceptive effects. The results indicated that at the level of the parafascicular nucleus of thalamus, the muscarinic cholinergic receptors might be involved in the antinociceptive effects of acetylcholine and physostigmine.

  12. Impaired hippocampal acetylcholine release parallels spatial memory deficits in Tg2576 mice subjected to basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    (BFCD) in 3 months old male Tg2576 mice to co-express cholinergic degeneration with Aβ overexpression as these characteristics constitutes key hallmarks of AD. At 9 months, SAP lesioned Tg2576 mice were cognitively impaired in two spatial paradigms addressing working memory and mid to long-term memory...

  13. Change of cholinergic transmission and memory deficiency induced by injection of b-amyloid protein into NBM of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The change of cholinergic transmission of b-amyloid protein (b-AP) treated rats was studied by intracerebral microdialysis sampling combined with HPLC analysis. b-AP1-40 was injected into nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Passive avoidance response test (step-down test) and delayed alternation task were used for memory testing. The impairment of memory after injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM exhibited mainly the deficiency of short-term working memory. One week after injection of b-AP1-40 the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from frontal cortex of freely-moving rats decreased significantly, and the response of cholinergic nerve ending to the action of high [K+] solution was rather weak. In control animals the percentage of increase of ACh- release during behavioral performance was 57%, while in b-AP1-40 - treated rats it was 34%. The temporary in-crease of the ACh-release of the rat put into a new place was also significantly diminished in b-AP1-40 -treated rats. The results show that the injection of b-AP1-40 into NBM impairs the cholinergic transmission in frontal cortex, and the impairment of cholinergic transmission may be the main cause of the deficit of working memory.

  14. Long-term effects of cholinergic basal forebrain lesions on neuropeptide Y and somatostatin immunoreactivity in rat neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Compaan, J.C.; Nyakas, C.; Horvath, E.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of cholinergic basal forebrain lesions on immunoreactivity to somatostatin (SOM-i) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY-i) was investigated in the rat parietal cortex, 16-18 months after multiple bilateral ibotenic acid injections in the nucleus basalis complex. As a result of the lesion, the

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Piper attenuatum Methanol Extract in LPS-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages. Pa-ME suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-, pam3CSK4-, and poly(I:C-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without displaying cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were decreased by Pa-ME. P-ME reduced the translocation of p50/NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos, as well as the activity of their upstream enzymes Src, Syk, and TAK1. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed failure of binding between their substrates, phospho- (p- p85 and p-MKK3/6. p-p85 and p-MKK3/6, which were induced by overexpression of Src, Syk, and TAK1, were also reduced by Pa-ME. Therefore, these results suggest that Pa-ME exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by targeting Src and Syk in the NF-κB signaling pathway and TAK1 in the AP-1 signaling pathway.

  16. Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of the Egyptian rousette flying fox, Rousettus aegyptiacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bourne, James A; Manger, Paul R

    2007-11-01

    Over the past decade much controversy has surrounded the hypothesis that the megachiroptera, or megabats, share unique neural characteristics with the primates. These observations, which include similarities in visual pathways, have suggested that the megabats are more closely related to the primates than to the other group of the Chiropteran order, the microbats, and suggests a diphyletic origin of the Chiroptera. To contribute data relevant to this debate, we used immunohistochemical techniques to reveal the architecture of the neuromodulatory systems of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegypticus), an echolocating megabat. Our findings revealed many similarities in the nuclear parcellation of the cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems with that seen in other mammals including the microbat. However, there were 11 discrete nuclei forming part of these systems in the brain of the megabat studied that were not evident in an earlier study of a microbat. The occurrence of these nuclei align the megabat studied more closely with primates than any other mammalian group and clearly distinguishes them from the microbat, which aligns with the insectivores. The neural systems investigated are not related to such Chiropteran specializations as echolocation, flight, vision or olfaction. If neural characteristics are considered strong indicators of phylogenetic relationships, then the data of the current study strongly supports the diphyletic origin of Chiroptera and aligns the megabat most closely with primates in agreement with studies of other neural characters.

  17. Airway reactivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Failure of in vivo methacholine responsiveness to correlate with cholinergic, adrenergic, or nonadrenergic responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S M; Paré, P D; Armour, C L; Hogg, J C; Schellenberg, R R

    1985-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether in vivo airways hyperreactivity was manifested by either enhanced bronchial smooth muscle responses to contractile stimuli or by deficient responses to relaxant stimuli in vitro. Quantitative responses to nebulized methacholine were obtained in 12 human subjects prior to pulmonary resection. The provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% reduction in FEV1 (PC20) was calculated, and these values were compared with in vitro responses of bronchial smooth muscle strips from the surgical specimens. Both contractile cholinergic responses and relaxant nonadrenergic noncholinergic dose-response data were obtained for the in vitro bronchial specimens by electrical field stimulation. In addition, cumulative dose responses were obtained to exogenously added methacholine, the beta-adrenergic agonist salbutamol, and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Despite a wide range of PC20 values, the in vivo airway responsiveness did not correlate with any of the in vitro responses examined, suggesting that airway reactivity is not due solely to the responsiveness of smooth muscle to contractile agonists nor to a localized deficiency in the nonadrenergic inhibitory system, beta-adrenergic inhibition, or abnormal cyclic-AMP-mediated pathways of relaxation.

  18. Facilitation and inhibition by capsaicin of cholinergic neurotransmission in the guinea-pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Mang, Christian F; Kilbinger, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    The effects of capsaicin on [3H]acetylcholine release and muscle contraction were studied on the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation of the guinea-pig ileum preincubated with [3H]choline. Capsaicin concentration-dependently increased both basal [3H]acetylcholine release (pEC50 7.0) and muscle tone (pEC50 6.1). The facilitatory effects of capsaicin were antagonized by 1 microM capsazepine (pK (B) 7.0 and 7.6), and by the combined blockade of NK1 and NK3 tachykinin receptors with the antagonists CP99994 plus SR142801 (each 0.1 microM). This suggests that stimulation by capsaicin of TRPV1 receptors on primary afferent fibres causes a release of tachykinins which, in turn, mediate via NK1 and NK3 receptors an increase in acetylcholine release. The capsaicin-induced acetylcholine release was significantly enhanced by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine (100 microM). This indicates that tachykinins released from sensory neurons also stimulate nitrergic neurons and thus lead, via NO release, to inhibition of acetylcholine release. Capsaicin concentration-dependently reduced the electrically-evoked [3H]acetylcholine release (pEC50 6.4) and twitch contractions (pEC50 5.9). The inhibitory effects were not affected by either capsazepine, NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists, the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist SR141716A or by L-NG-nitroarginine. Desensitization of TRPV1 receptors by a short exposure to 3 microM capsaicin abolished the facilitatory responses to a subsequent administration, but did not modify the inhibitory effects. In summary, capsaicin has a dual effect on cholinergic neurotransmission. The facilitatory effect is indirect and involves tachykinin release and excitation of NK1 and NK3 receptors on cholinergic neurons. The inhibition of acetylcholine release may be due to a decrease of Ca2+ influx into cholinergic neurons.

  19. Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists: a novel approach for the treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippiello, P M

    2006-01-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that normalization of cholinergic tone by selective antagonism of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) may ameliorate the core symptoms of autism. As often is the case, epidemiology has provided the first important clues. It is well recognized that psychiatric patients are significantly more often smokers than the general population. The only known exceptions are obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), catatonic schizophrenia and interestingly, autism. In this regard, clinical studies with nicotine have demonstrated amelioration of symptoms of a number of diseases and disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, ADHD and Tourette's syndrome. Nicotine's agonist properties at CNS NNRs have been implicated in these effects and support the concept of self-medication as a strong motivation for smoking in cognitively compromised individuals. On the other hand, the inverse correlation between autism and smoking suggests that smoking does not provide symptomatic relief and may actually be indicative of an active avoidance of nicotine's agonist effects in this disorder. Neuroanatomical evidence is consistent with this idea based on the presence of hypercholinergic architecture in the autistic brain, particularly during the first few years of development, making the avoidance of further stimulation of an already hyperactive cholinergic system plausible. This may also explain why stimulants (known to increase dopamine levels as do NNR agonists) appear to aggravate autistic symptoms and why studies with cholinesterase inhibitors that increase acetylcholine levels in the brain have yielded variable effects in autism. Taken together, the evidence suggests the possibility that nicotinic cholinergic antagonism may in fact be palliative. Pharmacological evidence supports this hypothesis. For example, antidepressants, many of which are now known to be non-competitive NNR antagonists, have been used successfully to treat a

  20. A strong anti-inflammatory signature revealed by liver transcription profiling of Tmprss6-/- mice.

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    Michela Riba

    Full Text Available Control of systemic iron homeostasis is interconnected with the inflammatory response through the key iron regulator, the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin. We have previously shown that mice with iron deficiency anemia (IDA-low hepcidin show a pro-inflammatory response that is blunted in iron deficient-high hepcidin Tmprss6 KO mice. The transcriptional response associated with chronic hepcidin overexpression due to genetic inactivation of Tmprss6 is unknown. By using whole genome transcription profiling of the liver and analysis of spleen immune-related genes we identified several functional pathways differentially expressed in Tmprss6 KO mice, compared to IDA animals and thus irrespective of the iron status. In the effort of defining genes potentially targets of Tmprss6 we analyzed liver gene expression changes according to the genotype and independently of treatment. Tmprss6 inactivation causes down-regulation of liver pathways connected to immune and inflammatory response as well as spleen genes related to macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokines production. The anti-inflammatory status of Tmprss6 KO animals was confirmed by the down-regulation of pathways related to immunity, stress response and intracellular signaling in both liver and spleen after LPS treatment. Opposite to Tmprss6 KO mice, Hfe(-/- mice are characterized by iron overload with inappropriately low hepcidin levels. Liver expression profiling of Hfe(-/- deficient versus iron loaded mice show the opposite expression of some of the genes modulated by the loss of Tmprss6. Altogether our results confirm the anti-inflammatory status of Tmprss6 KO mice and identify new potential target pathways/genes of Tmprss6.

  1. Heavy metal uranium affects the brain cholinergic system in rat following sub-chronic and chronic exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensoussan, Helene; Grancolas, Line; Dhieux-Lestaevel, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Voisin, Philippe; Gourmelon, Patrick; Taouis, Mohammed; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Uranium is a heavy metal naturally present in the environment that may be chronically ingested by the population. Previous studies have shown that uranium is present in the brain and alters behaviour, notably locomotor activity, sensorimotor ability, sleep/wake cycle and the memory process, but also metabolism of neurotransmitters. The cholinergic system mediates many cognitive systems, including those disturbed after chronic exposure to uranium i.e., spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle and locomotor activity. The objective of this study was to assess whether these disorders follow uranium-induced alteration of the cholinergic system. In comparison with 40 control rats, 40 rats drank 40 mg/L uranyl nitrate for 1.5 or 9 months. Cortex and hippocampus were removed and gene expression and protein level were analysed to determine potential changes in cholinergic receptors and acetylcholine levels. The expression of genes showed various alterations in the two brain areas after short- and long-term exposure. Nevertheless, protein levels of the choline acetyltransferase enzyme (ChAT), the vesicular transporter of acetylcholine (VAChT) and the nicotinic receptor β2 sub-unit (nAChRβ2) were unmodified in all cases of the experiment and muscarinic receptor type 1 (m1AChR) protein level was disturbed only after 9 months of exposure in the cortex (-30%). Acetylcholine levels were unchanged in the hippocampus after 1.5 and 9 months, but were decreased in the cortex after 1.5 months only (-22%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also unchanged in the hippocampus but decreased in the cortex after 1.5 and 9 months (-16% and -18%, respectively). Taken together, these data indicate that the cholinergic system is a target of uranium exposure in a structure-dependent and time-dependent manner. These cholinergic alterations could participate in behavioural impairments.

  2. Satureja bachtiarica ameliorate beta-amyloid induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficit in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodi, Maliheh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Dashti, Abolfazl; Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular deposition of Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which damages cholinergic neurons through oxidative stress and reduces the cholinergic neurotransmission. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family which was widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of S. bachtiarica methanolic extract on Aβ induced spatial memory impairment in Morris Water Maze (MWM), oxidative stress and cholinergic neuron degeneration. Pre- aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus of each rat bilaterally (10 μg/rat) and MWM task was performed 14 days later to evaluate learning and memory function. Methanolic extract of S.bachtiarica (10, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 19 consecutive days, after Aβ injection. After the probe test the brain tissue were collected and lipid peroxidation, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Cholin Acetyl Transferees (ChAT) immunorectivity were measured in the hippocampus. Intrahipocampal injection of Aβ impaired learning and memory in MWM in training days and probe trail. Methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica (50 and 100 mg/Kg) could attenuate Aβ-induced memory deficit. ChAT immunostaining revealed that cholinergic neurons were loss in Aβ- injected group and S. bachtiarica (100 mg/Kg) could ameliorate Aβ- induced ChAT reduction in the hippocampus. Also S. bachtiarica could ameliorate Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and AChE activity increase in the hippocampus. In conclusion our study represent that S.bachtiarica methanolic extract can improve Aβ-induced memory impairment and cholinergic loss then we recommended this extract as a candidate for further investigation in treatment of AD.

  3. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis has been reported to mediate the antioedema effects of acupuncture, but not antihyperalgesic actions during inflammation. Other reported anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture include an antihistamine action and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, proinflammatory neuropeptides (such as SP, CGRP, and VIP, and neurotrophins (such as NGF and BDNF which can enhance and prolong inflammatory response. Acupuncture has been reported to suppress the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS during experimentally induced inflammation. Downregulation of the expression and sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1 after acupuncture has been reported. In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions. Many of these generic anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are of direct relevance to allergic rhinitis; however, more research is needed to elucidate specifically how immune mechanisms might be modulated by acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, and to this end a proposed model is offered to guide further research.

  4. Regulatory changes in presynaptic cholinergic function assessed in rapid autopsy material from patients with Alzheimer disease: Implications for etiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Seidler, F.J.; Crain, B.J.; Bell, J.M.; Bissette, G.; Nemeroff, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regions from patients with or without Alzheimer disease (AD) were obtained within 2 hr of death and examined for indices of presynaptic cholinergic function. Consistent with loss of cholinergic projections, cerebral cortical areas involved in AD exhibited decreased choline acetyltransferase activity. However, remaining nerve terminals in these regions displayed marked up-regulation of synaptosomal high affinity [ 3 H]choline uptake, a result indicative of relative cholinergic hyperactivity. As choline uptake is also rate-limiting in acetylcholine biosynthesis, these findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal death in AD

  5. Cholinergic Potentiation and Audiovisual Repetition-Imitation Therapy Improve Speech Production and Communication Deficits in a Person with Crossed Aphasia by Inducing Structural Plasticity in White Matter Tracts

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    Marcelo L. Berthier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Donepezil (DP, a cognitive-enhancing drug targeting the cholinergic system, combined with massed sentence repetition training augmented and speeded up recovery of speech production deficits in patients with chronic conduction aphasia and extensive left hemisphere infarctions (Berthier et al., 2014. Nevertheless, a still unsettled question is whether such improvements correlate with restorative structural changes in gray matter and white matter pathways mediating speech production. In the present study, we used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to study treatment-induced brain changes in gray matter and white matter tracts in a right-handed male with chronic conduction aphasia and a right subcortical lesion (crossed aphasia. A single-patient, open-label multiple-baseline design incorporating two different treatments and two post-treatment evaluations was used. The patient received an initial dose of DP (5 mg/day which was maintained during 4 weeks and then titrated up to 10 mg/day and administered alone (without aphasia therapy during 8 weeks (Endpoint 1. Thereafter, the drug was combined with an audiovisual repetition-imitation therapy (Look-Listen-Repeat, LLR during 3 months (Endpoint 2. Language evaluations, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM were performed at baseline and at both endpoints in JAM and once in 21 healthy control males. Treatment with DP alone and combined with LLR therapy induced marked improvement in aphasia and communication deficits as well as in selected measures of connected speech production, and phrase repetition. The obtained gains in speech production remained well-above baseline scores even 4 months after ending combined therapy. Longitudinal DWI showed structural plasticity in the right frontal aslant tract and direct segment of the arcuate fasciculus with both interventions. VBM revealed no structural changes in other white matter tracts nor in cortical areas linked by these

  6. The development of the cholinergic system in rat hippocampus following postnatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Barak, J.

    1981-01-01

    Postnatal X-irradiation of the rat hippocampus results in a marked reduction in the number of the postnatally developing granular neurons in the dentate gyrus and also caused a marked increase in the specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (CAT) and a slight but consistent increase in the activity per whole hippocampus of AChE. The effect of irradiation on the granular neurons and on the cholinergic enzymes was found to be dose and age dependent. Drastic increase in specific enzymatic activities is also observed in the irradiated cerebellum whose granular neurons differentiate postnatally and to a lesser extent in the cerebral cortex in which cell formation is accomplished prior to birth. (Auth.)

  7. A review study on medicinal plants affecting amnesia through cholinergic system

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    Baradaran Azar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter modification is an important method for the treatment of memory loss or amnesia. Cholinomimetic drugs, particularly, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors are the mainstream in pharmacotherapy of amnesia. Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are cholinesterase inhibitors which are widely used in the treatment of amnesia, however, their therapeutic effects are not significant. Therefore, other possibilities including herbal medicine sources have been considered for memory loss therapy. There are some Medicinal plants with cholinomimetic property which mostly possess antioxidant activity, too. These plants may not only ameliorate amnesia but also can be a good source for drug discovery. In this paper other than introducing the medicinal plants and their components affective on cholinergic system and effective on memory loss, their probable advantages over synthetic drugs are discussed.

  8. Perinatal exposure to methadone affects central cholinergic activity in the weanling rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S E; Mo, Q; Maher, J R; Wallace, M J; Kunko, P M

    1996-06-01

    Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (initial dose, 9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that they were exposed to methadone prenatally and/or postnatally. Perinatal methadone exposure disrupted cholinergic activity on postnatal day 21 as measured by the turnover rate of acetylcholine (TRACh) in both female and male rats, although there were some sexually-dimorphic responses. The most profoundly affected brain region was the striatum, where prenatal exposure to methadone increased ACh turnover, whether or not the rats continued to be exposed to methadone postnatally. It appears unlikely that neonatal withdrawal contributes to brain regional changes in ACh turnover, as continued postnatal exposure to methadone did not prevent the prenatal methadone induced changes.

  9. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested...... the hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin...

  10. Synthesis of dibenzodioxazocines and their effects on cholinesterases and muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, J; Batke, J; Borsodi, A; Rózsa, L; Somogyi, G

    1989-01-01

    A new family of tricyclic compounds, the dibenzodioxazocines were synthesized. These compounds were the following: 2-chloro-12-(2-piperidino-ethyl)-dibenzo d,g 1,3,6 dioxazocine hydrochloride: EGYT-2347, 2-chloro-12-(3-dimethylamino-2-methyl-propyl)-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6]-dibenzodioxazocine hydrochloride: EGYT-2509, 2-chloro-12-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6] dioxazocine-maleate: EGYT-2474 and 2-chloro-12-2-(4-methyl-piperazino)-ethyl-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6]-dioxazocine-dihydrochloride: EGYT-2541. These compounds are inhibitors of both butyryl- and acetylcholinesterase to and they exhibited relatively good anticholinergic properties in receptor binding experiments. The most selective inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase is the compound EGYT-2347 (Ki = 1.5 x 10(-7) M) which strongly binds to rat brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor (KD = 4.1 x 10(-8) M).

  11. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in hypertension-induced hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatner, D.E.; Kirby, D.A.; Homcy, C.J.; Vatner, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Perinephritic hypertension was produced in dogs by wrapping one kidney with silk and removing the contralateral kidney 1 week later. Mean arterial pressure rose from 104 +/- 3 to 156 +/- 11 mm Hg, while left ventricular free wall weight, normalized for body weight, was increased by 49%. Muscarinic, cholinergic receptor density measured with [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, fell in hypertensive left ventricles (181 +/- 19 fmol/mg, n = 6; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (272 +/- 16 fmol/mg, n = 8), while receptor affinity was not changed. The beta-adrenergic receptor density, measured by binding studies with [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol, rose in the hypertensive left ventricles (108 +/- 10 fmol/mg, n = 7; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (68.6 +/- 5.2 fmol/mg, n = 15), while beta-adrenergic receptor affinity decreased in the hypertensive left ventricles (10.4 +/- 1.2 nM) compared with that found in the normal left ventricles (5.0 +/- 0.7 nM). Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in the two groups, but myocardial norepinephrine levels were depressed (p less than 0.05) in dogs with hypertension. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy induced by long-term aortic banding in dogs resulted in elevations in beta-adrenergic receptor density (115 +/- 14 fmol/mg) and decreases in affinity (10.4 +/- 2.2 nM) similar to those observed in the dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy induced by hypertension. Thus, these results suggest that perinephritic hypertension in the dog induces divergent effects on cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptor density. The increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and decreased affinity may be a characteristic of left ventricular hypertrophy rather than hypertension

  12. Increased dopamine D1 receptor binding in the human mesocortical system following central cholinergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.; Berkovic, S.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Reutens, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The interaction between the cholinergic and dopaminergic system has been implicated in many pathological processes including, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Little is known about the control of dopamine (DA) release following central cholinergic activation in humans, but experimental studies suggest that endogenously released Acetylcholine (ACh) achieved by the administration of cholinesterase inhibitors, can increase dopamine efflux in different regions of the brain. This leads to the activation of different types of post-synaptic dopaminergic receptors which belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). A common paradigm of the GPCRs desensitization is that agonist-induced receptor signaling is rapidly attenuated by receptor internalisation. Several experiments have shown that the activation of Dl receptors in acute conditions leads, within minutes, to translocation of the receptor from the surface of the neurons to the endosomal compartment in the cytoplasm and increased receptor turnover. To assess changes in Dl receptor density following an intravenous infusion of the selective cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine salicylate (PHY), we studied eleven normal subjects (10 male and 1 female, mean age 36.1 and 61617; 9.9) using [11C]-SCH23390 and PET The binding potential (BP) for SCH23390 was significantly (p 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between baseline and physostigmine Kl ratio (p>0.05) suggesting that BP changes observed were not secondary to regional blood flow changes or to an order effect of the scans. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

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    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  14. Pauses in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons: What is Revealed by Their Common Themes and Variations?

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    Yan-Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Striatal cholinergic interneurons, the so-called tonically active neurons (TANs, pause their firing in response to sensory cues and rewards during classical conditioning and instrumental tasks. The respective pause responses observed can demonstrate many commonalities, such as constant latency and duration, synchronous occurrence in a population of cells, and coincidence with phasic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons (DANs that signal reward predictions and errors. Pauses can however also show divergent properties. Pause latencies and durations can differ in a given TAN between appetitive vs. aversive outcomes in classical conditioning, initial excitation can be present or absent, and a second pause can variably follow a rebound. Despite more than 20 years of study, the functions of these pause responses are still elusive. Our understanding of pause function is hindered by an incomplete understanding of how pauses are generated. In this mini-review article, we compare pause types, as well as current key hypotheses for inputs underlying pauses that include dopamine-induced inhibition through D2-receptors, a GABA input from ventral tegmental area, and a prolonged afterhyperpolarization induced by excitatory input from the cortex or from the thalamus. We review how each of these mechanisms alone explains some but not all aspects of pause responses. These mechanisms might need to operate in specific but variable sets of sequences to generate a full range of pause responses. Alternatively, these mechanisms might operate in conjunction with an underlying control mechanism within cholinergic interneurons which could potentially provide a framework to generate the common themes and variations seen amongst pause responses.

  15. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

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    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  16. Hormonal Responses to Cholinergic Input Are Different in Humans with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Sara Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Peripheral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate insulin and glucagon release in rodents but their importance for similar roles in humans is unclear. Bethanechol, an acetylcholine analogue that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, was used to examine the role of peripheral muscarinic signaling on glucose homeostasis in humans with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 10, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 11, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 9. Subjects received four liquid meal tolerance tests, each with a different dose of oral bethanechol (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg given 60 min before a meal containing acetaminophen. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucose, glucagon, C-peptide, and acetaminophen concentrations were measured. Insulin secretion rates (ISRs were calculated from C-peptide levels. Acetaminophen and PP concentrations were surrogate markers for gastric emptying and cholinergic input to islets. The 150 mg dose of bethanechol increased the PP response 2-fold only in the IGT group, amplified GLP-1 release in the IGT and T2DM groups, and augmented the GIP response only in the NGT group. However, bethanechol did not alter ISRs or plasma glucose, glucagon, or acetaminophen concentrations in any group. Prior studies showed infusion of xenin-25, an intestinal peptide, delays gastric emptying and reduces GLP-1 release but not ISRs when normalized to plasma glucose levels. Analysis of archived plasma samples from this study showed xenin-25 amplified postprandial PP responses ~4-fold in subjects with NGT, IGT, and T2DM. Thus, increasing postprandial cholinergic input to islets augments insulin secretion in mice but not humans.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434901.

  17. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  18. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schliebs, R.; Walch, C.

    1989-01-01

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author)

  19. Laminar pattern of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in rat visual cortex using quantitative receptor autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schliebs, R; Walch, C [Leipzig Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin; Stewart, M G [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1989-01-01

    The laminar distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, including the M1-receptor subtype, of beta-adrenergic receptors, and noradrenaline uptake sites, was studied in the adult rat visual, frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex, using quantitative receptor autoradiography. In the visual cortex, the highest density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was found in layer I. From layer II/III to layer V binding decreases continueously reaching a constant binding level in layers V and VI. This laminar pattern of muscarinic receptor density differs somewhat from that observed in the non-visual cortical regions examined: layer II/III contained the highest receptor density followed by layer I and IV: lowest density was found in layer V and VI. The binding profile of the muscarinic cholinergic M1-subtype through the visual cortex shows a peak in cortical layer II and in the upper part of layer VI, whereas in the non-visual cortical regions cited the binding level was high in layer II/III, moderate in layer I and IV, and low in layer VI. Layers I to IV of the visual cortex contained the highest beta-adrenergic receptor densities, whereas only low binding levels were observed in the deeper layers. A similar laminar distribution was found also in the frontal, somatosensory and motor cortex. The density of noradrenaline uptake sites was high in all layers of the cortical regions studied, but with noradrenaline uptake sites somewhat more concentrated in the superficial layers than in deeper ones. The distinct laminar pattern of cholinergic and noradrenergic receptor sites indicates a different role for acetylcholine and noradrenaline in the functional anatomy of the cerebral cortex, and in particular, the visual cortex. (author).

  20. Low-Intensity Ultrasound-Induced Anti-inflammatory Effects Are Mediated by Several New Mechanisms Including Gene Induction, Immunosuppressor Cell Promotion, and Enhancement of Exosome Biogenesis and Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders.Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS.Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1 LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2 LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells, MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells, B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells; (3 LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4 LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5 Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6 LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways.Conclusions: Our results have provided novel insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS, and have provided guidance for the development of future novel therapeutic LIUS for cancers, inflammatory disorders, tissue regeneration and tissue repair.

  1. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-08-20

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%-7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases.

  2. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dugo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kyu Ko

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages using LPS. The anti-inflammatory effects of UDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways and nuclear factor kappa-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα signaling pathways were evaluated by western blot assays.UDCA decreased the LPS-stimulated release of the inflammatory mediator NO. UDCA also decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 1-α (IL-1α, interleukin 1-β (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, UDCA increased an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA inhibited the expression of inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, UDCA suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 signals related to inflammatory pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation of IκBα, the inhibitor of NF-κB, also inhibited by UDCA.UDCA inhibits the pro-inflammatory responses by LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA also suppresses the phosphorylation by LPS on ERK, JNK, and p38 in MAPKs and NF-κB pathway. These results suggest that UDCA can serve as a useful anti-inflammatory drug.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    time of the animals treated with either standard or extract. Pentazocin ... standard. Results: The extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the two test dose ..... effectiveness of analgesic agents in the tail- flick pain ...

  5. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  6. Can Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Can Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Take Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs? ... It also does not upset the gastrointestinal tract. Can People With CVD Take an NSAID? If you ...

  7. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of acute gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Durme, Caroline M. P. G.; Wechalekar, Mihir D.; Landewé, Robert B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) associated with better outcomes than cyclooxygenase inhibitors, glucocorticoids, IL-1 inhibitors or placebo in the treatment of acute gout? NSAIDs are not significantly associated with a difference in pain reduction compared with cyclooxygenase

  8. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  9. [Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossermelli, W; Pastor, E H

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) comprise an important class of medicaments that reduced the symptoms of inflamation in rheumatic disease. This article emphasizes similarities and class characteristics of the NSAID, mechanisms of action, and drug-interactions.

  10. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ganesh D. Boddawar

    2015-12-23

    Dec 23, 2015 ... anti-inflammatory remedy as it was found to possess higher ... of cell injury, & remove necrotic cells that causes inflamma- ... need of time to invent and evaluate more and more herbal .... serotonin on vascular permeability.

  11. The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine, and antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan, on the spinal cholinergic receptor system in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Cholinergic agonists produce spinal antinociception via mechanisms involving an increased release of intraspinal acetylcholine. The cholinergic receptor system interacts with several other receptor types, such as alpha2-adrenergic receptors. To fully understand these interactions, the effects...... of various receptor ligands on the cholinergic system must be investigated in detail. This study was initiated to investigate the effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine and the alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan on spinal cholinergic receptors......, all ligands possessed affinity for nicotinic receptors. Clonidine and yohimbine binding was best fit to a one site binding curve and rilmenidine and efaroxan to a two site binding curve. The present study demonstrates that the tested alpha2-adrenergic receptor ligands affect intraspinal acetylcholine...

  12. Molecular Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Benjamin H.; Powell, Simon N.

    2012-01-01

    The Rad52 protein was largely ignored in humans and other mammals when the mouse knockout revealed a largely “no-effect” phenotype. However, using synthetic lethal approaches to investigate context dependent function, new studies have shown that Rad52 plays a key survival role in cells lacking the function of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway of homologous recombination. Biochemical studies also showed significant differences between yeast and human Rad52, in which yeast Rad52 can promote strand invasion of RPA-coated single-stranded DNA in the presence of Rad51, but human Rad52 cannot. This results in the paradox of how is human Rad52 providing Rad51 function: presumably there is something missing in the biochemical assays that exists in-vivo, but the nature of this missing factor is currently unknown. Recent studies have suggested that Rad52 provides back-up Rad51 function for all members of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway, suggesting that Rad52 may be a target for therapy in BRCA pathway deficient cancers. Screening for ways to inhibit Rad52 would potentially provide a complementary strategy for targeting BRCA-deficient cancers in addition to PARP inhibitors. PMID:23071261

  13. Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, S; Kehr, J; Olson, L; Mattsson, A

    2011-11-10

    Dysregulated cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neocortical cholinergic innervation and of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) on social interaction and novel object recognition (NOR), a declarative memory task. The cholinergic corticopetal projection was lesioned by local infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult male Lister hooded rats. Behavior was assessed 2.5 weeks later in a social interaction paradigm followed by the NOR task. We found that selective cholinergic denervation of neocortex led to a significant reduction in duration of social interaction, specifically active social interaction. Acute administration of PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a marked decrease of active social interaction, such that there was no longer a difference between intact and denervated animals. Neither cholinergic denervation alone, nor PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) alone blocked the ability of rats to recognize a novel object. However, when animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation were challenged by PCP, they were no longer able to recognize a novel object. This study indicates that rats lacking cholinergic innervation of neocortex have impaired social interaction and specifically that the duration of active contact is shortened. Animals with severe cortical cholinergic hypofunction maintain the ability to perform in a declarative memory test, although the task is carried out less intensively. However, a provocation of psychosis-like behavior by a dose of PCP that does not by itself impair performance in normal animals, will abolish the ability to recognize novel objects in animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation. The present findings support a possible role for cortical cholinergic hypofunction in the negative and cognitive

  14. Advancements in anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Erin; Narayanan, Srihari

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to discuss recent discoveries in the pathophysiology of dry eye and the subsequent evolution of diagnostic and management techniques. The mechanisms of various anti-inflammatory treatments are reviewed, and the efficacy of common pharmacologic agents is assessed. Anti-inflammatory therapy is evaluated in terms of its primary indications, target population, and utility within a clinical setting. The Medline PubMed database and the World Wide Web were searched for current information regarding dry eye prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. After an analysis of the literature, major concepts were integrated to generate an updated portrayal of the status of dry eye syndrome. Inflammation appears to play a key role in perpetuating and sustaining dry eye. Discoveries of inflammatory markers found within the corneal and conjunctival epithelium of dry eye patients have triggered recent advancements in therapy. Pharmacologic anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye includes 2 major categories: corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. Fatty acid and androgen supplementation and oral antibiotics have also shown promise in dry eye therapy because of their anti-inflammatory effects. Anti-inflammatory pharmacologic agents have shown great success in patients with moderate to severe dry eye when compared with alternative treatment modalities. A deeper understanding of the link between inflammation and dry eye validates the utilization of anti-inflammatory therapy in everyday optometric practice.

  15. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahad, Amjid [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mujeeb, Mohd [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad, E-mail: was.sid121@gmail.com [Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Strategies in Intrahepatic Islet Transplantation: A Comparative Study in Preclinical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, Antonio; Cantarelli, Elisa; Pellegrini, Silvia; Dugnani, Erica; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    The identification of pathway(s) playing a pivotal role in peritransplant detrimental inflammatory events represents the crucial step toward a better management and outcome of pancreatic islet transplanted patients. Recently, we selected the CXCR1/2 inhibition as a relevant strategy in enhancing pancreatic islet survival after transplantation. Here, the most clinically used anti-inflammatory compounds (IL1-receptor antagonist, steroids, and TNF-α inhibitor) alone or in combination with a CXCR1/2 inhibitor were evaluated in their ability to improve engraftment or delay graft rejection. To rule out bias related to transplantation site, we used well-established preclinical syngeneic (250 C57BL/6 equivalent islets in C57BL/6) and allogeneic (400 Balb/c equivalent islets in C57BL6) intrahepatic islet transplantation platforms. In mice, we confirmed that targeting the CXCR1/2 pathway is crucial in preserving islet function and improving engraftment. In the allogeneic setting, CXCR1/2 inhibitor alone could reduce the overall recruitment of transplant-induced leukocytes and significantly prolong the time to graft rejection both as a single agent and in combination with immunosuppression. No other anti-inflammatory compounds tested (IL1-receptor antagonist, steroids, and TNF-α inhibitor) alone or in combination with CXCR1/2 inhibitor improve islet engraftment and significantly delay graft rejection in the presence of MMF + FK-506 immunosuppressive treatment. These findings indicate that only the CXCR1/2-mediated axis plays a crucial role in controlling the islet damage and should be a target for intervention to improve the efficiency of islet transplantation.

  17. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, Amjid; Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway

  18. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Haugbølle Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The haptoglobin- (Hp- CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6, but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the anti-inflammatory response.

  19. Endosulfan and cholinergic (muscarinic) transmission: effect on electroencephalograms and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in pigeon brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Gopal, K.; Sur, R.N.; Seth, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Single exposure of endosulfan (5 mg/kg) to pigeons (Columbia livia) caused neuronal hyperexcitability as evidence by spike discharges of 200-500 μV in the electroencephalograms (EEG) from the telencephalon and hyperstriatum, but there was not effect on the ectostriatal area. Cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding study using [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]QNB) as a specific ligand indicated that a single exposure to 5 mg/kg of endosulfan caused a significant increase in [ 3 H]QNB binding to the striatal membrane. Behavior study further indicated that a single dose of 200 μg/kg of oxotremorine produced a significant induction in the tremor in endosulfan-pretreated pigeons. The results of this behavioral and biochemical study indicate the involvement of a cholinergic (muscarinic) transmitter system in endosulfan-induced neurotoxicity

  20. Transplantation of NSC-derived cholinergic neuron-like cells improves cognitive function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G; Zhang, W; Li, M; Ni, J; Wang, P

    2015-04-16

    The ability to selectively control the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into cholinergic neurons in vivo would be an important step toward cell replacement therapy. First, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSCs were induced to differentiate into cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLs) with retinoic acid (RA) pre-induction followed by nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Then, these CNLs were transplanted into bilateral hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Behavioral parameters showed by Morris water maze (MWM) tests and the percentages of GFP-labeled cholinergic neurons of CNL transplanted mice were compared with those of controls. Brain levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and proteins were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, ChAT activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration were also evaluated by ChAT activity and ACh concentration assay kits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that 80.3±1.5% NSCs differentiated into CNLs after RA pre-induction followed by NGF induction in vitro. Three months after transplantation, 82.4±6.3% CNLs differentiated into cholinergic neurons in vivo. APP/PS1 mice transplanted with CNLs showed a significant improvement in learning and memory ability compared with control groups at different time points. Furthermore, CNLs transplantation dramatically increased in the expressions of ChAT mRNA and protein, as well ChAT activity and ACh concentration in APP/PS1 mice. Our findings support the prospect of using NSC-derived CNLs in developing therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative Imaging of Cholinergic Interneurons Reveals a Distinctive Spatial Organization and a Functional Gradient across the Mouse Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Matamales

    Full Text Available Information processing in the striatum requires the postsynaptic integration of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signals, which are then relayed to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia to influence behavior. Although cellularly homogeneous in appearance, the striatum contains several rare interneuron populations which tightly modulate striatal function. Of these, cholinergic interneurons (CINs have been recently shown to play a critical role in the control of reward-related learning; however how the striatal cholinergic network is functionally organized at the mesoscopic level and the way this organization influences striatal function remains poorly understood. Here, we systematically mapped and digitally reconstructed the entire ensemble of CINs in the mouse striatum and quantitatively assessed differences in densities, spatial arrangement and neuropil content across striatal functional territories. This approach demonstrated that the rostral portion of the striatum contained a higher concentration of CINs than the caudal striatum and that the cholinergic content in the core of the ventral striatum was significantly lower than in the rest of the regions. Additionally, statistical comparison of spatial point patterns in the striatal cholinergic ensemble revealed that only a minor portion of CINs (17% aggregated into cluster and that they were predominantly organized in a random fashion. Furthermore, we used a fluorescence reporter to estimate the activity of over two thousand CINs in naïve mice and found that there was a decreasing gradient of CIN overall function along the dorsomedial-to-ventrolateral axis, which appeared to be independent of their propensity to aggregate within the striatum. Altogether this work suggests that the regulation of striatal function by acetylcholine across the striatum is highly heterogeneous, and that signals originating in external afferent systems may be principally determining the function of CINs in the

  2. Gastric antiulcer and antiinflammatory activities of Calotropis procera stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh S. Tour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a widespread search has been launched to identify new antiinflammatory and antiulcer-drugs from natural sources. The study was aimed at evaluating the antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity of chloroform extract (CH and hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark of Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Apocynaceae, obtained successively by cold maceration. The antiinflammatory effect of the CH and HE extracts of the stem bark of the C. procera against carrageenan-induced paw oedema and also its antiulcer activity by using two acute models: Aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o. and ethanol (96%, 1 mL/200 g in albino rats have been studied and found to be significant at 200 and 400 mg/kg when compared to the standard drugs. As a part of investigations to obtain compounds with antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity in this work, a bioassay was carried out with fractions obtained from chloroform extract with n-hexane (NF1, 1-butanol (BF1, ethyl acetate (EF1 and chloroform (CF1. The hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark was fractionated with n-hexane (NF2, 1-butanol (BF2, ethyl acetate (EF2, chloroform (CF2 and water (WF2. The fractions were freeze-dried and evaluated for its antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. Fractions NF1, CF1, BF2 and EF2 (20 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. The results obtained for antiulcer activity were also supported well by the histopathological examination of the open excised rat stomach. Further experiments are underway to determine which phytoconstituents are involved in antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities as well as mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  3. Cholinergic Receptor Binding in Alzheimer Disease and Healthy Aging: Assessment In Vivo with Positron Emission Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultzer, David L; Melrose, Rebecca J; Riskin-Jones, Hannah; Narvaez, Theresa A; Veliz, Joseph; Ando, Timothy K; Juarez, Kevin O; Harwood, Dylan G; Brody, Arthur L; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    To compare regional nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy older adults in vivo and to assess relationships between receptor binding and clinical symptoms. Using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging and structured clinical assessment, outpatients with mild to moderate AD (N = 24) and healthy older adults without cognitive complaints (C group; N = 22) were studied. PET imaging of α4β2* nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding using 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2FA) and clinical measures of global cognition, attention/processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were used. 2FA binding was lower in the AD group compared with the C group in the medial thalamus, medial temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula/opercula, inferior caudate, and brainstem (p healthy older adults, lower receptor binding may be associated with slower processing speed. Cholinergic receptor binding in vivo may reveal links to other key brain changes associated with aging and AD and may provide a potential molecular treatment target. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Cholinergic blockade under working memory demands encountered by increased rehearsal strategies: evidence from fMRI in healthy subjects.

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    Voss, Bianca; Thienel, Renate; Reske, Martina; Kellermann, Thilo; Sheldrick, Abigail J; Halfter, Sarah; Radenbach, Katrin; Shah, Nadim J; Habel, Ute; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2012-06-01

    The connection between cholinergic transmission and cognitive performance has been established in behavioural studies. The specific contribution of the muscarinic receptor system on cognitive performance and brain activation, however, has not been evaluated satisfyingly. To investigate the specific contribution of the muscarinic transmission on neural correlates of working memory, we examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy male, non-smoking subjects performed a fMRI scanning session following the application of scopolamine (0.4 mg, i.v.) or saline in a placebo-controlled, repeated measure, pseudo-randomized, single-blind design. Working memory was probed using an n-back task. Compared to placebo, challenging the cholinergic transmission with scopolamine resulted in hypoactivations in parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas and hyperactivations in frontal and prefrontal areas. These alterations are interpreted as compensatory strategies used to account for downregulation due to muscarinic acetylcholine blockade in parietal and cerebral storage systems by increased activation in frontal and prefrontal areas related to working memory rehearsal. Our results further underline the importance of cholinergic transmission to working memory performance and determine the specific contribution of muscarinic transmission on cerebral activation associated with executive functioning.

  5. ESC-Derived Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Ameliorate the Cognitive Symptoms Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in Mouse Models

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    Wei Yue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs is associated with cognitive impairments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, implying that BFCNs hold potentials in exploring stem cell-based replacement therapy for AD. However, studies on derivation of BFCNs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs are limited, and the application of ESC-derived BFCNs remains to be determined. Here, we report on differentiation approaches for directing both mouse and human ESCs into mature BFCNs. These ESC-derived BFCNs exhibit features similar to those of their in vivo counterparts and acquire appropriate functional properties. After transplantation into the basal forebrain of AD model mice, ESC-derived BFCN progenitors predominantly differentiate into mature cholinergic neurons that functionally integrate into the endogenous basal forebrain cholinergic projection system. The AD mice grafted with mouse or human BFCNs exhibit improvements in learning and memory performances. Our findings suggest a promising perspective of ESC-derived BFCNs in the development of stem cell-based therapies for treatment of AD.

  6. Catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems of mouse brain are modulated by LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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    Fernández-Fernández, Laura; Esteban, Gerard; Giralt, Mercedes; Valente, Tony; Bolea, Irene; Solé, Montse; Sun, Ping; Benítez, Susana; Morelló, José Ramón; Reguant, Jordi; Ramírez, Bartolomé; Hidalgo, Juan; Unzeta, Mercedes

    2015-04-01

    The possible modulatory effect of the functional LMN diet, rich in theobromine, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission, affecting cognition decline during aging has been studied. 129S1/SvlmJ mice were fed for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days with either LMN or control diets. The enzymes involved in catecholaminergic and cholinergic metabolism were determined by both immunohistological and western blot analyses. Noradrenalin, dopamine and other metabolites were quantified by HPLC analysis. Theobromine, present in cocoa, the main LMN diet component, was analysed in parallel using SH-SY5Y and PC12 cell lines. An enhanced modulatory effect on both cholinergic and catecholaminergic transmissions was observed on 20 day fed mice. Similar effect was observed with theobromine, besides its antioxidant capacity inducing SOD-1 and GPx expression. The enhancing effect of the LMN diet and theobromine on the levels of acetylcholine-related enzymes, dopamine and specially noradrenalin confirms the beneficial role of this diet on the "cognitive reserve" and hence a possible reducing effect on cognitive decline underlying aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Pharmacological Mechanisms of Cortical Enhancement Induced by the Repetitive Pairing of Visual/Cholinergic Stimulation.

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    Jun-Il Kang

    Full Text Available Repetitive visual training paired with electrical activation of cholinergic projections to the primary visual cortex (V1 induces long-term enhancement of cortical processing in response to the visual training stimulus. To better determine the receptor subtypes mediating this effect the selective pharmacological blockade of V1 nicotinic (nAChR, M1 and M2 muscarinic (mAChR or GABAergic A (GABAAR receptors was performed during the training session and visual evoked potentials (VEPs were recorded before and after training. The training session consisted of the exposure of awake, adult rats to an orientation-specific 0.12 CPD grating paired with an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain for a duration of 1 week for 10 minutes per day. Pharmacological agents were infused intracortically during this period. The post-training VEP amplitude was significantly increased compared to the pre-training values for the trained spatial frequency and to adjacent spatial frequencies up to 0.3 CPD, suggesting a long-term increase of V1 sensitivity. This increase was totally blocked by the nAChR antagonist as well as by an M2 mAChR subtype and GABAAR antagonist. Moreover, administration of the M2 mAChR antagonist also significantly decreased the amplitude of the control VEPs, suggesting a suppressive effect on cortical responsiveness. However, the M1 mAChR antagonist blocked the increase of the VEP amplitude only for the high spatial frequency (0.3 CPD, suggesting that M1 role was limited to the spread of the enhancement effect to a higher spatial frequency. More generally, all the drugs used did block the VEP increase at 0.3 CPD. Further, use of each of the aforementioned receptor antagonists blocked training-induced changes in gamma and beta band oscillations. These findings demonstrate that visual training coupled with cholinergic stimulation improved perceptual sensitivity by enhancing cortical responsiveness in V1. This enhancement is mainly mediated by n

  8. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130.

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    Olivas, Antoinette; Gardner, Ryan T; Wang, Lianguo; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Woodward, William R; Habecker, Beth A

    2016-01-13

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the heart is a classic example of norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) triggering opposing actions. Sympathetic NE increases heart rate and contractility through activation of β receptors, whereas parasympathetic ACh slows the heart through muscarinic receptors. Sympathetic neurons can undergo a developmental transition from production of NE to ACh and we provide evidence that mouse cardiac sympathetic nerves transiently produce ACh after myocardial infarction (MI). ACh levels increased in viable heart tissue 10-14 d after MI, returning to control levels at 21 d, whereas NE levels were stable. At the same time, the genes required for ACh synthesis increased in stellate ganglia, which contain most of the sympathetic neurons projecting to the heart. Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cardiac sympathetic fibers. Finally, selective deletion of the ChAT gene from adult sympathetic neurons prevented the infarction-induced increase in cardiac ACh. Deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor from sympathetic neurons prevented the induction of cholinergic genes after MI, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines induce the transient acquisition of a cholinergic phenotype in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Ex vivo experiments examining the effect of NE and ACh on rabbit cardiac action potential duration revealed that ACh blunted both the NE-stimulated decrease in cardiac action potential duration and increase in myocyte calcium transients. This raises the possibility that sympathetic co-release of ACh and NE may impair adaptation to high heart rates and increase arrhythmia susceptibility. Sympathetic neurons normally make norepinephrine (NE), which increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac myocytes. We found that, after myocardial infarction, the sympathetic neurons

  9. Radical Scavenging Activity-Based and AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lutein in Macrophage-Like and Skin Keratinocytic Cells

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    Jueun Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL- 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX- 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF- α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP- 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.

  10. Bovine lactoferricin is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin.

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    Sogo, Takayuki; Terahara, Norihiko; Hisanaga, Ayami; Kumamoto, Takuma; Yamashiro, Takaaki; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, which has been used for folk beverages and herbal medicine although the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Based on the properties of Dp3-Sam and the information of inflammatory processes, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in both cell and animal models in the present study. In the cell model, Dp3-Sam and Delphinidin (Dp) reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α induced by LPS. Cellular signaling analysis revealed that Dp3-Sam and Dp downregulated NF-κB pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. In animal model, Dp3-Sam and Dp reduced the production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α and attenuated mouse paw edema induced by LPS. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that Hibiscus Dp3-Sam possessed potential anti-inflammatory properties. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of 1,2,4-oxadiazole analogs of resveratrol.

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    Gobec, Martina; Tomašič, Tihomir; Markovič, Tijana; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jakopin, Žiga

    2015-10-05

    The chemopreventive properties of resveratrol are ascribed mostly to its antioxidant activity, in particular its scavenging ability for reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to the inhibition of NF-κB pathway which has also been suggested as an important underlying mechanism of its reported properties. In present study, a small library of nine 1,2,4-oxadiazole-based structural analogs of resveratrol were assayed for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Several compounds showed significant inhibitory activities against NF-κB and/or ROS production. Compound 2, incorporating two para-hydroxyphenyl moieties connected by the 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring, was the most active, its potency in inhibiting activation of NF-κB and ROS scavenging abilities surpassing that of resveratrol. Additionally, we elucidated the mechanisms underlying the NF-κB inhibitory activity of compound 2. Finally, in contrast to resveratrol, compound 2 significantly reduced the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating its prominent anti-inflammatory potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Toonaciliatin K against Adjuvant Arthritis

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    HaiXing Gou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toonaciliatin K is a natural limonoid purified from the Toona ciliata Roem. var. ciliata (Meliaceae. This study is to reveal the inflammatory suppression effect of toonaciliatin K and further the intrinsic mechanism. Firstly, anti-inflammatory effect of toonaciliatin K was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were downregulated by toonaciliatin K. The toonaciliatin K inhibited TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, LPS elicited the excess iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein production and toonaciliatin K attenuated the excess production. Western blot assay demonstrated that MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the toonaciliatin K’s anti-inflammatory activity. Secondly, toonaciliatin K inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Thirdly, toonaciliatin K alleviated the paw swelling and improved arthritis clinical scores in the adjuvant arthritis rats. Toonaciliatin K decreased the proinflammatory cytokines levels and Mankin scores in adjuvant arthritis rats. The HE staining, safranin O-fast green, and toluidine blue staining results demonstrated that toonaciliatin K alleviated the histological changes of paw, for example, pannus formation, focal loss of cartilage, bone erosion, and presence of extra-articular inflammation. Hence, toonaciliatin K is a promising agent for treatment of arthritis.

  15. Penicillospirone from a marine isolate of Penicillium sp. (SF-5292) with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Kim, Dong-Cheol; Park, Jin-Soo; Son, Jae-Young; Hak Sohn, Jae; Liu, Ling; Che, Yongsheng; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2017-08-01

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of a marine-derived fungal isolate Penicillium sp. SF-5292 yielded a new polyketide-type metabolite, penicillospirone (1). The structure of 1 was determined by analysis of spectroscopic data such as 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS data, and the final structure including absolute configuration was unambiguously established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the evaluation of its anti-inflammatory effects, 1 inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglia, and these inhibitory effects were correlated with the suppressive effect of 1 against overexpressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, 1 also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-12. Overall, the anti-inflammatory effect of 1 was suggested to be mediated through the negative regulation of NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Therapeutic Applicability of Anti-Inflammatory and Proresolving Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators

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    Gerard L. Bannenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenases and cyclo-oxygenases is a resourceful mode of formation of specific autacoids that regulate the extent and pace of the inflammatory response. Arachidonate-derived eicosanoids, such as lipoxin A4, prostaglandin (PGD2, PGF2α, PGE2, and PGD2-derived cyclopentenones exert specific roles in counter-regulating inflammation and turning on resolution. Recently recognized classes of autacoids derived from long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the E- and D-series resolvins, protectin D1, and maresin 1, act as specialized mediators to dampen inflammation actively, afford tissue protection, stimulate host defense, and activate resolution. It is held that counter-regulatory lipid mediators and the specific molecular pathways activated by such endogenous agonists may be suitable for pharmacological use in the treatment of inflammatory disease. The anti-inflammatory drug aspirin is a striking example of a drug that is able to act in such a manner, namely through triggering the formation of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 and aspirin-triggered resolvins. Different aspects of the therapeutic applicability of lipid mediators have been addressed here, and indicate that the development of innovative pharmacotherapy based on anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipid mediators presents novel prospects for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  17. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Three Fatty Acids from Royal Jelly

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    Yi-Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA, and sebacic acid (SEA are the three major fatty acids in royal jelly (RJ. Previous studies have revealed several pharmacological activities of 10-H2DA and 10-HDAA, although the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms by which SEA acts are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these RJ fatty acids in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and SEA had potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the release of the major inflammatory-mediators, nitric oxide, and interleukin-10, and only SEA decreased TNF-α production. Several key inflammatory genes have also been modulated by these RJ fatty acids, with 10-H2DA showing distinct modulating effects as compared to the other two FAs. Furthermore, we found that these three FAs regulated several proteins involved in MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings provide additional references for using RJ against inflammatory diseases.

  18. Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; de Brito, Tarcísio Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Barbosa, André Luiz Dos Reis; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Lopes, Luciano da Silva; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    D-limonene epoxidation generates (+)-limonene epoxide, an understudied compound in the pharmacologically point of view. Herein, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potentialities of (+)-limonene epoxide and suggested a mechanism of action. The anti-inflammatory potential was analyzed using agents to induce paw edema, permeability, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell migration of peritoneal cells were also assessed. Antinociceptive effects were evaluated by writhing test induced by acetic acid, formalin, and hot plate assays and contribution of opioid pathways. Pretreated animals with (+)-limonene epoxide showed reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in all doses (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) (P Limonene epoxide diminished abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid (78.9%) and paw licking times in both 1 (41.8%) and 2 (51.5%) phases and a pretreatment with naloxone (3 mg/kg) reverted the antinociceptive action in morphine- and (+)-limonene epoxide-treated groups (P limonene epoxide inhibited release/activity of inflammatory mediators, vascular permeability, migration of neutrophils and displayed systemic and peripheral analgesic-dependent effects of the opioid system.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs.

  20. Anti-inflammatory management for tendon injuries - friends or foes?

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    Chan Kai-Ming

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute and chronic tendon injuries are very common among athletes and in sedentary population. Most physicians prescribe anti-inflammatory managements to relieve the worst symptoms of swelling and pain, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and physical therapies. However, experimental research shows that pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins may play important regulatory roles in tendon healing. Noticeably nearly all cases of chronic tendon injuries we treat as specialists have received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by their physician, suggesting that there might be a potential interaction in some of these cases turning a mild inflammatory tendon injury into chronic tendinopathy in predisposed individuals. We are aware of the fact that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids may well have a positive effect on the pain control in the clinical situation whilst negatively affect the structural healing. It follows that a comprehensive evaluation of anti-inflammatory management for tendon injuries is needed and any such data would have profound clinical and health economic importance.

  1. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

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    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  2. New advances in pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Nigel H.; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer’ and Sjogren’s diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  3. JS-III-49, a hydroquinone derivative, exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting Akt and p38.

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    Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-05-01

    Since previous studies have reported that hydroquinone (HQ) exerted immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity, various HQ derivatives have been synthesized and their biological activities investigated. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory activity of JS-III-49, a novel HQ derivative, in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. JS-III-49 suppressed the production of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1b without cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. JS-III-49 inhibited nuclear translocation of the NF-kB transcription factors p65 and p50 by directly targeting Akt, an upstream kinase of the NF-kB pathway, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. However, JS-III-49 did not directly inhibit the kinase activities of Src and Syk, which are upstream kinases of Akt, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, JS-III-49 suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-Fos, one of the components of AP-1, by specifically targeting p38, an upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the AP-1 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that JS-III-49 plays an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-stimulated macrophages by targeting Akt and p38 in the NF-kB and AP-1 pathways, respectively.

  4. Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, J

    1975-04-01

    The effects of acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, D-tubocurarine, eserine, and alpha-bungarotoxin on the Schwann cell electrical potential of resting and stimulated squid nerve fibers were studied. Acetylcholine (10-7 M) and barbamylcholine (10-6 M) induce a prolonged hyper polarization in the Schwann cells of the unstimulated nerve fiber. In the presence of carbamylcholine (10-6 M) the behavior of the Schwann cell membrane to changes in the external potassium concentration approximates the behavior of an ideal potassium electrode. D-Tubocurarine (10-9 M) blocks the hyperpolarizing effects of nerve impulse trains and carbamylcholine (10-6 M), whereas at the same concentration eserine prolongs the Schwann cell hyperpolarizations induced by axon stimulation or by acetylcholine (10-7 M). alpha-Bungarotoxin (10-9M) also blocks the hyperpolarizing effect of nerve impulse trains and of carbamylcholine. D-Tubocurarine (10-5M) protects the Schwann cells against the irreversible action of alpha-bungarotoxin. These results show the existence of acetylcholine receptors in the Schwann cell membrane. Preliminary measurements of the binding of 125I-alpha bungarotoxin to the plasma membranes isolated from squid nerves also indicate the presence of acetylcholine receptors. These findings support the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the axon-Schwann cell relationship previously described.

  5. Deformation of attractor landscape via cholinergic presynaptic modulations: a computational study using a phase neuron model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanamaru

    Full Text Available Corticopetal acetylcholine (ACh is released transiently from the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM into the cortical layers and is associated with top-down attention. Recent experimental data suggest that this release of ACh disinhibits layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (PYRs via muscarinic presynaptic effects on inhibitory synapses. Together with other possible presynaptic cholinergic effects on excitatory synapses, this may result in dynamic and temporal modifications of synapses associated with top-down attention. However, the system-level consequences and cognitive relevance of such disinhibitions are poorly understood. Herein, we propose a theoretical possibility that such transient modifications of connectivity associated with ACh release, in addition to top-down glutamatergic input, may provide a neural mechanism for the temporal reactivation of attractors as neural correlates of memories. With baseline levels of ACh, the brain returns to quasi-attractor states, exhibiting transitive dynamics between several intrinsic internal states. This suggests that top-down attention may cause the attention-induced deformations between two types of attractor landscapes: the quasi-attractor landscape (Q-landscape, present under low-ACh, non-attentional conditions and the attractor landscape (A-landscape, present under high-ACh, top-down attentional conditions. We present a conceptual computational model based on experimental knowledge of the structure of PYRs and interneurons (INs in cortical layers 1 and 2/3 and discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  6. Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System

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    Rongfeng Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum (LS, central amygdala (CeA, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVH, dorsal raphe (DRN and parabrachial nucleus (PBN. Interestingly, we found that the BFCS receives inputs from the olfactory areas and the entorhinal-hippocampal system. These results greatly expand our knowledge about the connectivity of the mouse BFCS and provided important preliminary indications for future exploration of circuit function.

  7. Changes in the cholinergic system of rat sciatic nerve and skeletal muscle following suspension induced disuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.; Misulis, K. E.; Dettbarn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle disused induced changes in the cholinergic system of sciatic nerve, slow twitch soleus (SOL) and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle were studied in rats. Rats with hindlimbs suspended for 2 to 3 weeks showed marked elevation in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sciatic nerve (38%), in SOL (108%) and in EDL (67%). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in SOL increased by 163% without changing the molecular forms pattern of 4S, 10S, 12S, and 16S. No significant changes in activity and molecular forms pattern of AChE were seen in EDL or in AChE activity of sciatic nerve. Nicotinic receptor binding of 3H-acetylcholine was increased in both muscles. When measured after 3 weeks of hindlimb suspension the normal distribution of type 1 fibers in SOL was reduced and a corresponding increase in type IIa and IIb fibers is seen. In EDL no significant change in fiber proportion is observed. Muscle activity, such as loadbearing, appears to have a greater controlling influence on the characteristics of the slow twitch SOL muscle than upon the fast twitch EDL muscle.

  8. Cholinergic pairing with visual activation results in long-term enhancement of visual evoked potentials.

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    Jun Il Kang

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh contributes to learning processes by modulating cortical plasticity in terms of intensity of neuronal activity and selectivity properties of cortical neurons. However, it is not known if ACh induces long term effects within the primary visual cortex (V1 that could sustain visual learning mechanisms. In the present study we analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs in V1 of rats during a 4-8 h period after coupling visual stimulation to an intracortical injection of ACh analog carbachol or stimulation of basal forebrain. To clarify the action of ACh on VEP activity in V1, we individually pre-injected muscarinic (scopolamine, nicotinic (mecamylamine, alpha7 (methyllycaconitine, and NMDA (CPP receptor antagonists before carbachol infusion. Stimulation of the cholinergic system paired with visual stimulation significantly increased VEP amplitude (56% during a 6 h period. Pre-treatment with scopolamine, mecamylamine and CPP completely abolished this long-term enhancement, while alpha7 inhibition induced an instant increase of VEP amplitude. This suggests a role of ACh in facilitating visual stimuli responsiveness through mechanisms comparable to LTP which involve nicotinic and muscarinic receptors with an interaction of NMDA transmission in the visual cortex.

  9. Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Decreases Neurotrophin Signaling without Affecting Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Genetically Susceptible Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Marion T; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive function. Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a prominent feature in the brain of patients with AD, and are a major contributor to neuronal toxicity and disease progression. However, the factors that initiate the toxic cascade that results in tau hyperphosphorylation in sporadic AD are unknown. Here we investigated whether degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and/or a resultant decrease in neurotrophin signaling cause aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation. Our results reveal that the loss of BFCNs in pre-symptomatic pR5 (P301L) tau transgenic mice results in a decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and reduced TrkB receptor activation. However, there was no exacerbation of the levels of phosphorylated tau or its aggregation in the hippocampus of susceptible mice. Furthermore the animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory task was unaltered, and no changes in hippocampal synaptic markers were observed. This suggests that tau pathology is likely to be regulated independently of BFCN degeneration and the corresponding decrease in hippocampal neurotrophin levels, although these features may still contribute to disease etiology.

  10. Synthesis of the 123I- and 125I-labeled cholinergic nerve marker (-)-5-iodobenzovesamicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.; Jung, Y.-W.; Gildersleeve, D.L.; Hagen, C.A.; Kuhl, D.E.; Wieland, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The highly toxic curaremimetic and cholinergic neuron marker (-)-5-iodobenzovesamicol (IBVM) has been labeled with iodine-125 and iodine-123. [ 125 I]IBVM, suitable for animal distribution and ex vivo autoradiographic studies, was synthesized by solid-state exchanger; isolated yields were 65-89% with specific activities in the range of 130-200 Ci/mmol. The synthesis of no-carrier-added (-)-5-[ 125 I]IBVM from the corresponding chiral (-)-5-(tri-n-butyltin) derivative using Na 125 I was evaluated using the oxidants H 2 O 2 , peracetic acid and chloramine-T. Both peracetic acid and chloramine-T gave good yields (70-95%). However, when Na 123 I was utilized, acceptable yields of [ 123 I]IBVM were obtained only with chloramine-T. Distribution analyses of [ 125 I]IBVM and [ 123 I]IBVM in mice 4 h following intravenous administration show essentially equivalent concentrations of the two tracers in the four brain regions sampled. The exceptionally high specific activity of [ 123 I]IBVM has made possible the evaluation of this radiotracer in humans. (Author)

  11. Cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal differentiation of human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hany El Sayed; El-Gamal, Aya; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; Abd-Elmaksoud, Ahmed; Farag, Amany; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Thomas, Caceci; Anwarul, Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types such as cartilage, bone, and fat cells. Recent studies have shown that induction of MSCs in vitro by growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) causes them to differentiate into neural like cells. These cultures also express ChAT, a cholinergic marker; and TH, a dopaminergic marker for neural cells. To establish a protocol with maximum differentiation potential, we examined MSCs under three experimental culture conditions using neural induction media containing FGF2, EGF, BMP-9, retinoic acid, and heparin. Adipose-derived MSCs were extracted and expanded in vitro for 3 passages after reaching >80% confluency, for a total duration of 9 days. Cells were then characterized by flow cytometry for CD markers as CD44 positive and CD45 negative. MSCs were then treated with neural induction media and were characterized by morphological changes and Q-PCR. Differentiated MSCs expressed markers for immature and mature neurons; β Tubulin III (TUBB3) and MAP2, respectively, showing the neural potential of these cells to differentiate into functional neurons. Improved protocols for MSCs induction will facilitate and ensure the reproducibility and standard production of MSCs for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nicotinic cholinergic receptor in brain detected by binding of. cap alpha. -(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eterovic, V A; Bennett, E L

    1974-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin was prepared by catalytic reduction of iodinated ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin with tritium gas. Crude mitochondrial fraction from rat cerebral cortex bound 40 x 10/sup -15/ to 60 x 10/sup -15/ moles of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin per mg of protein. This binding was reduced by 50% in the presence of approx. 10/sup -6/ M d-tubocurarine or nicotine, 10/sup -5/ M acetylcholine, 10/sup -4/ M carbamylcholine or decamethonium or 10/sup -3/ M atropine. Hexamethonium and eserine were the least effective of the drugs tested. Crude mitochondrial fraction was separated into myelin, nerve endings, and mitochondria. The highest binding of toxin per mg of protein was found in nerve endings, as well as the greatest inhibition of toxin binding by d-tubocurarine. Binding of ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin to membranes obtained by osmotic shock of the crude mitochondrial fraction indicates that the receptor for the toxin is membrane bound. /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, prepared with Na/sup 125/I and chloramine T, was highly specific for the acetylcholine receptor in diaphragm, however, it was less specific and less reliable than ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin in brain. It is concluded that a nicotinic cholinergic receptor exists in brain, and that ..cap alpha..-(/sup 3/H)bungarotoxin is a suitable probe for this receptor.

  13. Direction-selective circuitry in rat retina develops independently of GABAergic, cholinergic and action potential activity.

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    Le Sun

    Full Text Available The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience.

  14. Attentional control of associative learning--a possible role of the central cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Wolfgang M; O'Reilly, Randall C

    2008-04-02

    How does attention interact with learning? Kruschke [Kruschke, J.K. (2001). Toward a unified Model of Attention in Associative Learning. J. Math. Psychol. 45, 812-863.] proposed a model (EXIT) that captures Mackintosh's [Mackintosh, N.J. (1975). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82(4), 276-298.] framework for attentional modulation of associative learning. We developed a computational model that showed analogous interactions between selective attention and associative learning, but is significantly simplified and, in contrast to EXIT, is motivated by neurophysiological findings. Competition among input representations in the internal representation layer, which increases the contrast between stimuli, is critical for simulating these interactions in human behavior. Furthermore, this competition is modulated in a way that might be consistent with the phasic activation of the central cholinergic system, which modulates activity in sensory cortices. Specifically, phasic increases in acetylcholine can cause increased excitability of both pyramidal excitatory neurons in cortical layers II/III and cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons targeting the same pyramidal neurons. These effects result in increased attentional contrast in our model. This model thus represents an initial attempt to link human attentional learning data with underlying neural substrates.

  15. Atrophy and structural covariance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan; Raiser, Theresa; Riedl, Lina; Riederer, Isabelle; Schroeter, Matthias L; Bisenius, Sandrine; Schneider, Anja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fliessbach, Klaus; Spottke, Annika; Grothe, Michel J; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Straub, Sarah; Otto, Markus; Danek, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by profound destruction of cortical language areas. Anatomical studies suggest an involvement of cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in PPA syndromes, particularly in the area of the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Here we aimed to determine the pattern of atrophy and structural covariance as a proxy of structural connectivity of BF nuclei in PPA variants. We studied 62 prospectively recruited cases with the clinical diagnosis of PPA and 31 healthy older control participants from the cohort study of the German consortium for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We determined cortical and BF atrophy based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Patterns of structural covariance of BF with cortical regions were determined using voxel-based partial least square analysis. We found significant atrophy of total BF and BF subregions in PPA patients compared with controls [F(1, 82) = 20.2, p covariance analysis in healthy controls revealed associations of the BF nuclei, particularly the NSP, with left hemispheric predominant prefrontal, lateral temporal, and parietal cortical areas, including Broca's speech area (p covariance of the BF nuclei mostly with right but not with left hemispheric cortical areas (p covariance of the BF with left hemispheric cortical areas in healthy aging towards right hemispheric cortical areas in PPA, possibly reflecting a consequence of the profound and early destruction of cortical language areas in PPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Benzimidazoles: an ideal privileged drug scaffold for the design of multitargeted anti-inflammatory ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gaganpreet; Kaur, Maninder; Silakari, Om

    2014-01-01

    The recent research area endeavors to discover ultimate multi-target ligands, an increasingly feasible and attractive alternative to existing mono-targeted drugs for treatment of complex, multi-factorial inflammation process which underlays plethora of debilitated health conditions. In order to improvise this option, exploration of relevant chemical core scaffold will be an utmost need. Privileged benzimidazole scaffold being historically versatile structural motif could offer a viable starting point in the search for novel multi-target ligands against multi-factorial inflammation process since, when appropriately substituted, it can selectively modulate diverse receptors, pathways and enzymes associated with the pathogenesis of inflammation. Despite this remarkable capability, the multi-target capacity of the benzimidazole scaffold remains largely unexploited. With this in focus, the present review article attempts to provide synopsis of published research to exemplify the valuable use of benzimidazole nucleus and focus on their suitability as starting scaffold to develop multi-targeted anti-inflammatory ligands.

  17. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimuthu Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer.

  18. Young Human Cholinergic Neurons Respond to Physiological Regulators and Improve Cognitive Symptoms in an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Morelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM in the basal forebrain (BF is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties. Extensive characterization confirmed the cholinergic identity of hfNBMs, including positivity for specific markers (such as choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine (Ach release. Electrophysiological measurements provided the functional validation of hfNBM cells, which exhibited the activation of peculiar sodium (INa and potassium (IK currents, as well as the presence of functional cholinergic receptors. Accordingly, hfNBMs express both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, which were activated by Ach. The hfNBMs cholinergic phenotype was regulated by the nerve growth factor (NGF, through the activation of the high-affinity NGF receptor TrkA, as well as by 17-β-estradiol through a peculiar recruitment of its own receptors. When intravenously administered in NBM-lesioned rats, hfNBMs determined a significant improvement in memory functions. Histological examination of brain sections showed that hfNBMs (labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye prior to administration reached the damaged brain areas. The study provides a useful model to study the ontogenetic mechanisms regulating the development and maintenance of the human brain cholinergic system and to assess new lines of research, including disease modeling, drug discovery and cell-based therapy for AD.

  19. Comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) on human neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yongchang; Venkatraj, Jijayanagaram; Barhoumi, Rola; Pal, Ranadip; Datta, Aniruddha; Wild, James R.; Tiffany-Castiglioni, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon, which is acutely neurotoxic, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), which induces OPIDN, in the human neuroblastoma SY5Y and the human astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1. SY5Y cells have been studied extensively as a model for OP-induced neurotoxicity, but CCF cells have not previously been studied. We conducted a preliminary human gene array assay of OP-treated SY5Y cells in order to assess at the gene level whether these cells can distinguish between OP compounds that do and do not cause OPIDN. Paraoxon and DFP induced dramatically different profiles of gene expression. Two genes were upregulated and 13 downregulated by at least 2-fold in paraoxon-treated cells. In contrast, one gene was upregulated by DFP and none was downregulated at the 2-fold threshold. This finding is consistent with current and previous observations that SY5Y cells can distinguish between OPs that do or do not induce OPIDN. We also examined gene array results for possible novel target proteins or metabolic pathways for OP neurotoxicity. Protein levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) revealed that paraoxon exposure at 3 μM for 24 h significantly reduced GRP78 levels by 30% in neuroblastoma cells, whereas DFP treatment had no effect. In comparison with SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, paraoxon and DFP (3 μM for 24 h) each significantly increased GRP78 levels by 23-24% in CCF astrocytoma cells. As we have previously evaluated intracellular changes in Ca 2+ levels in SY5Y cells, we investigated the effects of paraoxon and DFP on cellular Ca 2+ homeostasis in CCF by studying cytosolic and mitochondrial basal calcium levels. A significant decrease in the ratio of mitochondrial to cytosolic Ca 2+ fluorescence was detected in CCF cultures treated for either 1 or 3 days with 1, 3, 10, or 30 μM paraoxon. In contrast, treatment with DFP for 1 day had no significant effect on the ratio of

  20. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Solip [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Thu [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Sungwoo [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hyung, E-mail: jhlee36@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE{sub 2}, butyl lucidenateD{sub 2} (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these

  1. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Solip; Nguyen, Van Thu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE 2 , butyl lucidenateD 2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these triterpenes

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.

  3. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Fatsia polycarpa Hayata and Its Constituents

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    Hsueh-Ling Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatsia polycarpa, a plant endemic to Taiwan, is an herbal medicine known for treating several inflammation-related diseases, but its biological function needs scientific support. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of the methanolic crude extract (MCE of F. polycarpa and its feature constituents, that is, brassicasterol (a phytosterol, triterpenoids 3α-hydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-28-oic acid (HODA, 3α-hydroxyolean-11-en-28,13β-olide (HOEO, fatsicarpain D, and fatsicarpain F, were investigated. MCE and HOEO, but not brassicasterol, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophage line, whereas HODA, fatsicarpain D and fatsicarpain F were toxic to RAW cells. Additionally, MCE and HOEO suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-1β and interfered with LPS-promoted activation of the inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway, and that of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38. In animal tests, MCE and HOEO effectively ameliorated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobol-13 acetate- (TPA-induced ear edema of mice. Thus, MCE of F. polycarpa exhibited an obvious anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro that likely involved the inhibition of the IKK/NF-κB pathway and the MAPKs, which may be attributed by triterpenoids such as HOEO.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Prostanoids: Focus on the Interactions between Electrophile Signaling and Resolution of Inflammation

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    Beatriz Díez-Dacal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids are products of cyclooxygenase biosynthetic pathways and constitute a family of lipidic mediators of widely diverse structures and biological actions. Besides their known proinflammatory role, numerous works have revealed the anti-inflammatory effects of various prostanoids and established their role in the resolution of inflammation. Among these, prostaglandins with cyclopentenone structure (cyPG are electrophilic lipids that may act through various mechanisms, including the activation of nuclear and membrane receptors and, importantly, direct addition to protein cysteine residues and modification of protein function. Due to their ability to influence cysteine modification–mediated signaling, cyPG may play a critical role in the interplay between redox and inflammatory signaling pathways. Moreover, cellular redox status modulates cyPG addition to proteins; thus, a reciprocal regulation exists between these two factors. After initial controversy, it is becoming clear that endogenous cyPG are generated at concentrations sufficient to promote inflammatory resolution. As for other prostanoids, cyPG effects are highly dependent on context factors and they may exert pro- or anti-inflammatory actions in a cell type–dependent manner, or even biphasic or dual actions in a given cell type or tissue. In light of the growing number of cyPG protein targets identified, cyPG resemble other pleiotropic mediators acting through protein modification. However, their complex structure results in an inter- and intramolecular selectivity of the residues being modified, thus opening the way for structure-activity and drug discovery studies. Detailed characterization of cyPG interactions with cellular proteins will help us to understand their mechanism of action fully and establish their therapeutic potential in inflammation.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of longan seed extract in carrageenan stimulated Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Ching-Hsiao Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Longan seeds have been used as a folk medicine in China. Longan seed extract (LSE is known for antioxidative, antiproliferative, hypoglycemic, and hypouremic effects. However, its anti-inflammatory effect has not been shown. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were given LSE orally (vehicle, 10, and 30 mg/kg for 3 days to its test anti-inflammatory effect by injecting λ-carrageenan (CARR in the right hind paw or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, IP. For the positive control, animals were given aspirin (20 mg/kg orally and treated likewise. Serum or tissue samples from treated rats were collected after 3 hr of stimulation. Regarding the in vitro study, BV2 microglial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of LSE or normal saline for 10 min or 24 hr for Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. Results: LSE reduced CARR-induced edema in the experimental animals. LSE also reduced LPS/CARR-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL1β, IL6, and COX2 productions. These inflammatory factors were also reduced dose dependently by LSE in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that LSE inhibited LPS activated c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, and p38 MAP kinases signaling pathways, caspase-3, inducible NO synthase, and COX2 expressions. Conclusion: LSE pretreatment suppressed CARR- and LPS-induced inflammations and these effects might be through the inhibition of MAP kinases signaling pathways and inflammatory factors.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Berberine Hydrochloride in an LPS-Induced Murine Model of Mastitis

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    Xichun Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine hydrochloride is an isoquinoline type alkaloid extracted from Berberidaceae, Rutaceae, and other plants. Previous reports have shown that berberine hydrochloride has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced murine model of mastitis was established to explore the anti-inflammatory action of berberine hydrochloride. Sixty mice that had been lactating for 5–7 days were randomly divided into six groups, including control, LPS, three berberine hydrochloride treatment groups (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, and a dexamethasone (DEX (5 mg/kg group. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before and 12 h after LPS-induced mastitis, and all mice were sacrificed 24 h after LPS induction. The pathological and histopathological changes of the mammary glands were observed. The concentrations and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR. The activation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling pathways was analyzed by Western blot. Results indicated that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration and dose-dependently decreased the secretion and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 within a certain range. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 and NF-κB p65 activation and the phosphorylation of I-κB. Berberine hydrochloride can provide mice robust protection from LPS-induced mastitis, potentially via the TLR4 and NF-κB pathway.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Berberine Hydrochloride in an LPS-Induced Murine Model of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shibin; Ding, Nana; He, Yanting; Li, Cheng; Li, Manman; Ding, Xuedong; Ding, Hongyan; Li, Jinchun

    2018-01-01

    Berberine hydrochloride is an isoquinoline type alkaloid extracted from Berberidaceae, Rutaceae, and other plants. Previous reports have shown that berberine hydrochloride has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced murine model of mastitis was established to explore the anti-inflammatory action of berberine hydrochloride. Sixty mice that had been lactating for 5–7 days were randomly divided into six groups, including control, LPS, three berberine hydrochloride treatment groups (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and a dexamethasone (DEX) (5 mg/kg) group. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before and 12 h after LPS-induced mastitis, and all mice were sacrificed 24 h after LPS induction. The pathological and histopathological changes of the mammary glands were observed. The concentrations and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR. The activation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling pathways was analyzed by Western blot. Results indicated that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration and dose-dependently decreased the secretion and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 within a certain range. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 and NF-κB p65 activation and the phosphorylation of I-κB. Berberine hydrochloride can provide mice robust protection from LPS-induced mastitis, potentially via the TLR4 and NF-κB pathway.

  9. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

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    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  10. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts.

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    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-06-01

    Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Furthermore, we studied the impact of LEO on genome-wide gene expression profiles. LEO significantly modulated global gene expression and robustly impacted signaling pathways, many of which are critical for inflammation and tissue remodeling processes. This study provides the first evidence of the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO in human skin cells and indicates that it is a good therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory conditions of the skin.

  11. Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are recruited by acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the locus coeruleus during the organisation of post-ictal antinociception.

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    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-10-01

    Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response. Five minutes later, TCS were induced by systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (64mg/kg). Seizures were recorded inside the open field apparatus for an average of 10min. Immediately after seizures, the nociceptive threshold was recorded for 130min using the tail-flick test. Pre-treatment of the LC with 1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL concentrations of both atropine and mecamylamine did not cause a significant effect on seizure severity. However, the same treatments decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. In addition, mecamylamine caused an earlier decrease in the post-ictal antinociception compared to atropine. These results suggest that muscarinic and mainly nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the LC are recruited to organise tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and