WorldWideScience

Sample records for choline

  1. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  2. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.;

    2012-01-01

    plasma samples were extracted to analyze the content of free choline and betaine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma choline was only increased in mink kits fed the highest level of choline whereas plasma choline dit not change in full-grown mink irrespectively of choline level in the feed....... Plasma betaine increased when the level of choline in the diet increased. The changes in plasma betaine were most prominent in mink kits. The present study shows that plasma betaine may be a more reliable marker of choline status than plasma choline, especially in mink kits....

  3. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  4. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting approximately equimolecular quantities of ferric hydroxide, choline,...

  5. Choline metabolism-based molecular diagnosis of cancer: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Glunde, Kristine; Penet, Marie-France; Jiang, Lu; Jacobs, Michael A.; Zaver M Bhujwalla

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal choline metabolism continues to be identified in multiple cancers. Molecular causes of abnormal choline metabolism are changes in choline kinase-α, ethanolamine kinase-α, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and -D and glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterases, as well as several choline transporters. The net outcome of these enzymatic changes is an increase in phosphocholine and total choline (tCho) and, in some cancers, a relative decrease of glycerophosphocholine. The incre...

  6. Does litomosoides sigmodontis synthesize dimethylethanolamine from choline?

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, K.M.; Babayan, S.; Allen, J. E.; Harnett, W

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis secrete a protein (Juv-p120) highly modified with dimethylethanolamine (DMAE). In an attempt to establish the source of this decoration worms were pulsed with [3H]-choline and [3H]-ethanolamine and the radio-isotope labelled products analysed. Both isotope labels were successfully taken up by the worms, as demonstrated by labelling of phospholipids with [3H]-choline, being predominantly incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and [3H]-ethanolamine into p...

  7. Does Litomosoides sigmodontis synthesize dimethylethanolamine from choline?

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, K.M.; Babayan, S. A.; Allen, J. E.; Harnett, W; Allen, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile female Litomosoides sigmodontis secrete a protein (Juv-p120) highly modified with dimethylethanolamine (DMAE). In an attempt to establish the source of this decoration worms were pulsed with [3H]-choline and [3H]-ethanolamine and the radio-isotope labelled products analysed. Both isotope labels were successfully taken up by the worms, as demonstrated by labelling of phospholipids with [3H]-choline, being predominantly incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and [3H]-ethanolamine into p...

  8. Yeast mutants auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, K D; Jensen, B.; Kolat, A I; Storm, E M; Henry, S. A.; Fogel, S

    1980-01-01

    Three mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which require exogenous ethanolamine or choline were isolated. The mutants map to a single locus (cho1) on chromosome V. The lipid composition suggests that cho1 mutants do not synthesize phosphatidylserine under any growth conditions. If phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine, which are usually derived from phosphatidylserine, were synthesized from exogenous ethanolamine or choline, the mutants grew and divided relatively normally....

  9. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  10. Choline-containing bacteriophage receptors in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, R. (Rafael); Garcia, E.; Garcia, P.; Ronda, C; Tomasz, A.

    1982-01-01

    Choline-containing teichoic acid seems to be essential for the adsorption of bacteriophage Dp-1 to pneumococci. This conclusion is based on the following observations: In contrast to pneumococci grown in choline-containing medium, cells grown in medium containing ethanolamine or other submethylated aminoalcohols instead of choline were found to be resistant to infection by Dp-1. Live choline-grown bacteria and heat- or UV-inactivated cells and purified cell walls prepared from these cells wer...

  11. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made...

  12. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  13. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  14. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  15. The Comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.Gangane1

    Full Text Available An experiment of 0-42 days in day old 150 Vencobb broiler chickens was conducted to determine comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal sources of choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers. Birds were randomly distributed into three groups (T0- T2, one untreated control and two treatments. Chicks in Group T0 were given feed without any additional source choline chloride. Chicks of Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline chloride@1kg/tonne (60% and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds per group at the end of the study. It was recorded that inclusion of either synthetic choline or herbal source of choline exerted a hypocholesterolemic effect and also decreased the level of triglycerides as compared to untreated control thus minimizing the incidence of fatty liver, however the two treatment do not differ significantly. Gross pathological study also revealed no significant changes in the architecture of liver as compared to control. It can be concluded that the herbal supplements can successfully replace their synthetic analogues from broiler ration. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 318-320

  16. Caffeine potentiates the enhancement by choline of striatal acetylcholine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Ulus, I. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peripherally administered caffeine (50 mg/kg), choline (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) or combinations of both drugs on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the corpus striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine alone or choline in the 30 or 60 mg/kg dose failed to increase ACh in microdialysis samples; the 120 mg/kg choline dose significantly enhanced ACh during the 80 min following drug administration. Coadministration of caffeine with choline significantly increased ACh release after each of the choline doses tested. Peak microdialysate levels with the 120 mg/kg dose were increased 112% when caffeine was additionally administered, as compared with 54% without caffeine. These results indicate that choline administration can enhance spontaneous ACh release from neurons, and that caffeine, a drug known to block adenosine receptors on these neurons, can amplify the choline effect.

  17. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  18. Choline Transporters in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Expression and Functional Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for cell survival and proliferation, however, the expression and function of choline transporters have not been well identified in cancer. In this study, we detected the mRNA and protein expression of organic cation transporter OCT3, carnitine/cation transporters OCTN 1 and OCTN2,and choline transporter-like protein CTL1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549, H1299 and SPC-A-1.Their expression pattern was further confirmed in 25 human primary adenocarcinoma tissues. The choline uptake in these cell lines was significantly blocked by CTL1 inhibitor, but only partially inhibited by OCT or OCTN inhibitors. The efficacy of these inhibitors on cell proliferation is closely correlated with their abilities to block choline transport. Under the native expression of these transporters, the total choline uptake was notably blocked by specific PI3K/AKT inhibitors. These results describe the expression of choline transporters and their relevant function in cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma, thus providing a potential"choline-starvation" strategy of cancer interference through targeting choline transporters, especially CTL1.

  19. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline) an old choline- containing phospholipid with a still interesting profile as cognition enhancing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Enea; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Cholinergic precursors have represented the first approach to counter cognitive impairment occurring in adultonset dementia disorders. These compounds were early leaved because their clinical efficacy was not clearly demonstrated. This is probably not true for some choline-containing phospholipids including choline alphoscerate. Choline alphoscerate increases the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampus, facilitates learning and memory in experimental animals, improves brain transduction mechanisms and decreases age-dependent structural changes occurring in rat brain areas involved in learning and memory. The compound exerts neuroprotective effects in models of altered cholinergic neurotransmission and of brain vascular injury. In clinical studies choline alphoscerate improved memory and attention impairment, as well as affective and somatic symptoms in dementia disorders. An ongoing trial indicates that association between the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and choline alphoscerate is accompanied by an improvement in several cognitive tests superior to that induced by donepezil alone. It is suggested that this association may represent a therapeutic option to prolong beneficial effects of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease patients with concomitant ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. In summary, choline alphoscerate has significant effects on cognitive function with a good safety profile and tolerability. Although limited both in terms of size of the samples investigated and of the length of treatment, preclinical and clinical results presented suggest that cognitive enhancing capabilities of choline alphoscerate merit of being further investigated in appropriate trials.

  20. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard

    2011-02-20

    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. PMID:20338739

  1. Choline associated hypersexuality in a 79-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Cordici, Francesco; Genovese, Carmelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Hypersexuality, also referred to as sexually inappropriate behavior and sexual disinhibition, involves persistent, uninhibited sexual behaviors directed at oneself or at others, sometimes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient, used as a dietary supplement in different diseases. This report was aimed at considering choline intake as a possible cause of iatrogenic hypersexuality. After an evaluation, a 79-year-old man affected by memory loss was diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and treated with oral choline. After 6 weeks of regular choline assumption, the patient showed a pathological increase in libido with sexual urges. As choline was withdrawn, the hypersexuality disappeared within 5 days. Since hypersexuality may be an underreported and overlooked adverse effect of drugs and dietary supplements acting on the cholinergic pathway, this should be considered when treating and counselling patients with inappropriate sexual behavior. PMID:23733158

  2. Bioelectrochemical response of a choline biosensor fabricated by using polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the isoelectric point of an enzyme and the doping principle of conducting polymers,choline oxidase was doped in a polyaniline film to form a biosensor. The amperometric detection of choline is based on the oxidation of the H2O2 enzymatically produced on the choline biosensor. The response current of the biosensor as a function of temperature was determined from 3 to 40℃. An apparent activation energy of 22.8 kJ·mol-1 was obtained. The biosensor had a wide linear response range from 5 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-4 M choline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and a detection limit of 0.2 μM,and had a high sensitivity of 61.9 mA·M-1·cm-2 at 0.50 V and at pH 8.0. The apparent Michaelis constant and the optimum pH for the immobilized enzyme are 1.4 mM choline and 8.4,respectively,which are very close to those of choline oxidase in solution. The effect of selected organic compounds on the response of the choline biosensor was studied.

  3. CHOLINE METABOLISM ALTERATION: A FOCUS ON OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBagnoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to normal differentiated cells, cancer cells require a metabolic reprogramming to support their high proliferation rates and survival. Aberrant choline metabolism is a fairly new metabolic hallmark reflecting the complex reciprocal interactions between oncogenic signaling and cellular metabolism. Alterations of the involved metabolic network may be sustained by changes in activity of several choline transporters as well as of enzymes like choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-α and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipases C and D. Of note, the net outcome of these enzymatic alterations is an increase of phosphocholine and total choline-containing compounds, a cholinic phenotype that can be monitored in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This review will highlight the molecular basis for targeting this pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC, a highly heterogeneous and lethal malignancy characterized by late diagnosis, frequent relapse and development of chemoresistance. Modulation of ChoK-α expression impairs only EOC but not normal ovarian cells, thus supporting the hypothesis that cholinic phenotype is a peculiar feature of transformed cells, and indicating ChoK-α targeting as a novel approach to improve efficacy of standard EOC chemotherapeutic treatments.

  4. Choline on the Move: Perspectives on the Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology of the Presynaptic Choline Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, E A; Blakely, R D

    2016-01-01

    Genetic, biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological approaches have advanced our understanding of cholinergic biology for over 100 years. High-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was one of the last features of cholinergic signaling to be defined at a molecular level, achieved through the cloning of the choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7). In retrospect, the molecular era of CHT studies initiated with the identification of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a potent, competitive CHT antagonist, though it would take another 30 years before HC-3, in radiolabeled form, was used by Joseph Coyle's laboratory to identify and monitor the dynamics of CHT proteins. Though HC-3 studies provided important insights into CHT distribution and regulation, another 15 years would pass before the structure of CHT genes and proteins were identified, a full decade after the cloning of most other neurotransmitter-associated transporters. The availability of CHT gene and protein probes propelled the development of cell and animal models as well as efforts to gain insights into how human CHT gene variation affects the risk for brain and neuromuscular disorders. Most recently, our group has pursued a broadening of CHT pharmacology, elucidating novel chemical structures that may serve to advance cholinergic diagnostics and medication development. Here we provide a short review of the transformation that has occurred in HACU research and how such advances may promote the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:27288078

  5. Henry’s constant of carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride/ethylene glycol, choline chloride/glycerol, choline chloride/malonic acid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new set of Henry’s constant for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvents were measured. • The DESs used were: ethaline, glyceline, and maline. • The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. -- Abstract: In this study, we present a new set of Henry’s constant data for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (DES) (20 to 80 wt% DES) at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The DESs used were choline chloride-based: ethaline (choline chloride/ethylene glycol), glyceline (choline chloride/glycerol), and maline (choline chloride/malonic acid). A differential Henry’s coefficient model was used to describe the behaviour of Henry’s constant, and correlate it with temperature and concentration of DES in the aqueous DES solution. The correlation was found satisfactory such that the proposed model can be used in engineering calculations with reasonable accuracy

  6. Synthesis, isolation and purification of [(11)C]-choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydło, Marcin; Jadwiński, Michał; Chmura, Agnieszka; Gorczewski, Kamil; Sokół, Maria

    2016-01-01

    [(11)C]-choline is an effective PET tracer used for imaging of neoplastic lesions and metastases of the prostate cancer. However, its production can be a challenge for manufacturers, as it has not yet been described in Polish or European pharmacopoeia. In this study the technical aspects of [(11)C]-choline production are described and detailed process parameters are provided. The quality control procedures for releasing [(11)C]-choline as solutio iniectabilis are also presented. The purity and quality of the radiopharmaceutical obtained according to the proposed method were find to be high enough to safely administrate the radiopharmaceutical to patients. Application of an automated synthesizer makes it possible to carry out the entire process of [(11)C]-choline production, isolation and purification within 20 minutes. It is crucial to maintain all aspects of the process as short as possible, since the decay half-time of carbon-11 is 20.4 minutes. The resulting radiopharmaceutical is sterile and pyrogen-free and of a high chemical, radiochemical, and radionuclide purity proved by chromatographic techniques. The yield of the process is up to 20%. [(11)C]-choline PET scanning can be used as accurate and effective diagnostic tool in all centers equipped with [(11)C]-target containing cyclotron. PMID:27660552

  7. Phosphoryl choline-grafted water-soluble carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Kai Xi; Min Gu; Zheng Sheng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble property is the precondition of biomedical evaluation and application of carbon nanotube (CNT). Novel watersoluble CNT was synthesized in this letter by grafting phosphoryi choline (PC) onto multi-wall CNTs. Utilizing FTIR, XPS, TGAand TEM, the title CNTs were characterized and it was found that the target products could facilely dissolve in water.

  8. Synthesis of glycine betaine from exogenous choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Cánovas, David; Vargas, C.; Csonka, Laszlo N.; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The role of choline in osmoprotection in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata has been examined. Transport and conversion of choline to betaine began immediately after addition of choline to the growth medium. Intracellular accumulation of betaine synthesized from choline was salt dependent up to 2.5 M NaCl. Oxidation of choline was enhanced at 2.0 M NaCl in the presence or absence of externally provided betaine. This indicates that the NaCl concentration in the growth medium has major e...

  9. Mechanism of choline deficiency and membrane alteration in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome primary skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Laila C; Singh, Ratnesh K; Michel, Vera; Zeisel, Steven H; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Johnson, Amy R; Mudd, Harvey S; Bakovic, Marica

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblasts from a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), who presented with low plasma choline and betaine, were studied to determine the metabolic characteristics of the choline deficiency. Choline is required for the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and for betaine, an important osmoregulator. Here, choline transport, lipid homeostasis, and mitochondria function were analyzed in skin fibroblasts from POTS and compared with control cells. The choline transporter-like protein 1/solute carrier 44A1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) and mRNA expression were 2-3 times lower in POTS fibroblasts, and choline uptake was reduced 60% (P < 0.05). Disturbances of membrane homeostasis were observed by reduced ratios between PC:phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin:cholesterol, as well as by modified phospholipid fatty acid composition. Choline deficiency also impaired mitochondria function, which was observed by a reduction in oxygen consumption, mitochondrial potential, and glycolytic activity. When POTS cells were treated with choline, transporter was up-regulated, and uptake of choline increased, offering an option for patient treatment. The characteristics of the POTS fibroblasts described here represent a first model of choline and CTL1/SLC44A1 deficiency, in which choline transport, membrane homeostasis, and mitochondrial function are impaired.

  10. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  11. The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M C; Dawson, A P

    1975-12-01

    1. The choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) WAS SOLUBILIZED FROM ACETONE-DRIED POWDERS OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA BY TREATMENT WITH Naja naja venom. 2. The kinetics of the reaction of enzyme with phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as electron acceptors were investigated. 3. With both electron acceptors the reaction mechanism appears to involve a free, modified-enzyme intermediate. 4. With some electron acceptors the maximum velocity of the reaction is independent of the nature of the acceptor. With phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as acceptors the Km value for choline is also independent of the nature of the acceptor molecule. 5. The mechanism of the Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme is apparently the smae as that for the snake venom solubilized enzyme.

  12. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  13. Dietary choline and betaine intake, choline-metabolising genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Feng; Luo, Wei-Ping; Lin, Fang-Yu; Lian, Zhen-Qiang; Mo, Xiong-Fei; Yan, Bo; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case-control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (P interaction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (P interaction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.

  14. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dost, Rutger J.; Breeuwsma, Anthonius J.; Jong, Igle J. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Urology, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT. Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT. During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naive patients. We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naive patients. (orig.)

  15. Influence of androgen deprivation therapy on choline PET/CT in recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrent prostate cancer is usually treated by combining radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. To stage the cancer, choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can be performed. It is generally thought that androgen deprivation therapy does not influence choline PET/CT. In this article we focus on the molecular backgrounds of choline and androgens, and the results of preclinical and clinical studies performed using PET/CT. Using PubMed, we looked for the relevant articles about androgen deprivation therapy and choline PET/CT. During ADT, a tendency of decreased uptake of choline in prostate cancer was observed, in particular in hormone-naive patients. We conclude that in order to prevent false-negative choline PET/CT scans androgen deprivation should be withheld prior to scanning, especially in hormone-naive patients. (orig.)

  16. Central injection of captopril inhibits the blood pressure response to intracerebroventricular choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Isbil-Buyukcoskun

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system in the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on blood pressure in conscious, freely moving normotensive rats. In the first step, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv choline (50, 100 and 150 µg on blood pressure. Choline increased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the effects of brain renin-angiotensin system blockade on blood pressure increase induced by choline (150 µg, icv, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (25 and 50 µg, icv, was administered 3 min before choline. Twenty-five µg captopril did not block the pressor effect of choline, while 50 µg captopril blocked it significantly. Our results suggest that the central renin-angiotensin system may participate in the increase in blood pressure induced by icv choline in normotensive rats.

  17. Rumen protected choline supplementation in beef cattle: effect on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rumen-protected choline administration on growth performance in beef cattle. Thirty-two newly received Charolais steers (420 kg ± 8 kg initial BW, were assigned randomly to one of the two experimental groups: control (CTR, no choline supplementation; choline (RPC, supplemented with 5 g/day choline chloride in rumenprotected form. Experimental period was 122 d long. DMI at different times did not differ between treatments. Supplementation of 5 g of choline increased body weight, and average daily gain on day 89 of the experiment,but not later on. Feed conversion rate and killing out percentage were not affected by the treatment. Therefore ruminally protected choline can improve growth performance of newly received beef cattle, and its inclusion in receiving diet can be useful.

  18. Significance of yeast peroxisomes in the metabolism of choline and ethanolamine

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Kor B.; Veenhuis, Marten; Harder, Wim

    1983-01-01

    The yeasts Candida utilis and Hansenula polymorpha were able to grow in media containing choline or ethanolamine as the sole nitrogen source. During growth in the presence of these substrates, large peroxisomes developed in the cells, and extracts of choline-grown C. utilis cells contained increased levels of amine oxidase and catalase. Incubation of whole cells with choline in the presence of the amine oxidase inhibitor aminoacetonitrile led to excretion of dimethylamine and methylamine. Cyt...

  19. Effects of CDP-choline on macrophages and oligodendrocytes in neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    1) Background and objective of the project Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has gained some importance as an add-on therapy in neurodegenerative, neurovascular and traumatic brain disorders due to its neuroprotective and regenerative properties. Exogenously applied CDP-choline displays a very high bioavailability and readily disperses throughout the organism, also crossing the blood-brain barrier. Along with a favorable toxicity profile, these characteristics render CDP-choline a...

  20. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency.

  1. Influence of chain length and double bond on the aqueous behavior of choline carboxylate soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstl, Doris; Diat, Olivier; Klein, Regina; Kunz, Werner

    2013-02-26

    In preceding studies, we demonstrated that choline carboxylates ChC(m) with alkyl chain lengths of m = 12 - 18 are highly water-soluble (for m = 12, soluble up to 93 wt % soap and 0 °C). In addition, choline soaps are featured by an extraordinary lyotropic phase behavior. With decreasing water concentration, the following phases were found: micellar phase (L(1)), discontinuous cubic phase (I(1)' and I(1)"), hexagonal phase (H(1)), bicontinuous cubic phase (V(1)), and lamellar phase (L(α)). The present work is also focused on the lyotropic phase behavior of choline soaps but with shorter alkyl chains or different alkyl chain properties. We have investigated the aqueous phase behavior of choline soaps with C(8) and C(10) chain-lengths (choline octanoate and choline decanoate) and with a C(18) chain-length with a cis-double bond (choline oleate). We found that choline decanoate follows the lyotropic phase behavior of the longer-chain homologues mentioned above. Choline octanoate in water shows no discontinuous cubic phases, but an extended, isotropic micellar solution phase. In addition, choline octanoate is at the limit between a surfactant and a hydrotrope. The double bond in choline oleate leads also to a better solubility in water and a decrease of the solubilization temperature. It also influences the Gaussian curvature of the aggregates which results in a loss of discontinuous cubic phases in the binary phase diagram. The different lyotropic mesophases were identified by the penetration scan technique with polarizing light microscope and visual observations. To clarify the structural behavior small (SAXS) and wide (WAXS) angle X-ray scattering were performed. To further characterize the extended, isotropic micellar solution phase in the binary phase diagram of choline octanoate viscosity and conductivity measurements were also carried out.

  2. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Caitlyn M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter) or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter) diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention). Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter) or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter) milk replacer (postnatal intervention) for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal) groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01) compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01) plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01) than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and metabolomic profiles to rodents and humans when exposed to moderate choline deficiency. PMID:26196148

  3. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction. PMID:27651671

  4. Utilization of choline from crude soybean lecithin by chicks. 1. Growth and prevention of perosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, B; Bornstein, S; Budowski, P

    1977-01-01

    Data obtained with growing chicks fed a semi-purified diet indicate that choline from crude soybean lecithin is as well utilized as synthetic choline chloride, on the basis of growth, relative liver weight and prevention of perosis. Extrapolation of the results on growth and perosis prevention, obtained between 1 and 3 weeks of age, to performance on practical-type diets yields choline requirements for broiler-type chicks ranging from 800 to 1000 mg./kg. diet (as choline chloride). The requirement seems to decrease with age. PMID:564504

  5. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (Pstimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (Pstimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  6. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jayaprakash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumenprotected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  7. Bioelectrochemical Response and Kinetics of Choline Oxidase Entrapped in Polyaniline—Polyacrylonitrile Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛怀国; 沈芝荃

    2002-01-01

    A novel choline oxidase electrode was constructed by entrapping choline oxidase into polyaniline-polyacrylonitrile composite film,The enzyme film was prepared by in situ electropolyme-ritztion of aniline into porous polyacrylonitrile-coated platinum electrode in the presence of choline oxidase ,the enzyme electrode exhibited sensitive and stable electrochemical response to choline ,The kinetics analysis,showed that the mass transport is partially rate-liniting.The influences of pH,applied potential and temperature on the response of the enzyme electrode were also desribed.

  8. Bioelectrochemical Response and Kinetics of Choline Oxidase Entrapped in Polyaniline-Polyacrylonitrile Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE,Huai-Guo(薛怀国); SHEN,Zhi-Quan(沈之荃)

    2002-01-01

    A novel choline oxidase electrode was constructed by entrapping choline oxidase into polyaniline-polyacrylonitrile composite film. The enzyme film was prepared by in situ electropolymerization of aniline into porous polyacrylonitrile-coated platinum electrode in the presence of choline oxidase. The enzyme electrode exhibited sensitive and stable electrochemical response to choline. The kinetics analysis showed that the mass transport is partially rate-limiting. The influences of pH, applied potential and temperature on the response of the enzyme electrode were also described.

  9. 18F-Choline, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zöphel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of (18)F-/(11)C-choline or (11)C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning.

  10. {sup 18}F-Choline, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of {sup 18}F-/{sup 11}C-choline or {sup 11}C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning. (orig.)

  11. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  12. Choline uptake in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by the high-affinity ChoXWV transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Meriyem; Jost, Kathinka A; Fritz, Christiane; Narberhaus, Franz

    2011-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a facultative phytopathogen that causes crown gall disease. For successful plant transformation A. tumefaciens requires the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is produced via the methylation and the PC synthase (Pcs) pathways. The latter route is dependent on choline. Although choline uptake has been demonstrated in A. tumefaciens, the responsible transporter(s) remained elusive. In this study, we identified the first choline transport system in A. tumefaciens. The ABC-type choline transporter is encoded by the chromosomally located choXWV operon (ChoX, binding protein; ChoW, permease; and ChoV, ATPase). The Cho system is not critical for growth and PC synthesis. However, [14C]choline uptake is severely reduced in A. tumefaciens choX mutants. Recombinant ChoX is able to bind choline with high affinity (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD] of ≈2 μM). Since other quaternary amines are bound by ChoX with much lower affinities (acetylcholine, KD of ≈80 μM; betaine, KD of ≈470 μM), the ChoXWV system functions as a high-affinity transporter with a preference for choline. Two tryptophan residues (W40 and W87) located in the predicted ligand-binding pocket are essential for choline binding. The structural model of ChoX built on Sinorhizobium meliloti ChoX resembles the typical structure of substrate binding proteins with a so-called "Venus flytrap mechanism" of substrate binding. PMID:21803998

  13. Plasma choline and betaine and their relation to plasma homocysteine in normal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, Francien V; Holm, Pål I; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Dijs, Fey P; Ueland, Per M; Muskiet, Frits A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) decrease during pregnancy. This reduction has been investigated in relation to folate status, but no study has addressed the possible role of betaine and its precursor choline. Objective: We investigated the courses of plasma choline and

  14. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  15. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    The secretomotor action of choline on salivary secretion has been studied in the isolated perfused mandibular gland of the rat. Choline made up in substituted Ringer solutions (Na concentrations of 40, 70, or 100 mM) was an effective secretomotor agonist in the concentration range of 1-100 mM and...

  16. What Choline Metabolism Can Tell Us About the Underlying Mechanisms of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of fetal exposure to alcohol are very diverse and the likely molecular mechanisms involved must be able to explain how so many developmental processes could go awry. If pregnant rat dams are fed alcohol, their pups develop abnormalities characteristic of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but if these rat dams were also treated with choline, the effects from ethanol were attenuated in their pups. Choline is an essential nutrient in humans, and is an important methyl group donor. Alcohol exposure disturbs the metabolism of choline and other methyl donors. Availability of choline during gestation directly influences epigenetic marks on DNA and histones, and alters gene expression needed for normal neural and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation. Maternal diets low in choline alter development of the mouse hippocampus, and decrement memory for life. Women eating low-choline diets have an increased risk of having an infant with a neural tube or or ofacial cleft birth defect. Thus, the varied effects of choline could affect the expression of FASD, and studies on choline might shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for FASD. PMID:21259123

  17. Oxygen-18 and deuterium labeling studies of choline oxidation by spinach and sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, C; Hanson, A D; Rhodes, D

    1988-11-01

    Chenopods synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline: choline --> betaine aldehyde --> betaine. The pathway is chloroplastic; the first step has been shown in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts to be O(2)- and light-dependent, the role of light being to provide reducing power (P Weigel, EA Weretilnyk, AD Hanson 1988 Plant Physiol 86: 54-60). Here, we report use of in vivo(18)O- and (2)H-labeling in conjunction with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry to test for two hypothetical choline-oxidizing reactions that would explain the observed requirements for O(2) and reductant: a desaturase or an oxygenase. Simple syntheses for (2)H(3)-choline, (2)H(3), (18)O-choline, and (2)H(3), (18)O-betaine are given. A desaturase mechanism was sought by giving choline deuterated at the 2-carbon, or choline unlabeled at this position together with (2)H(2)O and by analyzing newly synthesized betaine. About 15% of the (2)H at C-2 was lost during oxidation of choline to betaine, and about 10% of the betaine made in the presence of 50% (2)H(2)O was monodeuterated. These small effects are more consistent with chemical exchange than with a desaturase, because 10 to 15% losses of (2)H from the C-2 position also occurred if choline was converted to betaine by a purified bacterial choline oxidase. To test for an oxygenase, the incorporation of (18)O from (18)O(2) into newly synthesized betaine was compared with that from (18)O-labeled choline, in light and darkness. Incorporation of (18)O from (18)O-choline was readily detectable and varied from about 15 to 50% of the theoretical maximum value; the (18)O losses were attributable to exchange of the intermediate betaine aldehyde with water. In darkness, incorporation of (18)O from (18)O(2) approached that from (18)O-choline, but in the light was severalfold lower, presumably due to isotopic dilution by photosynthetic (16)O(2). These data indicate that the chloroplast choline-oxidizing enzyme is an oxygenase

  18. Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Labeling Studies of Choline Oxidation by Spinach and Sugar Beet 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1988-01-01

    Chenopods synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline: choline → betaine aldehyde → betaine. The pathway is chloroplastic; the first step has been shown in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts to be O2- and light-dependent, the role of light being to provide reducing power (P Weigel, EA Weretilnyk, AD Hanson 1988 Plant Physiol 86: 54-60). Here, we report use of in vivo18O- and 2H-labeling in conjunction with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry to test for two hypothetical choline-oxidizing reactions that would explain the observed requirements for O2 and reductant: a desaturase or an oxygenase. Simple syntheses for 2H3-choline, 2H3, 18O-choline, and 2H3, 18O-betaine are given. A desaturase mechanism was sought by giving choline deuterated at the 2-carbon, or choline unlabeled at this position together with 2H2O and by analyzing newly synthesized betaine. About 15% of the 2H at C-2 was lost during oxidation of choline to betaine, and about 10% of the betaine made in the presence of 50% 2H2O was monodeuterated. These small effects are more consistent with chemical exchange than with a desaturase, because 10 to 15% losses of 2H from the C-2 position also occurred if choline was converted to betaine by a purified bacterial choline oxidase. To test for an oxygenase, the incorporation of 18O from 18O2 into newly synthesized betaine was compared with that from 18O-labeled choline, in light and darkness. Incorporation of 18O from 18O-choline was readily detectable and varied from about 15 to 50% of the theoretical maximum value; the 18O losses were attributable to exchange of the intermediate betaine aldehyde with water. In darkness, incorporation of 18O from 18O2 approached that from 18O-choline, but in the light was severalfold lower, presumably due to isotopic dilution by photosynthetic 16O2. These data indicate that the chloroplast choline-oxidizing enzyme is an oxygenase. PMID:16666370

  19. Moderate Perinatal Choline Deficiency Elicits Altered Physiology and Metabolomic Profiles in the Piglet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlyn M Getty

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary choline on the health and well-being of swine, and those pivotal papers were aimed at determining dietary requirements for sows and growing pigs. This is of importance as the piglet is becoming a widely accepted model for human infant nutrition, but little is known about the impacts of perinatal choline status on overall health and metabolism of the growing piglet. In the present study, sows were provided either a choline deficient (CD, 625 mg choline/kg dry matter or choline sufficient (CS, 1306 mg choline/kg dry matter diet for the last 65 d of gestation (prenatal intervention. Piglets were weaned from the sow 48 h after farrowing and provided either a CD (477 mg choline/kg dry matter or CS (1528 mg choline/kg dry matter milk replacer (postnatal intervention for 29 ± 2 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 treatment (prenatal/postnatal groups: CS/CS, CS/CD, CD/CS, and CD/CD. Piglet growth was normal for artificially-reared piglets, and was not impacted by perinatal choline status. Piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment had lower (P < 0.01 plasma choline and choline-containing phospholipid concentrations and higher (P < 0.05 liver enzyme (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase values compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Hepatic lipid content of piglets receiving the postnatal CD treatment was higher (P < 0.01 compared with piglets receiving the postnatal CS treatment. Additionally, postnatally CD piglets had lower (P = 0.01 plasma cholesterol than postnatally CS piglets. Brain development was also impacted by perinatal choline status, with brains of piglets exposed to prenatal CD being smaller (P = 0.01 than those of prenatally CS piglets. These findings support the hypothesis that the piglet is a sensitive model for choline deficiency during the perinatal period. In the present study, piglets exhibited similarities in health markers and

  20. Effects of Choline on DNA Methylation and Macronutrient Metabolic Gene Expression in In Vitro Models of Hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyin Jiang; Esther Greenwald; Chauntelle Jack-Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Studies in rodents suggest that choline may adversely affect glycemic control, yet studies in humans are lacking. Using the human hepatic and placental cells, HepG2 and BeWo, respectively, we examined the interaction between choline and glucose treatments. In HepG2 cells, choline supplementation (1 mM) increased global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase expression in both low-glucose ...

  1. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  2. Choline-based ionic liquids-enhanced biodegradation of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan; Ranganathan, Vijayaraghavan; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-01

    Industrial wastewaters such as tannery and textile processing effluents are often characterized by a high content of dissolved organic dyes, resulting in large values of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) in the aquatic systems into which they are discharged. Such wastewater streams are of rapidly growing concern as a major environmental issue in developing countries. Hence there is a need to mitigate this challenge by effective approaches to degrade dye-contaminated wastewater. In this study, several choline-based salts originally developed for use as biocompatible hydrated ionic liquids (i.e., choline sacchrinate (CS), choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDP), choline lactate (CL), and choline tartarate (CT)) have been successfully employed as the cosubstrate with S. lentus in the biodegradation of an azo dye in aqueous solution. We also demonstrate that the azo dye has been degraded to less toxic components coupled with low biomass formation.

  3. Effects of temperature, moisture and choline chloride on vitamin A stability in broiler premix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Haixia; SHAN Anshan; SHI Baoming

    2007-01-01

    A 2×2×2 factorial design was adopted to study the effects of temperature, moisture and choline chloride on vitamin A stability in premix. The results indicated that temperature, moisture and choline chloride damaged vitamin A significantly. The regression equations of vitamin A disappearance rate and storage time were as follows: in room temperature (18±3) ℃, y=14.368Ln(x)+ 4.1425,R2=978; in high temperature (4℃), y=22.24Ln(x)+13.27, R2=O.9918; in low moisture (2%-3%), y=10.408Ln(x)+9.5418, R2=O.9322; in high moisture (8%-9%), y=26.199Ln(x)+7.8741, R2=0.9949; in the condition of choline chloride free, y=9.5125Ln(x)+ 8.9869, R2=O.9826; supplemented with choline chloride, y=27.094Ln(x)+8.4276, R2=0.9984. Temperature had highly significant interaction with moisure and choline chloride on destruction of vitamin A, respectively from the periods of two months storage. However, from the period of the first month storage, the interaction of moisture and choline chloride, as well as the interaction of temperature, moisture and choline destroyed vitamin A remarkably.

  4. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  5. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  6. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  7. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  8. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Lippelt

    Full Text Available Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  9. Reduction of choline acetyltransferase activities in APP770 transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing the 770-amino acid isoform of human Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein exhibit extracellular b -amyloid deposits in brain regions including cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease patients. Significant reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities has been observed in both cortical and hippocampal brain regions in the transgenic mice at the age of 10 months compared with the age-matched non-transgenic mice, but such changes have not been observed in any brain regions of the transgenic mice under the age of 5 months. These results suggest that deposition of b -amyloid can induce changes in the brain cholinergic system of the transgenic mice.

  10. Experience in using ceretone (choline alfoscerate in brain concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics are used to treat patients who have sustained concussion of the brain and complain of reductions in memory and working capacity, as well as emotional disorders. The efficacy of ceretone® (choline alfoscerate was studied in 76 patients (45 men and 31 women whose age was 21-56 years who had sustained brain concussion and had complaints of headache, easy fatigability, nocturnal sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and bad mood. Thirty-nine patients received intravenous ceretone® in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days; the other 37 patients formed a control group. A one-year follow-up indicated that ceretone® had a positive effect on health, autonomic, and emotional status and working capacity.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Alternative Methionine and Choline Sources in the Organic Broiler Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Demattê Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of natural and alternative sources of methionine and choline which can be allowed to use in organic livestock systems to feed broilers produced in Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty one-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates of 24 birds each. The treatments consisted in substituting the commonly used DL-methionine 99% by a vegetable source of methionine and cholinechloride 60% by alternative source of choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine. The following treatments were evaluated: I feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60%, II feed with an vegetable methionine source and choline chloride 60%, III feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline as phosphatidylcholine, and IV feed with vegetable methionine source and choline as phosphatidylcholine. Daily weight gain, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated for the periods of 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days of age. During both periods, broilers fed the vegetable methionine source presented lower daily gain and lower body weight. When only choline chloride was substituted by the alternative choline source, broiler performance was not different compared with that of the control group. The group fed the diet with substitution of both DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60% by natural sources presented lower daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake. Further research on alternative nutrient sources are required for the development of the organic production chain.

  12. Methionine-choline deprivation alters liver and brain acetylcholinesterase activity in C57BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučević, Danijela B; Cerović, Ivana B; Mladenović, Dušan R; Vesković, Milena N; Stevanović, Ivana; Jorgačević, Bojan Z; Ješić Vukićević, Rada; Radosavljević, Tatjana S

    2016-07-01

    Choline and methionine are precursors of acetylcholine, whose hydrolysis is catalyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Considering the possibility of their common deficiency, we investigated the influence of methionine-choline deprivation on AChE activity in liver and various brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum) in mice fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 28) were randomly and equally divided into following groups: control group fed with standard diet for 6 weeks (C) and groups fed with MCD diet for 2 weeks (MCD2), 4 weeks (MCD4) and for 6 weeks (MCD6). After the diet, mice were sacrificied and AChE activity in liver and brain was determined spectrophotometrically. Hepatic AChE activity was higher in MCD2, MCD4 and MCD6 compared to control (p methionine-choline deprivation.

  13. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  14. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  15. Quantum Chemical Insight into the Interactions and Thermodynamics Present in Choline Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Durgesh V; Deakyne, Carol A; Baker, Gary A

    2016-07-14

    We report quantum chemical calculations performed on three popular deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in order to elucidate the molecular interactions, charge transfer interactions, and thermodynamics associated with these systems. The DESs studied comprise 1:2 choline chloride/urea (reline), 1:2 choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ethaline), and 1:1 choline chloride/malonic acid (maloline). The excellent correlation between calculated and experimental vibrational spectra allowed for identification of dominant interactions in the DES systems. The DESs were found to be stabilized by both conventional hydrogen bonds and C-H···O/C-H···π interactions between the components. The hydrogen-bonding network established in the DES is clearly distinct from that which exists within the neat hydrogen-bond donor dimer. Charge decomposition analysis indicates significant charge transfer from choline and chloride to the hydrogen-bond donor with a higher contribution from the cation, and a density of states analysis confirms the direction of the charge transfer. Consequently, the sum of the bond orders of the choline-Cl(-) interactions in the DESs correlates directly with the melting temperatures of the DESs, a correlation that offers insight into the effect of the tuning of the choline-Cl(-) interactions by the hydrogen-bond donors on the physical properties of the DESs. Finally, the differences in the vibrational entropy changes upon DES formation are consistent with the trend in the overall entropy changes upon DES formation. PMID:27268431

  16. PET/CT in prostate cancer: non-choline radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, P; Jadvar, H

    2012-08-01

    In this brief review, the major potential clinical applications of 18F-FDG, 11C-acetate, 18F-FDHT, 18F-FLT, 18F-FMAU, and anti-18F-FACBC in the imaging evaluation of men with prostate cancer are discussed. 18F-FDG has a limited role in primary diagnosis and staging but it may be able to reflect tumour aggressiveness, detect sites of recurrence in some men with high serum PSA after biochemical failure and assess response to chemo- and hormonal treatment in metastatic disease. 11C-acetate has been investigated for intra-prostatic primary tumour detection and staging as well as for re-staging in case of biochemical relapse with results that are overall similar to those with 18F- and 11C-labeled choline. 18F-FDHT targets the androgen receptor and may be particularly useful in the assessment of the pharmacodynamics of the androgen signalling pathway. PET in conjunction with 18F-FLT or 18F-FMAU that track the thymidine salvage pathway of DNA synthesis has also been investigated for imaging cellular proliferation in prostate cancer. Initial experience with the radiolabeled synthetic amino acid, anti-18F-FACBC, which displays slow urinary excretion has been encouraging but further studies will be needed to decipher its exact role in the imaging management of men with prostate cancer.

  17. Kinetics of [{sup 11}C]choline uptake in prostate cancer: a PET stydy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutinen, Eija; Minn, Heikki [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Central Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521, Turku (Finland); Nurmi, Martti [Department of Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne; Tolvanen, Tuula; Lehikoinen, Pertti [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Varpula, Matti [Department of Radiology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    Carbon-11 choline has recently been introduced as a potential tracer for tumour imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). We evaluated the kinetics of the uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also evaluated the association between the uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline and the histological grade of malignancy, Gleason score, volume of the prostate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Fourteen patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer and five patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were studied with [{sup 11}C]choline PET. A mean dose of 430{+-}31 MBq of [{sup 11}C]choline was injected intravenously and a dynamic emission acquisition of prostate was performed for 30 min. The uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline was measured as a standardised uptake value (SUV) and as a kinetic influx constant (K{sub i}) obtained from graphical analysis. Both cancerous and hyperplastic prostate were well visualised with [{sup 11}C]choline against low or moderate tracer accumulation in the bladder and rectal wall. The measured radioactivity in urine was invariably low. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were achieved. The mean K{sub i} of the untreated tumour was 0.205{+-}0.089 min{sup -1} (range 0.128-0.351; n=7) and the mean SUV was 5.6{+-}3.2 (range 1.9-15.5; n=15). K{sub i} values and SUVs correlated closely (r=0.964, P=0.0005), whereas no correlation could be demonstrated between the tumour uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline and the histological grade, Gleason score, volume of the prostate or PSA. The mean SUV and the mean K{sub i} of benign hyperplastic prostate were 3.5{+-}1.0 (range 2.0-4.5; n=4) and 0.119{+-}0.076 min{sup -1} (range 0.065-0.173; n=2). In conclusion, a high uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline characterises not only carcinomatous but also hyperplastic prostatic tissue. Dynamic imaging of the uptake of [{sup 11}C]choline in the prostate shows a good applicability of the graphical analysis model with an

  18. Quantification of choline concentration following liver cell apoptosis using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Wei Shen; Zhen Cao; Ke-Zeng You; Zhong-Xian Yang; Ye-Yu Xiao; Xiao-Fang Cheng; Yao-Wen Chen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the feasibility of quantifying liver choline concentrations in both normal and apoptotic rabbit livers in vivo,using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS).METHODS:1H-MRS was performed in 18 rabbits using a 1.5T GE MR system with an eight-channel head/neck receiving coil.Fifteen rabbits were injected with sodium selenite at a dose of 10 μmol/kg to induce the liver cell apoptosis.Point-resolved spectroscopy sequencelocalized spectra were obtained from 10 livers once before and once 24 h after sodium selenite injection in vivo.T1 and T2 relaxation time of water and choline was measured separately in the livers of three healthy rabbits and three selenite-treated rabbits.Hematoxylin and eosin and dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was used to detect and confirm apoptosis.Choline peak areas were measured relative to unsuppressed water using LCModel.Relaxation attenuation was corrected using the average of T1 and T2 relaxation time.The choline concentration was quantified using a formula,which was tested by a phantom with a known concentration.RESULTS:Apoptosis of hepatic cells was confirmed by TUNEL assay.In phantom experiment,the choline concentration (3.01 mmol/L),measured by 1H-MRS,was in good agreement with the actual concentration (3 mmol/L).The average T1 and T2 relaxation time of choline was 612 ± 15 ms and 74 ± 4 ms in the control group and 670 ± 27 ms and 78 ± 5 ms in apoptotic livers in vivo,respectively.Choline was quantified in 10 rabbits,once before and once after the injection with sodium selenite.The choline concentration decreased from 14.5 ± 7.57 mmol/L before sodium selenite injection to 10.8 ± 6.58 mmol/L (mean ± SD,n =10) after treatment (Z =-2.395,P < 0.05,two-sample paired Wilcoxon test).CONCLUSION:1H-MRS can be used to quantify liver choline in vivo using unsuppressed water as an internal reference.Decreased liver choline concentrations are found in sodium selenite-treated rabbits undergoing liver cell

  19. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  20. Improved human visuomotor performance and pupil constriction after choline supplementation in a placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Marnix; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Only few nutrients are known to enhance cognition. Here we explore whether visuomotor performance can be improved through the intake of the nutrient choline, an essential chemical compound in a vertebrate's diet. Choline is abundant in for example eggs and shrimps and many animal studies suggest that it serves as a cognitive enhancer. As choline is important for the communication between motor neurons and the control of skeletal muscles, we assumed that choline supplementation may have positive effects on action coordination in humans. A group of twenty-eight individuals ingested two grams of choline bitartrate or a placebo in two separate sessions. Seventy minutes post ingestion, participants performed a visuomotor aiming task in which they had to rapidly hit the centers of targets. Results showed that participants hit targets more centrally after choline supplementation. Pupil size (a cognition-sensitive biomarker) also significantly decreased after choline intake and correlated positively with the hit distance to the targets and the number of target misses, and negatively with reaction times. These findings point to a choline-induced bias towards action precision in the trade-off between speed and accuracy. The changes in pupil size suggest that choline uptake alters cholinergic functions in the nervous system. PMID:26271904

  1. Choline Ameliorates Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eunice W M; Marcy, Guillaume; Yoon, Su-In; Ma, Dongliang; Rosales, Francisco J; Augustine, George J; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene account for approximately 95 % of all RTT cases. To model RTT in vitro, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of two RTT patients with different mutations (MECP2 (R306C) and MECP2 (1155Δ32)) in their MECP2 gene. We found that these iPSCs were capable of differentiating into functional neurons. Compared to control neurons, the RTT iPSC-derived cells had reduced soma size and a decreased amount of synaptic input, evident both as fewer Synapsin 1-positive puncta and a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Supplementation of the culture media with choline rescued all of these defects. Choline supplementation may act through changes in the expression of choline acetyltransferase, an important enzyme in cholinergic signaling, and also through alterations in the lipid metabolite profiles of the RTT neurons. Our study elucidates the possible mechanistic pathways for the effect of choline on human RTT cell models, thereby illustrating the potential for using choline as a nutraceutical to treat RTT. PMID:27379379

  2. Choline Ameliorates Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC Models of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eunice W M; Marcy, Guillaume; Yoon, Su-In; Ma, Dongliang; Rosales, Francisco J; Augustine, George J; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2016-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene account for approximately 95 % of all RTT cases. To model RTT in vitro, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of two RTT patients with different mutations (MECP2 (R306C) and MECP2 (1155Δ32)) in their MECP2 gene. We found that these iPSCs were capable of differentiating into functional neurons. Compared to control neurons, the RTT iPSC-derived cells had reduced soma size and a decreased amount of synaptic input, evident both as fewer Synapsin 1-positive puncta and a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Supplementation of the culture media with choline rescued all of these defects. Choline supplementation may act through changes in the expression of choline acetyltransferase, an important enzyme in cholinergic signaling, and also through alterations in the lipid metabolite profiles of the RTT neurons. Our study elucidates the possible mechanistic pathways for the effect of choline on human RTT cell models, thereby illustrating the potential for using choline as a nutraceutical to treat RTT.

  3. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. PMID:25260528

  4. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  5. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation. PMID:26302482

  6. C-11 Choline and FDG PET/CT Imaging of Primary Cholangiocarcinoma – a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanisa Chotipanich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aimed to compare the diagnostic values of 11C-choline and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 10 patients (6 males and 4 females, aged 42-69 years, suspected of having CCA based on CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results. 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT studies were performed in all patients over 1 week. PET/CT results were visually analyzed by 2 independent nuclear medicine physicians and quantitatively by calculating the tumor-to-background ratio (T/B. Results: No 11C-choline PET/CT uptake was observed in primary extrahepatic or intrahepatic CCA cases. Intense 18F-FDG avidity was detected in the tumors of 8 patients (%80. Two patients, who were 18F-FDG negative, had primary extrahepatic CCA. Ki-67 measurements were positive in all patients (range; 14.2%-39.9%. The average T/B values of 11C-choline and 18F-FDG were 0.4±0.2 and 2.0±1.0 in all cases of primary CCA, respectively; these values were significantly lower for 11C-choline (P

  7. Physical and chemical immobilization of choline oxidase onto different porous solid supports: Adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Marieta L C; Ribeiro, David S M; Santos, João L M; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2016-08-01

    This work carries out for the first time the comparison between the physical and chemical immobilization of choline oxidase onto aminated silica-based porous supports. The influence on the immobilization efficiency of concentration, pH, temperature and contact time between the support and choline oxidase, was evaluated. The immobilization efficiency was estimated taking into consideration the choline oxidase activity, which was assessed by using cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs), obtained by hydrothermal synthesis, as photoluminescent probes. Hydrogen peroxide produced by enzyme activity was capable of quenching CdTe QDs photoluminescence. The magnitude of the PL quenching process was directly related with the enzyme activity. By comparing the chemical process with the physical adsorption, it was observed that the latter provided the highest choline oxidase immobilization. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and kinetic data were fitted to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy and entropy were also calculated. These results will certainly contribute to the development of new sensing schemes for choline, taking into account the growing demand for its quantification in biological samples. PMID:27241295

  8. Amperometric Choline Biosensor Fabricated through Electrostatic Assembly of Bienzyme/Polyelectrolyte Hybrid Layers on Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-03-01

    We report a flow injection amperometric choline biosensors based on the electrostatic assembly of an enzyme of choline oxidase (ChO) and a bi-enzyme of ChO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. These choline biosensors were fabricated by immobilization of enzymes on the negatively charged MWCNT surface through alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallydiimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and an enzyme layer. Using this layer-by-layer assembling approach, bioactive nanocomposite film of a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/HRP/PDDA/CNT (ChO/HRP/CNT) and a PDDA/ChO/PDDA/ CNT (ChO/ CNT) were fabricated on GC surface, respectively. Owning to the electrocatalytic effect of carbon nanotubes, the measurement of faradic responses resulting from enzymatic reactions has been realized at low potential with acceptable sensitivity. It is found the ChO/HRP/CNT biosensor is more sensitive than the ChO/CNT one. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of biosensors, e.g. applied potential, flow rate, etc. were optimized and potential interference was examined. The response time for this choline biosensor is fast (less than a few seconds). The linear range of detection for the choline biosensor is from 5 x 10-5 to 5 x 10-3 M and the detection limit is determined to be about 1.0 x 10-5 M.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum Choline Kinase Inhibition Leads to a Major Decrease in Phosphatidylethanolamine Causing Parasite Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrán-Aguilera, Lucía; Denton, Helen; Rubio-Ruiz, Belén; López-Gutiérrez, Borja; Entrena, Antonio; Izquierdo, Luis; Smith, Terry K.; Conejo-García, Ana; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, with P. falciparum being the deadliest. Increasing parasitic resistance to existing antimalarials makes the necessity of novel avenues to treat this disease an urgent priority. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are attractive drug targets to treat malaria as their selective inhibition leads to an arrest of the parasite’s growth and cures malaria in a mouse model. We present here a detailed study that reveals a mode of action for two P. falciparum choline kinase inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. The compounds present distinct binding modes to the choline/ethanolamine-binding site of P. falciparum choline kinase, reflecting different types of inhibition. Strikingly, these compounds primarily inhibit the ethanolamine kinase activity of the P. falciparum choline kinase, leading to a severe decrease in the phosphatidylethanolamine levels within P. falciparum, which explains the resulting growth phenotype and the parasites death. These studies provide an understanding of the mode of action, and act as a springboard for continued antimalarial development efforts selectively targeting P. falciparum choline kinase. PMID:27616047

  10. Experience with carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the potential of carbon-11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of lymph node and bone metastases in prostate cancer. A total of 23 patients were studied (known metastases: 8; suspicion of metastases: 3; primary staging: 12). Whole-body PET imaging was performed 5 min after injection of the tracer and completed within 1 h. Focally increased tracer uptake in bone or abdominal lymph node regions was interpreted as representing tumour involvement. All known bone and lymph node metastases could be recognized by [11C]choline PET. One out of ten negative scans for primary staging was false-negative (lymph node 11C]choline PET is a promising new tool for the primary staging of prostate cancer, with lymph node and bone metastases demonstrating high tracer uptake. Therapeutic management could be influenced by these results in that the technique may permit avoidance of surgical lymph node exploration. (orig.)

  11. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  12. How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-01-28

    Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1 : 2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in

  13. In vivo uptake of [C-11]choline does not correlate with cell proliferation in human prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruim, J; Jongen, MM; Suurmeijer, AJ; Vaalburg, W; Nijman, RJ; de Jong, IJ; Breeuwsma, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among US men. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [C-11] choline has been shown to be useful in the staging and detection of prostate cancer. The background of the increased uptake of choline in human prostate cancer is no

  14. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  15. Transformation of Synechococcus with a gene for choline oxidase enhances tolerance to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshnium, P; Los, D A; Hayashi, H; Mustardy, L; Murata, N

    1995-12-01

    Choline oxidase, isolated from the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis, converts choline to glycinebetaine (N-trimethylglycine) without a requirement for any cofactors. The gene for this enzyme, designated codA, was cloned and introduced into the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. The codA gene was expressed under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and the transformed cells accumulated glycinebetaine at intracellular levels of 60-80 mM. Consequently the cells acquired tolerance to salt stress, as evaluated in terms of growth, accumulation of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity. PMID:8555454

  16. Osmoprotectants in Halomonas elongata: High-affinity betaine transport system and choline-betaine pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Cánovas, David; Vargas, C.; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Csonka, Laszlo N.

    1996-01-01

    The osmoregulatory pathways of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 have been investigated. This strain grew optimally at 1.5 to 2 M NaCl in M63 glucose-defined medium. It required at least 0.5 M NaCl for growth, which is a higher concentration than that exhibited by the H. elongata type strain ATCC 33173. Externally provided betaine, choline, or choline-O-sulfate (but not proline, ectoine, or proline betaine) enhanced the growth of H. elongata on 3 M NaCl-glucose-M...

  17. Effect of choline on carbon assimilation and phosphorus uptake by ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that the choline sprayed at green fruit stage of 4 years old ginseng, photosynthetic rate increased by 14.22%, transfer rate of 14C-assimilates increased by 21.82%, a mount of 14C-assimilates transported in total ginsensidi of root increased by 10.66%. Choline treatment also promoted phosphorus absorption in ginseng, the ratio of 32P absorption increased by 17.81%, and the 32P accumulated in root increased by 31.2%. The yield of ginseng root was increased by 28.78%

  18. Temperature-Driven Mixing-Demixing Behavior of Binary Mixtures of the Ionic Liquid Choline Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and Water

    OpenAIRE

    Nockemann, Peter; Binnemans, Koen; Thijs, Ben; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana; Merz, Klaus; Mudring, Anja-Verena; Menon, Preethy Chirukandath; Rajesh, Ravindran Nair; George, Cordoyiannis; Thoen, Jan; Leys, Jan; Glorieux, Christ

    2009-01-01

    The ionic liquid (2-hydroxyethylammonium)trimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (choline bistriflimide) was obtained as a supercooled liquid at room temperature (melting point = 30 °C). Crystals of choline bistriflimide suitable for structure determination were grown from the melt in situ on the X-ray diffractometer. The choline cation adopts a folded conformation, whereas the bistriflimide anion exhibits a transoid conformation. The choline cation and the bistriflimide anion ar...

  19. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-15

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  20. Mechanisms of Indomethacin-Induced Alterations in the Choline Phospholipid Metabolism of Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Glunde

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs exhibit an increase in phosphocholine (PC and total cholinecontaining compounds, as well as a switch from high glycerophosphocholine (GPC/low PC to low GPC/high PC, with progression to malignant phenotype. The treatment of human breast cancer cells with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin, reverted the high PC/low GPC pattern to a low PC/high GPC pattern indicative of a less malignant phenotype, supported by decreased invasion. Here, we have characterized mechanisms underlying indomethacininduced alterations in choline membrane metabolism in malignant breast cancer cells and nonmalignant HMECs labeled with [1,2-13C]choline using 1H and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes. In breast cancer cells, indomethacin treatment activated phospholipases that, combined with an increased choline phospholipid biosynthesis, led to increased GPC and decreased PC levels. However, in nonmalignant HMECs, activation of the anabolic pathway alone was detected following indomethacin treatment. Following indomethacin treatment in breast cancer cells, several candidate genes, such as interleukin 8, NGFB, CSF2, RHOB, EDN1, and JUNB, were differentially expressed, which may have contributed to changes in choline metabolism through secondary effects or signaling cascades leading to changes in enzyme activity.

  1. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  2. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  3. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J A

    1981-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined. PMID:7322986

  4. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... participant of animal and human metabolism. Choline chloride has been used as a widespread nutrient in animal... Findings In the Federal Register of December 3, 2008 (73 FR 73648) (FRL- 8391-3), EPA issued a notice... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational...

  5. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16 165 women aged 49¿70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  6. The unmediated choline sensor based on layered double hydroxides in hydrogen peroxide detection mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this work,we have developed a novel choline biosensor on the basis of immobilization of choline oxidase (ChOx) by the attractive materials layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Amperometric detection of choline was evaluated by holding the modified electrode at 0.5 V (vs. SCE). Due to the special properties of LDHs ([Zn3-Al-Cl]),such as chemical inertness,high porosity,and swelling property,the [Zn3-Al-Cl]/ChOx modified electrode exhibited an enhanced analytical performance. The biosensor provided a linear response to choline over a concentration range from 3.7 × 10-6 to 6.3 × 10-4 M with a low detection limit of 3 × 10-7 M based on S/N=3. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was calculated to be 1.38 mM. In addition,the interaction between ChOx and LDHs has also been investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy.

  7. Solubilities and thermodynamic properties of CO2 in choline-chloride based deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubilities of carbon dioxide in three deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been reported. • The experimental data were reduced to Henry’s law constants. • The Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes were calculated. • Relationship between solubility and structure of DESs was developed. - Abstract: The solubilities of CO2 in three kinds of deep eutectic solvents, (choline chloride + phenol), (choline chloride + diethylene glycol) and (choline chloride + triethylene glycol), were determined at temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 323.15 K under pressures up to 600.0 kPa using isochoric saturation method. The mole ratios of choline chloride to phenol were selected as 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, the others as 1:3 and 1:4. Henry’s constants and thermodynamic properties such as standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes of CO2 solvation were calculated from the correlation of solubility data. Results revealed that the solubility of CO2 increased with increasing pressure and decreased with increasing temperature. The enthalpies of solution were negative at all conditions

  8. Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Marcolin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to develop an experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a methionine- and choline-deficient diet that is manufactured in Brazil so as to evaluate the liver alterations resulting from the disorder. METHODS: Thirty male C57BL6 mice divided in two groups (n = 15 were used: the experimental group fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet manufactured by Brazilian company PragSoluções®, and the control group fed a normal diet, for a period of 2 weeks. The animals were then killed by exsanguination to sample blood for systemic biochemical analyses, and subsequently submitted to laparotomy with total hepatectomy and preparation of the material for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for independent samples, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The mice that received the methionine- and choline-deficient diet showed weight loss and significant increase in hepatic damage enzymes, as well as decreased systemic levels of glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and VLDL. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was performed in 100% of the mice that were fed the methionine- and choline-deficient diet. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed some degree of macrovesicular steatosis, ballooning, and inflammatory process. None of the animals which were fed the control diet presented histological alterations. All non-alcoholic steatohepatitis animals showed significantly increased lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH activity. CONCLUSION: The low cost and easily accessible methionine- and choline-deficient diet explored in this study is highly effective in

  9. Doubly ionic hydrogen bond interactions within the choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P; Welton, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A

    2016-07-21

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are exemplars of systems with the ability to form neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. Herein, the pairwise interactions of the constituent components of the choline chloride-urea DES are examined. Evidence is found for a tripodal CHCl doubly ionic H-bond motif. Moreover it is found that the covalency of doubly ionic H-bonds can be greater than, or comparable with, neutral and ionic examples. In contrast to many traditional solvents, an "alphabet soup" of many different types of H-bond (OHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, OHCl, NHCl, OHNH, CHCl, CHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHOH and NHNH) can form. These H-bonds exhibit substantial flexibility in terms of number and strength. It is anticipated that H-bonding will have a significant impact on the entropy of the system and thus could play an important role in the formation of the eutectic. The 2 : 1 urea : choline-chloride eutectic point of this DES is often associated with the formation of a [Cl(urea)2](-) complexed anion. However, urea is found to form a H-bonded urea[choline](+) complexed cation that is energetically competitive with [Cl(urea)2](-). The negative charge on [Cl(urea)2](-) is found to remain localised on the chloride, moreover, the urea[choline](+) complexed cation forms the strongest H-bond studied here. Thus, there is potential to consider a urea[choline](+)·urea[Cl](-) interaction. PMID:27328990

  10. Choline PET and PET/CT in Primary Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schwarzenböck, M. Souvatzoglou, B. J. Krause

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PET and PET/CT using [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates is increasingly being used for imaging of primary and recurrent prostate cancer. While PET and PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates in patients suffering from biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies that demonstrate an increasing importance, its role in the primary staging of prostate cancer is still a matter of debate.Morphological and functional imaging techniques such as CT, MRI and TRUS have demonstrated only limited accuracy for the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer. Molecular imaging with PET and PET/CT could potentially increase accuracy to localize primary prostate cancer. A considerable number of studies have examined the value of PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]- labelled choline derivates for the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer with mixed results. Primary prostate cancer can only be detected with moderate sensitivity using [11C]- and [18F]choline PET and PET/CT. The detection rate depends on the tumour configuration. Detection is also limited by a considerable number of microcarcinomas that cannot be detected due to partial volume effects. Therefore small and in part rind-like tumours can often not be visualized. Furthermore, the differentiation between benign changes like prostatitis, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN or prostatic hyperplasia is not always possible. Therefore, at the present time, the routine use of PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates cannot be recommended as a first-line screening procedure for primary prostate cancer in men at risk. A potential application of choline PET and PET/CT may be to increase the detection rate of clinically suspected prostate cancer with multiple negative prostate biopsies, for example in preparation of a focused re-biopsy and may play a role in patient stratification with respect to primary surgery and radiation therapy in the future.

  11. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T F Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of maternal dietary choline for fetal neural development and later cognitive function has been well-documented in experimental studies. Although choline is an essential dietary nutrient for humans, evidence that low maternal choline in pregnancy impacts neurodevelopment in human infants is lacking. We determined potential associations between maternal plasma free choline and its metabolites betaine and dimethylglycine in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective study of healthy pregnant women and their full-term, single birth infants. Maternal blood was collected at 16 and 36 weeks of gestation and infant neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months of age for 154 mother-infant pairs. Maternal plasma choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, methionine, homocysteine, cysteine, total B12, holotranscobalamin and folate were quantified. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III. Multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates that impact development, was used to determine the associations between maternal plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine and infant neurodevelopment. RESULTS: The maternal plasma free choline at 16 and 36 weeks gestation was median (interquartile range 6.70 (5.78-8.03 and 9.40 (8.10-11.3 µmol/L, respectively. Estimated choline intakes were (mean ± SD 383 ± 98.6 mg/day, and lower than the recommended 450 mg/day. Betaine intakes were 142 ± 70.2 mg/day. Significant positive associations were found between infant cognitive test scores and maternal plasma free choline (B=6.054, SE=2.283, p=0.009 and betaine (B=7.350, SE=1.933, p=0.0002 at 16 weeks of gestation. Maternal folate, total B12, or holotranscobalamin were not related to infant development. CONCLUSION: We show that choline status in the first half of pregnancy is associated with cognitive development among healthy term gestation infants. More work

  12. Radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Zhao Yongjun [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Leyton, Julius [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Shan Bo [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Quang-de; Perumal, Meg [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Turton, David [GE-Imanet, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik; Luthra, Sajinder K.; Robins, Edward G. [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Aboagye, Eric O., E-mail: eric.aboagye@imperial.ac.u [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Choline radiotracers are widely used for clinical PET diagnosis in oncology. [{sup 11}C]Choline finds particular utility in the imaging of brain and prostate tumor metabolic status, where 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ('FDG') shows high background uptake. More recently we have extended the clinical utility of [{sup 11}C]choline to breast cancer where radiotracer uptake correlates with tumor aggressiveness (grade). In the present study, a new choline analog, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, was synthesized and evaluated as a potential PET imaging probe. Methods: [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were synthesized by alkylation of the relevant precursor with [{sup 18}F]fluorobromomethane or [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate required extensive modification of the existing method. [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were then subjected to in vitro oxidative stability analysis in a chemical oxidation model using potassium permanganate and an enzymatic model using choline oxidase. The two radiotracers, together with the corresponding di-deuterated compound, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline, were then evaluated in vivo in a time-course biodistribution study in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice. Results: Alkylation with [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate proved to be the most reliable radiosynthetic route. Stability models indicate that [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline possesses increased chemical and enzymatic (choline oxidase) oxidative stability relative to [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine. The distribution of the three radiotracers, [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, showed a similar uptake profile in most organs. Crucially, tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F

  13. Regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter activity and trafficking by its association with cholesterol-rich lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Leah K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Rylett, Rebecca Jane

    2014-03-01

    The sodium-coupled, hemicholinium-3-sensitive, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is responsible for transport of choline into cholinergic nerve terminals from the synaptic cleft following acetylcholine release and hydrolysis. In this study, we address regulation of CHT function by plasma membrane cholesterol. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in both SH-SY5Y cells and nerve terminals from mouse forebrain. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells expressing rat CHT with filipin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβC) or cholesterol oxidase significantly decreased choline uptake. In contrast, CHT activity was increased by addition of cholesterol to membranes using cholesterol-saturated MβC. Kinetic analysis of binding of [(3)H]hemicholinium-3 to CHT revealed that reducing membrane cholesterol with MβC decreased both the apparent binding affinity (KD) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax ); this was confirmed by decreased plasma membrane CHT protein in lipid rafts in cell surface protein biotinylation assays. Finally, the loss of cell surface CHT associated with lipid raft disruption was not because of changes in CHT internalization. In summary, we provide evidence that CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for transporter function and localization. Alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol cholinergic nerve terminals could diminish cholinergic transmission by reducing choline availability for acetylcholine synthesis. The sodium-coupled choline transporter CHT moves choline into cholinergic nerve terminals to serve as substrate for acetylcholine synthesis. We show for the first time that CHT is concentrated in cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, and decreasing membrane cholesterol significantly reduces both choline uptake activity and cell surface CHT protein levels. CHT association with cholesterol-rich rafts is critical for its function, and alterations in plasma membrane cholesterol could diminish cholinergic

  14. Brain choline concentrations may not be altered in euthymic bipolar disorder patients chronically treated with either lithium or sodium valproate

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ren H; O'Donnell, Tina; Ulrich, Michele; Asghar, Sheila J; Hanstock, Christopher C; Silverstone, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that lithium increases choline concentrations, although previous human studies examining this possibility using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) have had mixed results: some found increases while most found no differences. Methods The present study utilized 1H MRS, in a 3 T scanner to examine the effects of both lithium and sodium valproate upon choline concentrations in treated euthymic bipolar patients utilizing two different methodologies. In the...

  15. Rapid Amplification of 5′ cDNA End of S. Liaotungensis Choline Monooxygenase Using Inverse PCR RACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on part of a known cDNA sequence of Suaeda Liaotungensis choline monooxygenase, the authors successfully cloned the 5′ cDNA end of Suaeda Lianotungensis choline monooxygenase using Inverse PCR RACE with a specially designed 5′-phosphated RT primer and two pairs of specific inverse PCR primers. Compared with the anchored PCR RACE, inverse PCR RACE has better specificity and higher amplification.

  16. Choline Chloride Catalyzed Amidation of Fatty Acid Ester to Monoethanolamide: A Green Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Choline chloride catalyzed efficient method for amidation of fatty acid methyl ester to monoethanolamide respectively. This is a solvent free, ecofriendly, 100% chemo selective and economically viable path for alkanolamide synthesis. The Kinetics of amidation of methyl ester were studied and found to be first order with respect to the concentration of ethanolamine. The activation energy (Ea) for the amidation of lauric acid methyl ester catalyzed by choline chloride was found to be 50.20 KJ mol(-1). The 98% conversion of lauric acid monoethanolamide was obtained at 110°C in 1 h with 6% weight of catalyst and 1:1.5 molar ratio of methyl ester to ethanolamine under nitrogen atmosphere. PMID:26666271

  17. Daunorubicin and doxorubicin inhibit the [{sup 11}C]choline accumulation in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikecz, Pal [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)], E-mail: pal@pet.dote.hu; Marian, Terez; Miklovicz, Tuende; Galuska, Laszlo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Krasznai, Zoltan; Toth, Agnes; Goda, Katalin [Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Tron, Lajos [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Hernadi, Zoltan; Krasznai, Zoard T. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre, 4012 Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)

    2009-10-15

    We studied how very short (10-40 min) incubation with anthracycline derivatives modifies the accumulation of PET tumor-diagnostic radiotracers in cancer cells. The human ovarian A2780 and A2780AD, human B lymphoid JY, human epidermoid KB-3-1 and KB-V-1, and smooth muscle DDT1 MF-2 cells were pre-incubated with daunorubicin and doxorubicin, and the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 11}C]choline was measured. Anthracycline treatment decreased remarkably the [{sup 11}C]choline accumulation in a concentration dependent manner, while it did not modify significantly the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake of the cells.

  18. [Histochemistry and choline acetyltransferase in cat spinal cord and spinal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavkin, P A; Okhotin, V E

    1978-09-01

    Cytochemical activity of choline acetyltransferase has been studied in the pericaryon of motor neurons of the spinal enlargement and sensitive neurocytes of the intervertebral ganglia in the cat by means of Burt's method. It has been demonstrated that cytoplasm of all motor neurons positively reacts with acetyl KoA. According to the activity of choline acetyltransferase, four groups of neurons have been determined. In cerebrospinal ganglia, the enzyme is present in 58% of pseudounipolar cells, which seem to be cholinergic neurocytes. It has been stated that for all nonspecific reactions the presence of massive and dense residue in all the neurons, walls of small blood vessels and sometimes in astrocytes is a characteristic feature. PMID:718431

  19. Usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base: comparison with FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choline is a new PET tracer that is useful for the detection of malignant tumor. Choline is a precursor of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid in the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells. Malignant tumors have an elevated level of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane. Thus, choline is a marker of tumor malignancy. Method The patient was a 51-year-old man with repeated recurrent hemangiopericytoma in the skull base. We performed Choline-PET in this patient after various treatments and compared findings with those of FDG-PET. Results Choline accumulated in this tumor, but FDG did not accumulate. We diagnosed this tumor as residual hemangiopericytoma and performed the resection of the residual tumor. FDG-PET is not appropriate for skull base tumor detection because uptake in the brain is very strong. Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base after various treatments, compared with FDG-PET.

  20. Highly sensitive choline biosensor based on carbon nanotube-modified Pt electrode combined with sol-gel immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao; ZHAO Zixia; QIN Xia; HUANG Jiadong; SHI Haibin; WU Baoyan; CHEN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel amperometric choline biosensor has been fabricated with choline oxidase (ChOx) immobilized by the sol-gel method on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified platinum electrode to improve the sensitivity and the anti-interferential property of the sensor.By analyzing the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode by MWCNT,it was found that MWCNT could not only improve the current response to H2O2 but also decrease the electrocatalytic potential.The effects of experimental variables such as the buffer solutions,pH and the amount of loading enzyme were investigated for the optimum analytical performance.This sensor shows sensitive determination of choline with a linear range from 5.0×10-6 to 1.0×10-4 mol/L when the operating pH and potential are 7.2 and 0.15 V,respectively.The detection limit of choline was 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Selectivity for choline was 9.48 μA.(mmol/L)-1.The biosensor exhibits excellent anti-interferential property and good stability,retaining 85% of its original current value even after a month.It has been applied to the determination of choline in human serum.

  1. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  2. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  3. Comparison of the cellular and biochemical properties of Plasmodium falciparum choline and ethanolamine kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Alberge, Blandine; Gannoun-Zaki, Leila; Bascunana, Céline; Tran Van Ba, Christophe; Vial, Henri; Cerdan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum within the erythrocyte is concomitant with massive phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis. Based on pharmacological and genetic data, de novo biosynthesis pathways of both phospholipids appear essential for parasite survival. The present study characterizes P. falciparum choline kinase (PfCK) and ethanolamine kinase (PfEK), which catalyse the first enzymatic steps of these essent...

  4. The Pathogenesis of Ethanol versus Methionine and Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gyamfi, Maxwell Afari; Damjanov, Ivan; French, Samuel; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The differences and similarities of the pathogenesis of alcoholic (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were examined. Mice (6/group) received 1 of 4 Lieber-Decarli liquid diets for 6 weeks: (1) paired-fed control diet; (2) control diet with ethanol (ethanol); (3) paired-fed methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet; and (4) MCD plus ethanol (combination). Hepatotoxicity, histology, and gene expression changes were examined. Both MCD and ethanol induced macrovesicular steatosis. Howeve...

  5. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Hisae Tateishi-Karimata; Miki Nakano; Naoki Sugimoto

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stabi...

  6. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technical University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Kirste, Simon [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe [Technical University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York (United States); Krause, Bernd Joachim [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. {sup 11}C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  7. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  8. Effects of ethanolamine and choline on thiotepa cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity in L1210 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino alcohols, ethanolamine and choline, were studied for their effects on (a) L1210 cell growth, (b) N,N',N double-prime-triethylenetheiphosphoramide (thiotepa)-induced growth inhibition of L1210 cells, and (c) 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with [14C]thiotepa. Ethanolamine, at concentrations up to 300 microM, had no effect on L1210 cell growth but, at concentrations greater than 300 microM, produced a dose-dependent reduction in cell growth. Choline, at concentrations up to 20 mM, had no effect on L1210 cell growth. Neither ethanolamine, at 250 microM, nor choline, at 10 mM, altered the ability of thiotepa to reduce L1210 cell growth. Neither ethanolamine, at 250 microM, nor choline, at 10 mM, affected the rapid phase of 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with [14C]thiotepa. The slow phase of 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with 5 microM [14C]thiotepa, a process which is 80-85% due to production of [14C]phosphatidylethanolamine, was not affected by 250 microM choline. In contrast, ethanolamine produced a dose-dependent reduction in this slow rate of 14C accumulation. The reduction in the slow rate of 14C accumulation produced by ethanolamine was due almost entirely to a decrease in the accumulation of nonexchangeable 14C. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 14C accumulation produced by 25, 100, and 250 microM ethanolamine was compatible with competitive inhibition. Thin layer chromatography of cell extracts showed that the ability of ethanolamine to reduce 14C accumulation by L1210 cells incubated with [14C]thiotepa was due solely to reduction in production of [14C]phosphatidylethanolamine. These results are all compatible with and predicted by our previously described scheme wherein thiotepa enters cells by simple diffusion and serves as a prodrug for aziridine

  9. [11C]choline PET/CT imaging in occult local relapse of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and clinical impact of [11C]choline PET/CT for localizing occult relapse of prostate adenocarcinoma after radical prostatectomy. Fourty-nine patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, radical prostatectomy, no evidence of metastatic disease, and occult relapse underwent [11C]choline PET/CT. Thirty-six of the patients had biochemical evidence and histological evaluation of local recurrence. Thirteen patients had PSA 11C]choline uptake in the prostatic fossa was visually assessed and graded on a five point scale. Maximum standardized radioactivity uptake value (SUVmax) and the lesion size were measured. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and the clinical impact of the PET/CT study was determined. [11C]choline PET/CT was true positive in 23/33 patients and true negative in 12/13 controls. SUVmax of local recurrence was 3.0 (median, range 0.6-7.4) and 1.1 (0.4-1.6) in controls (p = 0.0002). Lesion size was 1.7 cm (range 0.9-3.7). Area under the ROC curve for detecting relapse was 0.90 ± 0.05 and 0.83 ± 0.06 for visual evaluation and SUVmax, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of [11C]choline PET/CT were 0.73 and 0.88, respectively. [11C]choline PET/CT identified 12/17 (71%) patients with a favourable biochemical response to local radiotherapy at 2 year (median, 0.8-3.2 range) follow-up. Focally increased [11C]choline uptake in the prostatic bed reliably predicted local low volume occult relapsing prostate adenocarcinoma after radical prostatectomy and identified 71% of patients with a favourable biochemical response to local radiotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Value of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in patients with suspected prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scher, Bernhard; Albinger, Wolfram; Tiling, Reinhold; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Dresel, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael; Becker, Hans-Christoph [University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Souvatzogluou, Michael; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The value and limitations of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in a large group of patients with suspected prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent {sup 11}C-choline PET (25/58, Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) or PET/CT (33/58, Philips Gemini) scanning. On average, 500 MBq of {sup 11}C-choline was administered intravenously. Studies were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and other diagnostic procedures. Qualitative image analysis as well as semiquantitative SUV measurement was carried out. The reference standard was histopathological examination of resection specimens or biopsy. Prevalence of prostate cancer in this selected patient population was 63.8% (37/58). {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 86.5% (32/37) and a specificity of 61.9% (13/21) in the detection of the primary malignancy. With regard to metastatic spread, PET showed a per-patient sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11) and produced no false positive findings. Based on our findings, differentiation between benign prostatic changes, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis, and prostate cancer is feasible in the majority of cases when image interpretation is primarily based on qualitative characteristics. SUV{sub max} may serve as guidance. False positive findings may occur due to an overlap of {sup 11}C-choline uptake between benign and malignant processes. By providing functional information regarding both the primary malignancy and its metastases, {sup 11}C-choline PET may prove to be a useful method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

  11. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.ramondo@univaq.it [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, L’Aquila I-67100 (Italy); Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  12. Effects of genotype and environment on the contents of betaine, choline, and trigonelline in cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corol, Delia-Irina; Ravel, Catherine; Raksegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Charmet, Gilles; Beale, Michael H; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L

    2012-05-30

    This study examined the environmental and genetic variation in methyl donor contents and compositions of 200 cereal genotypes. Glycine betaine, choline, and trigonelline contents were determined by (1)H NMR, and significant differences were observed between cereal types (G) and across harvesting years and growing locations (E). Glycine betaine was the most abundant methyl donor in all of the 200 lines grown on a single site, and concentrations ranged from 0.43 ± 0.09 mg/g dm in oats to 2.57 ± 0.25 mg/g dm in diploid Einkorn varieties. In bread wheat genotypes there was a 3-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Choline contents, in the same lines, were substantially lower, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.17 mg/g dm in oats to 0.27 mg/g dm in durum wheat. Trigonelline was by far the least abundant of the methyl donors studied. Despite this, however, there were large differences between cereal types. Twenty-six wheat genotypes were grown in additional years at four European locations. The average glycine betaine content was highest in grains grown in Hungary and lowest in those grown in the United Kingdom. Across the six environments, there was a 3.8-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Glycine betaine levels, although moderately heritable (0.36), were found to be the most susceptible to the environmental conditions. Free choline concentrations were less variable across genotypes, but heritability of this component was the lowest of all methyl donor components (0.25) and showed a high G × E interaction. Trigonelline showed the most variation due to genotype. Heritability of this metabolite was the highest (0.59), but given that it is at a very low concentration in wheat, it is probably not attractive to plant breeders.

  13. An Incidental Renal Oncocytoma: 18F-Choline PET/MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mallia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PET/MRI is a new hybrid imaging modality and has the potential to become a powerful imaging tool. It is currently one of the most active areas of research in diagnostic imaging. The characterisation of an incidental renal lesion can be difficult. In particular, the differentiation of an oncocytoma from other solid renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents a diagnostic challenge. We describe the detection of an incidental renal oncocytoma in a 79-year gentleman who underwent a re-staging 18F-Choline PET/MRI following a rise in PSA values (4.07, nadir 1.3.

  14. Dietary choline regulates antibacterial activity, inflammatory response and barrier function in the gills of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua-Fu; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of graded levels of choline (197-1795 mg/kg) on antibacterial properties, inflammatory status and barrier function in the gills of grass carp. The results showed that optimal dietary choline supplementation significantly improved lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 (C3) content, and the liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin mRNA levels in the gills of fish (P C3 content and AHR activity, the dietary choline requirements for young grass carp (266.5-787.1 g) were estimated to be 1191.0 and 1555.0 mg/kg diet, respectively. PMID:26988287

  15. Choline supplementation mitigates trace, but not delay, eyeblink conditioning deficits in rats exposed to alcohol during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Tran, Tuan D

    2012-03-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally suffer from a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Both the cerebellum and hippocampus are affected by alcohol exposure during development, which may contribute to behavioral and cognitive deficits observed in children with FASD. Despite the known neuropathology associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, many pregnant women continue to drink (heavy drinkers, in particular), creating a need to identify effective treatments for their children who are adversely affected by alcohol. We previously reported that choline supplementation can mitigate alcohol's effects on cognitive development, specifically on tasks which depend on the functional integrity of the hippocampus. The present study examined whether choline supplementation could differentially mitigate alcohol's effects on trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC, a hippocampal-dependent task) and delay ECC (a cerebellar-dependent task). Long-Evans rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development equivalent to late gestation in humans. A sham-intubated control group was included. From PD 10-30, subjects received subcutaneous injections of 100 mg/kg choline chloride or vehicle. Beginning on PD 32-34, subjects were trained on either delay or trace eyeblink conditioning. Performance of subjects exposed to alcohol was significantly impaired on both tasks, as indicated by significant reductions in percentage and amplitude of conditioned eyeblink responses, an effect that was attenuated by choline supplementation on the trace, but not delay conditioning task. Indeed, alcohol-exposed subjects treated with choline performed at control levels on the trace eyeblink conditioning task. There were no significant main or interactive effects of sex. These data indicate that choline supplementation can significantly reduce the

  16. N-methyl-D-aspartate increases acetylcholine release from rat striatum and cortex: its effect is augmented by choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulus, I. H.; Buyukuysal, R. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue ACh or choline contents. This augmentation was blocked by Mg++ (1.2 mM) or by MK-801 (10 microM). Electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 75 mA) increased ACh release 9-fold (from 400 to 3660 pmol/mg of protein): this was enhanced (to 4850 pmol/mg of protein) by NMDA (100 microM). ACh levels in stimulated slices fell by 50 or 65% depending on the absence or presence of NMDA. The addition of choline (40 microM) increased ACh release both basally (570 pmol/mg of protein) and with electrical stimulation (6900 pmol/mg of protein). In stimulated slices choline acted synergistically with NMDA, raising ACh release to 10,520 pmol/mg of protein. The presence of choline also blocked the fall in tissue ACh. No treatment affected tissue phospholipid or protein levels. NMDA (32-320 microM) also augmented basal ACh release from cortical but not hippocampal slices. Choline efflux from striatal and cortical (but not hippocampal) slices decreased by 34 to 50% in Mg(++)-free medium. These data indicate that NMDA-like drugs may be useful, particularly in combination with choline, to enhance striatal and cortical cholinergic activity. ACh release from rat hippocampus apparently is not affected by NMDA receptors.

  17. Immunohistochemical determination of the extracellular matrix modulation in a rat model of choline-deprived myocardium: the effects of carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strilakou, Athina; Perelas, Apostolos; Lazaris, Andreas; Papavdi, Asteria; Karkalousos, Petros; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kriebardis, Anastasios; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Liapi, Charis

    2016-02-01

    Choline has been identified as an essential nutrient with crucial role in many vital biological functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that heart dysfunction can develop in the setting of choline deprivation even in the absence of underlying heart disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are responsible for extracellular matrix degradation, and the dysregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 has been involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs), in the pathogenesis of choline deficiency-induced cardiomyopathy, and the way they are affected by carnitine supplementation. Male Wistar Albino adult rats were divided into four groups and received standard or choline-deficient diet with or without L-carnitine in drinking water (0.15% w/v) for 1 month. Heart tissue immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was performed. Choline deficiency was associated with suppressed immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2 and an increased expression of TIMP-2 compared to control, while it had no impact on TIMP-1. MMP-9 expression was decreased without, however, reaching statistical significance. Carnitine did not affect MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 expression. The pattern of TIMP and MMP modulation observed in a choline deficiency setting appears to promote fibrosis. Carnitine, although shown to suppress fibrosis, does not seem to affect MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 expression. Further studies will be required to identify the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of carnitine.

  18. PET as a possible indicator of the prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Comparative analysis of FDG-PET and choline-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), which reflects glucose metabolism, has been reported to be useful for staging head and neck cancers and for investigating the primary lesion of unknown origin, double cancer, recurrence and residual cancer after treatment. It has also been reported that the degree of accumulation before treatment may be utilized as a prognostic factor. The usefulness of PET using 11C-choline, which reflects cell membrane phospholipid metabolism, for cancer diagnosis has been reported as well. In this study, we investigated differences in the prognosis based on the degree of 11C-choline-PET and FDG-PET accumulation. 11C-choline-PET and FDG-PET were taken before treatment in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. To indicate the degree of accumulation, the standard uptake value (SUV) was used. Choline and FDG were accumulated in the primary lesion in all patients. The SUVs in both choline and FDG were higher in patients who responded poorly to primary treatment than in those who responded well. The cumulative survival rate of patients with a high SUV of choline was significantly lower than that of patients with a low SUV of choline. SUV of choline-PET before treatment may be utilized as a prognostic factor. (author)

  19. Pre-Conditioning with CDP-Choline Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Death in a Hypoxia/Reperfusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor González-Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CDP-choline is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of cellular membranes, and a cell signalling mediator. CDP-choline has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia, showing beneficial effects. However, its potential benefit for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia has not been explored yet. Aim. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the potential use of CDP-choline as a cardioprotector in an in vitro model of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were isolated and subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion using the coverslip hypoxia model. To evaluate the effect of CDP-choline on oxidative stress-induced reperfusion injury, the cells were incubated with H2O2 during reperfusion. The effect of CDP-choline pre- and postconditioning was evaluated using the cell viability MTT assay, and the proportion of apoptotic and necrotic cells was analyzed using the Annexin V determination by flow cytometry. Results. Pre- and postconditioning with 50 mg/mL of CDP-choline induced a significant reduction of cells undergoing apoptosis after hypoxia/reperfusion. Preconditioning with CDP-choline attenuated postreperfusion cell death induced by oxidative stress. Conclusion. CDP-choline administration reduces cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after hypoxia/reperfusion of cardiac myocytes. Thus, it has a potential as cardioprotector in ischaemia/reperfusion-injured cardiomyocytes.

  20. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]choline: a comparison between rat and human data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolvanen, Tuula; Ujula, Tiina; Autio, Anu [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Yli-Kerttula, Timo [Turku University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Turku (Finland); Lehikoinen, Pertti [Turku University Hospital, Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Minn, Heikki [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Turku Centre for Disease Modelling, Turku (Finland)

    2010-05-15

    Methyl-{sup 11}C-choline ([{sup 11}C]choline) is a radiopharmaceutical used for oncological PET studies. We investigated the biodistribution and biokinetics of [{sup 11}C]choline and provide estimates of radiation doses in humans. The distribution of [{sup 11}C]choline was evaluated ex vivo in healthy rats (n=9) by measuring the radioactivity of excised organs, and in vivo in tumour-bearing rats (n=4) by PET. In addition to estimates of human radiation doses extrapolated from rat data, more accurate human radiation doses were calculated on the basis of PET imaging of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=6) primarily participating in a synovitis imaging project with [{sup 11}C]choline. Dynamic data were acquired from the thorax and abdomen after injection of 423{+-}11 MBq (mean{+-}SD) of tracer. Following PET imaging, the radioactivity in voided urine was measured. The experimental human data were used for residence time estimations. Radiation doses were calculated with OLINDA/EXM. In rats, the radioactivity distributed mainly to the kidneys, lungs, liver and adrenal gland. The effective dose in a human adult of about 70 kg was 0.0044 mSv/MBq, which is equivalent to 2.0 mSv from 460 MBq of [{sup 11}C]choline PET. The highest absorbed doses in humans were 0.021 mGy/MBq in the kidneys, 0.020 mGy/MBq in the liver and 0.029 mGy/MBq in the pancreas. Only 2.0% of injected radioactivity was excreted in the urine during the 1.5 h after injection. The absorbed radiation doses after administration of 460 MBq of [{sup 11}C]choline were low. Except for the pancreas, biodistribution in the rat was in accordance with that in humans, but rat data may underestimate the effective dose, suggesting that clinical measurements are needed for a more detailed estimation. The observed effective doses suggest the feasibility of [{sup 11}C]choline PET for human studies. (orig.)

  1. Electrochemical Deposition of Niobium onto the Surface of Copper Using a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtroma, Alex I. [Christopher Newport U.; Buhlera, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport U.; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport U.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride-based solutions can be used to replace acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. In this study niobium metal was successfully deposited on the surface of copper substrate via electrochemical deposition using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The niobium metal used for deposition on the Cu had been dissolved in the solution from electrochemical polishing of a solid niobium piece prior to the deposition. The visible coating on the surface of the Cu was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing.

  2. A novel finding: Anti-androgen flutamide kills androgen-independent PC-3 cells: A radiolabelled methyl-choline incorporation into tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [Methyl-11C]-choline was introduced to image many types of cancers especially the prostate cancer. Al-Saeedi et al. reported that the incorporation of [Methyl-3H]-choline into breast tumour (MCF-7) cells correlated strongly with proliferation as determined by [Methyl-14C]- thymidine uptake. Also, Al-Saeedi, et al. showed that the chemotherapy using MCF-7 cells treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) induced modulation in [Methyl-3H]-choline incorporation and certain mechanisms for this modulation were reported. In this study, the androgen-dependent prostate tumour (LNCaP) cells were treated with the well known pure anti-androgen drug, flutamide, for three days. The cells were then incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 mint to detect the effect of flutamide on both cell proliferation and choline incorporation. At the same time, a preliminary work was established using androgen-independent PC-3 cells treated with flutamide as controls in this study. PC-3 cells were treated with a range of doses of flutamide inhibiting growth by 20[Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. [Methyl-3H]-Choline Incorporation into MCF-7 Cells: Correlation with Proliferation: choline kinase and phospholipase D assay. - 70%. Treated and control cells were incubated with [Methyl-3H]-choline for 10 min, then in non-radioactive medium to simulate the rapid blood clearance of [Methyl-11C]-choline tracer in control and treated PC-3 cells, and then extracted with organic and aqueous solvents to determine its effect on the intracellular distribution of this tracer. Interesting results showed that flutamide killed the androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, PC-3 and mechanisms responsible for flutamide-induced modulation on [Methyl-3H]- choline incorporation were reported. The PC-3 cells' proliferation was inhibited by flutamide. In addition, treatment of PC-3 cells with flutamide for 3 days resulted

  3. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  4. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anicai, Liana, E-mail: lanicai@itcnet.ro [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Petica, Aurora [Leather and Footwear Research Institute (ICPI), Ion Minulescu 93, Bucharest, 031215 (Romania); Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Costovici, Stefania [POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect.

  6. Solubility of carbon dioxide in a eutectic mixture of choline chloride and glycerol at moderate pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The solubilities of carbon dioxide in a eutectic mixture of choline chloride and glycerol were measured. ► The pressure was up to 6.3 MPa. ► The temperature studied was (303.15 to 343.15) K. ► The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and pressure. ► The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlation. - Abstract: In this work, we present new measurements on the solubility of carbon dioxide in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) containing choline chloride and glycerol (1:2 mole ratio) over the temperature range (303.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 6.3 MPa. Experimental measurements were carried out in a thermogravimetric microbalance, and the effects of buoyancy on the measurements were accounted for. Results indicated that the solubility of the gas in the solvent increased almost linearly with pressure and decreased with increasing temperature. The dependence of the carbon dioxide solubility in the DES (in molality) on temperature and pressure were accurately represented by an extended Henry’s law model at an average absolute deviation of 1.4%.

  7. The role of rumen-protected choline in hepatic function and performance of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Arash; D'Occhio, Michael J; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-07-01

    High-producing dairy cows enter a period of negative energy balance during the first weeks of lactation. Energy intake is usually sufficient to cover the increase in energy requirements for fetal growth during the period before calving, but meeting the demand for energy is often difficult during the early stages of lactation. A catabolic state predominates during the transition period, leading to the mobilisation of energy reserves (NEFA and amino acids) that are utilised mainly by the liver and muscle. Increased uptake of mobilised NEFA by the liver, combined with the limited capacity of hepatocytes to either oxidise fatty acids for energy or to incorporate esterified fatty acids into VLDL results in fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. This metabolic disturbance can affect the general health, and it causes economic losses. Different nutritional strategies have been used to restrict negative effects associated with the energy challenge in transition cows. The provision of choline in the form of rumen-protected choline (RPC) can potentially improve liver function by increasing VLDL exportation from the liver. RPC increases gene expression of microsomal TAG transfer protein and APOB100 that are required for VLDL synthesis and secretion. Studies with RPC have looked at gene expression, metabolic hormones, metabolite profiles, milk production and postpartum reproduction. A reduction in liver fat and enhanced milk production has been observed with RPC supplementation. However, the effects of RPC on health and reproduction are equivocal, which could reflect the lack of sufficient dose-response studies. PMID:27138530

  8. PSA doubling time for prediction of [11C]choline PET/CT findings in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [11C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [11C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [11C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [11C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [11C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [11C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p 11C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT 11C]choline uptake in the skeleton significantly increased (p 6 months to 52% for PSADT 11C]choline uptake in the prostatectomy bed were 0% for PSADT 6

  9. Efficacy of oral nicotinic acid and choline in the treatment and prevention of fatty liver in dairy cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianWenru; YangDianjun; 等

    1994-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (N.C.)and choline were given orally to the periparturient cows to treat and prevent fatty liver.Blood parameters of glucose,β-hydroxybutyrate,albumin,total protein,magnesium,aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and non-esterified fatty acid(NEFA) were measured.There were no significant differences between the reated and untreated groups in the plasma concentrations of albumin,total,protein and magnsium.Significant decrease in plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate,NEFA and AST were observed in the treated cows following administration of N.C.and choline.All the fatty liver cows(100%) treated with N.C.and choline recovered within 5 weeks after calving compared with 71.4%(5/7) of untreated cows recovered.The incident ate of fatty liver postpartum in the cows with N.C.and choline given 2 weeks before calving was 30%(3/10),and the affected cows had a range of mild to moderate fatty liver whilst the incident rate was 50%(5/10)in the untreated cows.which had a range of mild to of severe fatty liver,Meanwhile,the treated cows had a significant higher prodection of milk and shorter intervals from calving to uterine involution,to the first postpartum ovulation and to conception.

  10. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  11. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  12. Effect of rumen-protected choline supplementation on liver and adipose gene expression during the transition period in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goselink, R.M.A.; Baal, van J.; Widjaja, H.C.A.; Dekker, R.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that supplementation of rumen-protected choline (RPC) reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration in periparturient dairy cows during early lactation. Here, we investigated the effect of RPC on the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in liver and adipose

  13. No up-regulation of the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pathway and choline production by sex hormones in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B; Favier, Robert P; Robben, Joris H; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common cholestatic disease affecting cats of any breed, age and sex. Both choline deficiency and low hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) activity are associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in humans, mice and rats. The PEMT expr

  14. Suppression Effects of Betaine-Enriched Spinach on Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by Guanidinoacetic Acid and Choline Deficiency in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is an important natural component of rich food sources, especially spinach. Rats were fed diets with betaine or spinach powder at the same level of betaine for 10 days to investigate the dose-dependent effects of spinach powder supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid (GAA addition and choline deprivation. The GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C was significantly suppressed by supplementation with betaine or spinach, and it was completely suppressed by taking 11.0% spinach supplementation. The choline deprivation-induced enhancement of plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 25% soybean protein diet (25S was markedly suppressed by 3.82% spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach partially prevented the effects of GAA on hepatic concentrations of methionine metabolites. The decrease in activity of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS in GAA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was recovered by supplementation with betaine or spinach. Supplementation with betaine or spinach did not affect BHMT activity, whereas it partially restored CBS activity in choline-deprived 25S. The results indicated that betaine or spinach could completely suppress the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline deficiency resulting from stimulating the homocysteine removal by both remethylation and cystathionine formation.

  15. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  16. Effects of Flutamide on [Methyl-3H]-Choline Uptake in Human Prostate Cancer-3 Cells: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography using [methyl-11C]-choline is effective in imaging many types of cancer, especially prostate cancer (PC). The antiandrogen flutamide is often used as part of the initial treatment of PC. Data on the effect of flutamide on and methylcholine incorporation into PC-3 cells are lacking in the experimental and literature work.

  17. The relationship between choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in magnetic resonance spectroscopy with the invasion of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafoori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second cause of cancer mortality in men. Although histopathological examination is the gold-standard for its diagnosis, tendency toward less invasive methods is growing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS with the invasion of prostate cancer in a series of patients with prostate cancer.Methods: Totally, 200 patients with pathologically proven prostate cancer were enrolled in this cross-sectional study by a non-probability sampling method in Hazrat Rasul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2009-2010. Pathological staging was the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer while the patients underwent MRS for choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio determination. MRS and pathological results were compared and analyzed.Results: The mean (±SD values of choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in patients with Gleason scores less than 3, 3 to 4 and greater than 4 were 245.8±146.8, 427.1±173.6 and 427.1±173.6, respectively (P<0.001. The mean (±SD values of choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio in patients with PSA levels less than 4, 4 to 10 and greater than 10 were 180.7±58.3, 247±93.5 and 385.1±106.6, respectively (P<0.001.Conclusion: Choline plus creatine- to-citrate ratio determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy has a significant relationship with the degree of invasion of prostate cancer and can be used for the staging of the disease.

  18. PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine and {sup 11}C-choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Tenley, Nathan [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Corn, David J.; Wu, Chunying; Tian, Haibin; Wang, Yanming [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lee, Zhenghong [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Choline-based radiotracers have been studied for PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an {sup 18}F-labeled choline analog, instead of the {sup 11}C-labeled native choline, would facilitate its widespread use in the clinic. In this study, PET with {sup 18}F-fluoroethylcholine (FEC) and {sup 11}C-choline (CHOL) were compared using an animal model of HCC. The effects of fasting on the performance of choline-based tracers were also investigated. A woodchuck model of HCC was used to compare the two tracers, which were administered and imaged in sequence during the same imaging session. Dynamic PET images were generated spanning 50 min starting from tracer injection. Time-activity curves and tracer contrast were calculated in liver regions with tracer accumulation, and the contrast at a late time-point with the two tracers, and between fasted and nonfasted states, were compared. Foci of HCC with increased uptake ranged in size from 1.0 to 1.6 cm, with mean tumor-to-background contrast of 1.3 with FEC and 1.5 with CHOL at 50 min after injection. The tracers show similar patterns of uptake immediately following administration, and both activities plateaued at 10 min after injection. No significant differences in uptake dynamics or final contrast were observed between the fasted and nonfasted states. PET imaging of HCC is possible with both CHOL and FEC. Fasting was not found to affect accumulation of either tracer. These results encourage further investigation into the clinical utility of FEC for HCC imaging. (orig.)

  19. Dorsal root ganglion progenitors differentiate to gamma-aminobutyric acid- and choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli Yu; Yindi Ding; Ambre Spencer; Ji Ma; Ruisheng Lu; Brian B. Rudkin; Chonggang Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the isolation and differentiation of dorsal root ganglion progenitor cells for therapeutic use in neurodegenerative diseases.Rat embryonic dorsal root ganglia progenitors were isolated and purified using the differential adhesion method combined with cytosine arabinoside treatment.After culture in serum-free medium supplemented with B27, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, these cells remained viable and survived for more than 18 months in vitro.Most cells differentiated to neurons that were immunoreactive for gamma-aminobutyric acid and choline acetyltransferase as detected by immunohistochemical staining.In addition, nerve growth factor and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor expression were also observed in dorsal root ganglion progenitors and differentiated cells.K252a, an inhibitor that blocks nerve growth factor-induced signaling, inhibited cell survival, suggesting the possible existence of a nerve growth factor autocrine loop in these proliferating cells.

  20. Surfactant Behavior of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Deep Eutectic Solvent Choline Chloride/Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, T; Jackson, A J; Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Magnone, D; Terry, A E; Edler, K J

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) resemble ionic liquids but are formed from an ionic mixture instead of being a single ionic compound. Here we present some results that demonstrate that surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remains surface-active and shows self-assembly phenomena in the most commonly studied DES, choline chloride/urea. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) suggest that the behavior is significantly different from that in water. Our SANS data supports our determination of the critical micelle concentration using surface-tension measurements and suggests that the micelles formed in DES do not have the same shape and size as those seen in water. Reflectivity measurements have also demonstrated that the surfactants remain surface-active below this concentration. PMID:26540438

  1. The Semi-automatic Synthesis of 18F-fluoroethyl-choline by Domestic FDG Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ming

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As an important complementary imaging agent for 18F-FDG, 18F-fluoroethyl-choline (18F-FECH has been demonstrated to be promising in brain and prostate cancer imaging. By using domestic PET-FDG-TI-I CPCU synthesizer, 18F-FECH was synthesized by different reagents and consumable supplies. The C18 column was added before the product collection bottle to remove K2.2.2. The 18F-FECH was synthesized by PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer efficiently about 30 minutes by radiochemical yield of 42.0% (no decay corrected, n=5, and the radiochemical purity was still more than 99.0% after 6 hours. The results showed the domestic PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer could semi-automatically synthesize injectable 18F-FECH in high efficiency and radiochemical purity

  2. Effect Of Choline Chloride (CC On 'Monroe' Peach Fruit Quality And Leaf Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike ÇETİNBAŞ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of choline chloride (CC were evaluated on fruit quality of ‘Monroe’ peach over 2-year period in a commercial orchard. Spray treatments of CC (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were applied to 7, 21 and 30 days before commercial harvest (DBH. Some fruit quality parameters fruit weight (g, fruit flesh firmness (N, soluble solids content (SSC, %, titratable acidity (TA, %, fruit colour (CIELab, sugars, ethylene production, respiration rate were assessed for per treatments. All treatments were increased fruit size and fruit weight. In the applications of CC the most determined results have occurred on colourness which is the one of significant quality parameter in peaches and they had positive effect on the development red colour.Treatments of CC have been increased of total sugar contents

  3. Synthesis of cadmium and zinc semiconductor compounds from an ionic liquid containing choline chloride and urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Phillip J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.j.dale@bath.ac.uk; Samantilleke, Anura P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Shivagan, Dilip D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Peter, Laurence M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-31

    A eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (commercially known as Reline) has been used as a medium from which CdS, CdSe, and ZnS thin films have been electrodeposited for the first time. Reline is a conductive room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) with a wide electrochemical window, which is suitable for use as a medium for electrodeposition. The voltammetric behaviour of the Reline-Cd(II)-sulfur system has been investigated. Thin films of CdS deposited at constant potential were characterized by photocurrent and electrolyte electroabsorbance spectroscopies. Thin films of CdSe and ZnS have also been prepared, and their photocurrent excitation spectra have been measured.

  4. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  5. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  6. Rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis created by methionine and choline deficiency: biochemical and histological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinichi Nagai1, Jun Iwamoto2, Masakazu Suzuki1, Azusa Seki11Hamri Co Ltd, Koga, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to establish a Sprague-Dawley rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH due to combined methionine and choline deficiency (MCD. Methods: Eighty nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups (n = 40, comprising an MCD diet group and a standard diet (control group. After fasting blood was collected, 10 rats from each group were scheduled to be sacrificed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 from the start of the experiment. Body weight and liver wet weight were measured, and histological examination of the liver was performed after hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining. Results: In the MCD group, body weight and liver wet weight were decreased compared with the control group, while serum levels of albumin, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were increased, but serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histological examination of the liver revealed centrilobular hepatocellular fatty change from as early as four weeks, with mild fibrosis after 12 weeks. Conclusion: These findings suggested the onset of NASH with liver dysfunction and bile duct damage in rats fed with the MCD diet. Increased fatty acid uptake and decreased cholesterol secretion were considered to be important mechanisms by which the MCD diet promoted intrahepatic lipid accumulation in this model.Keywords: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, rat, methionine, choline, fatty liver 

  7. Green synthesis of choline chloride%氯化胆碱的绿色合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞瑞; 袁存光

    2012-01-01

    以环氧乙烷和三甲胺盐酸盐为原料,用经过酸碱活化的绿色环保阴离子交换树脂为催化剂合成氯化胆碱.用质量分数为0.5%的活化的阴离子交换树脂作催化剂,在n(环氧乙烷)∶n(三甲胺盐酸盐)=1.1∶1,反应温度为60℃,反应时间为1h的条件下,合成的氯化胆碱产品的产率≥96%.催化剂经酸碱活化1次可重复使用若干次而不影响催化效果.%In this paper, a kind of environment friendly anion exchange resin catalyst which was activated by acid and base was applied in synthesizing choline chloride. The ethylene oxide and trimethylamine hydrochlorate were used as the raw material in this study. When the weight of catalyst is 0. 5% of total reactant mass, molar ratio of C2H4O and ( CH3 )3N-HC1 is 1. 1 ,the reaction temperature is 601 and the reaction time is 1 hour,the yield of choline chloride is above 96%. The activity of catalyst is almost the same as the one activated once,when it is used several times.

  8. Dietary choline supplementation to dams during pregnancy and lactation mitigates the effects of in utero stress exposure on adult anxiety-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Pearson, Jennifer N.; Gasparrini, Mary E.; Brooks, Kayla F.; Drake-Frazier, Chakeer; Zajkowski, Megan E.; Kreisler, Alison D.; Adams, Catherine E.; Leonard, Sherry; Stevens, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain cholinergic dysfunction is associated with neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Maternal stress exposure is associated with these same illnesses in adult offspring, yet the relationship between prenatal stress and brain cholinergic function is largely unexplored. Thus, using a rodent model, the current study implemented an intervention aimed at buffering the potential effects of prenatal stress on the developing brain cholinergic system. Specifically, control and stressed dams were fed choline-supplemented or control chow during pregnancy and lactation, and the anxiety-related behaviors of adult offspring were assessed in the open field, elevated zero maze and social interaction tests. In the open field test, choline supplementation significantly increased center investigation in both stressed and nonstressed female offspring, suggesting that choline-supplementation decreases female anxiety-related behavior irrespective of prenatal stress exposure. In the elevated zero maze, prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behaviors of female offspring fed a control diet (normal choline levels). However, prenatal stress failed to increase anxiety-related behaviors in female offspring receiving supplemental choline during gestation and lactation, suggesting that dietary choline supplementation ameliorated the effects of prenatal stress on anxiety-related behaviors. For male rats, neither prenatal stress nor diet impacted anxiety-related behaviors in the open field or elevated zero maze. In contrast, perinatal choline supplementation mitigated prenatal stress-induced social behavioral deficits in males, whereas neither prenatal stress nor choline supplementation influenced female social behaviors. Taken together, these data suggest that perinatal choline supplementation ameliorates the sex-specific effects of prenatal stress. PMID:24675162

  9. Low-Q peak in X-ray patterns of choline-phenylalanine and -homophenylalanine: A combined effect of chain and stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campetella, Marco; Martino, Delia Chillura; Scarpellini, Eleonora; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution we report for the first time the X-ray patterns of choline-phenylalanine and choline-homophenylalanine ionic liquids. The presence of a low Q peak in both systems is another evidence that a long alkyl chain is not always needed to establish a nanodomain segregation in the liquid sufficient to be revealed by the diffraction experiment. These new data are compared with the diffraction patterns and the theoretical calculations of other choline-aminoacid ionic liquids recently reported. A significant role might be played by the stacking interactions between aromatic rings.

  10. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT predicts survival in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [Stadtspital Triemli, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Incerti, Elena; Mapelli, Paola; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milano (Italy); Kirienko, Margarita [University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Montorsi, Francesco [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Urology, Milano (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Over the last decade, PET/CT with radiolabelled choline has been shown to be useful for restaging patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who develop biochemical failure. The limitations of most clinical studies have been poor validation of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT-positive findings and lack of survival analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT can predict survival in hormone-naive PCa patients with biochemical failure. This retrospective study included 302 hormone-naive PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy who underwent [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT from 1 December 2004 to 31 July 2007 because of biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, >0.2 ng/mL). Median PSA was 1.02 ng/mL. PCa-specific survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological variables and PCa-specific survival. The coefficients of the covariates included in the Cox regression analysis were used to develop a novel nomogram. Median follow-up was 7.2 years (1.4 - 18.9 years). [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT was positive in 101 of 302 patients (33 %). Median PCa-specific survival after prostatectomy was 14.9 years (95 % CI 9.7 - 20.1 years) in patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. Median survival was not achieved in patients with negative [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. The 15-year PCa-specific survival probability was 42.4 % (95 % CI 31.7 - 53.1 %) in patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and 95.5 % (95 % CI 93.5 - 97.5 %) in patients with negative [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. In multivariate analysis, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT (hazard ratio 6.36, 95 % CI 2.14 - 18.94, P < 0.001) and Gleason score >7 (hazard ratio 3.11, 95 % CI 1.11 - 8.66, P = 0.030) predicted PCa-specific survival. An internally validated nomogram predicted 15-year PCa-specific survival probability with an accuracy of 80 %. Positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT after biochemical failure

  11. [11C]Choline PET/CT predicts survival in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, PET/CT with radiolabelled choline has been shown to be useful for restaging patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who develop biochemical failure. The limitations of most clinical studies have been poor validation of [11C]choline PET/CT-positive findings and lack of survival analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether [11C]choline PET/CT can predict survival in hormone-naive PCa patients with biochemical failure. This retrospective study included 302 hormone-naive PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy who underwent [11C]choline PET/CT from 1 December 2004 to 31 July 2007 because of biochemical failure (prostate-specific antigen, PSA, >0.2 ng/mL). Median PSA was 1.02 ng/mL. PCa-specific survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between clinicopathological variables and PCa-specific survival. The coefficients of the covariates included in the Cox regression analysis were used to develop a novel nomogram. Median follow-up was 7.2 years (1.4 - 18.9 years). [11C]Choline PET/CT was positive in 101 of 302 patients (33 %). Median PCa-specific survival after prostatectomy was 14.9 years (95 % CI 9.7 - 20.1 years) in patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT. Median survival was not achieved in patients with negative [11C]choline PET/CT. The 15-year PCa-specific survival probability was 42.4 % (95 % CI 31.7 - 53.1 %) in patients with positive [11C]choline PET/CT and 95.5 % (95 % CI 93.5 - 97.5 %) in patients with negative [11C]choline PET/CT. In multivariate analysis, [11C]choline PET/CT (hazard ratio 6.36, 95 % CI 2.14 - 18.94, P < 0.001) and Gleason score >7 (hazard ratio 3.11, 95 % CI 1.11 - 8.66, P = 0.030) predicted PCa-specific survival. An internally validated nomogram predicted 15-year PCa-specific survival probability with an accuracy of 80 %. Positive [11C]choline PET/CT after biochemical failure predicts PCa-specific survival in hormone-naive PCa patients

  12. Identification of new genetic polymorphisms that alter the dietary requirement for choline and vary in their distribution across ethnic and racial groups

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Corbin, Karen D.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Galanko, Joseph A.; Zeisel, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Effect alleles (alleles with a polymorphism that is associated with the effect being measured) in a small number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known to influence the dietary requirement for choline. In this study, we examined a much larger number of SNPs (n=200) in 10 genes related to choline metabolism for associations with development of organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when 79 humans were fed a low-choline diet. We confirmed that effect alleles in SNPs such as the C alle...

  13. Effects of irradiation on the [methyl-{sup 3}H]choline uptake in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, K.; Mueller, S.A.; Seidl, C.; Schwaiger, M.; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany); Grosu, A.L. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Background and purpose: choline positron emission tomography (PET) can help to optimize radiation treatment strategy of prostate cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of ionizing radiation on the choline uptake in an androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and an androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer cell line. Material and methods: uptake of [methyl-{sup 3}H]choline chloride was investigated between 4 and 96 h after irradiation with 6 Gy. Dose dependence of choline uptake was examined following irradiation with 2-12 Gy, and cell survival was analyzed via the clonogenic assay. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was determined 24 h (PC3) and 48 h (LNCaP) after irradiation with 6 Gy. Results: PC3 cells showed a significant transitory increase of [methyl-{sup 3}H]choline uptake with a maximum at 24 h after irradiation. In LNCaP cells irradiation induced a significant decrease with a minimum at 48 h. Changes in choline uptake in both cell lines were almost dose-independent up to 12 Gy. Following irradiation with 6 Gy, transport capacity (v{sub max}) increased and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) decreased in PC3 cells, while in LNCaP cells the two parameters behaved vice versa. Conclusion: changes in choline uptake following irradiation might be due to metabolic changes associated with initiation of processes that finally cause cell death. Thus, changes in tumor choline uptake monitored by PET after radiotherapy might not exclusively reflect therapeutic success but also altered tracer uptake as a consequence of irradiation. (orig.)

  14. Utility of 18F-choline photon emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Tripathi, Madhavi; Behera, Abhishek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Aggarwal, Shipra; Aggarwal, Vivek; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Taywade, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the role of 18F-choline in the detection of parathyroid adenomas has been reported. At our institution, we are currently studying the role of this tracer in comparison to the standard methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile.(MIBI) scan with single photon emission tomography/computed tomography. Our initial results show that 18F-choline is at least as good as 99mTc-MIBI scan. We present here a representative case of a 45-year-old woman with multiple skeletal lytic lesions and a high parathyroid hormone.(PTH) who underwent both these imaging techniques with concordant results, further confirmed by histopathology and postoperative fall in serum PTH levels. PMID:27385893

  15. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  16. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  17. Biochemical characterization of the initial steps of the Kennedy pathway in Trypanosoma brucei : the ethanolamine and choline kinases

    OpenAIRE

    GIBELLINI, FEDERICA; Hunter, William N.; Smith, Terry K.

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolamine and choline are major components of the trypanosome membrane phospholipids, in the form of GPEtn (glycero-phosphoethanolamine) and GPCho (glycerophosphocholine). Ethanolamine is also found as an integral component of the GPI (glycosylpliosphatidylinositol) anchor that is required for membrane attachment of cell-surface proteins, most notably the variant-surface glycoproteins. The de novo synthesis of GPEtn and GPCho starts with the generation of phosphoethanolamine and phosphocho...

  18. Highly specific antibodies for co-detection of human choline kinase α1 and α2 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cun See Too

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Choline kinase is the first enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway that synthesizes phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. In humans, choline kinase exists as three isoforms (CKα1, α2, and β. Specific inhibition of CKα has been reported to selectively kill tumoral cells. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against CKα used in previous studies to detect the level of this isozyme in different cellular or biochemical contexts were able to detect either the α1 or the α2 isoform. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, an antiserum against CKα was produced by immunizing rabbits with denatured, purified recombinant CKα2 full-length protein. This antiserum was highly specific for CKα when tested with extracts from different cell lines, and there was no cross reactivity with purified CKβ and other related proteins like human ethanolamine kinases (EK and yeast choline or ethanolamine kinases. The antiserum simultaneously detected both CKα1 and α2 isoforms in MCF-7 and HepG2 cell extracts, but not in HeLa, HCT-116, and mouse embryonic stem cell extracts. Subsequent protein dot blot assay of total CKα in a human normal/tumor protein array of 30 tissue samples by using the antiserum showed that CKα was not overexpressed in all tumor tissues when compared to their normal counterparts. Most striking differences between tumor and normal CKα expression levels were observed in kidney (11-fold higher in tumor and liver (15-fold lower in tumor samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Apart from its high sensitivity and specificity, the antiserum produced in this work, which does not require further purification, has the advantage of co-detecting both α1 and α2 isoforms in cell extracts for direct comparison of their expression levels.

  19. Biochemical characterisation of the initial steps of the kennedy pathway in Trypanosoma brucei - the ethanolamine and choline kinases

    OpenAIRE

    GIBELLINI, FEDERICA; Hunter, William N.; Smith, Terry K.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ethanolamine (EtN) and choline (Cho) are major components of the trypanosome membrane phospholipids, in the form of phosphatidylethanolamine (GPEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (GPCho). Ethanolamine is also found as an integral component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is required for membrane attachment of cell surface proteins, most notably the variant surface glycoproteins. The de novo synthesis of GPEth and GPCho starts with the generation of phosphoe...

  20. Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, R.; Raïch, J.; Aguilar, J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Spiroperidol binding (dopamine D2 receptors) and quinuclidinyl benzilate binding (muscarinic receptors) in striata of 19-month old mice was analyzed for animals that had received chronic administration of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) incorporated into the chow consumed (100 or 500 mg kg-1 added per day) for the 7 months before they were killed. 2. Treated animals displayed an increase in the dopamine receptor densities of 11% for those receiving 100 mg kg-1 and 18% for those ...

  1. CHKA and PCYT1A gene polymorphisms, choline intake and spina bifida risk in a California population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammer Edward J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural tube defects (NTDs are among the most common of all human congenital defects. Over the last two decades, accumulating evidence has made it clear that periconceptional intake of folic acid can significantly reduce the risk of NTD affected pregnancies. This beneficial effect may be related to the ability of folates to donate methyl groups for critical physiological reactions. Choline is an essential nutrient and it is also a methyl donor critical for the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and methyl metabolism. Perturbations in choline metabolism in vitro have been shown to induce NTDs in mouse embryos. Methods This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in human choline kinase A (CHKA gene and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylytransferase (PCYT1A gene were risk factors for spina bifida. Fluorescence-based allelic discrimination analysis was performed for the two CHKA intronic SNPs hCV1562388 (rs7928739 and hCV1562393, and PCYT1A SNP rs939883 and rs3772109. The study population consisted of 103 infants with spina bifida and 338 non-malformed control infants who were born in selected California counties in the period 1989–1991. Results The CHKA SNP hCV1562388 genotypes with at least one C allele were associated with a reduced risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.38–0.94. The PCYT1A SNP rs939883 genotype AA was associated with a twofold increased risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.97–3.67. These gene-only effects were not substantially modified by analytic consideration to maternal periconceptional choline intake. Conclusion Our analyses showed genotype effects of CHKA and PCYT1A genes on spina bifida risk, but did not show evidence of gene-nutrient interactions. The underlying mechanisms are yet to be resolved.

  2. Diagnostic value of combining 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this prospective study, our goal was to emphasize the diagnostic value of combining 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Thirty-three consecutive patients were enrolled. All patients were suspected to have HCC based on CT and/or MRI imaging. A final diagnosis was obtained by histopathological examination or by imaging alone according to American Association for the Study of Liver Disease criteria. All patients underwent PET/CT with both tracers within a median of 5 days. All lesions showing higher tracer uptake than normal liver were considered positive for HCC. We examined how tracer uptake was related to biological (serum α-fetoprotein levels) and pathological (differentiation status, peritumoral capsule and vascular invasion) prognostic markers of HCC, as well as clinical observations at 6 months (recurrence and death). Twenty-eight HCC, four cholangiocarcinomas and one adenoma were diagnosed. In the HCC patients, the sensitivity of 11C-choline, 18F-FDG and combined 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of HCC was 75 %, 36 % and 93 %, respectively. Serum α-fetoprotein levels >200 ng/ml were more frequent among patients with 18F-FDG-positive lesions than those with 18F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). Early recurrence (n=2) or early death (n=5) occurred more frequently in patients with 18F-FDG-positive lesions than in those with 18F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). The combined use of 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT detected HCC with high sensitivity. This approach appears to be of potential prognostic value and may facilitate the selection of patients for surgical resection or liver transplantation. (orig.)

  3. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. PMID:25453770

  4. Solubilities of carbon dioxide in the eutectic mixture of levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) and choline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubilities of carbon dioxide in six renewable deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been reported. • The experimental data were well correlated by Henry’s law. • The dissolution Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes were derived. • The absorption capacities of CO2 in present DESs and other DESs as well as several ionic liquids were compared. - Abstract: The solubilities of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the renewable deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) and choline chloride were determined at temperatures (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and pressures up to 600.0 kPa using an isochoric saturation method. The mole ratios of levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) to choline chloride were fixed at 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1. Standard Gibbs free energy, dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy were calculated from Henry’s law constant of CO2 in the DESs. Results indicated that levulinic acid based DESs are more effective to capture CO2 than furfuryl alcohol based ones. The solubility of CO2 in the DESs increased with increasing mole ratio of levulinic acid (or furfuryl alcohol) to choline chloride as well as pressure and decreased with increasing temperature

  5. INS, DFT and temperature dependent IR investigations of dynamical properties of low temperature phase of choline chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlukojć, A., E-mail: andrzej@jinr.ru [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16 str., 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Hetmańczyk, Ł. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3 str., 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Choline chloride was investigated by INS and IR. • DFT calculations for solids state model were performed. • Full vibrational analysis was performed. • Activation energy for the CH{sub 3} group reorientation was obtained. - Abstract: Within the framework of the research the inelastic neutron scattering and temperature dependent infra-red spectroscopy investigations of the low temperature phase of choline chloride were performed. The infra-red spectra in wavenumber region 4000–80 cm{sup −1} and in a temperature range 9–300 K were collected. The density functional theory calculations with the periodic boundary conditions for determination and description of the normal modes in the vibration spectra of choline chloride were applied. Bands assigned to the CH{sub 3} torsional vibration were observed at 288 and 249 cm{sup −1}. From the analysis of the temperature dependence of the full-width-at-half-maximum the activation energy for CH{sub 3} group reorientation is found to be equal to 1.6 ± 0.2 kcal/mol.

  6. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Choline-induced selective fluorescence quenching of acetylcholinesterase conjugated Au@BSA clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Meegle S; Baksi, Ananya; Pradeep, T; Joseph, Kuruvilla

    2016-07-15

    We have developed a highly selective sensitive fluorescent detection of acetylcholine (ACh) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) protected atomically precise clusters of gold. The gold quantum clusters (AuQC@BSA) synthesized using bovine serum albumin and conjugated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme specific for acetylcholine, resulting in AuQC@BSA-AChE. The enzyme, AChE hydrolyzes acetylcholine (ACh) to choline (Ch) which in turn interacts with AuQC@BSA-AChE and quenches its fluorescence, enabling sensing. We have carried out the real time monitoring of the hydrolysis of ACh using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) to find out the mechanism of fluorescent quenching. The validity of present method for determination of concentration of acetylcholine in real system such as blood was demonstrated. Further, the sensor, AuQC@BSA-AChE can be easily coated on paper and an efficient and cheap sensor can be developed and detection limit for ACh is found to be 10nM. The fluorescent intensity of AuQC@BSA-AChE is sensitive towards acetylcholine in range of 10nM to 6.4µM. This suggests that AuQC@BSA-AChE has an excellent potential to be used for diagnosis of various neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungha Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT improve cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level.

  9. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Kwang Sei; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Dongsun; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs) overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) improve cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh) level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing) time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level. PMID:27087745

  10. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  11. Interaction Mechanism Insights on the Solvation of Fullerene B(80)with Choline-based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-24

    Beyond carbon allotropes, other nanostructures such as fullerene B80 are attracting a growing interest due to their potential applications. The use of new materials based on fullerene B80 is still in a premature stage; however many of these applications would require the use of B80 in solution. This paper reports an unprecedented density functional theory (DFT) analysis on the interaction mechanism between B80 and two choline-based ionic liquids as a first insight for the fullerene B80 solvation by ionic liquids. The analysis of properties such as binding energies, charge distributions or intermolecular interactions shed light on the main features, which should govern interaction between ionic liquids and fullerene B80. In addition, the optimization of systems composed by six ionic pairs around a fullerene B80 has supplied some information about the first solvation shell at the molecular level. As a summary, this paper provides the first insights in the rational design of ionic liquids with suitable properties for the solvation of B80.

  12. Initial prostate cancer diagnosis and disease staging--the role of choline-PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Paola; Picchio, Maria

    2015-09-01

    An early and correct diagnosis together with accurate staging of prostate cancer is necessary in order to plan the most appropriate treatment strategy. Morphological imaging modalities such as transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI can have some limitations regarding their accuracy for primary diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer; for instance, they have limited specificity in differentiating cancer from benign prostatic conditions and, by using size as the only criterion to characterize lymph node metastases, they might not be accurate enough for tumour characterization. In this scenario, PET-CT with (11)C-labelled or (18)F-labelled choline derivatives provides morphological and functional characterization and could overcome the limitations of the conventional imaging techniques. PET-CT is one of the most investigated molecular imaging modalities for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. Currently, the main investigations on the role of PET-CT in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer have been performed on a retrospective basis and this type of analysis might be one of the main reasons why different results regarding its diagnostic accuracy have been reported.

  13. Electrolysis of solid copper oxide to copper in Choline chloride-EG eutectic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical deoxygenation of porous CuO pellet to prepare copper was investigated in the 33.3-66.7 mol% Choline chloride (ChCl)-EG eutectic melt at 353 K. Cyclic voltammetry of the Pt-powder cavity microelectrode loaded with CuO powder exhibited that the solid CuO can be electrochemically reduced in solid state in the eutectic melt. Constant-voltage (2.0 to 2.4 V) electrolysis, with an assembled cathode of a sintered porous CuO pellet and a graphite anode, that performed in the eutectic melt demonstrated the conversion process of oxide-to metal as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction spectra. A mechanism for this reduction process has been proposed on the basis of the in situ formation of numerous gas at the cathode, emphasizing that the oxidation of cathodically generated O2− ions occurred nearby along with the copper electroreduction, in which the new formed metal was served as a temporary anode, oxygen was generated at the interface of the reduced copper and electrolyte inside the cathode

  14. Enzyme-Catalyzed Henry Reaction in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-catalyzed Henry reaction was realized using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a reaction medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger (lipase AS) showed excellent catalytic activity toward the substrates aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane in choline chloride:glycerol at a molar ratio of 1:2. Addition of 30 vol% water to DES further improved the lipase activity and inhibited DES-catalyzed transformation. A final yield of 92.2% for the lipase AS-catalyzed Henry reaction was achieved under optimized reaction conditions in only 4 h. In addition, the lipase AS activity was improved by approximately 3-fold in a DES-water mixture compared with that in pure water, which produced a final yield of only 33.4%. Structural studies with fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the established strong hydrogen bonds between DES and water may be the main driving force that affects the spatial conformation of the enzyme, leading to a change in lipase activity. The methodology was also extended to the aza-Henry reaction, which easily occurred in contrast to that in pure water. The enantioselectivity of both Henry and aza-Henry reactions was not found. However, the results are still remarkable, as we report the first use of DES as a reaction medium in a lipase-catalyzed Henry reaction. PMID:26437947

  15. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  16. Positive correlations between cerebral choline and renal dysfunction in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakahama, Hajime; Nakamura, Satoko; Inenaga, Takashi; Kawano, Yuhei [National Cardiovascular Center, Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Hattori, Noriaki; Inoue, Noriko; Sawada, Tohru [BF Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Kohno, Shigeru [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    Cerebral metabolism in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients has not been fully evaluated. This study examined cerebral metabolites in CRF, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Subjects comprised 19 CRF patients and 21 healthy volunteers. Spectra were acquired from voxels of interest positioned in the parietal gray and white matter, and concentrations of the following cerebral metabolites were measured: N-acetyl group (NA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-containing compounds (Cho), myo-inositol and glutamate + glutamine. Among the 19 CRF patients, 9 who were started on hemodialysis (HD) underwent careful follow-up. Proton MRS was performed before and about 2 weeks after starting HD. In six patients in whom follow-up was possible, a third MRS was performed after about 18 months. The NA/Cr ratio was not significantly changed in CRF. However, elevations in the Cho/Cr ratio were found in both gray and white matter compared with controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of positive correlations between the Cho/Cr ratio in both regions and serum osmotic pressure. (orig.)

  17. Novel ligands of Choline Acetyltransferase designed by in silico molecular docking, hologram QSAR and lead optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Långström, Bengt; Darreh-Shori, Taher

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of α-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 ~ 88 nM). In contrast, α-NETA exhibited an IC50 of ~30 μM for the ACh-degrading cholinesterases. In conclusion, the overall results may provide useful insight for discovering novel ChAT ligands and potential positron emission tomography tracers as in vivo functional biomarkers of the health of central cholinergic system in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27507101

  18. [{sup 11}C]Choline PET/CT detection of bone metastases in patients with PSA progression after primary treatment for prostate cancer: comparison with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picchio, Maria [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Crivellaro, Cinzia [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Fallanca, Federico; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Messa, Cristina [National Research Council (IBFM-CNR), Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in comparison with bone scintigraphy (BS) in detecting bone metastases (BM) of patients with biochemical progression after radical treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-eight consecutive patients with biochemical progression of PCa (mean prostate-specific antigen 21.1 ng/ml, range 0.2-500.0 ng/ml) referred for both [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS for restaging purposes were retrospectively analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS was assessed by using morphological imaging and/or follow-up as standards of reference. As equivocal findings were found, the accuracy analysis was performed twice, once including them as positive and once as negative. A separate analysis was also performed in hormone-resistant patients and data compared with those of patients who did not receive anti-androgenic treatment. Equivocal findings occurred in 1 of 78 (1%) cases in [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and in 21 of 78 (27%) cases in BS. Depending on their attribution as either positive or negative, the ranges of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 89-89%, 98-100%, 96-100%, 94-96% and 95-96%, respectively. For BS they were 100-70%, 75-100%, 68-100%, 100-86% and 83-90%, respectively. Concordant findings between [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and BS occurred in 55 of 78 (71%) cases. The accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT did not significantly (p = 0.30) differ between hormone-resistant patients (97%) and those who did not receive anti-androgenic treatment (95%). In clinical practice, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT may not replace BS because of its lower sensitivity. However, for its high specificity, [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT positive findings may accurately predict the presence of BM. Equivocal findings are more frequent in BS than [{sup 11}C]choline PET

  19. [11C]choline uptake with PET/CT for the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer: relation to PSA levels, tumour stage and anti-androgenic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with [11C]choline for the detection of prostate cancer is not well established. We assessed the dependence of [11C]choline maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in the prostate gland on cell malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score, tumour stage and anti-androgenic hormonal therapy. In this prospective study, PET/CT with [11C]choline was performed in 19 prostate cancer patients who subsequently underwent prostatectomy with histologic sextant analysis (group A) and in six prostate cancer patients before and after anti-androgenic hormonal therapy (bicalutamide 150 mg/day; median treatment of 4 months; group B). In group A, based on a sextant analysis with a [11C]choline SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 (as derived from a receiver-operating characteristic analysis), PET/CT showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 72, 43, 64, 51 and 60%, respectively. In the patient-by-patient analysis, no significant correlation was detected between SUVmax and PSA levels, Gleason score or pathological stage. On the contrary, a significant (P max and anti-androgenic therapy both in univariate (r 2 = 0.24) and multivariate (r 2 = 0.48) analyses. Prostate [11C]choline uptake after bicalutamide therapy significantly (P 11C]choline is not suitable for the initial diagnosis and local staging of prostate cancer. PET/CT with [11C]choline could be used to monitor the response to anti-androgenic therapy. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of {sup 18}F-FACBC and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with radically treated prostate cancer and biochemical relapse: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Boschi, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Urology, Bologna (Italy); Pettinato, Cinzia [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Medical Physics, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    We assessed the rate of detection rate of recurrent prostate cancer by PET/CT using anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC, a new synthetic amino acid, in comparison to that using {sup 11}C-choline as part of an ongoing prospective single-centre study. Included in the study were 15 patients with biochemical relapse after initial radical treatment of prostate cancer. All the patients underwent anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT within a 7-day period. The detection rates using the two compounds were determined and the target-to-background ratios (TBR) of each lesion are reported. No adverse reactions to anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT were noted. On a patient basis, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 3 patients and negative in 12 (detection rate 20 %), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT was positive in 6 patients and negative in 9 (detection rate 40 %). On a lesion basis, {sup 11}C-choline detected 6 lesions (4 bone, 1 lymph node, 1 local relapse), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC detected 11 lesions (5 bone, 5 lymph node, 1 local relapse). All {sup 11}C-choline-positive lesions were also identified by anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT. The TBR of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC was greater than that of {sup 11}C-choline in 8/11 lesions, as were image quality and contrast. Our preliminary results indicate that anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC may be superior to {sup 11}C-choline for the identification of disease recurrence in the setting of biochemical failure. Further studies are required to assess efficacy of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC in a larger series of prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  1. Maternal choline modifies fetal liver copper, gene expression, DNA methylation, and neonatal growth in the tx-j mouse model of Wilson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Islam, Mohammad S; Keen, Carl L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W; Halsted, Charles H; LaSalle, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diet can affect fetal gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Wilson disease (WD), which is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in ATP7B encoding a biliary copper transporter, is characterized by excessive hepatic copper accumulation, but variability in disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that gestational supply of dietary methyl groups modifies fetal DNA methylation and expression of genes involved in methionine and lipid metabolism that are impaired prior to hepatic steatosis in the toxic milk (tx-j) mouse model of WD. Female C3H control and tx-j mice were fed control (choline 8 mmol/Kg of diet) or choline-supplemented (choline 36 mmol/Kg of diet) diets for 2 weeks throughout mating and pregnancy to gestation day 17. A second group of C3H females, half of which were used to cross foster tx-j pups, received the same diet treatments that extended during lactation to 21 d postpartum. Compared with C3H, fetal tx-j livers had significantly lower copper concentrations and significantly lower transcript levels of Cyclin D1 and genes related to methionine and lipid metabolism. Maternal choline supplementation prevented the transcriptional deficits in fetal tx-j liver for multiple genes related to cell growth and metabolism. Global DNA methylation was increased by 17% in tx-j fetal livers after maternal choline treatment (P < 0.05). Maternal dietary choline rescued the lower body weight of 21 d tx-j mice. Our results suggest that WD pathogenesis is modified by maternal in utero factors, including dietary choline. PMID:24220304

  2. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C] acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2-18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, [18F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been clarified. Methods: The uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C]acetate and [18F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined. Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake five to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10-fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reflecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These findings may help to explain PET imaging findings of the diverse responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed subsequent to antiandrogen therapy

  3. Coimmobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase on gold nanoparticles: stoichiometry, activity, and reaction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighron, Jacqueline D; Åkesson, Sebastian; Cans, Ann-Sofie

    2014-09-30

    Hybrid structures constructed from biomolecules and nanomaterials have been used in catalysis and bioanalytical applications. In the design of many chemically selective biosensors, enzymes conjugated to nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes have been used in functionalization of the sensor surface for enhancement of the biosensor functionality and sensitivity. The conditions for the enzyme:nanomaterial conjugation should be optimized to retain maximal enzyme activity, and biosensor effectiveness. This is important as the tertiary structure of the enzyme is often altered when immobilized and can significantly alter the enzyme catalytic activity. Here we show that characterization of a two-enzyme:gold nanoparticle (AuNP) conjugate stoichiometry and activity can be used to gauge the effectiveness of acetylcholine detection by acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO). This was done by using an analytical approach to quantify the number of enzymes bound per AuNP and monitor the retained enzyme activity after the enzyme:AuNP synthesis. We found that the amount of immobilized enzymes differs from what would be expected from bulk solution chemistry. This analysis was further used to determine the optimal ratio of AChE:ChO added at synthesis to achieve optimum sequential enzyme activity for the enzyme:AuNP conjugates, and reaction efficiencies of greater than 70%. We here show that the knowledge of the conjugate stoichiometry and retained enzyme activity can lead to more efficient detection of acetylcholine by controlling the AChE:ChO ratio bound to the gold nanoparticle material. This approach of optimizing enzyme gold nanoparticle conjugates should be of great importance in the architecture of enzyme nanoparticle based biosensors to retain optimal sensor sensitivity. PMID:25167196

  4. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  5. Changes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline after mechanical ventilation in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-dong; ZHOU Dao-yang; YANG Yun-mei; XU Zhe-rong; SHEN Mei-ya; SU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the levels of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) in the sputum of the patients with acute cerebral injury without primary pulmonary injury after mechanical ventilation treatment.Methods: DPPC levels in sputum of 35 patients with acute cerebral injury but without pulmonary injury were detected with high performance liquid chromatography at the beginning of ventilation and 16-20 days, 21-40 days,and 41-60 days after ventilation, respectively.Results: There was no significant difference of the DPPC levels between 16-20 days after ventilation (3.36 ±0.49) and at the beginning of ventilation ( 3.37 ± 0.58 )(P>0.05). The mean levels of DPPC decreased significantly at 21-40 days (2.87 mg/ml ±0.26 mg/ml, P <0.05) and 41-60 days (1.93 mg/ml ±0.21 mg/ml, P <0.01) after ventilation compared with that at the beginning of ventilation. At the same period, the peak inspiratory pressure and the mean pressure of airway increas ed significantly, whereas the static compliance and the partial pressure of oxygen in artery decreased significantly. Among the 25 patients who received ventilation for more than 20days, 8 (32%) had slightly-decreased partial pressure of oxygen in artery compared with that at the beginning of ventilation.Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation can decrease the DPPC levels, decrease the lung compliance and increase the airway pressure, even impair the oxygenation function in patients with acute cerebral injury. Abnormal DPPC is one of the major causes of ventilator-associated lung injury.

  6. Choline Kinase Alpha as an Androgen Receptor Chaperone and Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Mohammad; Massie, Charles E.; Orafidiya, Folake; Pértega-Gomes, Nelma; Warren, Anne Y.; Esmaeili, Mohsen; Selth, Luke A.; Zecchini, Heather I.; Luko, Katarina; Qureshi, Arham; Baridi, Ajoeb; Menon, Suraj; Madhu, Basetti; Escriu, Carlos; Lyons, Scott; Vowler, Sarah L.; Zecchini, Vincent R.; Shaw, Greg; Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Russell, Roslin; Mohammed, Hisham; Stefanos, Niki; Lynch, Andy G.; Grigorenko, Elena; D’Santos, Clive; Taylor, Chris; Lamb, Alastair; Sriranjan, Rouchelle; Yang, Jiali; Stark, Rory; Dehm, Scott M.; Rennie, Paul S.; Carroll, Jason S.; Griffiths, John R.; Tavaré, Simon; Mills, Ian G.; McEwan, Iain J.; Baniahmad, Aria; Tilley, Wayne D.; Neal, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major drug target in prostate cancer (PCa). We profiled the AR-regulated kinome to identify clinically relevant and druggable effectors of AR signaling. Methods: Using genome-wide approaches, we interrogated all AR regulated kinases. Among these, choline kinase alpha (CHKA) expression was evaluated in benign (n = 195), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (n = 153) and prostate cancer (PCa) lesions (n = 359). We interrogated how CHKA regulates AR signaling using biochemical assays and investigated androgen regulation of CHKA expression in men with PCa, both untreated (n = 20) and treated with an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor degarelix (n = 27). We studied the effect of CHKA inhibition on the PCa transcriptome using RNA sequencing and tested the effect of CHKA inhibition on cell growth, clonogenic survival and invasion. Tumor xenografts (n = 6 per group) were generated in mice using genetically engineered prostate cancer cells with inducible CHKA knockdown. Data were analyzed with χ2 tests, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier methods. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: CHKA expression was shown to be androgen regulated in cell lines, xenografts, and human tissue (log fold change from 6.75 to 6.59, P = .002) and was positively associated with tumor stage. CHKA binds directly to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR, enhancing its stability. As such, CHKA is the first kinase identified as an AR chaperone. Inhibition of CHKA repressed the AR transcriptional program including pathways enriched for regulation of protein folding, decreased AR protein levels, and inhibited the growth of PCa cell lines, human PCa explants, and tumor xenografts. Conclusions: CHKA can act as an AR chaperone, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence for kinases as molecular chaperones, making CHKA both a marker of tumor progression and a potential therapeutic target for PCa. PMID:26657335

  7. PSA doubling time for prediction of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT findings in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Garcia Parra, Rita [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); Picchio, Maria; Gianolli, Luigi [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Scattoni, Vincenzo; Briganti, Alberto; Montorsi, Francesco [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Urology, Milan (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center for Molecular Bioimaging, Milan (Italy); National Research Council, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p < 0.05) predictors of positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT <3 months. The percentage of patients who displayed pathological [{sup 11}C]choline

  8. 11C-choline vs. 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Valentina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Myeloma (MM is a B cell neoplasm causing lytic or osteopenic bone abnormalities. Whole body skeletal survey (WBSS, Magnetic resonance (MR and 18F-FDG PET/CT are imaging techniques routinely used for the evaluation of bone involvement in MM patients. Aim As MM bone lesions may present low 18F-FDG uptake; the aim of this study was to assess the possible added value and limitations of 11C-Choline to that of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients affected with MM. Methods Ten patients affected with MM underwent a standard 11C-Choline PET/CT and an 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The results of the two scans were compared in terms of number, sites and SUVmax of lesions. Results Four patients (40% had a negative concordant 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Two patients (20% had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans that identified the same number and sites of bone lesions. The remaining four patients (40% had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, but the two exams identified different number of lesions. Choline showed a mean SUVmax of 5 while FDG showed a mean SUVmax of 3.8 (P = 0.042. Overall, 11C-Choline PET/CT scans detected 37 bone lesions and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected 22 bone lesions but the difference was not significant (P = 0.8. Conclusion According to these preliminary data, 11C-Choline PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of bony myelomatous lesions. If these data are confirmed in larger series of patients, 11C-Choline may be considered a more appropriate functional imaging in association with MRI for MM bone staging.

  9. UTILIZATION OF CHOLINE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS AND DIETARY CHOLINE AVAILABILITY VALUES IN SEVEN COMMON FEED INGREDIENTS FOR JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM,MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼对不同浓度胆碱的利用率及7种常见饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 蒋广震; 刘文斌; 钱妤; 朱杰

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate dietary choline availability values in juvenile blunt snout breamMegalobrama amblycephala, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted with seven common feed ingredients. Choline chloride was fortified to the basal diet that contained 310 g/kg diet from vitamin-free casein and gelatin to formulate four purified diets containing 0, 1030, 1230 and 1430 mg/kg choline, respectively. These four purified diets were used to generate a standard curve to evaluate choline availability in seven diets containing the following common feed ingredients: fish meal (FM), soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), cottonseed meal (CSM), wheat middling (WM), wheat bran (WB) and rice bran (RB). The choline in seven diets was 1230 mg/kg including 1030 mg/kg choline chloride. Three groups ofMegalobrama am-blycephala with initial average weight (3.5±0.1) g were fed randomly with each diet in a flow-through system. Our re-sults indicated that weight gain and liver choline concentration were significantly increased for higher dietary choline levels (P 0.05);在同一胆碱水平(1230 mg/kg)的条件下,原料组的增长率均高于对照组;团头鲂幼鱼对鱼粉、豆粕、菜粕、棉粕、次粉、麸皮和米糠的胆碱生物学效价分别为87.42%、112.54%、76.84%、98.00%、95.91%、43.88%、91.5%。分析可知,团头鲂生产饲料中尚需要额外添加氯化胆碱方能满足其对胆碱的需要,实际添加量与饲料所使用的原料有关。

  10. Cerebrovascular and blood-brain barrier morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rats: effect of treatment with choline alphoscerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Amenta, Francesco; Tomassoni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic precursors increasing choline availability and acetylcholine synthesis/release may represent a therapeutic approach for countering cognitive impairment occurring in adult-onset dementia disorders. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-gliceryl-phosphoryl-choline, GPC) is among cholinergic precursors the most effective in enhancing acetylcholine biosynthesis and release in animal models. This study was designed to assess if a long-term treatment with GPC modify cerebrovascular components [perivascular astrocytes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and microvessels] and endothelial inflammatory markers expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) used as a model of brain vascular injury. Male SHR aged 32 weeks and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated for 4 weeks with GPC (150 mg/kg/day) or a vehicle. Intracerebral arteries of different brain areas, perivascular astrocytes, BBB and endothelial inflammatory markers were assessed by quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. No significant changes in the size of perivascular astrocytes were observed in SHR versus normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, whereas the expression of the BBB marker aquaporin-4 increased in SHR. This phenomenon was countered by GPC treatment. On the contrary, GPC has no vasodilator effect on brain micro-vessels. Endothelial markers and vascular adhesion molecules expression were not homogeneously affected by hypertension and GPC treatment in intracerebral vessels. The observation that treatment with GPC reversed BBB changes and countered to some extent micro-vessels changes occurring in SHR could explain data of clinical trials reporting an improvement of cognitive function in subjects suffering from cerebrovascular disorders and treated with GPC. These preclinical data suggest that the compound could have a cerebrovascular protective effect deserving a further characterization. PMID:25714975

  11. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  12. Targeting choline phospholipid metabolism: GDPD5 and GDPD6 silencing decrease breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maria Dung; Cheng, Menglin; Rizwan, Asif; Jiang, Lu; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Bathen, Tone F; Glunde, Kristine

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is associated with oncogenesis and tumor progression. We have investigated the effects of targeting choline phospholipid metabolism by silencing two glycerophosphodiesterase genes, GDPD5 and GDPD6, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Treatment with GDPD5 and GDPD6 siRNA resulted in significant increases in glycerophosphocholine (GPC) levels, and no change in the levels of phosphocholine or free choline, which further supports their role as GPC-specific regulators in breast cancer. The GPC levels were increased more than twofold during GDPD6 silencing, and marginally increased during GDPD5 silencing. DNA laddering was negative in both cell lines treated with GDPD5 and GDPD6 siRNA, indicating absence of apoptosis. Treatment with GDPD5 siRNA caused a decrease in cell viability in MCF-7 cells, while GDPD6 siRNA treatment had no effect on cell viability in either cell line. Decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with GDPD5 or GDPD6 siRNA, where a more pronounced reduction in cell migration and invasion was observed under GDPD5 siRNA treatment as compared with GDPD6 siRNA treatment. In conclusion, GDPD6 silencing increased the GPC levels in breast cancer cells more profoundly than GDPD5 silencing, while the effects of GDPD5 silencing on cell viability/proliferation, migration, and invasion were more severe than those of GDPD6 silencing. Our results suggest that silencing GDPD5 and GDPD6 alone or in combination may have potential as a new molecular targeting strategy for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27356959

  13. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using 1H MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo 1H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  14. Differential role of human choline kinase α and β enzymes in lipid metabolism: Implications in cancer onset and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Ortega, David; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Ramos, Maria Angeles; Valdés Mora, Fátima; Barderas, Maria Gonzalez; Sarmentero Estrada, Jacinto; Lacal, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Background The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK) is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of 1phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane. ChoK family of proteins is composed by ChoKα and ChoKβ isoforms, the first one with two different variants of splicing. Recently ChoKα has been implicated in the carcinogenic process, since it is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. Howev...

  15. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for a putative choline co-transporter from Limulus CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cao, Z; Newkirk, R F; Ivy, M T; Townsel, J G

    2001-05-01

    It is well documented that the sodium dependent, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high affinity choline co-transporter is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is essential to cholinergic transmission. Until recently this transporter had eluded cloning. Okuda et al. (2000. Nature Neurosci. 3, 120-125) recently reported the successful cloning of the choline co-transporter in Caenorhabditis elegans (CHO-1) and rat (CHT1). We report herein the cloning of the choline co-transporter in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Through the use of a series of degenerate primers selected from consensus sequences of CHO-1 and CHT1, we generated two probes that were used to search a Limulus cDNA library produced from central nervous system (CNS) tissue. The full length nucleotide sequence of the Limulus homolog consists of 3368 bp which includes an open reading frame (ORF) that predicts a protein of 579 amino acids and two non-translation regions (NTR), one at the 3' end and the other at the 5' end. The amino acid sequence has 46% identity with rat CHT1 and 50% identity with both CHO-1 in C. elegans and the recently cloned human co-transporter (hCHT; Apparsundaram et al., 2000. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276, 862-867; Okuda and Haga, 2000. FEBS Lett. 484, 92-97). Hydropathy plot analysis predicts the Limulus choline co-transporter (LChCoT) to have thirteen transmembrane domains (TMD), with the N-terminus oriented extracellularly and the C-terminus oriented intracellularly. Northern blot analyses using cDNA probes designed from LChCoT cDNA sequences revealed its distribution specifically in central nervous system structures. On the other hand it was not found in non-nervous tissues. The successful cloning of LChCoT, which was shown to be a member of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter family (SLGT), should prove useful in the determination of its physiological regulation, including its intracellular trafficking. PMID:11368908

  16. Gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Oier Etxebeste; Erika Herrero-García; Cortese, Marc S.; Aitor Garzia; Elixabet Oiartzabal-Arano; Vivian de los Ríos; Unai Ugalde; Espeso, Eduardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by Upstream Developmental Activators (UDAs) that include the bZIP-type Transcription Factor (TF) FlbB. A 2D-PAGE/MS-MS-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of FlbB identified 18 candidates. Most candidates belong to GO term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. Among these, we focused on GmcA, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a Δ...

  17. In vitro assessment of choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) as a vehicle for recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Foureau, David M.; Vrikkis, Regina M.; Jones, Chase P.; Weaver, Katherine D.; Douglas R MacFarlane; Salo, Jonathan C.; McKillop, Iain H; Elliott, Gloria D.

    2012-01-01

    Choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) is an ionic liquid reported to increase thermal stability of model proteins. The current work investigated CDHP effect on structural integrity and biological activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), a therapeutic protein used for treating advanced melanoma. In vitro CDHP biocompatibility was also evaluated using primary cell cultures, or B16-F10 cell line, chronically exposed to the ionic liquid. Formulation of rhIL-2 in an aqueous 680mM CDHP p...

  18. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, UO Medicina Nucleare PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo; Graziani, Tiziano; Renzi, Riccardo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Borghesi, Marco; Brunocilla, Eugenio [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Di Tullio, Piergiorgio; Ardizzoni, Andrea [University of Bologna, Department of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the role of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for evaluating the response to treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with docetaxel in comparison with PSA response. Inclusion criteria were (a) proven mCRPC, (b) docetaxel as first line of chemotherapy (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} + prednisone 5 mg), and (c) {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and PSA values assessed before and after docetaxel administration. A total of 61 patients were retrospectively enrolled (mean age 68.9 years, range 57 - 84 years). {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed at baseline before docetaxel treatment (PET1) and after the end of treatment (PET2). PSA values were measured before treatment (PSA1) and after treatment (PSA2). PET2 was reported as complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD). Progressive disease (PD) was considered if a new lesion was seen. PSA trend was calculated from the change in absolute values between PSA1 and PSA2. A decrease of ≥50 % between PSA1 and PSA2 was considered a PSA response. Clinical, radiological and laboratory follow-up ranged from 6 to 53 months (mean 13.5 months). Of the 61 patients, 40 (65.5 %) showed PD on PET2, 13 (21.3 %) showed SD, 2 (3.4 %) showed PR, and 6 (9.8 %) showed CR. An increasing PSA trend was seen in 29 patients (47.5 %) and a decreasing PSA trend in 32 patients (52.5 %). A PSA response of ≥50 % was seen in 25 patients (41 %). Radiological PD was seen in 23 of the 29 patients (79.3 %) with an increasing PSA trend, in 16 of the 32 patients (50 %) with a decreasing PSA trend, and in 11 of the 25 patients (44 %) with a PSA response of ≥50 %. In the multivariate statistical analysis, the presence of more than ten bone lesions detected on PET1 was significantly associated with an increased probability of PD on PET2. No association was observed between PSA level and PD on PET2. Our results suggest that an increasing PSA trend measured after docetaxel treatment could be

  19. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-01

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25240200

  20. Evidence of self-aggregation of cationic surfactants in a choline chloride+glycerol deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mahi; Singh, Ranjan K; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-08-24

    Based on fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, surface tension, small-angle X-ray/dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of cationic surfactants of the n-alkyltrimethylammonium family within an archetypical deep eutectic solvent comprised of a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and glycerol. Estimated thermodynamic parameters suggest this self-aggregation process to be less entropically driven than that in water. These novel water-free self-assemblies might serve as dynamic soft templates to direct the growth of size- or shape-tailored nanoparticles within water-restricted media. PMID:26080073

  1. Estrogen intervention in microvascular morphology and choline acetyltransferase expression in rat hippocampal neurons in chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Yang; Hongwei Yan; Guomin Zhang; Zhihong Chen; Jingfeng Xue

    2011-01-01

    We observed dynamic changes in microvessels and a protective effect of estrogen on chronic cerebral ischemia ovariectomized rat models established through permanent occlusion of bilateral carotid arteries at 7, 14 and 21 days. The results revealed that estrogen improved microvasculature in the hippocampus of chronic cerebral ischemic rats, upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression, downregulated Bax protein expression, increased choline acetyltransferase expression in hippocampal cholinergic neurons, and suppressed hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. These findings indicate that estrogen can protect hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction and quantitative LC/ID-MS measurement of total choline and free carnitine in food standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melissa M; Sander, Lane C

    2012-01-01

    The Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals of AOAC INTERNATIONAL has declared both choline and carnitine to be priority nutrients in infant formulas, and ongoing efforts exist to develop or improve Official Methods of Analysis for these nutrients. As a result, matrix-based certified reference materials are needed with assigned values for these compounds. In this work, traditional acid and enzymatic hydrolysis procedures were compared to microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis, and conditions optimized to provide complete sample hydrolysis and recovery of total choline from four food standard reference materials (SRMs): whole milk powder, whole egg powder, infant formula, and soy flour. The extracts were analyzed using LC on a mixed-mode column (simultaneous RP and ion exchange) with isotope dilution-MS detection to achieve simultaneous quantification of total choline and free carnitine. Total choline has been determined in these four food matrixes with excellent precision (0.65 to 2.60%) and accuracy, as confirmed by use of SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula as a control material. Free carnitine has been determined in two of these food matrixes with excellent precision (0.69 to 2.19%) and accuracy, as confirmed by use of SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula as a control material. Limitations in simultaneous determination of total choline and free carnitine resulted from extreme differences in concentration of the two components in egg powder and soy flour (at least three orders of magnitude). Samples required dilution to prevent poor LC peak shape, which caused decreased precision in the determination of low concentrations of free carnitine. Despite this limitation, the described method yields results comparable to current AOAC Official Method 999.14 Choline in Infant Formula, with a decrease of more than 2 h in sample preparation time. PMID:23175983

  3. Variability of Gross Tumor Volume in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the variability of gross tumor volume (GTV using 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT images for nasopharyngeal carcinomas boundary definition. Assessment consisted of inter-observer and inter-modality variation analysis. Four radiation oncologists were invited to manually contour GTV by using PET/CT fusion obtained from a cohort of 12 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and who underwent both 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG scans. Student's paired-sample t-test was performed for analyzing inter-observer and inter-modality variability. Semi-automatic segmentation methods, including thresholding and region growing, were also validated against the manual contouring of the two types of PET images. We observed no significant variation in the results obtained by different oncologists in terms of the same type of PET/CT volumes. Choline fusion volumes were significantly larger than the FDG volumes (p < 0.0001, mean ± SD = 18.21 ± 8.19. While significantly consistent results were obtained between the oncologists and the standard references in Choline volumes compared with those in FDG volumes (p = 0.0025. Simple semi-automatic delineation methods indicated that 11C-Choline PET images could provide better results than FDG volumes (p = 0.076, CI = [-0.29, 0.025]. 11C-Choline PET/CT may be more advantageous in GTV delineation for the radiotherapy of NPC than 18F-FDG. Phantom simulations and clinical trials should be conducted to prove the possible improvement of the treatment outcome.

  4. Effects of gentamicin on choline acetyltransferase expression in paraolivary nucleus neurons of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingguang Zhao; Xiaochen Wang; Yong Liang; Peng Xie; Xuejun Guo; Jinjiang Li; Wei Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that gentamicin can damage the cochlear nerve and acoustic nerve. In recent years, scholars have focused on neuronal changes and neurochemical information in the brainstem primary auditory center. OBJECTIVE: To explore morphological changes of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the paraolivary nucleus (PON) of guinea pigs, and the effect on hearing following gentamicin injection. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping and morphological observational study was performed at Animal Experimental Center of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to August 2007. MATERIALS: A total of 48 healthy guinea pigs were randomly divided into model (n = 40) and control (n = 8) groups. The model group was divided into five subgroups at five time points of I and 3 days, 1, 2, and 3 weeks. METHODS: Guinea pigs in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with gentamicin, and those in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same volume of saline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Auditory brainstem-evoked potential was used to record auditory threshold; distribution and morphological changes of ChAT-positive neurons in the PON were observed with immunohistochemistry; section area and gray value of ChAT-positive neurons were measured with Quantimet 570 image-analyzing system. RESULTS: ChAT-positive neurons were diffusedly distributed in the PON. The majority was composed of large, round cells, with positive neurites that could be clearly observed. Following gentamicin injection, the positive neurons displayed an irregular outline, and their neurites began to shorten and disappear. The gray value increased with prolonged gentamicin administration (P < 0.05). In addition, the somatic cross-sectional area was enlarged in the model group at 1 and 3 days after injection (P < 0.05), whereas cell number significantly decreased at three weeks after injection (P < 0.05). Starting

  5. Choline acetyltransferase expressed by radial neuroglia cells in the development of telencephalon: A validated study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Lingling Ding; Zhisuo Xiao; Yuanyuan Qin; Guibin Li

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholinergic neuron directly participants in human motion, learning and memory and is a target cell for multiple degenerative diseases of central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the mitotic cell is the radial glial cell expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in ventricle zone (VZ) of telencephalon and whether cholinergic neuron is derived from radial glial cell in ventricle zone of telencephalon.DESIGN: Observational study.SETTING: Department of Histology and Embryology, Basic Medical College of Jilin University.MATERIALS: Nine healthy Wistar rats included 6 females and 3 male. Male and female rats were mated routinely, and the day when spermatozoa or vaginal plug were found was regarded as embryonic 0 (E0).Primary monoclonal antibodies ChAT and vimentin were provided respectively by Wuhan Boster Company,and Biogenex Company, USA.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Cell Culture and Immunohistochemistry,Department of Histology and Embryology from march 2002 to January 2003. Firstly, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to confirm the time of generation of cholinergic neuron; secondly,telencephalons of rats at embryonic 14 days (E14) were performed coronary sections, then immunohistochemistry double staining for vimentin (a protein marker of radial neuroglia cell) and ChAT (a protein marker of cholinergic neuron) were used to test whether ChAT was expressed in the radial neuroglia cells.results of immunohistochemistry double staining.RESULTS: It is confirmed using by flow cytometer that embryogenesis time of cholinergic neuron was at E12, and shown the population of cells in VZ of dorsal telencephalon of E14 rat co-expressed vimentin and ChAT through immunohistochemistry double staining. A lot of vimentin-positive cells and ChAT-positive cells respectively were observed in VZ of lateral ganglionic eminence.CONCLUSION: Cholinergic neuron in cerebral cortex is derived from radial glial cells in VZ

  6. Evaluation of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, Naoto; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Gotoh, Momokazu [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Nagoya (Japan); Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Seiichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Abe, Shinji [Nagoya University Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Iwano, Shingo; Ito, Shinji; Naganawa, Shinji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    We conducted a pilot study to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of PET/CT with {sup 11}C-choline (choline PET/CT) for primary diagnosis and staging of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC). Enrolled in this study were 16 patients (9 men, 7 women; age range 51 - 83 years, mean ± SD 69 ± 10.8 years) with suspected UUT-UC. The patients were examined by choline PET/CT, and 13 underwent laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and partial cystectomy. Lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were also performed as necessary in some of the patients. Of the 16 patients, 12 were confirmed to have UUT-UC (7 renal pelvis carcinoma and 5 ureteral carcinoma), 1 had malignant lymphoma (ureter), 1 had IgG4-related disease (ureter), and 2 had other benign diseases (ureter). Of the 16 study patients, 13 showed definite choline uptake in urothelial lesions, and of these, 11 had UUT-UC, 1 had malignant lymphoma, and 1 had IgG4-related disease. Three patients without choline uptake comprised one with UUT-UC and two with benign diseases. Of the 12 patients with UUT-UC, 3 had distant metastases, 2 had metastases only in the regional lymph nodes, and 7 had no metastases. Distant metastases and metastases in the regional lymph nodes showed definite choline uptake. The outcome in patients with UUT-UC, which was evaluated 592 - 1,530 days after surgery, corresponded to the patient classification based on the presence or absence of metastases and locoregional or distant metastases. Choline uptake determined as SUVmax 10 min after administration was significantly higher than at 20 min in metastatic tumours of UUT-UC (p < 0.05), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the SUVmax values at 10 and those at 20 min in primary tumours of UUT-UC. This study suggests that choline PET/CT is a promising tool for the primary diagnosis and staging of UUT-UC. (orig.)

  7. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood. The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer. In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer. The differences in choline metabolite

  8. Investigation of Cytotoxicity of Phosphoryl Choline Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes under a Live Cell Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and various modified SWCNTs have drawn a lot of attention due to their potential applications in biomedical field. Before further moving on to real clinical applications, hydrophobicity and toxicity of SWCNTs should be investigated thoroughly. In this paper, 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC was adopted to modify SWCNTs and phosphoryl choline was grafted onto SWCNTs as small molecule moieties and polymeric chains, which made SWCNTs dispersed stably both in water and in cell culture medium for a long time. Cytotoxicity of pristine and modified SWCNTs were assayed upon successful preparation of the designed modified SWCNT. Furthermore, the internalization of SWCNTs by three cells was investigated using a live cell station under normal culture temperature (37°C and low temperature (4°C. The results showed that the internalization of modified SWCNTs was related to both the active transport and the passive transport. Although the modification with phosphoryl choline remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity of SWCNTs, the results were probably due to other reasons such as the decrease in the ratio of cells which internalized modified SWCNTs since the cells without SWCNTs occupation still exhibited normal states.

  9. A novel biosensor array with a wheel-like pattern for glucose, lactate and choline based on electrochemiluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Xu, Linru; Wu, Suozhu; Su, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging provides a superior approach to achieve array detection because of its ability for ultrasensitive multiplex analysis. In this paper, we reported a novel ECL imaging biosensor array modified with an enzyme/carbon nanotubes/chitosan composite film for the determination of glucose, choline and lactate. The biosensor array was constructed by integrating a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) glass plate with six perforated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) covers. ECL is generated by the electrochemical reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide that is produced by the enzyme catalysed oxidation of different substrates with molecular oxygen, and ECL images were captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The separated electrochemical micro-cells enabled simultaneous assay of six samples at different concentrations. From the established calibration curves, the detection limits were 14 μM for glucose, 40 μM for lactate and 97 μM for choline, respectively. Moreover, multicomponent assays and cross reactivity were also studied, both of which were satisfied for the analysis. This biosensing platform based on ECL imaging shows many distinct advantages, including miniaturization, low cost, and multi-functionalization. We believe that this novel ECL imaging biosensor platform will have potential applications in clinical diagnostics, medicine and food inspection. PMID:25068822

  10. Adsorption of choline benzoate ionic liquid on graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride nanosheets: a DFT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-07-01

    The adsorption of choline benzoate ([CH][BE]) ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of different hexagonal nanosheets has been studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For this, the interaction mechanism, binding energies and electronic structure of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on four types of nanosheets, i.e., graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride, were estimated and compared. The adsorption of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on different nanosheets is mainly featured by van der Waals forces, leading to strong benzoate ion-surface π-stacking. Likewise, there is also an important charge transfer from the anion to the sheet. The electronic structure analysis shows that Si- and Ge-based sheets lead to the largest changes in the HOMO and LUMO levels of choline benzoate. This paper provides new insights into the capability of DFT methods to provide useful information about the adsorption of ionic liquids on nanosheets and how ionic liquid features could be tuned through the adsorption on the suitable nanosheet. PMID:26040507

  11. Novel choline-based ionic liquids as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Lingzhi; Wang, Jinglun; Mai, Yongjin; Yan, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xinyue

    2016-10-01

    Three choline-based ionic liquids functionalized with trimethylsilyl, allyl, and cynoethyl groups are synthesized in an inexpensive route as safe electrolytes for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. The thermal stabilities, viscosities, conductivities, and electrochemical windows of these ILs are reported. Hybrid electrolytes were formulated by doping with 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M lithium oxalydifluoroborate (LiODFB) as salts and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent. By using 0.6 M LiPF6/0.4 M LiODFB trimethylsilylated choline-based IL (SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC as electrolyte, LiCoO2/graphite full cell showed excellent cycling performance with a capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and 99% capacity retention over 90 cycles at a cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. The propagation rate of SN1IL-TFSI)/DMC electrolyte is only one quarter of the commercial electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 EC/DEC/DMC, v/v/v = 1/1/1), suggesting a better safety feature.

  12. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT in patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer showing biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Haematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Haematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Mamede, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Molecular Imaging Center, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Schiavina, Riccardo; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico [' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Fuccio, Chiara [Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Pavia (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer (PC) after radical prostatectomy who presented with increasing PSA levels during follow-up in spite of being on hormone treatment (HT), and therefore showing HT resistance. We evaluated a large series of 157 consecutive PC patients previously treated by radical prostatectomy who presented with biochemical recurrence with increasing PSA levels in spite of ongoing HT (HT-resistant patients). At the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, the mean value of trigger PSA level was 8.3 (range 0.2 - 60.6 ng/mL), the mean PSA doubling time (PSAdt) was 5.3 (range 0.4 - 35 months), and the mean PSA velocity (PSAvel) was 22.1 ng/mL/year (range 0.12 - 82 ng/mL/year). {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed following a standard procedure at our centre to investigate increasing PSA levels, either as the first imaging procedure or in patients with negative conventional imaging. At the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT all patients were receiving HT (61 were receiving monotherapy and 96 multidrug therapy). PET-positive findings were validated by: (a) transrectal US-guided biopsy in patients with recurrence in the prostatic bed, (b) surgical pelvic lymphadenectomy, (c) other imaging modalities, including repeated {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT, performed during a minimum follow-up of 12-months. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT showed positive findings in 104 of the 157 patients (66 %). {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected: a single lesion in 40 patients (7 in the prostate bed, 10 in lymph nodes, 22 in bone, 1 at another site); two lesions in 18 patients (7 in lymph nodes, 7 in bone, 4 in both lymph nodes and bone); three or four lesions in 7 patients (4 in lymph nodes, 2 in bone, 1 at another site); and more than four lesions in the remaining 39 patients (2 in the prostate bed, 12 in lymph nodes, 12 in bone, 11 in both lymph nodes and bone, 2 at other sites). In {sup 11}C-choline PET-negative patients, the mean

  13. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  14. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections w

  15. Choline and Cystine Deficient Diets in Animal Models with Hepatocellular Injury: Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Expression of RAGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Célia F. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effects of diets deficient in choline and/or cystine on hepatocellular injury in animal models (young male Wistar rats, aged 21 days, by monitoring some of the oxidative stress biomarkers and the expression of RAGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β. The animals were divided into 6 groups (n=10 and submitted to different diets over 30 days: AIN-93 diet (standard, St, AIN-93 choline deficient (CD diet and AIN-93 choline and cystine deficient (CCD diet, in the pellet (pl and powder (pw diet forms. Independently of the diet form, AIN-93 diet already led to hepatic steatosis and CD/CCD diets provoked hepatic damage. The increase of lipid peroxidation, represented by the evaluation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species, associated with the decrease of levels of antioxidant enzymes, were the parameters with higher significance toward redox profile in this model of hepatic injury. Regarding inflammation, in relation to TNF-α, higher levels were evidenced in CD(pl, while, for IL-1β, no significant alteration was detected. RAGE expression was practically the same in all groups, with exception of CCD(pw versus CCD(pl. These results together confirm that AIN-93 causes hepatic steatosis and choline and/or cysteine deficiencies produce important hepatic injury associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory profiles.

  16. A facile and practical biosensor for choline based on manganese dioxide nanoparticles synthesized in-situ at the surface of electrode by one-step electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangxia; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Weixiang; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a facile and sensitive biocompatible biosensor based on Nafion/choline oxidase/manganese dioxide composite film was developed for the determination of choline chloride. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles, possessing the advantages of large specific surface areas, good hydrophilicity, great permeability as well as excellent biocompatibility, were synthesized in-situ at the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by one-step electrodeposition. And then, choline oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized on the MnO2 modified GCE with coating a Nafion film to hold the ChOx/MnO2 film on the electrode surface firmly. Upon optimized conditions, a linear range of 8.0-1.0 mM was obtained for the sensor in a cyclic voltammetry method, with a detection limit as low as 5.0 µM. Besides, the biosensor was successfully employed to detect choline in milk, milk powder and feedstuff samples, providing a promising alternative for the practical application. PMID:26695320

  17. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Temporal Memory: Synergistic Effects of Combining Prenatal Choline and Nicotine on Reinforcement-Induced Resetting of an Interval Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adult rats to selectively control the reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a function…

  18. Characterization of Leishmania major phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 and their inhibition by choline analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibis, Stergios S.; Dahlstrom, Kelly; Zhu, Tongtong; Zufferey, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in the membranes of the human parasite Leishmania. It is synthesized via two metabolic routes, the de novo pathway that starts with the uptake of choline, and the threefold methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. Choline was shown to be dispensable for Leishmania; thus, the methylation pathway likely represents the primary route for PC production. Here, we have identified and characterized two phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferases, LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2. Both enzymes are expressed in promastigotes as well as in the vertebrate form amastigotes, suggesting that these methyltransferases are important for the development of the parasite throughout its life cycle. These enzymes are maximally expressed during the log phase of growth which correlates with the demand of PC synthesis during cell multiplication. Immunofluorescence studies combined with cell fractionation have shown that both methyltransferases are localized at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Heterologous expression in yeast has demonstrated that LmjPEM1 and LmjPEM2 complement the choline auxotrophy phenotype of a yeast double null mutant lacking phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity. LmjPEM1 catalyzes the first, and to a lesser extent, the second methylation reaction. In contrast, LmjPEM2 has the capacity to add the second and third methyl group onto phosphatidylethanolamine to yield (lyso)PC; it can also add the first methyl group, albeit with very low efficiency. Finally, we have demonstrated using inhibition studies with choline analogs that miltefosine and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide are potent inhibitors of this metabolic pathway. PMID:25176160

  19. Dietary choline requirements of adult GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)%吉富罗非鱼成鱼胆碱的最适需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵辉; 文华; 刘伟; 蒋明; 吴凡; 田娟; 黄凤

    2013-01-01

    选用初始体质量为(220.00±8.34) g的吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)360尾,随机分成6组,每组3重复(每重复20尾),于1 m×1 m×1.5 m池塘网箱中饲养。分别饲喂胆碱含量为97.80(对照组)、375.04、565.74、974.27、1409.81、1824.35 mg/kg的半纯化饲料10周,研究胆碱对吉富罗非鱼成鱼生长、饲料利用、鱼体营养组成、胆碱蓄积量及部分血液生化指标的影响。结果显示,经过10周的饲喂,饲料中添加胆碱可显著提高鱼体增重率、特定生长率和饲料效率(P<0.05);降低肝脂肪含量(P<0.05),提高肌肉脂肪含量(P<0.05);显著升高肝胆碱蓄积量(P<0.05);胆碱添加组血清甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(T-CHO)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),并随饲料胆碱含量增加呈现升高的趋势;肝甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(T-CHO)随着胆碱含量的增加而显著降低(P<0.05);血清谷草转氨酶(ALT)、谷丙转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)均随着饲料胆碱含量的增大而显著降低(P<0.05)。结果表明,饲料中添加适量的胆碱可以改善吉富罗非鱼成鱼的生长性能,提高饲料利用效率,降低肝脂肪含量,促进肝脂肪转运;对特定生长率进行回归分析,得出吉富罗非鱼成鱼对饲料中胆碱的最低需要量为506.43 mg/kg,而对肝胆碱蓄积量回归分析得出的需要量为981.38 mg/kg。%A10-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary choline chloride supplementation on the growth performance, lipid metabolism, feed utilization, body composition, serum biochemical indices, liver lipid content, and muscle and liver choline content of adult GIFT tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus). The basal diet contained 27.60%crude protein and 6.45%crude lipid. The basal diet was supplemented with choline chloride (0, 300, 600, 1200, 1 800, and 2 400 mg choline per kg food) to formulate six semi-purified diets containing choline of 97.80(control group), 375.04, 565.74, 974.27, 1409

  20. Catalytic dehydration of carbohydrates suspended in organic solvents promoted by AlCl3 /SiO2 coated with choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Gu, Yanlong; Jérôme, François

    2015-01-01

    We show that the coating of choline chloride on silica-supported AlCl3 allows the dehydration of carbohydrates to successfully proceed in low boiling point organic solvents. The concept is based on the in situ formation of a deep eutectic liquid phase on the catalyst surface, thus facilitating the interaction between the solid catalyst and insoluble carbohydrate.

  1. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Painting for Localized Prostate Cancer Using {sup 11}C-choline Positron Emission Tomography Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe H. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lim Joon, Daryl [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Lee, Sze Ting [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Gong, Sylvia J. [Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Anderson, Nigel J. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Davis, Ian D. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Clouston, David [Focus Pathology, Victoria (Australia); Bolton, Damien [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Urology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Hamilton, Christopher S. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Khoo, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.khoo@rmh.nhs.uk [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose painting using {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography PET scans in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was an RT planning study of 8 patients with prostate cancer who had {sup 11}C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Two contours were semiautomatically generated on the basis of the PET scans for each patient: 60% and 70% of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub 60%} and SUV{sub 70%}). Three IMRT plans were generated for each patient: PLAN{sub 78}, which consisted of whole-prostate radiation therapy to 78 Gy; PLAN{sub 78-90}, which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 78 Gy, a boost to the SUV{sub 60%} to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV{sub 70%} to 90 Gy; and PLAN{sub 72-90}, which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 72 Gy, a boost to the SUV{sub 60%} to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV{sub 70%} to 90 Gy. The feasibility of these plans was judged by their ability to reach prescription doses while adhering to published dose constraints. Tumor control probabilities based on PET scan-defined volumes (TCP{sub PET}) and on prostatectomy-defined volumes (TCP{sub path}), and rectal normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were compared between the plans. Results: All plans for all patients reached prescription doses while adhering to dose constraints. TCP{sub PET} values for PLAN{sub 78}, PLAN{sub 78-90}, and PLAN{sub 72-90} were 65%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. TCP{sub path} values were 71%, 97%, and 89%, respectively. Both PLAN{sub 78-90} and PLAN{sub 72-90} had significantly higher TCP{sub PET} (P=.002 and .001) and TCP{sub path} (P<.001 and .014) values than PLAN{sub 78}. PLAN{sub 78-90} and PLAN{sub 72-90} were not significantly different in terms of TCP{sub PET} or TCP{sub path}. There were no significant differences in rectal NTCPs between the 3 plans. Conclusions: IMRT dose painting for

  2. Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane. ChoK family of proteins is composed by ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, the first one with two different variants of splicing. Recently ChoKalpha has been implicated in the carcinogenic process, since it is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, no evidence for a role of ChoKbeta in carcinogenesis has been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we compare the in vitro and in vivo properties of ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta in lipid metabolism, and their potential role in carcinogenesis. Both ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta showed choline and ethanolamine kinase activities when assayed in cell extracts, though with different affinity for their substrates. However, they behave differentially when overexpressed in whole cells. Whereas ChoKbeta display an ethanolamine kinase role, ChoKalpha1 present a dual choline/ethanolamine kinase role, suggesting the involvement of each ChoK isoform in distinct biochemical pathways under in vivo conditions. In addition, while overexpression of ChoKalpha1 is oncogenic when overexpressed in HEK293T or MDCK cells, ChoKbeta overexpression is not sufficient to induce in vitro cell transformation nor in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, a significant upregulation of ChoKalpha1 mRNA levels in a panel of breast and lung cancer cell lines was found, but no changes in ChoKbeta mRNA levels were observed. Finally, MN58b, a previously described potent inhibitor of ChoK with in vivo antitumoral activity, shows more than 20-fold higher efficiency towards ChoKalpha1 than ChoKbeta. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first evidence of the distinct metabolic role of ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, suggesting different physiological roles and implications in human

  3. Comparison of choline-PET/CT, MRI, SPECT, and bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published data on the diagnosis of bone metastases of prostate cancer are conflicting and heterogeneous. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to compare the diagnostic performance of choline-PET/CT, MRI, bone SPECT, and bone scintigraphy (BS) in detecting bone metastases in parents with prostate cancer. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) were calculated both on a per-patient basis and on a per-lesion basis. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were also drawn to obtain the area under curve (AUC) and Q* value. Sixteen articles consisting of 27 studies were included in the analysis. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivities by using choline PET/CT, MRI, and BS were 0.91 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.83-0.96], 0.97 (95 % CI: 0.91-0.99), 0.79 (95 % CI: 0.73-0.83), respectively. The pooled specificities for detection of bone metastases using choline PET/CT, MRI, and BS, were 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00), 0.95 (95 % CI: 0.90-0.97), and 0.82 (95 % CI: 0.78-0.85), respectively. On a per-lesion basis, the pooled sensitivities of choline PET/CT, bone SPECT, and BS were 0.84 (95 % CI: 0.81-0.87), 0.90 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.93), 0.59 (95 % CI: 0.55-0.63), respectively. The pooled specificities were 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.89-0.96) for choline PET/CT, 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.90) for bone SPECT, and 0.75 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.79) for BS. This meta-analysis indicated that MRI was better than choline PET/CT and BS on a per-patient basis. On a per-lesion analysis, choline PET/CT with the highest DOR and Q* was better than bone SPECT and BS for detecting bone metastases from prostate cancer. (orig.)

  4. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  5. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  6. Effects of in ovo administration of betaine and choline on hatchability results, growth and carcass characteristics and immune response of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gholami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of in ovo administration of different levels of betaine and choline on egg hatchability, immune response, growth and carcass traits of broiler chickens was studied. Four thousand hatching eggs from Ross 308 broiler breeder layers, weighed individually, were incubated for 21 days in a commercial hatchery. At 12th day of incubation, 3456 fertilized eggs were randomly divided into 8 experimental groups of 3 replicates each (144 eggs per replicate: negative control (NC – not injected; positive control (PC – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water; Bet 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble betaine; Bet 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble betaine; Chol 0.25 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.25 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.375 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.375 mg soluble choline; Chol 0.50 – injected with 0.5 mL deionized water+0.50 mg soluble choline. Among the hatched chickens, 360 males were randomly chosen (45 for each group and were grown up to 42nd day of age. The embryo mortality, pecked eggs, infected eggs and hatchability percentages were similar among the experimental groups. The betaine and choline treatments improved hatching weight and final weight of chickens, while reduced feed conversion ratio and abdominal fat percentage. No effect on carcass yield, and breast muscle, leg and wings percentages, as well as on immunoglobulin M (IgM, G (IgG, and total antibody (IgT titers was observed. The treatments had little effect on internal organs.

  7. Change of choline compounds in sodium selenite-induced apoptosis of rats used as quantitative analysis by in vitro 9.4T MR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Cao; Lin-Ping Wu; Yun-Xia U; Yu-Bo Guo; Yao-Wen Chen; Ren-Hua Wu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study liver cell apoptosis caused by the toxicity of selenium and observe the alteration of choline compounds using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy.METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups.The rats in the treatment group were intraperitoneally injected with sodium selenite and the control group with distilled water.All rats were sacrificed and the livers were dissected.1H-MRS data were collected using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectrometer.Spectra were processed using XWINNMR and MestRe-c 4.3.HE and TUNEL staining was employed to detect and confirm the change of liver cells.RESULTS: Good 1H-MR spectra of perchloric acid extract from liver tissue of rats were obtained.The conventional metabolites were detected and assigned.Concentrations of different ingredient choline compounds in treatment group vs control group were as follows: total choline compounds,5.08±0.97 mmol/L vs 3.81±1.16 mmol/L (P = 0.05); and free choline,1.07±0.23 mmol/L vs 0.65±0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.00).However,there was no statistical significance between the two groups.The hepatic sinus and cellular structure of hepatic cells in treatment group were abnormal.Apoptosis of hepatic cells was confirmed by TUNEL assay.CONCLUSION: High dose selenium compounds can cause the rat liver lesion and induce cell apoptosis in vivo.High resolution 1H-MRS in vitro can detect diversified metabolism.The changing trend for different ingredient of choline compounds is not completely the same at early period of apoptosis.

  8. Imaging primary prostate cancer with 11C-Choline PET/CT: relation to tumour stage, Gleason score and biomarkers of biologic aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a significant overlap of 11C-Choline standardized uptake value (SUV) between prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissue, controversy exists regarding the clinical value of 11C-Choline PET/CT scan in primary prostate cancer. In this study, the SUVmax of the prostate lesions and the pelvic muscles were measured and their ratios (SUVmax-P/M ratio) were calculated. Then we evaluated whether the tracer 11C-Choline uptake, quantified as SUVmax-P/M ratio, correlated with tumour stage, Gleason score, and expression levels of several biomarkers of aggressiveness. Twenty-six patients with primary prostate cancer underwent 11C-Choline PET/CT. Tumour specimens from these patients were graded histopathologically, and immunnohistochemistry for Ki-67, CD31, androgen receptor (AR), Her-2/neu, Bcl-2, and PTEN were performed. Both SUVmax and SUVmax-P/M ratio showed no significant difference between patients with tumour stage II and III, but significantly elevated in patients with tumour stage IV. SUVmax-P/M ratio was also significantly higher in lesions with Gleason score of 4+3 or higher versus less than or equal to 3+4. SUVmax-P/M ratio was found significantly correlated with expression levels of Ki-67 and CD31. In addition, a higher SUVmax-P/M ratio was demonstrated in Her-2/neu positive subgroup than negative subgroup. At the same time, Gleason score and expression levels of these biomarkers showed no significant association with SUVmax. Using the parameter SUVmax-P/M ratio, 11C-Choline PET/CT may be a valuable non-invasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer

  9. Degradable Dextran Nanopolymer as a Carrier for Choline Kinase (ChoK siRNA Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihang Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although small interfering RNA (siRNA therapy has proven to be a specific and effective treatment in cells, the delivery of siRNA is a challenge for the applications of siRNA therapy. We present a degradable dextran with amine groups as an siRNA nano-carrier. In our nano-carrier, the amine groups are conjugated to the dextran platform through the acetal bonds, which are acid sensitive. Therefore this siRNA carrier is stable in neutral and basic conditions, while the amine groups can be cleaved and released from dextran platform under weak acid conditions (such as in endosomes. The cleavage and release of amine groups can reduce the toxicity of cationic polymer and enhance the transfection efficiency. We successfully applied this nano-carrier to deliver choline kinase (ChoK siRNA for ChoK inhibition in cells.

  10. Voltammetric and impedance studies of the electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel in a choline chloride based ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the first practical alternative to the use of phosphoric and sulphuric acid mixtures for the electropolishing of stainless steel. In this paper, efficient electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel is demonstrated in an ionic liquid composed of ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) and choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-). Linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and AC impedance methods were used to investigate the steel dissolution mechanism and the results are compared to polishing done in aqueous acidic solutions. It is shown that the quality of the polish is related to the breakdown of the oxide film and preliminary data suggest that the polishing process may be controlled by the diffusion of chloride ions. The dissolution is different from that found in aqueous acid solutions, and oxide breakdown is shown to be slower, which can lead to pitting at low current densities

  11. Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline→betaine aldehyde→glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. And Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. Tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42℃), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4℃), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.

  12. Single neuron transcriptomics identify SRSF/SR protein B52 as a regulator of axon growth and Choline acetyltransferase splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyin; Bossing, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We removed single identified neurons from living Drosophila embryos to gain insight into the transcriptional control of developing neuronal networks. The microarray analysis of the transcriptome of two sibling neurons revealed seven differentially expressed transcripts between both neurons (threshold: log21.4). One transcript encodes the RNA splicing factor B52. Loss of B52 increases growth of axon branches. B52 function is also required for Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT ) splicing. At the end of embryogenesis, loss of B52 function impedes splicing of ChAT, reduces acetylcholine synthesis, and extends the period of uncoordinated muscle twitches during larval hatching. ChAT regulation by SRSF proteins may be a conserved feature since changes in SRSF5 expression and increased acetylcholine levels in brains of bipolar disease patients have been reported recently. PMID:27725692

  13. Choline acetyltransferase and organic cation transporters are responsible for synthesis and propionate-induced release of acetylcholine in colon epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Klein, Jochen; Diener, Martin

    2014-06-15

    Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a short-chain fatty acid. The functional consequence is the induction of chloride secretion, measurable as increase in short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chamber experiments. It is unclear how acetylcholine is produced and released by colonic epithelium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the identification (on mRNA and protein level) and functional characterization (in Ussing chamber experiments combined with HPLC detection of acetylcholine) of transporters/enzymes in the cholinergic system of rat colonic epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining as well as RT-PCR revealed the expression of high-affinity choline transporter, ChAT, carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and organic cation transporters (OCT 1, 2, 3) in colonic epithelium. In contrast to blockade of ChAT with bromoacetylcholine, inhibition of CarAT with mildronate did not inhibit the propionate-induced increase in Isc, suggesting a predominant synthesis of epithelial acetylcholine by ChAT. Although being expressed, blockade of VAChT with vesamicol was ineffective, whereas inhibition of OCTs with omeprazole and corticosterone inhibited propionate-induced Isc and the release of acetylcholine into the basolateral compartment. In summary, OCTs seem to be involved in regulated acetylcholine release by colonic epithelium, which is assumed to be involved in chemosensing of luminal short-chain fatty acids by the intestinal epithelium.

  14. Dixon imaging-based partial volume correction improves quantification of choline detected by breast 3D-MRSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minarikova, Lenka; Gruber, Stephan; Bogner, Wolfgang; Trattnig, Siegfried; Chmelik, Marek [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Center of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-14

    Our aim was to develop a partial volume (PV) correction method of choline (Cho) signals detected by breast 3D-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-MRSI), using information from water/fat-Dixon MRI. Following institutional review board approval, five breast cancer patients were measured at 3 T. 3D-MRSI (1 cm{sup 3} resolution, duration ∝11 min) and Dixon MRI (1 mm{sup 3}, ∝2 min) were measured in vivo and in phantoms. Glandular/lesion tissue was segmented from water/fat-Dixon MRI and transformed to match the resolution of 3D-MRSI. The resulting PV values were used to correct Cho signals. Our method was validated on a two-compartment phantom (choline/water and oil). PV values were correlated with the spectroscopic water signal. Cho signal variability, caused by partial-water/fat content, was tested in 3D-MRSI voxels located in/near malignant lesions. Phantom measurements showed good correlation (r = 0.99) with quantified 3D-MRSI water signals, and better homogeneity after correction. The dependence of the quantified Cho signal on the water/fat voxel composition was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced using Dixon MRI-based PV correction, compared to the original uncorrected data (1.60-fold to 3.12-fold) in patients. The proposed method allows quantification of the Cho signal in glandular/lesion tissue independent of water/fat composition in breast 3D-MRSI. This can improve the reproducibility of breast 3D-MRSI, particularly important for therapy monitoring. (orig.)

  15. 氯化胆碱作为润滑剂研究%Study on Choline Chloride as a Lubricant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向中; 王毓民

    2011-01-01

    To study the lubrication properties of choline chloride ionic liquids on steel/steel contacts surfaces at various speeds and loads.The coefficients of friction are determined on a scratch tester and on a pin-on-disc wear tester at various speeds and loads to analyze the lubrication properties.Surface roughness and adsorption force of lubricant are tested to study mechanism of lubrication.Studies show that the choline chloride ionic liquids can provide a low friction coefficient when used to lubricate a steel/steel contact, but lubricant lose and the coefficients of friction go up after a short duration.%研究了氯化胆碱在钢-钢摩擦副表面上不同速度不同载荷条件下的润滑特性.在利痕试验机和销盘式摩擦磨损试验机上测定不同速度不同载荷条件下的摩擦系数,分析其润滑特性;通过测试摩擦副表面粗糙度、润滑剂吸附力,研究其润滑机理;结果表明,用氯化胆碱作为润滑剂,钢-钢摩擦副之间能出现低的摩擦系数,但在摩擦一段时间之后,润滑剂会失去,摩擦系数上升.

  16. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4@GO) to form Fe3O4@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe3O4@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe3O4@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe3O4@GO and Fe3O4@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe3O4@GO-DES performs better than Fe3O4@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L−1 Na2HPO4 contained 1 mol L−1 NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled

  17. Vitamin C and Vitamin E in Prevention of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD in Choline Deficient Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopasso Fabio P

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD. Vitamin C and vitamin E are known to react with reactive oxygen species (ROS blocking the propagation of radical reactions in a wide range of oxidative stress situations. The potential therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants in NAFLD is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant drugs (vitamin C or vitamin E in its prevention. Methods Fatty liver disease was induced in Wistar rats by choline-deficient diet for four weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (n = 6 – (200 mg/day, vitamin C (n = 6 (30 mg/Kg/day or vehicle orally. Results In the vehicle and vitamin E-treated rats, there were moderate macro and microvesicular fatty changes in periportal area without inflammatory infiltrate or fibrosis. Scharlach stain that used for a more precise identification of fatty change was strong positive. With vitamin C, there was marked decrease in histological alterations. Essentially, there was no liver steatosis, only hepatocellular ballooning. Scharlach stain was negative. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was reduced with vitamin C (1080 ± 330 cpm/mg/minx103 as compared to those Vitamin E and control (2247 ± 790; 2020 ± 407 cpm/mg/minx103, respectively (p Conclusions 1 Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited the development of experimental liver steatosis induced by choline-deficient diet ; 2Vitamin E neither prevented the development of fatty liver nor reduced the oxidative stress in this model.

  18. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT detects the site of relapse in the majority of prostate cancer patients showing biochemical recurrence after EBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Graziani, Tiziano; Lodi, Filippo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Mazzarotto, Renzo; Ntreta, Maria [University of Bologna, Service of Radiotherapy, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the usefulness and the detection rate of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in a population of patients with prostate cancer (PC), exclusively treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as primary treatment, who showed biochemical relapse. We enrolled 140 patients showing a serum PSA level >2 ng/mL (mean 8.6 ng/mL, median 5 ng/mL, range 2 - 60 ng/mL). All patients had been treated with EBRT to the prostate gland and prostatic fossa with doses ranging from 70 to 76 Gy in low-risk patients (T1/T2 and/or serum PSA <10 ng/mL) and escalating to >76 Gy (range 76 - 81 Gy) in high-risk patients (T3/T4 and/or serum PSA >10 ng/mL). Of the 140 patients, 53 were receiving androgen deprivation therapy at the time of the scan. All positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT findings were validated by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy or at least 12 months of follow-up with contrast-enhanced CT, MR, bone scintigraphy or a repeated {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan. The relationships between the detection rate of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and the factors PSA level, PSA kinetics, Gleason score, age, time to relapse and SUVmax in patients with positive findings were analysed. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT detected the site of relapse in 123 of the 140 patients with a detection rate of 87.8 % (46 patients showed local relapse, 31 showed local and distant relapse, and 46 showed only distant relapse). In patients with relapse the mean serum PSA level was 9.08 ng/mL (median 5.1 ng/mL, range 2 - 60 ng/mL), the mean PSA doubling time was 5.6 months (median 3.5 months, range 0.4 - 48 months), and the mean PSA velocity was 15 ng/mL/year (median 8.8 ng/mL/year, range 0.4 - 87 ng/mL/year). Of the 123 patients with relapse, 77 (62.6 %) showed distant relapse with/without local relapse, and of these 77, 31 (40.2 %) showed oligometastatic disease (one or two distant lesions: lymph node lesions only in 16, bone lesions only in 14, and lymph node lesions and bone

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in comparison with CT and/or MRI in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta [Nuclear Medicine Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Torzilli, Guido; Donadon, Matteo; Palmisano, Angela [Hepatobiliary Surgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Poretti, Dario; Lanza, Ezio; Pedicini, Vittorio [Radiology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Neto, Lauro J.S. de; Sabongi, Juliano Guerra [Medicina Nuclear, Centro Medico Imagem, Sorocaba (Brazil); Rimassa, Lorenza; Personeni, Nicola [Medical Oncology and Hematology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Ceriani, Roberto [Hepatology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Comito, Tiziana; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Nuclear Medicine Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Humanitas University, Chair of Diagnostic Imaging, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    In recent decades, the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become established, and new findings indicate that radiolabelled choline has considerable potential in this setting. Therefore, in this study we aimed to assess the diagnostic role of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, compared with conventional imaging with CT/MRI, in patients with HCC. The study population comprised 45 patients (male to female ratio = 37:8, median age 70.5 years) referred to our institution owing to HCC: 27 at initial diagnosis and 18 for restaging after recurrence. In all cases we performed whole-body {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT and compared its findings with contrast-enhanced CT (n = 35) or MRI (n = 29) or both (n = 15) for a total of 50 paired scans. The reference standard was either histological proof (21 patients) or a multidisciplinary consensus. Diagnostic accuracy was then determined in a scan-based (SBA) and a lesion-based analysis (LBA). On SBA the sensitivity and specificity for PET were 88 and 90 %, respectively, whereas for CT/MRI they were 90 and 73 %, respectively (p > 0.05). On LBA the overall sensitivity and specificity were 78 and 86 %, respectively, for PET vs 65 and 55 % for CT/MRI. Overall we investigated 168 disease sites, of which 100 were in the liver and 68 were extrahepatic. When considering only liver lesions, {sup 11}C-choline PET and CT/MRI showed an accuracy of 66 and 85 %, respectively, while for extrahepatic lesions PET showed an accuracy of 99 %, while the accuracy of CT/MRI was 32 %. In both cases, there was a statistically significant difference in accuracy between the two modalities (p < 0.01). Combination of the PET results with those of CT/MRI resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy in both analyses, at 92 % for SBA and 96 % for LBA. In 11 patients (24 %) the PET findings modified the therapeutic strategy, the modification proving appropriate in 10 of them. {sup 11}C-Choline PET

  20. Do androgens control the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate in human prostate cancer cell lines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emonds, Kimy M.; Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Swinnen, Johannes V.; Vanderhoydonc, Frank [K.U. Leuven, Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Experimental Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Weerden, Wytske M. van [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Experimental Urology, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of androgen ablation therapy in different prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines - reflecting different stages of the disease - on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate uptake. Uptake experiments were performed in androgen-sensitive (LNCaP, PC346C) and independent cell lines (22Rv1, PC346DCC, PC-3) as well as in a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1) cell line. Tracer uptake was assessed under androgen ablation. Results of the cancer cell lines were normalized to those of BPH-1. To evaluate the effect of androgen on the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate in PCa cell lines, 10{sup -8}M R1881, 10{sup -10}M R1881, the combination of 10{sup -10}M R1881 plus 10{sup -6}M Casodex or 10{sup -6}M Casodex alone were added in parallel cell cultures 1 day before uptake experiments. Uptake in androgen-supplemented cell cultures was compared to the uptake under androgen deprivation. Uptake was corrected for cell number using protein content. Compared to BPH-1, a higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was observed only in PC346C cells, whereas a higher {sup 11}C-choline and markedly increased {sup 11}C-acetate uptake was seen in all cancer cell lines. Androgens significantly modulated the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in LNCaP, PC346C and 22Rv1 cells, and of {sup 11}C-choline in the PC346C and 22Rv1 cell line. No androgenic effect on {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was observed in PC-3 and PC346DCC cells. {sup 11}C-Acetate uptake was independent of androgen status in all PCa cell lines studied. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PCa cell lines showed the highest variability and strongest androgen effect, suggesting its poor potential for metabolic imaging of advanced PCa. In contrast to {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-choline, {sup 11}C-acetate uptake was unaffected by androgens and thus {sup 11}C-acetate seems best for monitoring PCa progression. (orig.)

  1. Change of choline compounds in sodium selenite-induced apoptosis of rats used as quantitative analysis by in vitro 9.4T MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Zhen; Wu, Lin-Ping; Li, Yun-Xia;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study liver cell apoptosis caused by the toxicity of selenium and observe the alteration of choline compounds using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the treatment group were...... intraperitoneally injected with sodium selenite and the control group with distilled water. All rats were sacrificed and the livers were dissected. (1)H-MRS data were collected using in vitro 9.4T high resolution magnetic resonance spectrometer. Spectra were processed using XWINNMR and MestRe-c 4.3. HE and TUNEL...... staining was employed to detect and confirm the change of liver cells. RESULTS: Good (1)H-MR spectra of perchloric acid extract from liver tissue of rats were obtained. The conventional metabolites were detected and assigned. Concentrations of different ingredient choline compounds in treatment group vs...

  2. Pre-treatment of bean seedlings with choline compounds increases the resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to UV-radiation and elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings were pre-treated with choline compounds, during 24 h, then after 6 d the excised primary leaves were exposed to UV-B and high temperature stress. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, delayed light emission, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of the active oxygen detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined. Pre-treatment of plants with Ch or CCh enhanced the resistance of photosystem 2 (PS2) photochemistry to UV-B and heat injuries. The higher stress resistance can be explained by the increased activity of the detoxifying enzymes. The increased content of UV-B-absorbing pigments may also contribute to the enhanced resistance of choline-treated plants to UV-B radiation

  3. Magnetic graphene oxide modified with choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvent for the solid-phase extraction of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanhua; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Pan, Qi; Wang, Ying; Ding, Xueqin; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-06-02

    Highlights: • A strategy for extraction of protein based on DES-coated magnetic graphene oxide. • The deep eutectic solvents were based on choline chloride. • Bovine serum albumin was used as the analyte. • The material prepared works for the acidic but not the basic or the neutral proteins. - Abstract: Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) have been synthesized and coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO) to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein. X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES, and the results indicated the successful preparation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. The UV–vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of protein after extraction. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction amount was influenced by the types of DESs, solution temperature, solution ionic strength, extraction time, protein concentration and the amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES. Comparison of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES was carried out by extracting bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, bovine hemoglobin and lysozyme. The experimental results showed that the proposed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO-DES performs better than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GO in the extraction of acidic protein. Desorption of protein was carried out by eluting the solid extractant with 0.005 mol L{sup −1} Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} contained 1 mol L{sup −1} NaCl. The obtained elution efficiency was about 90.9%. Attributed to the convenient magnetic separation, the solid extractant could be easily recycled.

  4. Choline: Bioavailability and Its Application in Laying Hens Production%胆碱生物利用率的评价及其在蛋鸡养殖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟钦辉; 董晓芳; 佟建明; 鲍延娥

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for laying hens, which mainly used for the synthesis of phosphatidyl-choline, a component of egg yolk. It is well known that laying hens can synthesize substantial quantities of choline. Whether laying hens can synthesize sufficient choline for their needs under practical conditions is controversial. This article mainly reviewed the recent studies in choline content and bioavailability of feed ingredients and the application of choline in hens breeding, which can establish the theoretical reference for practical production. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(9) : 1615-1621]%胆碱是蛋鸡所必需的营养物质,主要用来合成蛋黄的卵磷脂.蛋鸡能够大量合成胆碱,但在实际生产中蛋鸡能否合成足够的胆碱来满足其需要一直存在很大的争议.本文综述了饲料中胆碱的含量及其生物利用率的评价以及胆碱在蛋鸡养殖中的应用,为其相关研究及在生产中应用提供参考.

  5. Quantification of Choline- and Ethanolamine-Containing Metabolites in Human Prostate Tissues Using 1H HR-MAS Total Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Mark G.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R.; Zektzer, Andrew S.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2008-01-01

    A fast and quantitative 2D high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiment was developed to resolve and quantify the choline- and ethanolamine-containing metabolites in human prostate tissues in ≈1 hr prior to pathologic analysis. At a 40-ms mixing time, magnetization transfer efficiency constants were empirically determined in solution and used to calculate metabolite concentrations in tissue. Phosphocholine (PC) was observed in 11/15 (73%) can...

  6. Accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine and drought stress tolerance induced in maize (zea mays) by three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in inducing the tolerance of crop plants to drought is vital in regulation of physiological reactions that eventually adapts to a stressed environment, however, how PGPR strain induces better drought resistance by accumulation of choline and glycinebetaine (GB) in maize under drought stress (DS) is still poorly understood. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the induced role in maize by the three PGPR strains i.e. Klebsiella variicola F2 (KJ465989), Raoultella planticola YL2 (KJ465991) and Pseudomonas fluorescens YX2 (KJ465990) in view of plant growth, water relations and accumulation of choline and GB in leaves. Seedlings of cultivar Zhengdan 958 were inoculated with strains F2, YL2 and YX2 under different DS degrees induced by different PEG-6000 concentrations of 0, 10%, 15% and 20%. The soil microbe strains F2, YL2 and YX2 substantially enhanced the accumulation of choline and GB, and in turn improved leaf relative water content (RWC) and dry mater weight (DMW) under varying DS regimes. The best responses induced by PGPR were obtained by strain YX2 regardless of DS degree and all three strains under moderate DS stimulated by 10-15% concentrations of PEG-6000. The PGPR strains were involved in the regulation of osmotic adjustment via accumulations of choline and subsequent GB, resulting in improvement of water relations and plant growth in maize plants under DS. The effects of PGPR strains on improvement of plant drought resistance might be dependent on microbial species and degree of DS. (author)

  7. Electrodeposition of a Au-Dy2O3 Composite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalyst from Eutectic Urea/Choline Chloride Ionic Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Mele; Benedetto Bozzini

    2012-01-01

     In this research we have fabricated and tested Au/Dy2O3 composites for applications as Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) electrocatalysts. The material was obtained by a process involving electrodeposition of a Au-Dy alloy from a urea/choline chloride ionic liquid electrolyte, followed by selective oxidation of Dy to Dy2O3 in air at high temperature. The electrochemical kinetics of the electrodeposition bath were studied by cyclic voltammetry, whence optimal electrodeposition conditions ...

  8. Comparison between the efficacies of curcumin and puerarin in C57BL/6 mice with steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, YUNLIANG; Li, Jian; ZHUGE, LI; Su, Dongmei; YANG, MEIJUAN; TAO, SHIYING; Li, Junxiang

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent disease, which features an abnormal accumulation of lipids inside hepatocytes. Steatohepatitis plays a critical role in the process resulting in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Curcumin and puerarin are herbal products widely used in Asia, which are believed to have therapeutic benefits for alleviating the symptoms of steatohepatitis. In this study, mice models of steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) w...

  9. Reduction in temporal N-acetylaspartate and creatine (or choline) ratio in temporal lobe epilepsy: does this 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy finding mean poor seizure control?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes-Ribeiro, J.; Soares, R.,; Simoes-Ribeiro, F.; Guimaraes, M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a potentially useful tool in the in vivo investigation of brain metabolites in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Focal N-acetylaspartatate (NAA) reductions have been correlated with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in surgically resected epileptogenic foci.
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the abnormalities in the metabolites NAA, creatine+ phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline containing compounds (Cho) in the tempora...

  10. Plasma methionine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Nitter, Mathilde Hjelle; Norgård, Benedicte Wentzel; Vogel, Stefan; Eussen, Simone; Meyer, Klaus; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per Magne; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Bjørge, Tone; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cottet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. Patients and methods We conducted a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionin...

  11. Diagnostic value of combining {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilla-Lievre, Maria-Angela [University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hopital Antoine Beclere, Clamart (France); IMIV - UMR 1023 Inserm/CEA/Universite Paris Sud - ERL 9218 CNRS, Orsay (France); Franco, Dominique [Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Surgery, Hopital Antoine Beclere, University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clamart (France); Gervais, Philippe; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Desarnaud, Serge; Helal, Badia-Ourkia [IMIV - UMR 1023 Inserm/CEA/Universite Paris Sud - ERL 9218 CNRS, Orsay (France); CEA, DSV, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Agostini, Helene [University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clinical Research Unit of Hopitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, Hopital Kremlin Bicetre (France); Marthey, Lysiane [Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Gastroenterology, Hopital Antoine Beclere, University Department Hepatinov, Assistance-Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clamart (France)

    2016-05-15

    In this prospective study, our goal was to emphasize the diagnostic value of combining {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. Thirty-three consecutive patients were enrolled. All patients were suspected to have HCC based on CT and/or MRI imaging. A final diagnosis was obtained by histopathological examination or by imaging alone according to American Association for the Study of Liver Disease criteria. All patients underwent PET/CT with both tracers within a median of 5 days. All lesions showing higher tracer uptake than normal liver were considered positive for HCC. We examined how tracer uptake was related to biological (serum α-fetoprotein levels) and pathological (differentiation status, peritumoral capsule and vascular invasion) prognostic markers of HCC, as well as clinical observations at 6 months (recurrence and death). Twenty-eight HCC, four cholangiocarcinomas and one adenoma were diagnosed. In the HCC patients, the sensitivity of {sup 11}C-choline, {sup 18}F-FDG and combined {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of HCC was 75 %, 36 % and 93 %, respectively. Serum α-fetoprotein levels >200 ng/ml were more frequent among patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-positive lesions than those with {sup 18}F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). Early recurrence (n=2) or early death (n=5) occurred more frequently in patients with {sup 18}F-FDG-positive lesions than in those with {sup 18}F-FDG-negative lesions (p < 0.05). The combined use of {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT detected HCC with high sensitivity. This approach appears to be of potential prognostic value and may facilitate the selection of patients for surgical resection or liver transplantation. (orig.)

  12. 11C Choline PET Guided Salvage Radiotherapy with Volumetric Modulation Arc Therapy and Hypofractionation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer after HIFU Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Alongi, Filippo; Liardo, Rocco L. E.; Iftode, Cristina; Lopci, Egesta; Villa, Elisa; Comito, Tiziana; Tozzi, Angelo; Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna M.; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bellorofonte, Carlo; Arturo, Chiti; Scorsetti, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate tolerance, feasibility and acute toxicity in patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) failure. From 2005 to 2011 a total of 15 patients were treated with HIFU as primary radical treatment. Between July 2011 and February 2013, all 15 patients presented biochemical relapse after HIFU and 11C choline PET documenting intrapostatic-only failure. Salvage EBRT was performed with moderate hypofractionation schedul...

  13. Detection of Local, Regional, and Distant Recurrence in Patients With PSA Relapse After External-Beam Radiotherapy Using 11C-Choline Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level cannot distinguish between local-regional recurrences and the presence of distant metastases after treatment with curative intent for prostate cancer. With the advent of salvage treatment such as cryotherapy, it has become important to localize the site of recurrence (local or distant). In this study, the potential of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) to identify site of recurrence was investigated in patients with rising PSA after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy patients with histologically proven prostate cancer treated with EBRT and showing biochemical recurrence as defined by American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus statement and 10 patients without recurrence underwent a PET scan using 400 MBq 11C-choline intravenously. Biopsy-proven histology from the site of suspicion, findings with other imaging modalities, clinical follow-up and/or response to adjuvant therapy were used as comparative references. Results: None of the 10 patients without biochemical recurrence had a positive PET scan. Fifty-seven of 70 patients with biochemical recurrence (median PSA 9.1 ng/mL; mean PSA 12.3 ng/mL) showed an abnormal uptake pattern (sensitivity 81%). The site of recurrence was only local in 41 of 57 patients (mean PSA 11.1 ng/mL at scan), locoregionally and/or distant in 16 of 57 patients (mean PSA 17.7 ng/mL). Overall the positive predictive value and negative predictive value for 11C-choline PET scan were 1.0 and 0.44 respectively. Accuracy was 84%. Conclusions: 11C-choline PET scan is a sensitive technique to identify the site of recurrence in patients with PSA relapse after EBRT for prostate cancer.

  14. Effects of ginsenoside of stem and leaf combined with choline on learning and memory ability of rat models with Alzheimer diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Yunsheng Gao; Yuyun Zhu; Hongxia Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central adrenergic nerve and 5-serotonergic nerve can influence central cholinergic nerve on learning and memory and make easy for study; however, ginsenoside of stem and leaf (GSL) can improve functions of central adrenergic nerve; moreover, 5-serotonergic nerve and the combination with choline can produce synergistic effect and enhance learning and memory ability so as to improve learning and memory disorder of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of GSL combining with choline on learning and memory of AD model rats.DESIGN: Randomized grouping design and controlled animal study.SETTING: Department of Pharmacology, Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Pharmacological Department of Medical College of Jilin University from October 1996 to January 1997. Forty healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade were randomly divided into 5 groups, including sham-injury group, model group, GSL group, choline group and combination group, with 8 rats in each group. Main medications: GSL with the volume more than 92.8% was provided by Department of Chemistry, Norman Bethune Medical College of Jilin University. Panaxatriol, the main component, was detected with thin layer scanning technique and regarded as the index of GSL quality [(55±1)%, CV= 2%, n= 5]. Choline was provided by the Third Shanghai Laboratory Factory.METHODS: 150 nmol quinolinic acid was used to damage bilateral Meynert basal nuclei of adult rats so as to establish AD models. Rats in GSL, choline and combination groups were intragastric administrated with 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days 400 mg/kg GSL, 200 mg/kg choline (20 mL/kg), and both respectively last for 17 days starting from two days before operation. Rats in sham-injury group and model group were perfused with the same volume of distilled jumped up safe platform when they were shocked with 36 V

  15. Evaluation of Bioavailability of Choline in Various Feedstuffs%不同饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯佳; 蔡辉益; 刘国华; 闫海洁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究采用斜率比法对玉米、豆粕、菜粕和玉米酒精糟(distillers dried grains,DDGS)中胆碱的生物学效价(the relative bioavailability,RBV)进行评估.[方法]试验选用1日龄爱拔益加(AA)肉仔鸡1 32只,随机分为22个处理组,其中S1-S6组为标准曲线组,A1-A4组为玉米日粮组,B1-B4组为豆粕日粮组,C1-C4为菜粕日粮组,D1-D4为DDGS日粮组,每个处理6个重复,每个重复1只鸡.基础日粮采用醇提法将玉米、豆粕、菜粕和DDGS中的胆碱洗脱后配制而成.在基础日粮中添加不同剂量的氯化胆碱配制6种梯度的标准日粮,另将4种待测原料分别以10%、20%、40%和100%的比例替换洗脱过的相应原料配制试验日粮.分别以1-21日龄的平均日增重、肝脏脂肪含量和全血胆碱浓度为衡量指标,以比斜率法计算待测原料的相对生物学利用率.[结果]以平均日增重为指标,玉米、豆粕、菜粕和DDGS中胆碱RBV分别为63.95%、104.7%、37.98%和72.09%;以全血胆碱浓度为指标,玉米、豆粕、菜粕和DDGS中胆碱RBV分别为94.73%、184.11%、23.63%和134.23%.[结论]以日增重和全血胆碱含量为指标衡量饲料原料中胆碱生物学效价是可行的,但由于选择指标的不同,所得数值亦有所差异;4种参试原料中胆碱的相对生物学利用率从高到低依次为豆粕、DDGS、玉米和菜粕.%[Objective] This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of choline in corn, soybean meal, canola meal and distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS). [Method] Atotal of 132 one-day-old broilers were divided into 22 groups (6 replicates per group and each replicate had 1 broiler). Groups S1-S6 were standard curve group, Groups A1-A4 were corn groups, Group B1-B4 were soybean meal groups, Group C1-C4 were canola meal groups, and Groups D1-D4 were DDGS groups. The basic diet contained the four feedstuffs above with lower choline content

  16. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L E; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular. PMID:27447649

  17. Electrochemical Behavior of Niobium Electrodeposited 316 Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate for PEMFC in Choline Chloride Based Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Caihong; LIANG Chenghao; HUANG Naibao

    2015-01-01

    Niobium was electrodeposited on 316 stainless steel bipolar plates of a fuel cell in water and air-stable choline chloride based ionic liquids. The electrochemical corruption property of bipolar plates in simulated PEMFC environment was investigated. It was showed that the plating iflm was distributed on the surface of 316 stainless steel like isolated islands with height less than 50 nm. The XPS, XRD results showed that a smooth and strong chemical inert iflm of NbO and Nb2O5 was formed on the surface of 316 stainless steel. In simulated cathodic condition, the corrosion potential of Nb coated stainless steel was improved by 244 mV, whilst in an anodic condition, it was improved by 105 mV. The current densities for the coated 316 stainless steel were decreased to 2.479 4 µA•cm-2 from 14.810 µA•cm-2 at-0.1 V and to 0.576 µA•cm-2 from 13.417 µA/•cm-2 at 0.6 V, respectively. It was implied that the niobium coating effectively decreased the corrosion rate. The results of the electrochemical tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel was greatly improved after coated with niobium.

  18. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Baten

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  19. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  20. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  1. Plasticizing effect of choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid on physicochemical properties of agarose films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agarose films were formed with the addition of 30 to 70 wt% choline chloride/urea eutectic-based ionic liquid (ChCl/Urea. The ChCl/Urea was prepared through complexation at a 1:2 mole ratio. The films were prepared by dissolving ChCl/Urea in distilled water followed by dispersion of the agarose at 95 °C. The solution was gelled at room temperature, and the formed gel was dried in an oven overnight at 70 °C. Mechanical testing indicated that the agarose film containing 60 wt% ChCl/Urea had higher tensile extension and tensile strain at break compared to the pristine agarose film. The addition of ChCl/Urea also reduced the glass transition temperature (Tg of agarose films. Cross-section SEM images of the agarose films showed that surface roughness disappeared with the incorporation of ChCl/Urea. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between agarose and ChCl/Urea. XRD patterns demonstrated that an amorphous phase was obtained when ChCl/Urea was added. Agarose films containing more ChCl/Urea exhibited higher transparency, as measured by a UV-Vis spectrometer. In summary, the physicochemical properties of agarose films were evidently affected by the incorporation of the ChCl/Urea as a plasticizing agent.

  2. Severe congenital myasthenia gravis of the presynaptic type with choline acetyltransferase mutation in a Chinese infant with respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Wai L; Lam, Ching W; Fung, Lai W E; Hon, Kam L E; Ng, Pak C

    2009-01-01

    We report a severe case of congenital myasthenia gravis in a Chinese newborn who presented with complete ptosis, severe hypotonia, dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency with recurrent apnea that required mechanical ventilatory support since birth. Routine neurophysiologic studies, including the 3-Hz repetitive stimulation test and electromyogram were normal. Neostigmine and edrophonium tests were also negative. However, decremental response to 3-Hz stimulation became apparent after depleting the muscles with trains of 10-Hz stimuli for 10 min. The infant was subsequently confirmed to have heterozygous mutations in the choline acetyltransferase genes, p.T553N and p.S704P. Both missense mutations are novel mutations. The child remained on positive pressure ventilation at 3 years of age despite treatment with high-dose anticholinesterase. This case highlights the difficulty of making an early diagnosis based on clinical presentation and routine electrophysiologic tests, especially when neonatologists are not familiar with this condition. Further, as there are different genetic defects causing different types of congenital myasthenia gravis, anticholinesterase therapy may be beneficial to some but detrimental to others. Therefore, the exact molecular diagnosis is an important guide to therapy. A high index of suspicion coupled with extended electrodiagnostic tests in clinically suspected patients will ensure the selection of appropriate genetic molecular study for confirming the diagnosis. PMID:18797171

  3. Voltammetric and impedance studies of the electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel in a choline chloride based ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Andrew P. [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Andrew.abbott@le.ac.uk; Capper, Glen [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); McKenzie, Katy J. [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ryder, Karl S. [Chemistry Department, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate the first practical alternative to the use of phosphoric and sulphuric acid mixtures for the electropolishing of stainless steel. In this paper, efficient electropolishing of type 316 stainless steel is demonstrated in an ionic liquid composed of ethylene glycol (HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH) and choline chloride (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} {sup +}Cl{sup -}). Linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and AC impedance methods were used to investigate the steel dissolution mechanism and the results are compared to polishing done in aqueous acidic solutions. It is shown that the quality of the polish is related to the breakdown of the oxide film and preliminary data suggest that the polishing process may be controlled by the diffusion of chloride ions. The dissolution is different from that found in aqueous acid solutions, and oxide breakdown is shown to be slower, which can lead to pitting at low current densities.

  4. Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Banerjee, Amrita; Apte, Sanjana; Kern, Theresa L; Jones, Mattie R; Sesto, Rico E Del; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Antiseptic agents are the primary arsenal to disinfect skin and prevent pathogens spreading within the host as well as into the surroundings; however the Food and Drug Administration published a report in 2015 requiring additional validation of nearly all current antiseptic agents before their continued use can be allowed. This vulnerable position calls for urgent identification of novel antiseptic agents. Recently, the ability of a deep eutectic, Choline And Geranate (CAGE), to treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. Here it is reported that CAGE exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a number of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses including clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as well as laboratory strains of Herpes Simplex Virus. Studies in human keratinocytes and mice show that CAGE affords negligible local or systemic toxicity, and an ≈180-14 000-fold improved efficacy/toxicity ratio over currently used antiseptic agents. Further, CAGE penetrates deep into the dermis and treats pathogens located in deep skin layers as confirmed by the ability of CAGE in vivo to treat Propionibacterium acnes infection. In combination, the results clearly demonstrate CAGE holds promise as a transformative platform antiseptic agent for preventive as well as therapeutic applications. PMID:26959835

  5. New splicing mutation in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene causing a muscular dystrophy detected by whole-exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Negrão, Luís; Fineza, Isabel; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Gonçalves, Ana Rita; Froufe, Hugo; Egas, Conceição; Santos, Rosário; Sousa, Mário

    2015-06-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a group of hereditary muscle disorders that include two particularly heterogeneous subgroups: limb-girdle MD and congenital MD, linked to 52 different genes (seven common to both subgroups). Massive parallel sequencing technology may avoid the usual stepwise gene-by-gene analysis. We report the whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis of a patient with childhood-onset progressive MD, also presenting mental retardation and dilated cardiomyopathy. Conventional sequencing had excluded eight candidate genes. WES of the trio (patient and parents) was performed using the ion proton sequencing system. Data analysis resorted to filtering steps using the GEMINI software revealed a novel silent variant in the choline kinase beta (CHKB) gene. Inspection of sequence alignments ultimately identified the causal variant (CHKB:c.1031+3G>C). This splice site mutation was confirmed using Sanger sequencing and its effect was further evaluated with gene expression analysis. On reassessment of the muscle biopsy, typical abnormal mitochondrial oxidative changes were observed. Mutations in CHKB have been shown to cause phosphatidylcholine deficiency in myofibers, causing a rare form of CMD (only 21 patients reported). Notwithstanding interpretative difficulties that need to be overcome before the integration of WES in the diagnostic workflow, this work corroborates its utility in solving cases from highly heterogeneous groups of diseases, in which conventional diagnostic approaches fail to provide a definitive diagnosis. PMID:25740612

  6. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L E; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular.

  7. Constitutive androstane receptor agonist, TCPOBOP, attenuates steatohepatitis in the methionine choline-deficient diet-fed mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5,dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) modulates steatohepatitis in the methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed animal. METHODS: C57/BL6 wild-type mice were fed the MCD or standard diet for 2 wk and were treated with either the CAR agonist, TCPOBOP, or the CAR inverse agonist, androstanol. RESULTS: Expression of CYP2B10 and CYP3A11, known CAR target genes, increased 30-fold and 45-fold, respectively, in TCPOBOP-treated mice fed the MCD diet. TCPOBOP treatment reduced hepatic steatosis (44.6 ± 5.4% vs 30.4 ± 4.5%, P < 0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (48 ± 8 vs 20 ± 1 mg/Dl, P < 0.05) in MCD dietfed mice as compared with the standard diet-fed mice. This reduction in hepatic steatosis was accompanied by an increase in enzymes involved in fatty acid microsomal ω-oxidation and peroxisomal β-oxidation, namely CYP4A10, LPBE, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. The reduction in steatosis was also accompanied by a reduction in liver cell apoptosis and inflammation. In contrast, androstanol was without effect on any of the above parameters. CONCLUSION: CAR activation stimulates induction of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and ameliorates hepatic steatosis, apoptosis and inflammation.

  8. PET/CT with {sup 11}C-choline for evaluation of prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence: meta-analysis and critical review of available data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanti, Stefano; Castellucci, Paolo [S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Minozzi, Silvia [Lazio Regional Health Service, Cochrane Review Group on Drugs and Alcohol, Department of Epidemiology, Rome (Italy); Balduzzi, Sara [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Diagnostic Medicine, Clinical and Public Health, Modena (Italy); Herrmann, Ken [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krause, Bernd Joachim [Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Oyen, Wim [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milano (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    For the last decade PET and PET/CT with {sup 11}C-choline have been proposed for the evaluation of prostate cancer (PC), but the diagnostic performance of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT is still a matter of debate. We performed a comprehensive review of the most important clinical application of {sup 11}C-choline PET, restaging of patients with biochemical relapse, following a rigorous methodological approach and including assessment of the risk of bias. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature assessing {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT for its accuracy in the diagnosis and ability to detect the site of recurrence of PC in the restaging of patients with biochemical recurrence after initial treatment with curative intent. We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed and the Cochrane Library to determine the accuracy for the detection of the site of recurrence (prostate bed recurrences, metastatic spread to locoregional pelvic lymph nodes or distant metastases). Only studies with a reference standard (for prostatic bed histopathology, for histopathology or biopsy of distant metastases or a composite reference standard with clinical follow-up of at least 12 months, correlative imaging and clinical data) were included. Overall 425 studies were retrieved, of which 43 were judged as potentially relevant and 29 with 2,686 participants were finally included. Of these 29 studies, 18 reported results for any relapse, All 18 studies, with a total of 2,126 participants, reported detection rates. The pooled rate was 62 % (95 % CI 53 - 71 %). Of the 18 studies, 12 with 1,270 participants reported useful data to derive sensitivity and specificity. The pooled sensitivity was 89 % (95 % CI 83 - 93 %) and the pooled specificity was 89 % (95 % CI 73 - 96 %). Of 11 studies reporting results for local relapse, 9 with 993 participants reported detection rates. The pooled rate was 27 % (95 % CI 16 - 38 %). Six studies with 491 participants reported sensitivity

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of two types of choline acetyltransferase in neurons and sensory cells of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuko; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Shin; D'Este, Loredana; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic structures in the arm of the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antisera for two types (common and peripheral) of acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT): antiserum raised against the rat common type ChAT (cChAT), which is cross-reactive with molluscan cChAT, and antiserum raised against the rat peripheral type ChAT (pChAT), which has been used to delineate peripheral cholinergic structures in vertebrates, but not previously in invertebrates. Western blot analysis of octopus extracts revealed a single pChAT-positive band, suggesting that pChAT antiserum is cross-reactive with an octopus counterpart of rat pChAT. In immunohistochemistry, only neuronal structures of the octopus arm were stained by cChAT and pChAT antisera, although the pattern of distribution clearly differed between the two antisera. cChAT-positive varicose nerve fibers were observed in both the cerebrobrachial tract and neuropil of the axial nerve cord, while pChAT-positive varicose fibers were detected only in the neuropil of the axial nerve cord. After epitope retrieval, pChAT-positive neuronal cells and their processes became visible in all ganglia of the arm, including the axial and intramuscular nerve cords, and in ganglia of suckers. Moreover, pChAT-positive structures also became detectable in nerve fibers connecting the different ganglia, in smooth nerve fibers among muscle layers and dermal connective tissues, and in sensory cells of the suckers. These results suggest that the octopus arm has two types of cholinergic nerves: cChAT-positive nerves from brain ganglia and pChAT-positive nerves that are intrinsic to the arm.

  10. Choline acetyltransferase expression in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after acute and chronic exposure to amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Li, Chun-Rong; Sui, Zhi-Yan; Kang, Nam-In; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-10-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing concern that atypical antipsychotics as well as typical ones may cause detrimental effects on cognitive function. Supporting evidence comes from many preclinical studies demonstrating that long-term administration of haloperidol, risperidone, and ziprasidone reduced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in rat hippocampus (HIP). However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the effects of amisulpride on ChAT expression in rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of amisulpride, haloperidol, and risperidone on ChAT expression in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and HIP. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of amisulpride (5 or 100mg/kg), haloperidol (1 or 2mg/kg), risperidone (1 or 2mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 or 45 days. One day after the last injection, rats were sacrificed. ChAT immunoreactivity was assessed with immunofluorescence staining. Target areas of brain were PFC and HIP (CA1, CA3 and DG). The short-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone produced significant decrease of ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP compared to vehicle whereas amisulpride had no effects on ChAT immunoreactivity in the PFC and HIP. In long-term study, haloperidol and risperidone decreased ChAT-positive cells and/or fiber pixel density in the PFC and HIP whereas amisulpride decreased ChAT-positive cells in the PFC and had no effects on fiber pixel density of ChAT in the HIP. The results suggest that both short-term and long-term administration of haloperidol and risperidone, and long-term administration of amisulpride may produce detrimental effects on cognitive function by reducing ChAT expression in the PFC and/or HIP.

  11. DSS colitis promotes tumorigenesis and fibrogenesis in a choline-deficient high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwa, Koichi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-29

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients progress to liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several lines of evidence indicate that accumulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and disruption of gut microbiota play contributory roles in HCC. Moreover, in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice, a high-fat diet increases portal LPS level and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this diet-induced NASH model requires at least 50 weeks for carcinogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine whether increased intestinal permeability would aggravate liver inflammation and fibrosis and accelerate tumorigenesis in a diet-induced NASH model. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat (CDHF) diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The DSS group was fed CDHF and intermittently received 1% DSS in the drinking water. Exposure to DSS promoted mucosal changes such as crypt loss and increased the number of inflammatory cells in the colon. In the DSS group, portal LPS levels were elevated at 4 weeks, and the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI in the fecal microbiota were elevated. In addition, levels of serum transaminase, number of lobular inflammatory cells, F4/80 staining-positive area, and levels of inflammatory cytokines were all elevated in the DSS group. Liver histology in the DSS group revealed severe fibrosis at 12 weeks. Liver tumors were detected in the DSS group at 12 weeks, but not in the other groups. Thus, DSS administration promoted liver tumors in a CDHF diet-induced NASH mouse over the short term, suggesting that the induction of intestinal inflammation and gut disruption of microbiota in NASH promote hepatic tumorigenesis.

  12. Enteric plexuses of two choline-acetyltransferase transgenic mouse lines: chemical neuroanatomy of the fluorescent protein-expressing nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Márta; Lawrence, J Josh; Gábriel, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied cholinergic circuit elements in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of two distinct transgenic mouse lines in which fluorescent protein expression was driven by the choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter. In the first mouse line, green fluorescent protein was fused to the tau gene. This construct allowed the visualization of the fiber tracts and ganglia, however the nerve cells were poorly resolved. In the second mouse line (ChATcre-YFP), CRE/loxP recombination yielded cytosolic expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In these preparations the morphology of enteric neurons could be well studied. We also determined the neurochemical identity of ENS neurons in muscular and submucous layers using antibodies against YFP, calretinin (CALR), calbindin (CALB), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Confocal microscopic imaging was used to visualize fluorescently-conjugated secondary antibodies. In ChATcre-YFP preparations, YFP was readily apparent in somatodendritic regions of ENS neurons. In the myenteric plexus, YFP/CALR/VIP staining revealed that 34% of cholinergic cells co-labeled with CALR. Few single-stained CR-positive cells were observed. Neither YFP nor CALR co-localized with VIP. In GFP/CALB/CALR staining, all co-localization combinations were represented. In the submucosal plexus, YFP/CALR/VIP staining revealed discrete neuronal populations. However, in separate preparations, double labeling was observed for YFP/CALR and CALR/VIP. In YFP/CALR/CALB staining, all combinations of double staining and triple labeling were verified. In conclusion, the neurochemical coding of ENS neurons in these mouse lines is consistent with many observations in non-transgenic animals. Thus, they provide useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies on distinct neurochemical subtypes of ENS neurons. PMID:25592616

  13. Activation of functional α7-containing nAChRs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by physiological levels of choline in the presence of PNU-120596.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bopanna I Kalappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of expression of functional α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to be very low compared to hippocampal CA1 interneurons, and for many years this expression was largely overlooked. However, high densities of expression of functional α7-containing nAChRs in CA1 pyramidal neurons may not be necessary for triggering important cellular and network functions, especially if activation of α7-containing nAChRs occurs in the presence of positive allosteric modulators such as PNU-120596. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An approach previously developed for α7-containing nAChRs expressed in tuberomammillary neurons was applied to investigate functional CA1 pyramidal α7-containing nAChRs using rat coronal hippocampal slices and patch-clamp electrophysiology. The majority (∼71% of tested CA1 pyramidal neurons expressed low densities of functional α7-containing nAChRs as evidenced by small whole-cell responses to choline, a selective endogenous agonist of α7 nAChRs. These responses were potentiated by PNU-120596, a novel positive allosteric modulator of α7 nAChRs. The density of functional α7-containing nAChRs expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons (and thus, the normalized net effect of activation, i.e., response net charge per unit of membrane capacitance per unit of time was estimated to be ∼5% of the density observed in CA1 interneurons. The results of this study demonstrate that despite low levels of expression of functional pyramidal α7-containing nAChRs, physiological levels of choline (∼10 µM are sufficient to activate these receptors and transiently depolarize and even excite CA1 pyramidal neurons in the presence of PNU-120596. The observed effects are possible because in the presence of 10 µM choline and 1-5 µM PNU-120596, a single opening of an individual pyramidal α7-containing nAChR ion channel appears to transiently depolarize (∼4 mV the

  14. NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) based signatures of abnormal choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma with no prominent Warburg effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bag, Swarnendu, E-mail: Swarna.bag@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Deb Ranjan, E-mail: debranjan2@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Basak, Amit, E-mail: absk@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Das, Amit Kumar, E-mail: amitk@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India); Pal, Mousumi, E-mail: drmpal62@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Rita, E-mail: ritabanerjee@outlook.com [Department of Science and Technology, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110016 (India); Paul, Ranjan Rashmi, E-mail: dr_rsspaul@yahoo.co.in [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy, E-mail: jchatterjee.iitkgp@gmail.com [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal (India)

    2015-04-17

    At functional levels, besides genes and proteins, changes in metabolome profiles are instructive for a biological system in health and disease including malignancy. It is understood that metabolomic alterations in association with proteomic and transcriptomic aberrations are very fundamental to unravel malignant micro-ambient criticality and oral cancer is no exception. Hence deciphering intricate dimensions of oral cancer metabolism may be contributory both for integrated appreciation of its pathogenesis and to identify any critical but yet unexplored dimension of this malignancy with high mortality rate. Although several methods do exist, NMR provides higher analytical precision in identification of cancer metabolomic signature. Present study explored abnormal signatures in choline metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analysis of serum. It has demonstrated down-regulation of choline with concomitant up-regulation of its break-down product in the form of trimethylamine N-oxide in OSCC compared to normal counterpart. Further, no significant change in lactate profile in OSCC possibly indicated that well-known Warburg effect was not a prominent phenomenon in such malignancy. Amongst other important metabolites, malonate has shown up-regulation but D-glucose, saturated fatty acids, acetate and threonine did not show any significant change. Analyzing these metabolomic findings present study proposed trimethyl amine N-oxide and malonate as important metabolic signature for oral cancer with no prominent Warburg effect. - Highlights: • NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) study of Oral Squamous cell Carcinoma Serum. • Abnormal Choline metabolomic signatures. • Up-regulation of Trimethylamine N-oxide. • Unchanged lactate profile indicates no prominent Warburg effect. • Proposed alternative glucose metabolism path through up-regulation of malonate.

  15. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanwell, Peter; Gluch, Laurence; Lean, Cynthia; Malycha, Peter; Mountford, Carolyn [Royal North Shore Hospital, Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW (Australia); Clark, David [Breast Centre, Waratah, NSW (Australia); Tomanek, Boguslaw [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Baker, Luke [Sydney Adventist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wahroonga, NSW (Australia); Giuffre, Bruno [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Radiology, St Leonards, NSW (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo {sup 1}H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  16. Crystal Structures of Human Choline Kinase Isoforms in Complex with Hemicholinium-3 Single Amino Acid near the Active Site Influences Inhibitor Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bum Soo; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Tempel, Wolfram; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; MacKenzie, Farrell; Dimov, Svetoslav; Vedadi, Masoud; Park, Hee-Won (Toronto)

    2010-07-06

    Human choline kinase (ChoK) catalyzes the first reaction in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and exists as ChoK{alpha} ({alpha}1 and {alpha}2) and ChoK{beta} isoforms. Recent studies suggest that ChoK is implicated in tumorigenesis and emerging as an attractive target for anticancer chemotherapy. To extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of ChoK inhibition, we have determined the high resolution x-ray structures of the ChoK{alpha}1 and ChoK{beta} isoforms in complex with hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a known inhibitor of ChoK. In both structures, HC-3 bound at the conserved hydrophobic groove on the C-terminal lobe. One of the HC-3 oxazinium rings complexed with ChoK{alpha}1 occupied the choline-binding pocket, providing a structural explanation for its inhibitory action. Interestingly, the HC-3 molecule co-crystallized with ChoK{beta} was phosphorylated in the choline binding site. This phosphorylation, albeit occurring at a very slow rate, was confirmed experimentally by mass spectroscopy and radioactive assays. Detailed kinetic studies revealed that HC-3 is a much more potent inhibitor for ChoK{alpha} isoforms ({alpha}1 and {alpha}2) compared with ChoK{beta}. Mutational studies based on the structures of both inhibitor-bound ChoK complexes demonstrated that Leu-401 of ChoK{alpha}2 (equivalent to Leu-419 of ChoK{alpha}1), or the corresponding residue Phe-352 of ChoK{beta}, which is one of the hydrophobic residues neighboring the active site, influences the plasticity of the HC-3-binding groove, thereby playing a key role in HC-3 sensitivity and phosphorylation.

  17. A colloidal suspension of nanostructured poly(N-butyl benzimidazole)-graphene sheets with high oxidase yield for analytical glucose and choline detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Lee, Ren-Shen; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2013-08-20

    A colloidal suspension of nanostructured poly(N-butyl benzimidazole)-graphene sheets (PBBIns-Gs) was used to modify a gold electrode to form a three-dimensional PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode that was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of acetic acid (AcOH). The positively charged nanostructured poly(N-butyl benzimidazole) (PBBIns) separated the graphene sheets (Gs) and kept them suspended in an aqueous solution. Additionally, graphene sheets (Gs) formed "diaphragms" that intercalated Gs, which separated PBBIns to prevent tight packing and enhanced the surface area. The PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode exhibited superior sensitivity toward H2O2 relative to the PBBIns-modified Au (PBBIns/Au) electrode. Furthermore, a high yield of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the PBBIns-Gs of 52.3mg GOD per 1mg PBBIns-Gs was obtained from the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged PBBIns-Gs and negatively charged GOD. The non-destructive immobilization of GOD on the surface of the PBBIns-Gs (GOD-PBBIns-Gs) retained 91.5% and 39.2% of bioactivity, respectively, relative to free GOD for the colloidal suspension of the GOD-PBBIns-Gs and its modified Au (GOD-PBBIns-Gs/Au) electrode. Based on advantages including a negative working potential, high sensitivity toward H2O2, and non-destructive immobilization, the proposed glucose biosensor based on an GOD-PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode exhibited a fast response time (5.6s), broad detection range (10μM to 10mM), high sensitivity (143.5μAmM(-1)cm(-2)) and selectivity, and excellent stability. Finally, a choline biosensor was developed by dipping a PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode into a choline oxidase (ChOx) solution for enzyme loading. The choline biosensor had a linear range of 0.1μM to 0.83mM, sensitivity of 494.9μAmM(-1)cm(-2), and detection limit of 0.02μM. The results of glucose and choline measurement indicate that the PBBIns-Gs/Au electrode provides a useful platform for the development of oxidase-based biosensors. PMID:23910974

  18. Early time course of N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine, and compounds containing choline in the brain after acute stroke. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Henriksen, O; Sperling, B;

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The early time course after acute stroke of cerebral N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine, and compounds containing choline was studied in vivo by means of localized water-suppressed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Eight patients with acute stroke...... as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. For quantification, the unsaturated water signal was used as the internal standard. Regional cerebral blood flow in the infarcted area was measured relative to a symmetrically located unaffected area by means of single-photon emission computed tomographic scanning...

  19. Technical note: Evaluation of the uncertainties in (choline+creatine)/citrate ratios measured by proton MR spectroscopic imaging in patients suspicious for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyn, S.; Krssak, M.; Memarsadeghi, M.; Gholami, B.; Haitel, A.; Weber, M.; Helbich, T.H.; Trattnig, S.; Moser, E.; Gruber, S.

    2014-07-15

    The presented evaluation of the relative uncertainty (δ'CCC) of the (choline + creatine)/citrate (CC/C) ratios can provide objective information about the quality and diagnostic value of prostate MR spectroscopic imaging data. This information can be combined with the numeric values of CC/C ratios and provides metabolic-quality maps enabling accurate cancer detection and user-independent data evaluation. In addition, the prostate areas suffering most from the low precision of CC/C ratios (e. g., prostate base) were identified.

  20. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Planning for Primary Prostate Cancer With Selective Intraprostatic Boost Determined by {sup 18}F-Choline PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Yu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Wu, Lili [Department of Medical Physics, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Hirata, Emily; Miyazaki, Kyle; Sato, Miles [Hamamatsu/Queen' s PET Imaging Center and Departments of Radiation Oncology and Oncology Research, The Queen' s Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Kwee, Sandi A., E-mail: kwee@hawaii.edu [Hamamatsu/Queen' s PET Imaging Center and Departments of Radiation Oncology and Oncology Research, The Queen' s Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated expected tumor control and normal tissue toxicity for prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with and without radiation boosts to an intraprostatically dominant lesion (IDL), defined by {sup 18}F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with localized prostate cancer underwent {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT before treatment. Two VMAT plans, plan{sub 79} {sub Gy} and plan{sub 100-105} {sub Gy}, were compared for each patient. The whole-prostate planning target volume (PTV{sub prostate}) prescription was 79 Gy in both plans, but plan{sub 100-105} {sub Gy} added simultaneous boost doses of 100 Gy and 105 Gy to the IDL, defined by 60% and 70% of maximum prostatic uptake on {sup 18}F-choline PET (IDL{sub suv60%} and IDL{sub suv70%}, respectively, with IDL{sub suv70%} nested inside IDL{sub suv60%} to potentially enhance tumor specificity of the maximum point dose). Plan evaluations included histopathological correspondence, isodose distributions, dose-volume histograms, tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: Planning objectives and dose constraints proved feasible in 30 of 30 cases. Prostate sextant histopathology was available for 28 cases, confirming that IDL{sub suv60%} adequately covered all tumor-bearing prostate sextants in 27 cases and provided partial coverage in 1 case. Plan{sub 100-105} {sub Gy} had significantly higher TCP than plan{sub 79} {sub Gy} across all prostate regions for α/β ratios ranging from 1.5 Gy to 10 Gy (P<.001 for each case). There were no significant differences in bladder and femoral head NTCP between plans and slightly lower rectal NTCP (endpoint: grade ≥ 2 late toxicity or rectal bleeding) was found for plan{sub 100-105} {sub Gy}. Conclusions: VMAT can potentially increase the likelihood of tumor control in primary prostate cancer while observing normal tissue tolerances through

  1. Prospective comparison of computed tomography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography for preoperative lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, Matthias M.; Retz, Margitta; Nawroth, Roman; Kuebler, Hubert; Maurer, Tobias; Thalgott, Mark; Gschwend, Juergen E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Gramer, Bettina M.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eiber, Matthias [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Weirich, Gregor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Pathology and Pathologic Anatomy, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Rondak, Ina-Christine [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Krause, Bernd [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively compare diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with computed tomography (CT) for preoperative lymph node (LN) staging in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Between June 2010 and May 2012, CT, DWI and [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were performed preoperatively in 33 intermediate- and high-risk PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) including obturator fossa and internal, external and common iliac fields. Patient- and field-based performance characteristics for all three imaging techniques based on histopathological results are reported. Imaging techniques were compared by means of the area under the curve (AUC). LN metastases were detected in 92 of 1,012 (9 %) LNs from 14 of 33 (42 %) patients. On patient-based analysis, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for CT were 57, 68 and 64 %, respectively, for DWI were 57, 79 and 70 %, respectively, and for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 57, 90 and 76 %, respectively. On field-based analysis, these numbers for CT were 47, 94 and 88 %, respectively, for DWI were 56, 97 and 92 %, respectively, and for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT were 62, 96 and 92 %, respectively. Neither DWI nor [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT performed significantly better than CT on pairwise comparison of patient- and field-based results. All three imaging techniques exhibit a rather low sensitivity with less than two thirds of LN metastases being detected on patient- and field-based analysis. Overall diagnostic efficacy did not differ significantly between imaging techniques, whereas distinct performance characteristics, esp. patient-based specificity, were best for [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT followed by DWI and CT. (orig.)

  2. Role of {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in suspicion of relapse following definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rampin, Lucia; Grassetto, Gaia; Rubello, Domenico [Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Ferretti, Alice [Hospital, Medical Physics and Biostatistics Unit, Rovigo (Italy); Nanni, Cristina [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Bologna (Italy); Colletti, Patrick M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2013-09-15

    The aims of the study were (a) to evaluate the diagnostic role, by means of positive detection rate (PDR), of {sup 18}F-choline (CH) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in patients with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy, with curative intent, and suspicion of relapse during follow-up, (b) to correlate the PDR with trigger prostate-specific antigen (PSA), (c) to investigate the possible influence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) at the time of scan on PDR and (d) to assess distribution of metastatic spread. {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT exams from 46 consecutive patients (mean age 71.3 years, range 51-84 years) with prostate cancer (mean Gleason score 6.4, range 5-8) previously treated by definitive radiotherapy and with suspicion of relapse with negative or inconclusive conventional imaging were retrospectively evaluated. Of the 46 patients, 12 were treated with brachytherapy and 34 with external beam radiation therapy. Twenty-three patients were under ADT at the time of the examination. Trigger PSA was measured within 1 month before the exam (mean value 6.5 ng/ml, range 1.1-49.4 ng/ml). Patients were subdivided into four groups according to their PSA level: 1.0 < PSA {<=} 2.0 ng/ml (11 patients), 2.0 < PSA {<=} 4.0 ng/ml (16 patients), 4.0 < PSA {<=} 6.0 ng/ml (9 patients) and PSA > 6.0 ng/ml (10 patients). Correlation between ADT and PDR was investigated as well as between PSA and distribution of metastatic spread. The overall PDR of {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT was 80.4 % (37/46 patients), increasing with the increase of trigger PSA. PDR of {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT is not influenced by ADT (p = 0.710) even if PET performed under ADT demonstrated an overall higher PDR (82.6 %). The majority of the patients (59 %, 22/37 patients) showed local relapse only, confined to the prostatic bed; 22 % of the PET/CT-positive patients (8/37 patients) showed distant relapse only (bone localizations in all of them), while the remaining 19 % (7/37 patients) showed both local and distant

  3. Features of changes in concentration of pituitary thyroid hormone and thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after operations with N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and thyroid hormones in the blood of rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after injections of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester were investigated. A sharp increase of pituitary thyroid hormone level and a sharp decrease of the level of thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with hypothyroidism have been established. Under the action of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl--α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester the decrease of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and the increase of thyroid hormones level in the rats' blood have been observed and reached their values in intact animals

  4. Influences of Short -term Aerobic Exercise and Supplementation of Carnitine With or Without Choline on Body Weight, Serum Leptin and Carnitine as Well as Lipid Status In Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat E. Hishem*, Bushra H. El-Zawahry*, Seham M.S. El Nakeeb**

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine is essential for fatty acids translocation, muscles function and exercise performance. Choline is a lipotropic agent that prevents deposition of fat in the liver. The studies concerning the effects of carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise on carnitine status and serum leptin are rare. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of carnitine and its combination with choline, with or without exercise on body and total fat pad (TFP weights, serum carnitine, leptin, -hydroxy butyric acid (-HBA, triacylglycerols (TAG and Free Fatty acids (FFA. Also, total lipids (TL and TAG content of TFP and urinary carnitine were investigated. Material and Methods: 48 male rats were equally divided to the following groups: control (C, carnitine (5 g/Kg diet supplemented, carnitine plus choline (5 and 11.5 g /Kg diet respectively supplemented. Half of each group was subjected to short term aerobic exercise on manual treadmill, in which the speed and duration were gradually increased via the course of the experiment, to be 10 m/min for 20 min/day, 5 days/week in the last 2 weeks. Body weights were recorded weekly. After 6 weeks, The 24 hours urine was collected then the fasted rats were sacrificed and blood and the total fat pad (TFP were collected for analysis. Results: Carnitine supplementation, tended to decrease body weight, TFP, TAG content and serum FFA, and significantly decreased the TL content, serum leptin, TAG (P<0.0005. Carnitine feeding resulted in a significant elevation of serum carnitine, -HBA and urinary carnitine (P<0.0005, compared to sedentary control rats. These values became more pronounced on choline addition to the diet except for serum and urinary carnitine that reversed (i.e. decreased by choline addition. Exercise intervention resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, TFP, TL content and serum leptin, TAG and FFA. These values were more pronounced in both supplements with exercise

  5. In Vitro Monitoring of Total Choline Levels in a Bioartificial Pancreas: 1H NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Effects of Oxygen Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert C.; Papas, Klearchos K.; Sambanis, Athanassios; Constantinidis, Ioannis

    2000-09-01

    This investigation implements specifically designed solvent-suppressed adiabatic pulses whose properties make possible the long-term monitoring of 1H NMR detectable metabolites from alginate/poly-l-lysine/alginate (APA)-encapsulated βTC3 cells. Our encapsulated preparations were maintained in a perfusion bioreactor for periods exceeding 30 days. During this prolonged cultivation period, the cells were exposed to repetitive hypoxic episodes of 4 and 24 h. The ratio of the total choline signal (3.20 ppm) to the reference signal (observed at 0.94 ppm assigned to isoleucine, leucine, and valine) decreased by 8-10% for the 4-h and by 20-32% for the 24-h episodes and returned to its prehypoxic level upon reoxygenation. The decrease in the mean value of total choline to reference signal ratio for three 4-h and two 24-h episodes in two different cultures was highly significant (P metabolism are suggested. In addition, the implications of these findings to the development of a noninvasive monitoring method for tissue-engineered constructs composed of encapsulated cells are discussed.

  6. Modeling the Interaction between β-Amyloid Aggregates and Choline Acetyltransferase Activity and Its Relation with Cholinergic Dysfunction through Two-Enzyme/Two-Compartment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedia Fgaier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of β-amyloid aggregates on activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT which is responsible for synthesizing acetylcholine (ACh in human brain is investigated through the two-enzyme/two-compartment (2E2C model where the presynaptic neuron is considered as compartment 1 while both the synaptic cleft and the postsynaptic neuron are considered as compartment 2 through suggesting three different kinetic mechanisms for the inhibition effect. It is found that the incorporation of ChAT inhibition by β-amyloid aggregates into the 2E2C model is able to yield dynamic solutions for concentrations of generated β-amyloid, ACh, choline, acetate, and pH in addition to the rates of ACh synthesis and ACh hydrolysis in compartments 1 and 2. It is observed that ChAT activity needs a high concentration of β-amyloid aggregates production rate. It is found that ChAT activity is reduced significantly when neurons are exposed to high levels of β-amyloid aggregates leading to reduction in levels of ACh which is one of the most significant physiological symptoms of AD. Furthermore, the system of ACh neurocycle is dominated by the oscillatory behavior when ChAT enzyme is completely inhibited by β-amyloid. It is observed that the direct inactivation of ChAT by β-amyloid aggregates may be a probable mechanism contributing to the development of AD.

  7. Changes in skeletal tumor activity on {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in patients receiving {sup 223}radium radionuclide therapy for metastatic prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kyle S. [Oncology Research Dept. and Hamamatsu/Queen' s PET Imaging Center, The Queen' s Medical Center, Honolulu (United States); Kang, Yu; Kwee, Sandi A. [Dept. of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Radium-223 dichloride is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical shown to prolong survival in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic skeletal metastases. This report describes in two patients the acute changes in bone metastatic activity detected by F-18 choline PET/CT imaging midway during treatment with radium-223 dichloride. In addition to visual and standardized uptake value analysis, changes in the whole-body tumor burden were quantified by measuring the difference in net metabolically active tumor volume (MATV) and total lesion activity (TLA) between pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. After the third dose of radium-223 dichloride, near-total disappearance of abnormal skeletal activity was observed in one case (net MATV change from 260.7 to 0.8 cc; net TLA change from 510.7 to 2.1), while a heterogeneous tumor response was observed in the other (net MATV change from 272.2 to 241.3 cc; net TLA change from 987.1 to 779.4). Corresponding normalization and persistent elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase levels were observed in these cases, respectively. Further research is needed to determine the predictive value of serial F-18 choline PET/CT imaging in patients receiving radium-223 dichloride for CRPC.

  8. The effect of a combined choline salicylate and cetalkonium chloride gel on particular strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amangeldykyzy Saule

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing control of virulent bacteria strains is a challenge for today’s medicine. An example of this, is one widely used drug employed in treating less serious external oral and ocular bacterial infections. This is a gel containing both cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate. However, whether in the era of expanding bacterial resistance this gel is still effective, is not clear. Hence, in our work, its antibacterial effect was studied against 13 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 strains of Staphylococcus spp. and 6 strains of Streptococcus spp. drawn from the collection of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology, Kazakh National Medical University, as well as against 30 strains of Staphylococcus spp. recently isolated from Kazakh medical students. This work demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to this preparation in all samples, while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. was almost halved, compared to untreated samples. An interesting discovery was the greater resistance of strains obtained from student volunteers than from the collection. However, despite the evident resistance of some strains to the combined cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate gel, we put forward that it can still be used in less serious external bacterial infections.

  9. Choline Transporter Hemizygosity Results in Diminished Basal Extracellular Dopamine Levels in Nucleus Accumbens and Blunts Dopamine Elevations Following Cocaine or Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Dani, John A.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) signaling in the central nervous system mediates the addictive capacities of multiple commonly abused substances, including cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and nicotine. The firing of DA neurons residing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the release of DA by the projections of these neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), is under tight control by cholinergic signaling mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs). The capacity for cholinergic signaling is dictated by the availability and activity of the presynaptic, high-affinity, choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7) that acquires choline in an activity-dependent matter to sustain ACh synthesis. Here, we present evidence that a constitutive loss of CHT expression, mediated by genetic elimination of one copy of the Slc5a7 gene in mice (CHT+/−), leads to a significant reduction in basal extracellular DA levels in the NAc, as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Moreover, CHT heterozygosity results in blunted DA elevations following systemic nicotine or cocaine administration. These findings reinforce a critical role of ACh signaling capacity in both tonic and drug-modulated DA signaling and argue that genetically-imposed reductions in CHT that lead to diminished DA signaling may lead to poor responses to reinforcing stimuli, possibly contributing to disorders linked to perturbed cholinergic signaling including depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:23939187

  10. Impact of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT on clinical decision making in recurrent prostate cancer: results from a retrospective two-centre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Herrmann, Ken; Bluemel, Christina; Droll, Sabine; Buck, Andreas K. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Castellucci, Paolo; Graziani, Tiziano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Brunocilla, Eugenio [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Vollmer, Christian [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Urology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Mazzarotto, Renzo [University of Bologna, Service of Radiotherapy, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this retrospective two-centre study was to investigate the clinical impact of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT on treatment management decisions in patients with recurrent prostate cancer (rPCa) after radical therapy. Enrolled in this retrospective study were 150 patients (95 from Bologna, 55 from Wuerzburg) with rPCa and biochemical relapse (PSA mean ± SD 4.3 ± 5.5 ng/mL, range 0.2-39.4 ng/mL) after radical therapy. The intended treatment before PET/CT was salvage radiotherapy of the prostatic bed in 95 patients and palliative androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in 55 patients. The effective clinical impact of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was rated as major (change in therapeutic approach), minor (same treatment, but modified therapeutic strategy) or none. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis included PSA level, PSA kinetics, ongoing ADT, Gleason score, TNM, age and time to relapse. Changes in therapy after {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT were implemented in 70 of the 150 patients (46.7 %). A major clinical impact was observed in 27 patients (18 %) and a minor clinical impact in 43 (28.7 %). {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 109 patients (72.7 %) detecting local relapse (prostate bed and/or iliac lymph nodes and/or pararectal lymph nodes) in 64 patients (42.7 %). Distant relapse (paraaortic and/or retroperitoneal lymph nodes and/or bone lesions) was seen in 31 patients (20.7 %), and both local and distant relapse in 14 (9.3 %). A significant difference was observed in PSA level and PSA kinetics between PET-positive and PET-negative patients (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, PSA level, PSA doubling time and ongoing ADT were significant predictors of a positive scan (p < 0.05). In statistical analysis no significant differences were observed between the Bologna and Wuerzburg patients (p > 0.05). In both centres the same criteria to validate PET-positive findings were used: in 17.3 % of patients by histology and in 82.7 % of patients by correlative

  11. Is the detection rate of 18F-choline PET/CT influenced by androgen-deprivation therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Grassetto, Gaia; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rampin, Lucia; Rubello, Domenico [' ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' ' Hospital, Rovigo (Italy). PET/CT Centre; Ferretti, Alice [' ' San Giacomo Apostolo' ' Hospital, Castelfranco Veneto, Treviso (Italy). Service of Medical Physics; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Univ. Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Giammarile, Francesco [Lyon 1 Univ. Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud Biophysique, Villeurbanne (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate if the detection rate (DR) of {sup 18}F-choline (18F-CH) PET/CT is influenced by androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) already treated with radical intent and presenting biochemical relapse. We have retrospectively evaluated {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT scans of 325 consecutive PC patients enrolled in the period November 2009 to December 2012 previously treated with radical intent and referred to our centre to perform {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT for biochemical relapse. Two different groups of patients were evaluated. group A included the whole sample of 325 patients (mean age 70 years, range: 49-86) who presented trigger PSA between 0.1 and 80 ng/ml (mean 5.5 ng/ml), and group B included 187 patients (mean age 70 years, range 49-86) with medium-low levels of trigger PSA ranging between 0.5 and 5 ng/ml (mean PSA 2.1 ng/ml); group B was chosen in order to obtain a more homogeneous group of patients in terms of PSA values also excluding both very low and very high PSA levels avoiding the ''a priori'' higher probability of negative or positive PET scan, respectively. At the time of examination, 139 patients from group A and 72 patients from group B were under ADT: these patients were considered to be hormone-resistant PC patients because from their oncologic history (>18 months) an increase of PSA levels emerged despite the ongoing ADT. The relationship between {sup 18}F-CH PET/CT findings and possible clinical predictors was investigated using both univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, including trigger PSA and ADT. Considering the whole population, overall DR of {sup 18}F-CH PET was 58.2 % (189/325 patients). In the whole sample of patients (group A), both at the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, trigger PSA and ADT were significantly correlated with the DR of {sup 18}F-CH PET (p < 0.05). Moreover, the DR in patients under ADT (mean PSA 7.8 ng/ml) was higher than in

  12. Synergistic effects of ginseng stem and leaf-extracted ginsenoside and choline on improving learning and memory in rats Association verification experiment in animals with multiple learning and memory Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Hongxia Gu; Qing Li; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Hongxin Cai; Ling Zhang; Dawei Li; Xinnong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside extracted from the stem and leaf of ginseng(GSL)and choline have both been shown to improve learning and memory functions; however,further studies are needed to understand the synergistic effects of a combination of both.OBJECTIVE:To verify the combined improved synergistic effects of GSL and choline on learning and memory disorders in rats.DESIGN:Control observation.SETTING:Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS:A total of 150 male Kunming mice weighing(20±2)g and 40 healthy male Wistar rats weighing(220±20)g were provided by the Experimental Animal Department of Jilin University.Animal experimentation received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee.GSL was provided by the Department of Chemistry,Norman Bethune Medical University,and choline was provided by the Third Experiment Factory,Shanghai.METHODS:This study was performed at the Life Science Institute,Taishan Medical College from October 2006 to February 2007.①Scopolamine-induced learning and memory disorders in rats:Forty rats were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg/kg GSL + 200 mg/kg choline),GSL(400 mg/kg)group,and choline(200 mg/kg)group,8 rats/group.Rats were perfused and administrated in the morning,once a day for 14 successive days.Rats in the control group and model group were perfused with 20 mL/kg distilled water and underwent Morris water maze spatial resolution test 1 hour after perfusion on the 10th,11th,and 12th days after administration.Rats also underwent passive step-down avoidance test 1 hour after reperfusion on the 13th and 14th days after administration.Thirty minutes prior to experimentation,rats in the remaining three groups were intraperitoneally(I.p)injected with 2 mg/kg scopolamine,and rats in the control group were I.p.injected with 2 mL/kg saline.②Scopolamine-induced learning disorder and memory acquired disorder in mice:Fifty mice were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg

  13. 过瘤胃胆碱对围产期奶牛营养作用的研究进展%Advance Research on Trophism of Rumen-Protected Choline for Dairy Cows in Perinatal Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 曲永利

    2012-01-01

    本文通过研究围产期奶牛的代谢特点,阐述了胆碱的生物学功能及其在瘤胃中的代谢机理,同时论述了过瘤胃胆碱对围产期奶牛的营养作用。旨在为应用过瘤胃胆碱缓解奶牛能量负平衡,减少围产期奶牛营养代谢病发病率,提高奶牛生产性能,延长奶牛利用年限奠定理论参考依据。%This article elaborated the biological function of choline, described the choline metabolic characteristics in rumen, discussed the nutritional role of rumen-protected choline via studying metabolic characteristics of dairy cows in the rumen protected choline to pe all rinatal stage. This paper aimed to establish theoretical basis on applying eviate the energy negative balance of cows, reduce tperinatal period metabolic disease,improve the performance,prolong the utilization of dairy cows.

  14. Blocking phosphatidylcholine utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, via mutagenesis of fatty acid, glycerol and choline degradation pathways, confirms the importance of this nutrient source in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxin Sun

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow to very high-cell-density (HCD during infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF lung. Phosphatidylcholine (PC, the major component of lung surfactant, has been hypothesized to support HCD growth of P. aeruginosa in vivo. The phosphorylcholine headgroup, a glycerol molecule, and two long-chain fatty acids (FAs are released by enzymatic cleavage of PC by bacterial phospholipase C and lipases. Three different bacterial pathways, the choline, glycerol, and fatty acid degradation pathways, are then involved in the degradation of these PC components. Here, we identified five potential FA degradation (Fad related fadBA-operons (fadBA1-5, each encoding 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA thiolase. Through mutagenesis and growth analyses, we showed that three (fadBA145 of the five fadBA-operons are dominant in medium-chain and long-chain Fad. The triple fadBA145 mutant also showed reduced ability to degrade PC in vitro. We have previously shown that by partially blocking Fad, via mutagenesis of fadBA5 and fadDs, we could significantly reduce the ability of P. aeruginosa to replicate on FA and PC in vitro, as well as in the mouse lung. However, no studies have assessed the ability of mutants, defective in choline and/or glycerol degradation in conjunction with Fad, to grow on PC or in vivo. Hence, we constructed additional mutants (ΔfadBA145ΔglpD, ΔfadBA145ΔbetAB, and ΔfadBA145ΔbetABΔglpD significantly defective in the ability to degrade FA, choline, and glycerol and, therefore, PC. The analysis of these mutants in the BALB/c mouse lung infection model showed significant inability to utilize PC in vitro, resulted in decreased replication fitness and competitiveness in vivo compared to the complement strain, although there was little to no variation in typical virulence factor production (e.g., hemolysin, lipase, and protease levels. This further supports the hypothesis that lung surfactant PC serves as an

  15. 11C choline PET guided salvage radiotherapy with volumetric modulation arc therapy and hypofractionation for recurrent prostate cancer after HIFU failure: preliminary results of tolerability and acute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Filippo; Liardo, Rocco L E; Iftode, Cristina; Lopci, Egesta; Villa, Elisa; Comito, Tiziana; Tozzi, Angelo; Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna M; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Bellorofonte, Carlo; Arturo, Chiti; Scorsetti, Marta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate tolerance, feasibility and acute toxicity in patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) failure. From 2005 to 2011 a total of 15 patients were treated with HIFU as primary radical treatment. Between July 2011 and February 2013, all 15 patients presented biochemical relapse after HIFU and 11C choline PET documenting intrapostatic-only failure. Salvage EBRT was performed with moderate hypofractionation schedule in 28 fractions with volumetric modulation arc therapy (VMAT). Genito-urinary (GU) and rectal and bowel toxicity were scored by common terminology criteria for adverse events version 4 (CTCAE V.4) scale. Biochemical response was assessed by ASTRO Phoenix criteria. Median age of patients was 67 years (range: 53-85). The median Gleason score was 7 (range: 6-9). The median prostate specific antigen (PSA) at the time of biochemical relapse after HIFU was 5.2 ng/mL (range: 2-64.2). Seven of the 15 patients received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) started after HIFU failure, interrupted before 11C choline PET and radiotherapy. Median prescribed dose was 71.4 Gy (range: 71.4-74.2 Gy) in 28 fractions. No radiation related major upper gastrointestinal (GI), rectal and GU toxicity were experienced. GU, acute grade 1 and grade 2 toxicities were recorded in 7/15 and 4/15 respectively; bowel acute grade 1 and grade 2 toxicities in 4/15 and 1/15; rectal acute grade 1 and grade 2 toxicities in 3/15 and 2/15 respectively. No grade 3 or greater acute or late toxicities occurred. Biochemical control was assessed in 12/15 (80%) patients. With a median follow up of 12 months, three out of 15 patients, with biochemical relapse, showed lymph-nodal recurrence. Our early clinical results and biochemical data confirm the feasibility and show a good tolerance of the 11C choline PET guided salvage radiation therapy after HIFU failure. The findings of low acute toxicity is encouraging, but longer

  16. Early Choline Levels From 3-Tesla MR Spectroscopy After Exclusive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer are Predictive of Plasmatic Levels of PSA at 1 Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the time course response of prostate metabolism to irradiation using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-month intervals and its impact on biochemical control. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and April 2010, 24 patients with localized prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled in the Evaluation of the Response to Irradiation with MR Spectroscopy (ERIS) trial. All the patients had been treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy with or without long-term adjuvant hormonal therapy (LTHT) and underwent 3-T MRS and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assays at baseline and every 3 months thereafter up to 12 months. Results: After radiation, the mean normalized citrate level (citrate/water) decreased significantly over time, both in the peripheral zone (PZ) (p = 0.0034) and in the entire prostate (p = 0.0008), whereas no significant change was observed in mean normalized choline levels (choline/water) in the PZ (p = 0.84) and in the entire prostate (p = 0.95). At 6 months after radiation, the mean choline level was significantly lower in the PZ for patients with a PSA value of ≤0.5 ng/mL at 12 months (4.9 ± 1.7 vs. 7.1 ± 1.5, p = 0.0378). Similar results were observed at 12 months in the PZ (6.2 ± 2.3 vs. 11.4 ± 4.1, p = 0.0117 for choline level and 3.4 ± 0.7 vs. 16.1 ± 6.1, p = 0.0054 for citrate level) and also in the entire prostate (6.2 ± 1.9 vs. 10.4 ± 3.2, p = 0.014 for choline level and 3.0 ± 0.8 vs. 13.3 ± 4.7, p = 0.0054 for citrate level). For patients receiving LTHT, there was no correlation between choline or citrate levels and PSA value, either at baseline or at follow-up. Conclusions: Low normalized choline in the PZ, 6 months after radiation, predicts which patients attained a PSA ≤0.5 ng/mL at 1 year. Further analyses with longer follow-up times are warranted to determine whether or not these new biomarkers can conclusively predict the early radiation response and the clinical outcome for

  17. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P energy balance values in supplemented cows were improved after parturition (P supplements improved milk production (P supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows. PMID:27501393

  18. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P energy balance values in supplemented cows were improved after parturition (P energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows.

  19. The concentration of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine + phosphocreatine, and choline in different parts of the brain in adulthood and senium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Toft, P; Larsson, H B;

    1993-01-01

    The fully relaxed water signal was used as an internal standard in a STEAM experiment to calculate the concentrations of the metabolites: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), and choline (Cho) containing compounds in four different parts of the brain in two age groups....... In the younger age group, the concentration of NAA was significantly higher in the occipital part than in the other three parts of the brain. No significant regional variation was found for any other metabolite concentration. There was a significantly higher concentration of NAA in the occipital part...... of the brain in the younger age group compared to the older one. No significant regional or age dependent variation was found concerning the T1 and T2 relaxation times....

  20. Electroless deposition of metallic silver from a choline chloride-based ionic liquid: a study using acoustic impedance spectroscopy, SEM and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Andrew P; Nandhra, Satvinder; Postlethwaite, Stella; Smith, Emma L; Ryder, Karl S

    2007-07-28

    In this paper, we describe the first example of a sustained galvanic coating deposited on a surface from a non-aqueous liquid. We present the surface characterization of electroless silver deposits on copper substrates from a solution of Ag(+) ions in an ionic liquid based on a choline chloride (ChCl) eutectic. Through a study of these deposits and the mechanism of formation using acoustic impedance spectroscopy (QCM), probe microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), we demonstrate that sustained growth of the silver deposit is facilitated by the porous nature of the silver. This is in contrast to the dip-coating reaction of silver ions in aqueous media, where the reaction stops when surface coverage is reached. Electroless silver deposits of up to several microns have been obtained by dip coating in ionic liquids without the use of catalysts of strong inorganic acids. PMID:17622408

  1. In situ Raman and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on crystallization of Choline chloride/Urea deep eutectic solvent under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaosheng; Chu, Kunkun; Li, Haining; Su, Lei; Yang, Kun; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Pressure-induced crystallization of Choline chloride/Urea (ChCl/Urea) deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been investigated by in-situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that high pressure crystals appeared at around 2.6 GPa, and the crystalline structure was different from that formed at ambient pressure. Upon increasing the pressure, the Nsbnd H stretching modes of Urea underwent dramatic change after liquid-solid transition. It appears that high pressures may enhance the hydrogen bonds formed between ChCl and Urea. P versus T phase diagram of ChCl/Urea DES was constructed, and the crystallization mechanism of ChCl/Urea DES was discussed in view of hydrogen bonds.

  2. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows. PMID:27501393

  3. Polymerization of 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, main monomer of tomato cuticle, using the Lewis acidic ionic liquid choline chloride.2ZnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Beatriz eGómez-Patiño

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, main monomer of the tomato cuticle obtained from agro-residual wastes, was polymerized using (choline chloride.2ZnCl2 ionic liquid as catalyst at three different temperatures (80, 90 and 100 °C. The resulting polyesters obtained under these conditions were insoluble in most of the organic solvents and showed different physicochemical properties. While at 80 °C polymers were obtained as powder, at higher temperature they were found in viscous consistency. According with the CP MAS 13C NMR and FTIR-ATR analysis, polymers showed a linear structure with an increasing degree of esterification in position C-10. Polyesters were analyzed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, atomic force microscopy (AFM and X ray diffraction (small- and wide-angle scattering, SWAXS techniques.

  4. 雷氏盐重量法测定饲料级氯化胆碱%Determination of feed grade choline chloride with Reinecke Gravimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋荣; 常碧影

    2001-01-01

    @@ 氯化胆碱(Choline Choride),化学名称为2-羟乙基三甲基胺盐酸盐,是水溶性维生素--胆碱的盐酸盐.胆碱是动物体细胞卵磷脂、神经磷脂的组成部分,主要参与脂肪代谢,同时又是动物的甲基供体.据统计,全世界每年需要氯化胆碱20万t,是维生素类添加剂中用量最大的一种,工业生产的90%用于饲料添加剂.由于采用集约化生产,氯化胆碱的需求增长速度大于其它维生素.

  5. The effect of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on microelements and silicon concentration, photosynthesis activity and yield of tomato grown under Mn stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Tomasz; Calomme, Mario; Borowiak, Klaudia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of experiments was to assess the efficiency of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA; complex of orthosilicic acid with choline and a bioavailable source of silicon) application under increasing manganese (Mn) stress on the micronutritional composition and yielding of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cvs. 'Alboney F1' and 'Emotion F1'). Plants were grown in rockwool with the application of a nutrient solution varied the Mn concentrations (in mg dm(-3)): 9.6 and 19.2 which cause strong oxidative stress of plants comparing with optimal concentration of that microelement in nutrient solution. The effect of ch-OSA application (at Si concentration of 0.3 mg dm(-3) nutrient solution) was investigated at both Mn-levels. Increasing Mn stress modified the concentration of microelements and silicon (Si) in tomato leaves. Application of ch-OSA also influenced the concentration of nutrients, but the determined changes were generally multidirectional and varied depending on Mn-level and cultivar. Under the increasing Mn stress a significant downward trend was observed for the mean concentration of Fe (in both cultivars) in fruits--but changes of Mn, Zn and Cu were varied depend on cultivar. In the case of cv. 'Alboney F1' ch-OSA application caused an increase the mean concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu, while in the case of cv. 'Emotion F1' the reduction of mean concentrations of Zn and Cu was recorded. Ch-OSA treatment did not influence on the Mn concentrations in fruits. A beneficial role of ch-OSA was also found in photosynthesis activity. This was especially valid for lower levels of Mn. Application of ch-OSA improved significantly the marketable yield of tomato under stress by a low Mn level.

  6. Genome-wide association study of IgG1 responses to the choline-binding protein PspC of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D; Fakiola, M; Hales, B J; Pennell, C E; Thomas, W R; Blackwell, J M

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae causes invasive pneumococcal disease. Delayed development of antibodies to S. pneumoniae in infancy is associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is a vaccine candidate and variation in its choline-binding region is associated with invasive disease. This study examined 523 060 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study to find loci influencing immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) responses to PspC measured at age 14 years (n=1152). Genome-wide significance (top SNP rs9275596; P=3.1 × 10(-14)) was only observed at human leucocyte antigen (HLA). Imputed HLA amino-acid polymorphisms showed the strongest associations at positions DRB1 47 (P=3.2 × 10(-11)), 13SRG (P=9.8 × 10(-10)) and 11SP (P=9.8 × 10(-10)), and at DQA1 34 (P=6.4 × 10(-10)), DQB1 167R (P=9.3 × 10(-6)) and HLA-B 95 W (P=1.2 × 10(-9)). Conditional analyses showed independent contributions from DRB1 47 and DQB1 167R to the signal at rs9275596, supported by an omnibus test showing a strong signal for the haplotype DRB1_47_DQB1_167 (P=9.02 × 10(-15)). In silico analysis showed that DRB1 four-digit allele groups defined by DRB1 47F bind to a greater complexity of core 9-mer epitopes compared with DRB1 47Y, especially across repeats in the C-term choline-binding region. Consequent differences in CD4 T-cell help for IgG1 to PspC could have implications for vaccine design. Further analysis in other cohorts is merited. PMID:25928883

  7. Quantitative evaluation of bone metastases from prostate cancer with simultaneous [18F] choline PET/MRI. Combined SUV and ADC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantitatively analyze bone metastases from prostate cancer and correlate the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and standardized uptake values (SUVs). Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer or suspected recurrent prostate cancer were examined with simultaneous [18F] choline Positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI at 3 T. In 11 patients, thirty-two PET-positive bone lesions could be identified that were located in the field-of-view of the Diffusion weighted imaging-sequence. Region-of-interest and volume-of-interest analyses were performed to measure the mean and minimal ADCs and to assess maximum and mean SUVs of every bone lesion. Correlations between maximum and mean SUVs and mean and minimal ADCs were calculated. The SUVmax of all lesions was 5.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD). The SUVmean was 1.8 ± 0.9. The mean ADC (ADCmean) of all lesions was 0.67 ± 0.13 x 10-3 mm2/s. The minimal ADC (ADCmin) of all lesions was 0.56 ± 0.14 x 10-3 mm2/s. There was a moderate but significant inverse correlation of SUVmax vs. ADCmean with a correlation coefficient of -0.4 (p=0.02). There was also a significant inverse correlation of SUVmax vs. ADCmin with r=-0.41 (p=0.02). Our initial results demonstrate a moderate but significant inverse correlation between increased choline metabolism and ADC values of bone metastases from prostate cancer. Further research on a multimodality approach using simultaneous PET/MRI in bone metastasis of prostate cancer seems to be justified. (author)

  8. Differential co-localization with choline acetyltransferase in nervus terminalis suggests functional differences for GnRH isoforms in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F; Meredith, Michael

    2010-12-17

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is a vertebrate cranial nerve whose function in adults is unknown. In bonnethead sharks, the nerve is anatomically independent of the olfactory system, with two major cell populations within one or more ganglia along its exposed length. Most cells are immunoreactive for either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or RF-amide-like peptides. To define further the cell populations and connectivity, we used double-label immunocytochemistry with antisera to different isoforms of GnRH and to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The labeling patterns of two GnRH antisera revealed different populations of GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell profiles in the NT ganglion. One antiserum labeled a large group of cells and fibers, which likely contain mammalian GnRH (GnRH-I) as described in previous studies and which were ChAT immunoreactive. The other antiserum labeled large club-like structures, which were anuclear, and a sparse number of fibers, but with no clear labeling of cell bodies in the ganglion. These club structures were choline acetyltrasferase (ChAT)-negative, and preabsorption control tests suggest they may contain chicken-GnRH-II (GnRH-II) or dogfish GnRH. The second major NT ganglion cell-type was immunoreactive for RF-amides, which regulate GnRH release in other vertebrates, and may provide an intraganglionic influence on GnRH release. The immunocytochemical and anatomical differences between the two GnRH-immunoreactive profile types indicate possible functional differences for these isoforms in the NT. The club-like structures may be sites of GnRH release into the general circulation since these structures were observed near blood vessels and resembled structures seen in the median eminence of rats. PMID:20950589

  9. In vivo {sup 19}F-MRS observation of 5-FU metabolism in fatty liver induced by choline-deficient diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Koga, Keiko

    1996-07-01

    Using {sup 19}F-MRS, 5-FU metabolism was investigated in rat fatty liver. Fatty liver was induced by choline-deficient diet (CD diet). This study showed differences in 5-FU metabolism between normal and fatty liver. After laparotomy, a surface coil was placed directly on the liver surface. Spectra were continuously obtained after injection of 5-FU 100 mg/kg body weight via a catheter inserted into femoral vein. We made MRI and {sup 1}H-MRS study to examine the lipid accumulation. Histological study was also performed using HE (hematoxylin-eosin) and oil red stain. The livers of rats fed a CD diet showed very high intensity on T{sub 1}-WI. {sup 1}H-MRS was very useful in deteminating the fat content because the fat ratio demonstrated by {sup 1}H-MRS is well correlated to histological findings. In {sup 19}F-MRS, we recognized the following four peaks: 5-FU, FBAL, Fnct (fluoronucleotide) and FUPA. The decrease of 5-FU was not very apparent, but compared to the normal liver, the formation of Fnct increased and the formation of FBAL was suppressed in fatty liver. The rats fed a CD diet for four weeks showed a higher Fnct peak and lower FBAL peak compared with the results of rats fed a CD diet for two weeks. In a CD diet group, liver cell degeneration and necrotic changes were observed histologically. It is reported that cell degeneration is followed by cell proliferation in fatty liver induced by a choline deficient diet, and the high Fnct peak found in our study may reflect this phenomenon. The high Fnct peak on {sup 19}F-MRS may correspond to recovering reaction from liver injury like fatty liver. (author)

  10. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P ruminal choline and methionine elevated the blood antioxidant status, as indicated by total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the vitamin E concentration (P < 0.05), and reduced the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, RPM and RPC elevated the plasma interleukin 2 (IL-2) concentration and the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood (P < 0.05). Alternatively, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased by RPM and RPC (P < 0.05). Overall, the regulatory responses of RPC and RPM were highly correlated with time and were more effective in the postpartum cows. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows. PMID:27501393

  11. Decrease in brain choline-containing compounds following a short period of global ischemia in gerbils as detected by 1H NMR spectroscopy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhmonen, J; Sivenius, J; Riekkinen, P J; Kauppinen, R A

    1994-08-01

    Cerebral metabolism was studied in the postischaemic gerbil brain using surface coil 31P and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The ratio of choline-containing compounds (Cho) to total creatine (Cr) in the brain decreased from 0.46 +/- 0.02 to 0.32 +/- 0.02 by the fifth day following exposure to 5 min of global ischaemia and it remained at this low level for at least 19 days. The amounts of cerebral Cho as quantified by 1H NMR in vivo were 1.70 +/- 0.15 and 1.09 +/- 0.22 mmol/kg in control and postischaemic animals, respectively. The T2 of Cho was longer in the postischaemic cerebral cortex than in the control one. N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) as determined by 1H NMR in vivo did not differ in the two animal groups. High-resolution 1H NMR of acid-extracted brain cortices showed a decrease in total Cho (glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine and choline) by 31%, but no changes in NAA, total creatine, taurine and myo-inositol, in the brain cortex seven days postischaemia relative to control animals. The decrease in acid extractable Cho was mainly due to the drop in glycerophosphocholine concentration. 31P NMR indicated normal energy state and phosphomonoester/phosphocreatine (PCr) and phosphodiester/PCr ratios in the in vivo brain 7 days postischaemia. Silver impregnation did not reveal neuronal degeneration but immunohistochemical staining showed a number of glial fibrillary acidic protein expressing astrocytes as indicators of reactive gliosis in the postischaemic cerebral cortex. These data show, for the first time, that a 1H NMR decrease in Cho metabolites takes place as a consequence of brief ischaemic episode even in the absence of obvious neuronal degeneration. PMID:7848813

  12. Is there a role for {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in the early detection of metastatic disease in surgically treated prostate cancer patients with a mild PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Haematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Fuccio, Chiara; Santi, Ivan; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Montini, Gian Carlo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Haematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico; Marzola, Maria Cristina [Sanata Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Radiology, Service of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Service of Urology, Department of Specialist Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of whole-body {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in the re-staging of prostate cancer (PC) patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), who presented a mild increase of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.5 ng/ml (early biochemical relapse) during follow-up (FU). We evaluated 102 consecutive patients (mean age = 68 years, range = 54-82 years) previously treated with RP and who presented during FU a mild increase of trigger PSA serum levels <1.5 ng/ml: mean 0.86 {+-} 0.40 ng/ml (range 0.2-1.5) and median 0.93 ng/ml (range 0.67-1.10). In this patient series {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was used as the first imaging examination at the time of the detection of a mild serum PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT was performed following standard procedures in our centre. At the time of PET/CT, 86 patients were not receiving any pharmacologic treatment, while 16 were under anti-androgenic therapy. Positive PET findings were validated by: (a) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy in cases of local recurrence, (b) surgical lymphadenectomy, (c) other imaging procedures or (d) FU lasting for at least 12 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the following variables: age, TNM staging, Gleason score, time from RP to the biochemical relapse, anti-androgen therapy at the time of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan, trigger PSA value and PSA kinetics, i.e. PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel), in order to assess the significant predictive factors related to the findings of a positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan. Overall, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT showed positive findings in 29 of 102 patients (28% of cases). In detail, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected: local relapse in 7 patients, bone metastases in 13 patients (4 single and 9 multiple) and lymph node metastases in 9 patients (6 single and 3 multiple). Positive PET findings were validated by: (a) TRUS

  13. A novel digestion method based on a choline chloride–oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent for determining Cu, Fe, and Zn in fish samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, Emadaldin [Department of Marine Chemistry, Faculty of Marine Science, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 669, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanemi, Kamal, E-mail: Kamal.ghanemi@kmsu.ac.ir [Department of Marine Chemistry, Faculty of Marine Science, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 669, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Marine Science Research Institute, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah-Mehrjardi, Mehdi [Department of Marine Chemistry, Faculty of Marine Science, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 669, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Marine Science Research Institute, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadolahi-Sohrab, Ali [Department of Marine Environment, Faculty of marine natural resources, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-31

    Highlights: ► A novel digestion method: lack of concentrated acids or oxidizing reagents. ► First report of using choline chloride–oxalic acid (ChCl–Ox) for digestion. ► Complete dissolution of biological samples in ChCl–Ox for solubilization metals. ► Extraction recoveries greater than 95%: validated by the fish protein CRM. ► Successfully applied in different fish tissues (Muscle, Liver, and Gills). -- Abstract: A novel and efficient digestion method based on choline chloride–oxalic acid (ChCl–Ox) deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of Cu, Zn, and Fe in biological fish samples. Key parameters that influence analyte recovery were investigated and optimized, using the fish protein certified reference material (CRM, DORM-3) throughout the procedure. In this method, 100 mg of the sample was dissolved in ChCl–Ox (1:2, molar ratio) at 100 °C for 45 min. Then, 5.0 mL HNO{sub 3} (1.0 M) was added. After centrifugation, the supernatant solution was filtered, diluted to a known volume, and analyzed by FAAS. Under optimized conditions, an excellent agreement between the obtained results and the certified values was observed, using Student's t-test (P = 0.05); the extraction recovery of the all elements was greater than 95.3%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of analytes in different tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) having a broad concentration range in a marine fish sample. The reproducibility of the method was validated by analyzing all samples by our method in a different laboratory, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). For comparison, a conventional acid digestion (CAD) method was also used for the determination of analytes in all studied samples. The simplicity of the proposed experimental procedure, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, lack of concentrated acids and oxidizing agents, and the

  14. A novel digestion method based on a choline chloride–oxalic acid deep eutectic solvent for determining Cu, Fe, and Zn in fish samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel digestion method: lack of concentrated acids or oxidizing reagents. ► First report of using choline chloride–oxalic acid (ChCl–Ox) for digestion. ► Complete dissolution of biological samples in ChCl–Ox for solubilization metals. ► Extraction recoveries greater than 95%: validated by the fish protein CRM. ► Successfully applied in different fish tissues (Muscle, Liver, and Gills). -- Abstract: A novel and efficient digestion method based on choline chloride–oxalic acid (ChCl–Ox) deep eutectic solvent (DES) was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of Cu, Zn, and Fe in biological fish samples. Key parameters that influence analyte recovery were investigated and optimized, using the fish protein certified reference material (CRM, DORM-3) throughout the procedure. In this method, 100 mg of the sample was dissolved in ChCl–Ox (1:2, molar ratio) at 100 °C for 45 min. Then, 5.0 mL HNO3 (1.0 M) was added. After centrifugation, the supernatant solution was filtered, diluted to a known volume, and analyzed by FAAS. Under optimized conditions, an excellent agreement between the obtained results and the certified values was observed, using Student's t-test (P = 0.05); the extraction recovery of the all elements was greater than 95.3%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of analytes in different tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) having a broad concentration range in a marine fish sample. The reproducibility of the method was validated by analyzing all samples by our method in a different laboratory, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). For comparison, a conventional acid digestion (CAD) method was also used for the determination of analytes in all studied samples. The simplicity of the proposed experimental procedure, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, lack of concentrated acids and oxidizing agents, and the use of safe

  15. Functional redundancy of CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline pathway enzymes in phospholipid biosynthesis: ethanolamine-dependent effects on steady-state membrane phospholipid composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, T. P.; Skinner, H B; Bankaitis, V A

    1994-01-01

    It has been established that yeast membrane phospholipid content is responsive to the inositol and choline content of the growth medium. Alterations in the levels of transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes contribute significantly to this response. We now describe conditions under which ethanolamine can exert significant influence on yeast membrane phospholipid composition. We demonstrate that mutations which block a defined subset of the reactions required for the biosynthesis of ...

  16. 放射性核素标记胆碱与18F-FDG PET肿瘤显像的对比研究%Comparison choline with 18F-FDG PET in various tumors imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚军; 张慧娟

    2010-01-01

    18F-FDG PET has become the preferred method of staging and restaging of many malignant neoplasms. Its application has increased diagnostic accuracy and exerted a considerable impact on the treatment of patients. 18F-FDG PET has also become extremely valuable in therapy efficacy monitoring of many malignant neoplasms. Choline is critical for cellular membrane structures and function. Choline metabolism increases in malignant neoplasms. 11C-/18F-choline PET has been used in diagnosis and detection of many malignant neoplasms and metastases. This paper reviews the value of 18F-FDG and 11C-/18F-choline PET in tumors imaging and compares their advantages and limitations.%18F-FDG PET是目前临床上许多恶性肿瘤分期和再分期的首选检查方法,可明显提高恶性肿瘤的诊断准确性,对患者的治疗方案的选择产生了很大影响,而且在恶性肿瘤的疗效监测中也有很大价值.胆碱是保持细胞膜结构和功能完整性的重要成分,恶性肿瘤的胆碱代谢增高.11C-/18F-胴碱PET在临床上已用于许多恶性肿瘤的诊断及转移瘤的检出.该文回顾了18F-FDG和11C-/18F-胆碱PET在肿瘤显像中的应用价值,并比较了其优势和限度.

  17. Structure of choline di-μ-hydroxo-bis[dinitratodioxouranate(VI)], [C5H14NO]2[(UO2)2(NO3)4(OH)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msub(r) = 1030.44, P21/b, a = 9.782(4), b = 13.763(2), c = 12.968(1) A, #betta# = 127.227(7)0, V = 1390.1 A3, Dsub(m) = 2.54(2), Dsub(x) = 2.46 Mg m-3, Z = 2, lambda(Mo Kα) = 0.71069 A, room temperature, F(000) = 952. The structure was solved by the heavy-atom method and refined by the least-squares method to a final R = 0.046 and Rsub(w) = 0.041 for 1881 independent reflections. The [(CH3)3=N-CH2-CH2OH]+ choline cations are linked by hydrogen bonding to dimeric and centrosymmetric dinuclear anion complexes [(UO2)2(NO3)4(OH)2]2-. The U atoms are eight-coordinated and double-bridged via centrosymmetrically related hydroxyl O atoms. The nitrate groups are bidentate and occupy cis positions in the U coordination polyhedron. (Auth.)

  18. S-Propargyl-cysteine Exerts a Novel Protective Effect on Methionine and Choline Deficient Diet-Induced Fatty Liver via Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidative effect of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC on nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD by treating mice fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD diet with SPRC for four weeks. We found that SPRC significantly reduced hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA levels. Moreover, SPRC also increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. By Western blot, we found that this protective effect of SPRC was importantly attributed to the regulated hepatic antioxidant-related proteins, including protein kinase B (Akt, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide. Next, we examined the detailed molecular mechanism of the SPRC protective effect using oleic acid- (OA- induced HepG2 cells. The results showed that SPRC significantly decreased intracellular ROS and MDA levels in OA-induced HepG2 cells by upregulating the phosphorylation of Akt, the expression of HO-1 and CSE, and the translocation of Nrf2. SPRC-induced HO-1 expression and Nrf2 translocation were abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the antioxidative effect of SPRC was abolished by CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG and HO-1 siRNA. Therefore, these results proved that SPRC produced an antioxidative effect on NAFLD through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  19. GmcA is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oier Etxebeste

    Full Text Available Aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by Upstream Developmental Activators (UDAs that include the bZIP-type Transcription Factor (TF FlbB. A 2D-PAGE/MS-MS-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of FlbB identified 18 candidates. Most candidates belong to GO term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. Among these, we focused on GmcA, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a ΔflbB background. GmcA is not required for growth since no differences were detected in the radial extension upon deletion of gmcA. However, its activity is required to induce conidiation under specific culture conditions. A ΔgmcA strain conidiates profusely under acid conditions but displays a characteristic fluffy aconidial phenotype in alkaline medium. The absence of asexual development in a ΔgmcA strain can be suppressed, on one hand, using high concentrations of non-fermentable carbon sources like glycerol, and on the other hand, when the cMyb-type UDA TF flbD is overexpressed. Overall, the results obtained in this work support a role for GmcA at early stages of conidiophore initiation.

  20. GmcA is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebeste, Oier; Herrero-García, Erika; Cortese, Marc S; Garzia, Aitor; Oiartzabal-Arano, Elixabet; de los Ríos, Vivian; Ugalde, Unai; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by Upstream Developmental Activators (UDAs) that include the bZIP-type Transcription Factor (TF) FlbB. A 2D-PAGE/MS-MS-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of FlbB identified 18 candidates. Most candidates belong to GO term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. Among these, we focused on GmcA, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a ΔflbB background. GmcA is not required for growth since no differences were detected in the radial extension upon deletion of gmcA. However, its activity is required to induce conidiation under specific culture conditions. A ΔgmcA strain conidiates profusely under acid conditions but displays a characteristic fluffy aconidial phenotype in alkaline medium. The absence of asexual development in a ΔgmcA strain can be suppressed, on one hand, using high concentrations of non-fermentable carbon sources like glycerol, and on the other hand, when the cMyb-type UDA TF flbD is overexpressed. Overall, the results obtained in this work support a role for GmcA at early stages of conidiophore initiation. PMID:22792266

  1. Involvement of resistin-like molecule β in the development of methionine-choline deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hirofumi; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Iizuka, Masaki; Taki, Naoyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Kamata, Hideaki; Nagamachi, Akiko; Inaba, Toshiya; Nishimura, Fusanori; Katagiri, Hideki; Asahara, Takashi; Yoshida, Yasuto; Chonan, Osamu; Encinas, Jeffery; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2016-01-28

    Resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) reportedly has multiple functions including local immune responses in the gut. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of RELMβ to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development. First, RELMβ knock-out (KO) mice were shown to be resistant to methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH development. Since it was newly revealed that Kupffer cells in the liver express RELMβ and that RELMβ expression levels in the colon and the numbers of RELMβ-positive Kupffer cells were both increased in this model, we carried out further experiments using radiation chimeras between wild-type and RELMβ-KO mice to distinguish between the contributions of RELMβ in these two organs. These experiments revealed the requirement of RELMβ in both organs for full manifestation of NASH, while deletion of each one alone attenuated the development of NASH with reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. The higher proportion of lactic acid bacteria in the gut microbiota of RELMβ-KO than in that of wild-type mice may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lower serum LPS level the former. These data suggest the contribution of increases in RELMβ in the gut and Kupffer cells to NASH development, raising the possibility of RELMβ being a novel therapeutic target for NASH.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MRI, {sup 11}C-choline PET and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET for predicting the Gleason score in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe H. [Austin Health, Radiation Oncology Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Lim Joon, Daryl; Wada, Morikatsu [Austin Health, Radiation Oncology Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Lee, Sze Ting; Scott, Andrew M. [Austin Health, Centre for PET, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Hiew, Chee-Yan; Esler, Stephen [Austin Health, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Gong, Sylvia J.; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Chan, J.G. [Austin Health, Centre for PET, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); Clouston, David [Tissupath, Mt Waverley, VIC (Australia); O' Sullivan, Richard [Epworth Hospital, Healthcare Imaging, Richmond, VIC (Australia); Goh, Yin P. [Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Health, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bolton, Damien [Austin Health, Department of Urology, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Khoo, Vincent [Austin Health, Radiation Oncology Centre, Heidelberg, VIC (Australia); University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Clinical Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Davis, Ian D. [Monash University Eastern Health Clinical School, Box Hill, VIC (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy, diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), {sup 11}C-choline (CHOL) positron emission tomography (PET), and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in predicting the prostatectomy Gleason risk (GR). The study included 21 patients who underwent TRUS biopsy and multi-technique imaging before radical prostatectomy. Values from five different tests (TRUS biopsy, DW MRI, CHOL PET, FDG PET, and combined DW MRI/CHOL PET) were correlated with the prostatectomy GR using Spearman's ρ. Tests that were found to have significant correlations were used to classify patients into GR groups. The following tests had significant correlations with prostatectomy GR: TRUS biopsy (ρ = 0.617, P = 0.003), DW MRI (ρ = -0.601, P = 0.004), and combined DW MRI/CHOL PET (ρ = -0.623, P = 0.003). CHOL PET alone and FDG PET only had weak correlations. The correct GR classification rates were 67 % with TRUS biopsy, 67 % with DW MRI, and 76 % with combined DW MRI/CHOL PET. DW MRI and combined DW MRI/CHOL PET have significant correlations and high rates of correct classification of the prostatectomy GR, the strength and accuracy of which are comparable with TRUS biopsy. (orig.)

  3. 11C-胆碱PET在前列腺癌中的临床应用探讨%Application of 11C-choline PET in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴书其; 黄钢

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in elder male.But it is difficult to visualize using conventional techniques.11C-choline is one of newly developed positron tumor imaging agent,which is being used in the imaging of prostate cancer recently because of its metabolism characteristic.We reviewed the use of it in diagnosis of prostate cancer by comparing with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose,11C-acetate,11C-methionine.%前列腺癌是老年男性的常见恶性肿瘤,但是常规显像困难.11C-胆碱是新近研究较多的一种正电子肿瘤阳性显像剂,因它不通过泌尿系统排泄而被用于前列腺癌的临床诊断中.通过11C-胆碱、18F-氟脱氧葡萄糖、11C-乙酸和11C-甲硫氨酸在前列腺癌PET结果的比较,总结了11C-胆碱PET在前列腺癌的临床应用近况.

  4. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  5. [18F]Choline PET/CT and stereotactic body radiotherapy on treatment decision making of oligometastatic prostate cancer patients: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new entity of patients with recurrent prostate cancer limited to a small number of active metastatic lesions is having growing interest: the oligometastatic patients. Patients with oligometastatic disease could eventually be managed by treating all the active lesions with local therapy, i.e. either surgery or ablative stereotactic body radiotherapy. This study aims to assess the impact of [18F]Choline ([18F]FMCH) PET/CT and the use stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients (pts) with oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Twenty-nine pts with oligometastatic PCa (≤3 synchronous active lesions detected with [18F]FMCHPET/CT) were treated with repeated salvage SBRT until disease progression (development of > three active synchronous metastases). Primary endpoint was systemic therapy-free survival measured from the baseline [18F]FMCHPET/CT. A total of 45 lesions were treated with SBRT. After a median follow-up of 11.5 months (range 3–40 months), 20 pts were still in the study and did not receive any systemic therapy. Nine pts started systemic therapy, and the median time of the primary endpoint was 39.7 months (CI 12.20–62.14 months). No grade 3 or 4 toxicity was recorded. Repeated salvage [18F]FMCHPET/CT-guided SBRT is well tolerated and could defer the beginning of systemic therapy in selected patients with oligometastatic PCa

  6. Oxidation of hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I impairs fatty acid beta-oxidation in rats fed a methionine-choline deficient diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Serviddio

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction, and more specifically fatty acid β-oxidation impairment, is involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The goal of the present study was to achieve more understanding on the modification/s of carnitinepalmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I, the rate-limiting enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, during steatohepatitis. A high fat/methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet, administered for 4 weeks, was used to induce NASH in rats.We demonstrated that CPT-I activity decreased, to the same extent, both in isolated liver mitochondria and in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes from MCD-diet fed rats.At the same time, the rate of total fatty acid oxidation to CO(2 and ketone bodies, measured in isolated hepatocytes, was significantly lowered in treated animals when compared to controls. Finally, an increase in CPT-I mRNA abundance and protein content, together with a high level of CPT-I protein oxidation was observed in treated rats. A posttranslational modification of rat CPT-I during steatohepatitis has been here discussed.

  7. Electrodeposition of a Au-Dy2O3 Composite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalyst from Eutectic Urea/Choline Chloride Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this research we have fabricated and tested Au/Dy2O3 composites for applications as Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC electrocatalysts. The material was obtained by a process involving electrodeposition of a Au-Dy alloy from a urea/choline chloride ionic liquid electrolyte, followed by selective oxidation of Dy to Dy2O3 in air at high temperature. The electrochemical kinetics of the electrodeposition bath were studied by cyclic voltammetry, whence optimal electrodeposition conditions were identified. The heat-treated material was characterised from the morphological (scanning electron microscopy, compositional (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and structural (X-ray diffractometry points of view. The electrocatalytic activity towards H2 oxidation and O2 reduction was tested at 650 °C by electrochemical impedance spectrometry. Our composite electrodes exhibit an anodic activity that compares favourably with the only literature result available at the time of this writing for Dy2O3 and an even better cathodic performance.

  8. Thick pure palladium film with varied crystal structure electroless deposited from choline chloride–palladium chloride solution without the addition of reductant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Li, Wei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemicals of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Bao, Weiliang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hanghzou 310058 (China); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: chen13775646759@hotmail.com [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemicals of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Immersion deposition procedure was applied to achieve thick pure palladium films with thickness up to about 3 μm from choline chloride (ChCl)–palladium chloride (PdCl{sub 2}) aqueous solution without addition of reductant at 60 °C. Using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, it was confirmed that Pd films with different crystal orientations and morphology were obtained just by varying the immersion time, and Pd (111) crystal orientation predominated over other crystal orientations during the initial deposition procedure, while (220) conquered (111) about 45 min later. ChCl performing as a reductant facilitated the growth of thick Pd film free of reductant. The immersion deposition of Pd followed the mechanism of replacement reaction accompanying with autocatalyzed reaction and autocatalyzed reaction predominating over replacement reaction. The results revealed that Pd films prepared from ChCl–PdCl{sub 2} solution had excellent properties on solderability and corrosion resistance. - Highlights: • Thick pure Pd film was obtained from ChCl–PdCl{sub 2} aqueous solution without reductant. • Different crystal orientations and morphology of Pd films were achieved. • Immersion time determined the morphology of Pd films. • The mechanism of sustained deposition of Pd on Ni–P surface was deduced.

  9. Reduced expression of choline acetyltransferase in vagal motoneurons and gastric motor dysfunction in a 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Xiao-feng; Song, Jin; Hong, Feng; Lian, Hui; Wang, Qian; Feng, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2011-10-28

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) accompanied by pathology of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). PD patients have often experienced gastrointestinal dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis. However, the mechanism underlying these symptoms in PD patients is not clear. In the present study, we investigated alterations of cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurons in the DMV and gastric motor function in rats microinjected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) bilaterally into the SN (referred to as 6-OHDA rats) and explored possible mechanisms. A strain gauge force transducer was used to record gastric motility in vivo. Expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Acetylcholine (Ach) content was measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis. After treatment with 6-OHDA for 6weeks, 6-OHDA rats exhibited decreased ChAT and enhanced TH expression in the DMV and decreased Ach content in the gastric muscular layer. Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric motility in vivo were observed in 6-OHDA rats. The results of the present study indicated that decreased ChAT and enhanced TH expression in the DMV may be correlated with the development of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric motility, which may be partly due to the decreased Ach release from the vagus. PMID:21955729

  10. Desempenho produtivo de tilápia do Nilo alimentada com níveis de colina na dieta = Growth performance of Nile tilapia fed graded choline levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Calvo Fernandes Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com níveis de colina na dieta pelo período de 109 dias. Foram utilizados 192 alevinos com 4,0 ± 0,15 g de peso médio, distribuídos em 32 tanques-rede de 200 L, na densidade de seis peixes por tanque-rede, dispostos em aquários de 1.000 L. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram suplementadas com 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 e 1.200 mg de colina kg-1 de ração. Não foram observadas diferenças para ganho de peso, taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar aparente, porcentagem de extrato etéreo do filé e do fígado, índice hepatossomático e concentração de lipídeos no plasma. Concluiuseque os diferentes níveis de colina não melhoraram o desempenho produtivo dos peixes nestas condições, pois a dieta basal supostamente supriu a exigência do peixe para colina.A 109-day feeding trial was undertaken aiming to evaluate the growth performance of Nile tilapia fed graded choline levels. One hundred and ninety-two (initial weight 4.0 ± 0.15 g fingerlings were distributed into 32 net cages (200 L each, four cages per treatmentand six fish per cage, placed in eight 1000L aquaria in a closed recirculation system. The treatments were assigned to the tanks comprising eight treatments and four replications arranged in a completely randomized experimental design. Diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 mg of choline per kg of feed and an unsupplemented diet. No significant differences were observed in growth performance, survival, apparent feed conversion, liver and fillet ether extract, hepatosomatic index and plasma lipid concentration, among treatments. Choline levels did not improve growth performance, possibly because the amount of choline in the diet had already met fish

  11. 氯化胆碱诱导黄瓜抗白粉病机理研究%Studies on Cucumber Resistance Mechanism to Powdery Mildew Induced by Choline Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈夕军; 沈世炜; 陈银凤; 张青; 张家豪; 张孝然; 黄奔立

    2013-01-01

    Choline chloride is a new growth regulator. When the cucumber seedlings were treated with 10 mmol·L-1 choline chloride,their plant height,root length,dry weight,fresh weight,and chlorophyll content were remarkably improved.Studies on induce resistance mechanism showed that the content or activity of β-1,3-glucanase,chitinase,hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins(HRGP)and malondialdehyde(MAD)of cucumber seedlings were significantly increased after being treated with choline chloride.The conidiospores of Sphaerotheca fuliginea were inoculated on the cucumber leaves treated with choline chloride.The results showed that the germination rate of conidiospores was decline. The length of germ tubes was shorter and the number of new conidia strings was less than the contrast. Choline chloride treatment on cucumber plants can delay and alleviate the occurrence of powdery mildew.%氯化胆碱是一种新型广效的生长调节剂,以10 mmol·L-1氯化胆碱处理黄瓜幼苗可明显提高植株的株高、根长、鲜质量、干质量和叶绿素含量。诱导抗性机理研究表明:氯化胆碱处理后,黄瓜幼苗体内β-1,3-葡聚糖酶、几丁质酶活性及富含羟脯氨酸糖蛋白、丙二醛含量均明显上升。以白粉病菌分生孢子接种经氯化胆碱处理过的黄瓜叶片,结果显示分生孢子萌发率较低,芽管较短,且新产生的分生孢子串数量较少。用氯化胆碱处理黄瓜植株,可延迟和减轻黄瓜白粉病的发生。

  12. Synergistic effects of ginseng stem and leaf-extracted ginsenoside and choline on improving learning and memory in rats Association verification experiment in animals with multiple learning and memory Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Zhao; Hongxia Gu; Qing Li; Xianglin Xie; Zuoli Xia; Hongxin Cai; Ling Zhang; Dawei Li; Xinnong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Ginsenoside extracted from the stem and leaf of ginseng(GSL)and choline have both been shown to improve learning and memory functions; however,further studies are needed to understand the synergistic effects of a combination of both.OBJECTIVE:To verify the combined improved synergistic effects of GSL and choline on learning and memory disorders in rats.DESIGN:Control observation.SETTING:Taishan Medical College.MATERIALS:A total of 150 male Kunming mice weighing(20±2)g and 40 healthy male Wistar rats weighing(220±20)g were provided by the Experimental Animal Department of Jilin University.Animal experimentation received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee.GSL was provided by the Department of Chemistry,Norman Bethune Medical University,and choline was provided by the Third Experiment Factory,Shanghai.METHODS:This study was performed at the Life Science Institute,Taishan Medical College from October 2006 to February 2007.①Scopolamine-induced learning and memory disorders in rats:Forty rats were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg/kg GSL + 200 mg/kg choline),GSL(400 mg/kg)group,and choline(200 mg/kg)group,8 rats/group.Rats were perfused and administrated in the morning,once a day for 14 successive days.Rats in the control group and model group were perfused with 20 mL/kg distilled water and underwent Morris water maze spatial resolution test 1 hour after perfusion on the 10th,11th,and 12th days after administration.Rats also underwent passive step-down avoidance test 1 hour after reperfusion on the 13th and 14th days after administration.Thirty minutes prior to experimentation,rats in the remaining three groups were intraperitoneally(I.p)injected with 2 mg/kg scopolamine,and rats in the control group were I.p.injected with 2 mL/kg saline.②Scopolamine-induced learning disorder and memory acquired disorder in mice:Fifty mice were randomly divided into control group,model group,combination group(400 mg

  13. 口服不同剂量胆碱在肉鸡血液中的代谢动力学研究%Different-Dose Pharmacokinetic Study of Choline Chloride in Broiler by Oral Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯佳; 蔡辉益; 刘国华; 闫海洁

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of choline chloride in broiler after oral administration at different doses. Twelve 9-week-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups with 4 birds in each group, and fed choline at 0, 200 and 400 mg/kg ( on basis of choline chloride) , respectively. The blood sample of each experimental bird was collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h, respectively, and the serum choline concentration was analyzed by ion chromatography. The pharmaco-kinetics parameters were calculated by WinNonlin 5.2 using non-compartment model. The results showed that the serum choline concentration in birds fed no exogenous choline was stable during the 48 h. The pharmacoki-netics of choline chloride at different doses was significantly different, for both Vz/F and CL/F (P<0.01), with their regression between the serum choline concentration and time being linear respectively. The Tmax, Cmax, t1/2, AUMC, Vz/F and CL/F were 8. 0 h, 399. 88 mg/kg, 7. 60 h, 5 979. 06 mg/( kg · h), 876.99 L/kg and 83. 27 mg/( kg · h ) respectively for the dose of 200 mg/kg group, and 8. 0 h, 445.88 mg/kg, 9.91 h, 1 0899.78 mg/( kg·h) , 318.43 L/kg, 21.22 mg/( kg·h) respectively for the the dose of 400 mg/kg group, with the choline at 200 mg/kg being more bioavailable. In conclusion, only in-creasing of choline chloride dosage can not achieve the purpose of improving the rate of choline bioavailability.%本试验旨在采用药代动力学的研究手段,探索胆碱在肉鸡血液中的吸收代谢规律。选用12只9周龄的爱拔益加( AA)肉公鸡,随机分为3组,每组4只鸡,按体重分别单次口服氯化胆碱200和400 mg/kg(以胆碱计算),并设空白对照组。采取血样,对血样中的胆碱浓度进行离子色谱法的测定,并用药代动力学处理软件WinNonlin 5.2采用非房室模型计算药代动力学参数。结果显示,空白对照组内源胆碱的合成水平基本稳定;不同给

  14. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside

  15. 磷脂酰胆碱对小鼠记忆障碍模型的影响%EFFECT OF PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE (PC) ON MICE MODEL OF DYSMNESIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建; 王晔; 程薇波

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨磷脂酰胆碱(PC)对小鼠学习记忆过程三环节整合调节作用,为"PC是健脑食物"提供进一步实验室依据.[方法] 设PC对小鼠记忆获得障碍、记忆巩固障碍、记忆再现障碍的改善作用3大组.每大组设4小组,包括模型对照组、磷脂酰胆碱3个剂量组(0.1 g/kg.bw、0.2 g/kg.bw、0.3 g/kg.bw),每小组10只小鼠.实验期末对3大组分别进行跳台试验、避暗试验和水迷宫试验.[结果]记忆获得障碍实验中,学习试验时各剂量组的错误次数明显减少,消退试验时各剂量组的错误次数明显减少,潜伏期明显延长;记忆巩固障碍实验中,测验时各剂量组的潜伏期明显延长,消退试验时各剂量组的潜伏期明显延长、错误次数显著减少,0.3 g/kg.bw组的错误动物百分率明显减少;记忆再现障碍实验中,消退试验时各剂量组的错误次数明显减少,且各剂量组到达终点的时间明显缩短.[结论]PC明显提高学习记忆过程三环节障碍小鼠的学习记忆能力,具有整合改善记忆效能的作用.%[Objective]To study effect of phosphatidyl choline (PC) on mice model of dysmnesia and provide scientific basis for health products.[Methods]Three mice model were established, including mice memory-obtaining obstacles model group, mice memory-consolidating obstacles model group and mice memory-reappearing obstacles model group.Every model group was composed of four subgroups (n=10): model control group and three experiment groups (O.lg/kg.bw, 0.2g/kg.bw, 0.3g/kg.bw).Finally, carried out step down test, dark evading test and water maze test respectively, at the same time recorded the escape latency lime and the error times.[Results]Compared with control groups, in mice memory-obtaining obstacles model experiment, the error times for model mice were distinctly decreased, while in fading test, the escape latency, time was obviously prolonged and error times were remarkably reduced; in mice memory

  16. Role of bone marrow cells in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a rat model of pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, Shingo; Kubota, Koji [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Kobayashi, Akira, E-mail: kbys@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Misawa, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Akira; Nakata, Takenari; Yokoyama, Takahide [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Takahashi, Masafumi [Center for Molecular Medicine Division of Bioimaging Sciences, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimono, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Miyagawa, Shinichi [Department of Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BMC-derived PSCs play a role in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BMC-derived PSCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BMC-derived activated PSCs can produce PDGF and TGF {beta}1. -- Abstract: Bone marrow cell (BMC)-derived myofibroblast-like cells have been reported in various organs, including the pancreas. However, the contribution of these cells to pancreatic fibrosis has not been fully discussed. The present study examined the possible involvement of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) originating from BMCs in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a clinically relevant rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. BMCs from female transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transplanted into lethally irradiated male rats. Once chimerism was established, acute pancreatitis was induced by a CDE diet. Chronological changes in the number of PSCs originating from the donor BMCs were examined using double immunofluorescence for GFP and markers for PSCs, such as desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin ({alpha}SMA), 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the initiation of CDE feeding. We also used immunohistochemical staining to evaluate whether the PSCs from the BMCs produce growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) {beta}1. The percentage of BMC-derived activated PSCs increased significantly, peaking after 1 week of CDE treatment (accounting for 23.3 {+-} 0.9% of the total population of activated PSCs) and then decreasing. These cells produced both PDGF and TGF{beta}1 during the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Our results suggest that PSCs originating from BMCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic injury, at least in part, by producing growth factors in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model.

  17. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  18. Role of bone marrow cells in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a rat model of pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► BMC-derived PSCs play a role in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model. ► BMC-derived PSCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. ► BMC-derived activated PSCs can produce PDGF and TGF β1. -- Abstract: Bone marrow cell (BMC)-derived myofibroblast-like cells have been reported in various organs, including the pancreas. However, the contribution of these cells to pancreatic fibrosis has not been fully discussed. The present study examined the possible involvement of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) originating from BMCs in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in a clinically relevant rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by a choline-deficient/ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. BMCs from female transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were transplanted into lethally irradiated male rats. Once chimerism was established, acute pancreatitis was induced by a CDE diet. Chronological changes in the number of PSCs originating from the donor BMCs were examined using double immunofluorescence for GFP and markers for PSCs, such as desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), 1, 3 and 8 weeks after the initiation of CDE feeding. We also used immunohistochemical staining to evaluate whether the PSCs from the BMCs produce growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) β1. The percentage of BMC-derived activated PSCs increased significantly, peaking after 1 week of CDE treatment (accounting for 23.3 ± 0.9% of the total population of activated PSCs) and then decreasing. These cells produced both PDGF and TGFβ1 during the early stage of pancreatic fibrosis. Our results suggest that PSCs originating from BMCs contribute mainly to the early stage of pancreatic injury, at least in part, by producing growth factors in a rat CDE diet-induced pancreatitis model.

  19. Target volume definition in high-risk prostate cancer patients using sentinel node SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vees Hansjörg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN involvement. Methods Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV. Results A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10. Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden. Conclusions Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning.

  20. Immunoreactivity for Choline Acetyltransferase of Peripheral-Type (pChAT) in the Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of the Non-Human Primate Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcripts of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene reveal a number of different splice variants including ChAT of a peripheral type (pChAT). Immunohistochemical staining of the brain using an antibody against pChAT clearly revealed peripheral cholinergic neurons, but failed to detect cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system. In rodents, pChAT-immunoreactivity has been detected in cholinergic parasympathetic postganglionic and enteric ganglion neurons. In addition, pChAT has been observed in non-cholinergic neurons such as peripheral sensory neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. The common type of ChAT (cChAT) has been investigated in many parts of the brain and the spinal cord of non-human primates, but little information is available about the localization of pChAT in primate species. Here, we report the detection of pChAT immunoreactivity in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and its co-localization with Substance P (SP) and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Neurons positive for pChAT were observed in a rather uniform pattern in approximately half of the trigeminal neurons throughout the TG. Most pChAT-positive neurons had small or medium-sized cell bodies. Double-immunofluorescence staining showed that 85.1% of SP-positive cells and 74.0% of CGRP-positive cells exhibited pChAT immunoreactivity. Most pChAT-positive cells were part of a larger population of neurons that co-expressed SP and/or CGRP

  1. Comparison of [{sup 11}C]choline Positron Emission Tomography With T2- and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Delineating Malignant Intraprostatic Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joe H. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lim Joon, Daryl [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Davis, Ian D. [Monash University Eastern Health Clinical School, Victoria (Australia); Lee, Sze Ting [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Hiew, Chee-Yan; Esler, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Gong, Sylvia J. [Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Wada, Morikatsu [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Clouston, David [Tissupath, Mt Waverley, Victoria (Australia); O' Sullivan, Richard [Healthcare Imaging, Epworth Hospital, Victoria (Australia); Goh, Yin P. [Diagnostic Imaging, Monash Health, Victoria (Australia); Bolton, Damien [Department of Urology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Khoo, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.khoo@rmh.nhs.uk [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Marsden Hospital, National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography (CHOL-PET) with that of the combination of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (T2W/DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for delineating malignant intraprostatic lesions (IPLs) for guiding focal therapies and to investigate factors predicting the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Methods and Materials: This study included 21 patients who underwent CHOL-PET and T2W/DW MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. Two observers manually delineated IPL contours for each scan, and automatic IPL contours were generated on CHOL-PET based on varying proportions of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). IPLs identified on prostatectomy specimens defined reference standard contours. The imaging-based contours were compared with the reference standard contours using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and sensitivity and specificity values. Factors that could potentially predict the DSC of the best contouring method were analyzed using linear models. Results: The best automatic contouring method, 60% of the maximum SUV (SUV{sub 60}) , had similar correlations (DSC: 0.59) with the manual PET contours (DSC: 0.52, P=.127) and significantly better correlations than the manual MRI contours (DSC: 0.37, P<.001). The sensitivity and specificity values were 72% and 71% for SUV{sub 60}; 53% and 86% for PET manual contouring; and 28% and 92% for MRI manual contouring. The tumor volume and transition zone pattern could independently predict the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Conclusions: CHOL-PET is superior to the combination of T2W/DW MRI for delineating IPLs. The accuracy of CHOL-PET is insufficient for gland-sparing focal therapies but may be accurate enough for focal boost therapies. The transition zone pattern is a new classification that may predict how well CHOL-PET delineates IPLs.

  2. Target volume definition in high-risk prostate cancer patients using sentinel node SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH) PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN) involvement. Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV). A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10). Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden. Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning

  3. Potentiation by choline of basal and electrically evoked acetylcholine release, as studied using a novel device which both stimulates and perfuses rat corpus striatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, S. A.; Kischka, U.; Marshall, D. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine (DA) using a novel probe through which striatal neurons could be both superfused and stimulated electrically in both anesthetized and freely moving awake animals. Optimal stimulation parameters for eliciting ACh release from cholinergic neurons differed from those required for eliciting DA release from dopaminergic terminals: at 0.6 ms pulse duration, 20 Hz and 200 microA, ACh release increased to 357 +/- 30% (P < 0.01) of baseline and was blocked by the addition of tetrodotoxin (TTX). Pulse durations of 2.0 ms or greater were required to increase DA release. Unlike ACh release, DA release showed no frequency dependence above 5 Hz. The maximal evoked releases of ACh and DA were 556 +/- 94% (P < 0.01) and 254 +/- 38% (P < 0.05) of baseline, respectively. Peripheral administration of choline (Ch) chloride (30-120 mg/kg) to anesthetized animals caused dose-related (r = 0.994, P < 0.01) increases in ACh release; basal release rose from 117 +/- 7% to 141 +/- 5% of initial baseline levels (P < 0.05) and electrically evoked ACh release rose from 386 +/- 38% to 600 +/- 34% (P < 0.01) in rats given 120 mg/kg. However, Ch failed to affect basal or evoked DA release although neostigmine (10 microM) significantly elevated basal DA release (from 36.7 fmol/10 min to 71.5 fmol/10 min; P < 0.05). In awake animals, Ch (120 mg/kg) also elevated both basal (from 106 +/- 7% to 154 +/- 17%; P < 0.05) and electrically evoked (from 146 +/- 13 to 262 +/- 16%; P < 0.01) ACh release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Comparison of [11C]choline Positron Emission Tomography With T2- and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Delineating Malignant Intraprostatic Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of [11C]choline positron emission tomography (CHOL-PET) with that of the combination of T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (T2W/DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for delineating malignant intraprostatic lesions (IPLs) for guiding focal therapies and to investigate factors predicting the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Methods and Materials: This study included 21 patients who underwent CHOL-PET and T2W/DW MRI prior to radical prostatectomy. Two observers manually delineated IPL contours for each scan, and automatic IPL contours were generated on CHOL-PET based on varying proportions of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV). IPLs identified on prostatectomy specimens defined reference standard contours. The imaging-based contours were compared with the reference standard contours using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and sensitivity and specificity values. Factors that could potentially predict the DSC of the best contouring method were analyzed using linear models. Results: The best automatic contouring method, 60% of the maximum SUV (SUV60) , had similar correlations (DSC: 0.59) with the manual PET contours (DSC: 0.52, P=.127) and significantly better correlations than the manual MRI contours (DSC: 0.37, P<.001). The sensitivity and specificity values were 72% and 71% for SUV60; 53% and 86% for PET manual contouring; and 28% and 92% for MRI manual contouring. The tumor volume and transition zone pattern could independently predict the accuracy of CHOL-PET. Conclusions: CHOL-PET is superior to the combination of T2W/DW MRI for delineating IPLs. The accuracy of CHOL-PET is insufficient for gland-sparing focal therapies but may be accurate enough for focal boost therapies. The transition zone pattern is a new classification that may predict how well CHOL-PET delineates IPLs

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Eucalyptus globulus using explants with shoot apex with introduction of bacterial choline oxidase gene to enhance salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Oishi, Masatoshi; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimada, Teruhisa

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most economically important plantation hardwoods for paper making. However, its low transformation frequency has prevented genetic engineering of this species with useful genes. We found the hypocotyl section with a shoot apex has the highest regeneration ability among another hypocotyl sections, and have developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using these materials. We then introduced a salt tolerance gene, namely a bacterial choline oxidase gene (codA) with a GUS reporter gene, into E. globulus. The highest frequency of transgenic shoot regeneration from hypocotyls with shoot apex was 7.4% and the average frequency in four experiments was 4.0%, 12-fold higher than that from hypocotyls without shoot apex. Using about 10,000 explants, over 250 regenerated buds were confirmed as transformants by GUS analysis. Southern blot analysis of 100 elongated shoots confirmed successful generation of stable transformants. Accumulation of glycinebetaine was investigated in 44 selected transgenic lines, which showed 1- to 12-fold higher glycinebetaine levels than non-transgenic controls. Rooting of 16 transgenic lines was successful using a photoautotrophic method under enrichment with 1,000 ppm CO(2). The transgenic whole plantlets were transplanted into potting soil and grown normally in a growth room. They showed salt tolerance to 300 mM NaCl. The points of our system are using explants with shoot apex as materials, inhibiting the elongation of the apex on the selection medium, and regenerating transgenic buds from the side opposite to the apex. This approach may also solve transformation problems in other important plants.

  6. Structural analysis by reductive cleavage with LiAlH4 of an allyl ether choline-phospholipid, archaetidylcholine, from the hyperthermophilic methanoarchaeon Methanopyrus kandleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Nishihara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A choline-containing phospholipid (PL-4 in Methanopyrus kandleri cells was identified as archaetidylcholine, which has been described by Sprott et al. (1997. The PL-4 consisted of a variety of molecular species differing in hydrocarbon composition. Most of the PL-4 was acid-labile because of its allyl ether bond. The identity of PL-4 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by positive staining with Dragendorff-reagent and fast-atom bombardment–mass spectrometry. A new method of LiAlH4 hydrogenolysis was developed to cleave allyl ether bonds and recover the corresponding hydrocarbons. We confirmed the validity of the LiAlH4 method in a study of the model compound synthetic unsaturated archaetidic acid (2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol-1-phosphate. Saturated ether bonds were not cleaved by the LiAlH4 method. The hydrocarbons formed following LiAlH4 hydrogenolysis of PL-4 were identified by gas–liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Four kinds of hydrocarbons with one to four double bonds were detected: 47% of the hydrocarbons had four double bonds; 11% had three double bonds; 14% had two double bonds; 7% had one double bond; and 6% were saturated species. The molecular species composition of PL-4 was also estimated based on acid lability: 77% of the molecular species had two acid-labile hydrocarbons; 11% had one acid-labile and one acid-stable hydrocarbon; and 11% had two acid-stable hydrocarbons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific chemical degradation method for the structural analysis of allyl ether phospholipid in archaea.

  7. Oral administration of choline does not affect metabolic characteristics of gliomas and normal-appearing white matter, as detected with single-voxel 1H-MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was done for evaluation of the possible influence of the oral administration of choline on metabolic characteristics of gliomas detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Thirty patients (22 men and eight women; mean age 38±15 years) with suspicious intracranial gliomas underwent single-voxel long-echo (TR 2,000 ms, TE 136 ms, 128-256 acquisitions) 1H-MRS of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter before and several hours (median, 3 h; range, 1.2-3.7 h) after ingestion of choline with prescribed dose of 50 mg/kg (median actual dose, 52 mg/kg; range, 48-78 mg/kg). Investigations were done using 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imager. The volume of the rectangular 1H-MRS voxel was either 3.4 or 8 cm3. At the time of both spectroscopic examinations, similar voxels' positioning and size and technical parameters of 1H-MRS were used. Surgery was done in 27 patients within 1 to 68 days thereafter. In all cases, more than 80% resection of the neoplasm was attained. There were 12 low-grade gliomas and 15 high-grade gliomas. MIB-1 index varied from 0% to 51.7% (median, 13.8%). Statistical analysis did not disclose significant differences of any investigated metabolic parameter of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue and distant normal-appearing white matter between two spectroscopic examinations. Single-voxel 1H-MRS at 1.5 T could not detect significant changes of the metabolic characteristics of gliomas, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter after oral administration of choline. (orig.)

  8. Oral administration of choline does not affect metabolic characteristics of gliomas and normal-appearing white matter, as detected with single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, Mikhail F.; Iseki, Hiroshi; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, International Research and Educational Institute for Integrated Medical Sciences (IREIIMS), Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Faculty of Advanced Techno-Surgery, Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo (Japan); Neurological Institute, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo (Japan); Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Faculty of Advanced Techno-Surgery, Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo (Japan); Neurological Institute, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Yuko; Usukura, Masao; Yoshida, Shigetoshi [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Neurological Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Ryoichi [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, International Research and Educational Institute for Integrated Medical Sciences (IREIIMS), Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Faculty of Advanced Techno-Surgery, Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu [Neurological Institute, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    The present study was done for evaluation of the possible influence of the oral administration of choline on metabolic characteristics of gliomas detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). Thirty patients (22 men and eight women; mean age 38{+-}15 years) with suspicious intracranial gliomas underwent single-voxel long-echo (TR 2,000 ms, TE 136 ms, 128-256 acquisitions) {sup 1}H-MRS of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter before and several hours (median, 3 h; range, 1.2-3.7 h) after ingestion of choline with prescribed dose of 50 mg/kg (median actual dose, 52 mg/kg; range, 48-78 mg/kg). Investigations were done using 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imager. The volume of the rectangular {sup 1}H-MRS voxel was either 3.4 or 8 cm{sup 3}. At the time of both spectroscopic examinations, similar voxels' positioning and size and technical parameters of {sup 1}H-MRS were used. Surgery was done in 27 patients within 1 to 68 days thereafter. In all cases, more than 80% resection of the neoplasm was attained. There were 12 low-grade gliomas and 15 high-grade gliomas. MIB-1 index varied from 0% to 51.7% (median, 13.8%). Statistical analysis did not disclose significant differences of any investigated metabolic parameter of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue and distant normal-appearing white matter between two spectroscopic examinations. Single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS at 1.5 T could not detect significant changes of the metabolic characteristics of gliomas, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter after oral administration of choline. (orig.)

  9. Dose-escalation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer - evaluation of quality of life with and without 18F-choline PET-CT detected simultaneous integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to the conventional whole-prostate dose escalation, an integrated boost to the macroscopic malignant lesion might potentially improve tumor control rates without increasing toxicity. Quality of life after radiotherapy (RT) with vs. without 18F-choline PET-CT detected simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was prospectively evaluated in this study. Whole body image acquisition in supine patient position followed 1 h after injection of 178-355MBq 18F-choline. SIB was defined by a tumor-to-background uptake value ratio > 2 (GTVPET). A dose of 76Gy was prescribed to the prostate (PTVprostate) in 2Gy fractions, with or without SIB up to 80Gy. Patients treated with (n = 46) vs. without (n = 21) SIB were surveyed prospectively before (A), at the last day of RT (B) and a median time of two (C) and 19 month (D) after RT to compare QoL changes applying a validated questionnaire (EPIC - expanded prostate cancer index composite). With a median cut-off standard uptake value (SUV) of 3, a median GTVPET of 4.0 cm3 and PTVboost (GTVPET with margins) of 17.3 cm3 was defined. No significant differences were found for patients treated with vs. without SIB regarding urinary and bowel QoL changes at times B, C and D (mean differences ≤3 points for all comparisons). Significantly decreasing acute urinary and bowel score changes (mean changes > 5 points in comparison to baseline level at time A) were found for patients with and without SIB. However, long-term urinary and bowel QoL (time D) did not differ relative to baseline levels - with mean urinary and bowel function score changes < 3 points in both groups (median changes = 0 points). Only sexual function scores decreased significantly (> 5 points) at time D. Treatment planning with 18F-choline PET-CT allows a dose escalation to a macroscopic intraprostatic lesion without significantly increasing toxicity

  10. Dietary choline requirements of juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eri-ocheir sinensis at two dietary phospholipid levels%不同磷脂水平下中华绒螯蟹幼蟹的胆碱需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐霁; 陈立侨; 孙盛明; 姜海波; 李二超; 禹娜

    2013-01-01

    A 42-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids on the choline requirement of the juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Twelve purified diets were formulated con-taining two phospholipid levels (1% and 2%) and six choline chloride levels (0, 250, 500, 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg diet), and were fed to E. sinensis juveniles (0.22g±0.01g) with four replicates in each treatment. The results showed that dietary choline and phospholipids had a significant interaction on survival, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio (P0.05);各试验组的全蟹粗脂肪含量、肝胰腺的甘油三酯含量、总胆固醇含量、谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性,均随着饲料中胆碱量的增加而显著下降(P<0.05).综上所述,中华绒螯蟹幼蟹饲料中磷脂和胆碱存在显著的交互作用,饲料中适量添加胆碱和磷脂,可以显著提高幼蟹的增重率和特定生长率,降低饲料系数以及蟹体脂肪含量.以增重率为判据,采用折线回归法进行分析,得出饲料中不同磷脂水平下幼蟹的胆碱适宜需要量分别为1429.65 mg/kg 饲料(磷脂水平1%时)和529.65 mg/kg 饲料(磷脂水平2%).

  11. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: ≤1 ng/ml, 1 to ≤2 ng/ml, 2 to ≤4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups ≤1, 1 to ≤2, 2 to ≤4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA ≤2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt ≤6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve ≤2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of 18F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, 18F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt ≤6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not 18F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  12. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: {<=}1 ng/ml, 1 to {<=}2 ng/ml, 2 to {<=}4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups {<=}1, 1 to {<=}2, 2 to {<=}4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA {<=}2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt {<=}6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve {<=}2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of {sup 18}F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt {<=}6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not {sup 18}F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  13. CHOLINE CHLORIDE STABILITY MEMBRANE SYSTEM IN NECTARINE LEAF UNDER CHILLING STRESS%氯化胆碱对低温胁迫下油桃叶片膜系统的稳定作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秋平; 李玲; 李冬梅; 陈修德; 高东升

    2012-01-01

    The effect of choline chloride was studied on cold resistance of one - year - old potted nectarine ( Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. zhongyouwuhao) subjected to chilling stress during leaf - expansion period. Nectarines with leaves sprayed with choline chloride (0、100、200、300、500、700 and 1000 mgL-1) were exposed to 4 ℃/0 ℃ (day/night) for 4 d. The leaves were used for assays. The results were as follows: the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced by 14.9% ,51.7% and 45.5% , respectively, as compared with those in control; chlorophyll (Chi) a and chlorophyll b content in creased respectively by 32. 8% and 36. 8% ; in level of malondialdehyde ( MDA) and relative conductivity re duced to 73.1% and 71.0% respectively as compared with control;the plasma membrane H+ - ATPase activity was 30% higher than that in control. The above results indicated that under cold stress choline chloride could stabilize the bio - membrane system and increase the level of cold resistance in nectarines. The optimum protec tion seemed to be observed among the trees treated with 300 ~500 mgL-1 choline chloride.%本研究以1 a生盆栽油桃‘中油五号’(Prunus persica var.nectariana cv.zhongyouwuhao)为材料,通过叶面喷施不同浓度(0、100、200、300、500、700和1000 mgL-1)的氯化胆碱溶液,研究其对4℃低温胁迫下展叶期油桃抗寒性的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,经氯化胆碱处理的油桃叶片超氧物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性均显著提高;叶绿素(Chl)含量较高;相对电导率、丙二醛(MDA)产生量减小;质膜H+- ATPase活性显著增高.上述结果表明氯化胆碱对低温胁迫下油桃叶片膜系统有稳定作用,提高油桃的抗寒性;在不同浓度的氯化胆碱处理中,以喷施300~500 mgL-1氯化胆碱稳定效果最佳.

  14. Lewis acidic (choline chloride.3ZnCl2) ionic liquid: A green and recyclable catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 4-((3-indolyl)(aryl)methyl)-N,N-dimethylanilines under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahim Hekmatshoar; Farnoush Mousavizadeh; Reyhaneh Rahnamafar

    2013-09-01

    A green and convenient procedure for the one-pot multicomponent synthesis of 4-((3-indolyl)(aryl)methyl)-N,N-dimethylanilines using (choline chloride.3ZnCl2) ionic liquid as catalyst, at 100°C and under solvent-free condition is described. Utilizing environmentally benign reagents, elimination of organic solvents, enhanced rates, reusability and moisture stability of the catalyst are the remarkable features observed in the reported reaction system. The catalyst was recycled up to four times with no noticeable drop in activity.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to choline and “development of brain” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to choline and “development of brain”. The food constituent, choline, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “development of brain” and the target......Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... population is infants and young children from birth to three years of age. Taking into account that no evidence was provided for an effect of dietary choline deficiency in the normal development of the brain in infants and young children, the Panel considers that the claimed effect, “development of brain...

  16. Correlation of Choline/Creatine and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient values with the prognostic parameters of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Nada, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to measure choline/creatine (Ch/Cr) levels through (1)H-MRS and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values through diffusion-weighted MRI, and to correlate these values with the prognostic parameters of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The institutional review board approved this study and informed written consent was obtained from all study participants. A prospective study of 43 patients (31 men and 12 women; mean age, 65 years) with HNSCC was conducted. Single-voxel (1)H-MRS was performed at the tumor or metastatic cervical lymph node with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) at TE = 135 ms. Diffusion-weighted MR images with b values of 0, 500 and 1000 s/mm(2) and contrast MRI of the head and neck were performed. The Ch/Cr levels and ADC values of HNSCC were calculated. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was also calculated. The degree of tumor differentiation was determined through pathological examination. The HNSCC Ch/Cr level was negatively correlated with the ADC value (r = -0.662, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference in the Ch/Cr and ADC values at different degrees of tumor differentiation (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001) and with different GTVs (p = 0.122 and p = 0.001). The following prognostic parameter categories were used: (i) poorly differentiated and undifferentiated versus well differentiated to moderately differentiated; and (ii) HNSCC with GTV 30 cm(3). The cut-off values for Cho/Cr and ADC for each category were 1.83, 0.95 and 1.94, 0.99, respectively, and the areas under the curve were 0.771, 0.967 and 0.726, 0.795, respectively, for each category. We conclude that the Ch/Cr levels determined using (1)H-MRS and the ADC values are well correlated with several prognostic parameters of HNSCC.

  17. Regulated Extracellular Choline Acetyltransferase Activity- The Plausible Missing Link of the Distant Action of Acetylcholine in the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Vijayaraghavan

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh, the classical neurotransmitter, also affects a variety of nonexcitable cells, such as endothelia, microglia, astrocytes and lymphocytes in both the nervous system and secondary lymphoid organs. Most of these cells are very distant from cholinergic synapses. The action of ACh on these distant cells is unlikely to occur through diffusion, given that ACh is very short-lived in the presence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, two extremely efficient ACh-degrading enzymes abundantly present in extracellular fluids. In this study, we show compelling evidence for presence of a high concentration and activity of the ACh-synthesizing enzyme, choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma. We show that ChAT levels are physiologically balanced to the levels of its counteracting enzymes, AChE and BuChE in the human plasma and CSF. Equilibrium analyses show that soluble ChAT maintains a steady-state ACh level in the presence of physiological levels of fully active ACh-degrading enzymes. We show that ChAT is secreted by cultured human-brain astrocytes, and that activated spleen lymphocytes release ChAT itself rather than ACh. We further report differential CSF levels of ChAT in relation to Alzheimer's disease risk genotypes, as well as in patients with multiple sclerosis, a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, compared to controls. Interestingly, soluble CSF ChAT levels show strong correlation with soluble complement factor levels, supporting a role in inflammatory regulation. This study provides a plausible explanation for the long-distance action of ACh through continuous renewal of ACh in extracellular fluids by the soluble ChAT and thereby maintenance of steady-state equilibrium between hydrolysis and synthesis of this ubiquitous cholinergic signal substance in the brain and peripheral compartments. These findings may have important implications for the role of cholinergic

  18. Dynamic Solvent Control of a Reaction in Ionic Deep Eutectic Solvents: Time-Resolved Fluorescence Measurements of Reactive and Nonreactive Dynamics in (Choline Chloride + Urea) Melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anuradha; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic fluorescence anisotropy and Stokes shift measurements of [f choline chloride + (1 - f) urea)] deep eutectic solvents at f = 0.33 and 0.40 have been carried out using a dipolar solute, coumarin 153 (C153), in the temperature range 298 ≤ T ≤ 333 K. Subsequently, measured time-dependent solvent response is utilized to investigate the dynamic solvent control on the measured rates of photoexcited intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reactions of two molecules, 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) and 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)benzonitrile (P5C), occurring in these media. Measured average reaction time scales (⟨τ(rxn)⟩) exhibit the following dependence on average solvation times scales (⟨τ(s)⟩): ⟨τ(rxn)⟩ ∝ ⟨τ(s)⟩(α) with α = 0.5 and 0.35 for P4C and P5C, respectively. Such a strong dynamic solvent control of ⟨τ(rxn)⟩, particularly for P4C, is different from earlier observations with these ICT molecules in conventional molecular solvents. Excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence emissions of C153 and trans-2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-benzothiazole (DMASBT), which differ widely in average fluorescence lifetimes (⟨τ(life)⟩), suggest the presence of substantial spatial heterogeneity in these systems. Dynamic heterogeneity is reflected via the following fractional viscosity (η) dependences of ⟨τ(s)⟩ and ⟨τ(r)⟩ (⟨τ(r)⟩ being solute's average rotation time): ⟨τx⟩ ∝ (η/T)(p) with 0.7 ≤ p ≤ 0.9. Different correlations between ⟨τ(s)⟩ and ⟨τ(r)⟩ emerge at different temperature regimes, indicating variable frictional coupling at low and high temperatures. Estimated dynamic Stokes shifts in these media vary between ∼1200 and ∼1600 cm(-1), more than 50% of which possess a time scale much faster than the temporal resolution (∼75 ps) employed in these measurements. Estimated activation energy for η is closer to that for ⟨τ(r)⟩ than that for ⟨τ(s)⟩, suggesting ⟨τ(s)⟩ being more decoupled

  19. Toxicity and quality of life after choline-PET/CT directed salvage lymph node dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy in nodal recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study we demonstrated that, based on 11C/18 F-choline positron emission tomography-computerized-tomography as a diagnostic tool, salvage lymph node dissection (LND) plus adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) is feasible for treatment of pelvic/retroperitoneal nodal recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the toxicity of this combined treatment strategy has not been systematically investigated before. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the acute and late toxicity and quality of life of ART after LND in pelvic/retroperitoneal nodal recurrent PCa. 43 patients with nodal recurrent PCa were treated with 46 LND followed by ART (mean 49.6 Gy total dose) at the sites of nodal recurrence. Toxicity of ART was analysed by physically examination (31/43, 72.1%), by requesting 15 frequent items of adverse events from the Common-Terminology-Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0-catalogue and by review of medical records. QLQ-C30 (EORTC quality of life assessment) and PR25 (prostate cancer module) questionnaires were used to investigate quality of life. Toxicity was evaluated before starting of ART, during ART (acute toxicity), after ART (mean 2.3 months) and at end of follow up (mean 3.2 years after end of ART) reflecting late toxicity. 71.7% (33/46) of 46 ART were treatment of pelvic, 10.9% (5/46) of retroperitoneal only and 28.3% (13/46) of pelvic and retroperitoneal regions. Overall 52 symptoms representing toxicities were observed before ART, 107 during ART, 88 after end of ART and 52 at latest follow up. Leading toxicities during ART were diarrhoea (19%, 20/107), urinary incontinence (16%, 17/107) and fatigue (16%, 17/107). The spectrum of late toxicities was almost equal to those before beginning of ART. No grade 3 adverse events or chronic lymphedema at extremities were observed. We observed no clear correlation between localisation of treated regions, technique of ART and frequency or severity of toxicities. Mean quality of life at final evaluation

  20. The role of 11C-choline positron emission tomography- computed tomography and videomediastinoscopy in the evaluation of diseases of middle mediastinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Middle mediastinal masses comprise a wide variety of tumors but may also reflect lymphadenopathy, and thus remain an interesting diagnostic challenge. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) of mediastinal masses in order to evaluate the ability of PET to predict the malignancy of these tumors. We compared histologic findings, videomediastinoscopy, computed tomography (CT), and PET-CT in patients with mediastinal disease. Methods Thirty-two patients were evaluated with CT, PET-CT and videomediastionoscopy, and all studies were performed within four weeks in each patient. 11C-choline as a PET tracer was used to visualize masses. PET data were evaluated using the standardized uptake value (SUV) and were compared with pathologic data.Results There were 13 men and 19 women aged from 21 to 74 (mean 45.2) years. Among the patients with mediastinal diseases, sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 12 patients, tuberculosis in 5 patients, lymphoma in 5 patients, and noncaseating granulomata without classical "sarcoid" finding in 3 patients. N2 or N3 nodal metastasis was revealed in 6 of 7 patients who had non-small cell lung cancer or suspected lung cancer, and one was negative (the pathological diagnosis was reactive hyperplasia). The accuracies for correctly diagnosing mediastinal masses for CT, PET-CT and videomediastinoscopy were 38% (12/32), 63% (20/32), and 91% (29/32) respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of videomediastinoscopy was superior to that of PET-CT (χ2=11.130,P<0.001). The SUVs were similar among these diseases. On the other hand, if the diagnostic classification was benign vs malignancy, the accuracies for CT, PET-CT and videomediastinoscopy were 53% (17/32), 75% (24/32), 100% (32/32) respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of videomediastinoscopy was superior to that of PET-CT (χ2=22.042, P<0.001). The SUV of malignant lesions (6.9, 3.2-9.8; n=11) appeared to be higher than that of benign lesions (4.9, 2.9-8.3; n=21), however, this difference

  1. 氯化胆碱提高烤烟K326种子活力研究%Using Choline Chloride to Improve Flue-cured Tobacco K326 Seed Vigor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永富; 王荔; 王绍坤

    2001-01-01

    Using 200mg/L Choline Chloride treated with seven different ranges vigor of flue-cured tobacco K326 seeds and its accelera ted-ageing seeds.At the sam e time,using physiological-chemical index to evluate their effects.It has been observed that the medium or low-vigor flue-cured tobacco seed can be increase d its vigor by Choline Chloride treatment respectively.But these treaments are l owering slightly to that of higher vigor.These treaments are effective methods t o improve the medium or low-vigor flue-cured tobacco K326 seeds.%用浓度为200mg/L的氯化胆碱处理7份不同活 力水平烤烟K326种子及其老化种子,并用生理及生化指标对不同处理进行测定与分析。结果 表明,氯化胆碱可提高中、低等活力水平种子的活力,而对高活力种子的活力则有轻微的抑 制作用。本法对提高中、低等活力水平烤烟K326种子的活力具有明显作用。

  2. Determination of Choline Chloride by Ion Chromatography and Infrared Spectroscopy%离子色谱法结合红外光谱法检验氯化琥珀胆碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔文涛; 黄彬晏; 黄克建; 刘晓锋; 杨宁; 易叶平

    2014-01-01

    建立了离子色谱法结合红外光谱法检验案件中氯化琥珀胆碱的分析方法。用离子色谱法使离子分离后,采用电导检测器检测,同时结合红外光谱法将检材样品挥干后与溴化钾压片用红外光谱仪检测。结果表明,该方法能从案件检材中检出氯化琥珀胆碱成分,相似度达到96%。所建立的方法操作简单,检测灵敏,结果准确,可用于刑事案件中检材的快速检验。%A method for detecting choline chloride in biological samples by ion chromatography and infrared spectroscopy was established. Ion exchange chromatography was used to separate ions from analysis column, and the ions were detected by using conductivity detector. In the same time, the samples were detected by infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that this method could detect choline chloride from case samples, and the similarity of retrieval reached 96%. The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, it can be used for rapid detection in casework.

  3. 胆碱的生物学功能及其对运动能力的影响综述%A Review of Choline Biology Function and Its Influence towards the Motor Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一民; 李响响; 姚崇

    2014-01-01

    目的系统掌握胆碱的生物学功能及其对运动能力影响的资料文献,为胆碱在运动人体科学中的应用提供理论依据。方法采用文献综述方法。结果胆碱是卵磷脂和神经鞘磷脂的组成部分,是维持细胞结构所必需的;合成乙酰胆碱的前体,乙酰胆碱是传递神经信息的重要物质,参与许多神经活动;胆碱是亲脂肪性的维生素B族中的一种,能将脂肪、胆固醇乳化,防止胆固醇积蓄在动脉壁或胆囊中;胆碱是能穿过“脑血管屏障”的少数物质之一,胆碱进入脑细胞可生成能帮助记忆的物质。胆碱含量高低会影响中枢神经系统的正常功能,进而影响运动能力和运动性疲劳的产生和发展。结论对人体身心健康及运动能力提高有一定的作用,可适量补充。%Objective:Cholinergic system can master biological function and exercise capacity influence on literature data, providing a theoretical basis for choline in human movement science. Methods:A literature review methods. Results:Choline is an integral part of lecithin and sphingomyelin,necessary for the maintenance of cell structure;synthetic precursor of acetylcholine,acetylcholine is an im-portant material transmission of nerve information,participate in many neural activity;choline fatty vitamin pro-B family in one,capa-ble of fat,cholesterol,emulsifying,prevent cholesterol accumulation in the artery wall or gallbladder;cholinergic through one of"cere-bral vascular barrier"of the few substances,choline into the brain cells can be generated to help memory substances. Choline content lev-el will affect the normal function of the central nervous system,thereby affecting the production and development of exercise capacity and exercise-induced fatigue. Conclusion:High to human physical and mental health and exercise capacity increased to a certain extent, may be appropriate to add.

  4. Development of Electrochemiluminescent Biosensor for Choline Based on Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode%基于碳纳米管修饰电极的胆碱电化学发光生物传感器研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金金; 吴梅笙; 屠一锋

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemiluminescent (ECL) choline biosensor was developed by drop- coating of choline oxidase (ChOx) onto a carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/potassium ferricyanide modified platinum electrode with ECL of luminol as readout signal. Due to the improvement of biocompatibility and electron transfer of electrode surface from CNTs, meanwhile the activation for enzyme and the ECL emission from K3Fe (CN)6 , the developed biosensor possesses excellent analytical properties. The biosensor gives optimal results while the Pt electrode was modified with 4 μL of 0.33 g/L CNTs dispersoid, 2 μL of 0.1 mol/L K3Fe(CN)6 and 1. 5 U of ChOx. In the PBS buffer (pH 7. 4) containing 8 × l0-6 mol/L luminol, the ECL signal linearly responded the concentration of choline from 1 ×10-7mol/L to 4 × 10-3 mol/L (r= 0. 994) with detection limit of 1. 21 × l0-8 mol/L under 30 ℃ of detection temperature. The developed biosensor was applied to assay the concentration of choline in rat blood sample. The result of 0. 268 mg/100 mL was obtained with average recovery of 101. 1%. It shows a fast response to choline with good reproducibility.%在碳纳米管(CNTs)和K3Fe(CN)6修饰的铂电极上吸附固定胆碱氧化酶,以鲁米诺为发光试剂,研制了胆碱电化学发光(ECL)生物传感器.CNTs可有效提高电极表面的电荷传输能力、提高电极表面的生物相容性和对酶分子的固载能力;K3Fe(CN)6对酶活性具有激活作用,同时对H2O2增敏的鲁米诺ECL有增强作用,均有利于提高传感器的检测灵敏度.研究表明,将CNTs分散液与K3Fe(CN)6混合,滴涂修饰在Pt电极上,吸附固定胆碱氧化酶,制备传感器.此传感器在含有8×10(-6)mol/L鲁米诺的磷酸盐缓冲液(pH7.4)、30℃条件下产生的ECL强度与胆碱浓度在1×10(-7)~4×10(-3)mol/L范围内呈线性关系,相关系数为0.994,检出限为1.2×10(-6)mol/L.此生物传感器应用于鼠血样中胆碱的测定,测得结果为2.68 mg/L,平均回收率为 101.1%.

  5. 胆碱对心血管疾病风险评估意义的Meta分析%Meta Analysis of the Significance of Choline in the Risk Assessment of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨江瑜; 朱惠莲

    2016-01-01

    目的对近年来国内外发表的不同膳食胆碱水平对心血管疾病发病风险的文献进行Meta分析,探讨胆碱和心血管疾病之间的关系。方法以“choline”、“plasma choline”、“whole-blood choline”、“serum choline”、“cardiovascular disease”、“cerebrovascular disease”、“acute coronary syndrome”、“dyslipidemia”、“hypertension”、“atherosclerosis”、“transient ischemic attack”、“stroke”、“acute ischemic stroke”、“rheumatic heart disease”、“coronary heart disease”和“peripheral artery disease”等为检索词。利用PubMed、Ovid、Embase、维普、中国知网等电子数据库进行检索。并同时运用了手工检索和文献追溯的检索手段。收集国内外2000~2015年9月公开发表的关于胆碱与心血管疾病关系的研究,两名评价者独立依据纳入和排除标准筛选文献,提取资料并进行方法学质量评估。统计学分析采用RevMan 5.3软件。结果共纳入5个研究。Meta分析结果表明,摄入不同的胆碱水平,其冠心病、脑卒中、心肌梗死和外周动脉疾病结局发生的风险比较差异均无统计学意义[=1.10,(0.97,1.25),=0.15]。结论膳食胆碱摄入水平和心血管疾病的发生风险无关。%Objective A meta-analysis of the effect of choline level upon the risk of CVD estimated in home and abroad studies was conducted to evaluate the effect of choline level upon the prevention and treatment of CVD.Methods Searching keywords included “choline”,“cardiovascular disease”,“cerebrovascular disease”,“acute coronary syndrome”,“dyslipidemia”,“hypertension”,“atherosclerosis”,“transient ischemic attack”,“stroke”,“acute ischemic stroke”,“rheumatic heart disease”,“coronary heart disease”and“peripheral artery disease”. Clinical data were retrieved from PubMed,Ovid,Embase,Chongqing VIP,CNKI databases. Manual searching and

  6. PROTECTION OF RESVERATROL ON HEPATOCYTES AGAINST METHIONINE-CHOLINE-DEFICIENCY-INDUCED INJURIES%白藜芦醇对蛋氨酸胆碱缺乏培养基诱导肝细胞损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇琦; 纪桂元; 邓颖勋; 蒋卓勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of resveratrol on methionine-choline-deficiency-induced injuries in alpha mouse liver 12 ( AML12 ) hepatocytes. Methods The mouse liver cell line AML12 was cultured and the methionine-choline-deficiency-induced injury model was set up. Cell viability, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) activities in culture supernatants and contents of triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)in cell lysates were measured in hepatocytes incubated with resveratrol (25, 50, 100μmol/l) for 24h. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-αwere detected by ELISA methods, and the mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. Expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3) was measured by Western blot method. Results Compared with the methionine-choline-deficiency-induced injury group, resveratrol treatment increased the survival of hepatocytes, lowered activities of ALT, AST and LDH in culture supernatants, reduced the contents of MDA and TG and the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, increased MAP1-LC3 expression. Conclusion Resveratrol can significantly protect AML12 hepatocytes against the damages induced by methionine-choline-deficiency, and the underlying mechanism is possibly associated with the autophagy induced by resveratrol.%目的研究白藜芦醇对蛋氨酸胆碱缺乏(methionine-choline-deficient,MCD)培养基诱导的小鼠正常肝细胞(alpha monse liver 12,AML12)损伤的保护作用。方法体外培养小鼠正常肝细胞AML12,建立蛋氨酸胆碱缺乏培养基诱导的肝细胞损伤模型,用不同浓度白藜芦醇(25、50、100μmol/L)进行干预24h,检测细胞的增值活性,以及细胞培养基上清液中谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、乳酸脱基酶(LDH)活性和细胞中丙二醛(MDA)水平、甘油三酯(TG)含量,检测细胞中炎性细胞因子 IL-1β、IL-6

  7. Association between hippocampal Choline acetyltransferase expression and cognition in diabetes mellitus rats%糖尿病大鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶表达与认知功能的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋珉; 肖谦

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察糖尿病人鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶(ChAT)mRNA和蛋白表达及其与认知功能的关系,探讨糖尿病脑病的发病机制.方法:38只sD雄性大鼠随机分为正常对照组(C组)和糖尿病组(D组),腹腔注射链脲佐菌素建市糖尿病大鼠模型.建模成功后11 wk用Moms水迷宫测试大鼠学习和记忆能力;RT-PCR,原位杂交法检测ChAT mRNA表达;免疫组化,Western Blot法检测ChAT蛋白表达.结果:D组大鼠学习和记忆能力明显减退,其逃避潜伏期时间延长;c组40.90 4±10.90与D组77.56±27.86相比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).穿越目标区域次数c组(3.93±0.44)次与D组(1.37±0.85)次相比较明显减少(P<0.05);中心区域停留时间百分率c组(5.41±0.97)%与D组(2.20±1.28)%相比较明显下降(P<0.05).海马ChAT mRNA和ChAT蛋白表达c组0.48 4+0.03,0.55 4±0.02与D组0.37 4±0.01,0.33 4±0.01相比较均明显降低(P<0.05).结论:糖尿病大鼠海马ChAT mRNA和蛋白低水平表达可能是糖尿病脑病的发病机制之一.%AIM: To observe the relation between the expression of Choline acetyltransferase protein and mRNA of hippocampus and the cognitive function of diabetic rats and to explore the pathogenetic mechanism of diabetic encephalopathy. METHODS : Thirty eight SD male rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group C) and diabetic model group (group D). Diabetes was induced by a single peritoneal injection of streptozotocin. Eleven weeks later, learning and memory behaviors were investigated using a spatial version of the Morris water maze test. The expression of choline acetyhransferase mRNA in hippocampus was examined by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of choline acetyhransferase protein was examined with immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. RESULTS: Compared with group C, group D showed a significant increase in the mean time of escape latencies ( P < 0.05 ) and a decrease in percentage of stay time in the central area

  8. Effects of Dietary Choline Content on Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Choline Content and Lipid Metabolism Enzyme Activities in Liver of Orange-Spotted Grouper ( Epinephelus coioides)%饲料胆碱含量对斜带石斑鱼生长性能、体成分、肝脏胆碱含量及脂肪代谢酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃笛根; 董晓慧; 谭北平; 杨奇慧; 迟淑艳; 刘泓宇; 章双; 陈效儒

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary choline content on growth performance, body composition, and choline content and lipid metabolism enzyme activities in liver of orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides) . Choline chloride was added to the basal diet to formulate six experi-mental diets with the adding levels were 0, 680, 1 361, 2 041, 2 721 and 4 082 mg/kg, which contained 8.1 (control), 602.5, 1 119.0, 1 511.5, 1 970.0 and 4 029.0 mg/kg (all were measured values) choline, re-spectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to three replicates and each replicate had 20 fish [ average body weight of (87.85±0.04) g]. Results showed that the maximum specific growth rate and protein efficiency rate and minimum feed conversion ratio were reached at 1 119.0 mg/kg group. Survival rate in control group was significantly lower than that in other groups ( P0.05), and ether extract content of whole-body in 4 029.0 mg/kg group was significantly higher than that in control group ( P0.05). The choline content in liver was progressively increased and then leveled off with the increasing of dietary cho-line content and a maximum value was occurred in 1 511.5 mg/kg group (P0.05) . Base on the specific growth rate and liver choline content as evaluation indexes, the choline requirement for orange-spotted grouper determined by broken-line model a-nalysis is 1 093. 7 and 1 579.7 mg/kg diet, respectively.%本试验旨在研究饲料胆碱含量对斜带石斑鱼生长性能、体成分、肝脏胆碱含量及脂肪代谢酶活性的影响,并确定斜带石斑鱼对饲料中胆碱的需要量. 在基础饲料中分别添加0、680、1 361、2 041、2 721和4 082 mg/kg的氯化胆碱,配制6种试验饲料,试验饲料中胆碱实际含量分别为8.1(对照)、602.5、1 119.0、1 511.5、1 970.0和4 029.0 mg/kg,投喂360尾平均体重为(87.85±0.04) g的斜带石斑鱼10周. 每种饲料设3个重复,每个重复放养20尾鱼.

  9. Theoretical Study on the Geometrical and Electronic Structures of Choline Chloride Ion Pair%氯化胆碱离子对几何及电子结构的量子化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳旺梅; 孙慧

    2013-01-01

    采用密度泛函理论方法,在B3 LYP/6-31G(d,p)水平上研究氯化胆碱离子对的几何与电子结构.共有四种稳定离子对构型被发现.在稳定离子对结构中,Cl-离子倾向与阳离子形成多重稳定氢键.阴阳离子间的氢键相互作用主要通过Cl-离子的LPcl轨道和阳离子的σC-H*,或σC-H*轨道间的相互作用完成.研究发现这种σ相互作用很弱,由此判断阴阳离子间大的相互作用能并不是单纯的氢键作用能,还包含阴阳离子间静电作用能的贡献;而且是主要贡献.阴阳离子间大的相互作用能还为氯化胆碱的高熔点提供了解释.%The geometrical and electronic structures of choline chloride ion pair have been studied by performing density functional theory calculations on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. Four stable configurations for choline chloride ion pair have been obtained. It is found that there exist multiply hydrogen bonds between cation and Cl-anion. The intrinsic hydrogen bond interaction between the cation and Cl- anion mainly occurs between one LPC1 of Cl- anion and the σ*C-H or σ*O-H orbitals of the cation moiety. However, the σ-type interactions are weak. Therefore, it is considered that ion pair is highly stable owing to not only the multiple hydrogen bond interactions, but also the strong electrostatic attraction. The large interaction energy between the cation and Cl- anion may be responsible for the higher melting point of choline chloride.

  10. 胞二磷胆碱联合治疗急性脑卒中临床观察%Efficacy of Cytidine Diphosphate Choline Combination Therapy in Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞红

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价疏血通联合胞二磷胆碱注射液治疗急性脑卒中的临床疗效。方法选择急性脑卒中且不宜溶栓患者42例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,在常规抗血小板聚集、降血压、降血脂等治疗基础上,治疗组以疏血通和胞二磷胆碱注射液静滴14 d;对照组予以丹参注射液和吡拉西坦氯化钠注射液静滴l4 d;观察两组的临床疗效及Glasgow评分、MMSE评分等变化。结果治疗组总有效率95.4%,高于对照组80.0%(P<0.05)。结论疏血通联合胞二磷胆碱注射液治疗急性脑卒中临床疗效肯定,能改善患者意识、智能及预后。%Objective To evaluate the clinical curative effect of shuxietong joint cytidine diphosphate choline injection in treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Methods Forty patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,in conventional antiplatelet aggregation,fal blood pressure,fal hematic fat,such as treatment of foundation,the treatment group with shuxietong and cytidine diphosphate choline injection static drops of 14 days,the control group and salvia miltiorrhiza injection and pyrazole raschig and sodium chloride injection static drops of l4 days,observed the clinical effects of two groups,glasgow score,MMSE score changes,etc.Results Total effectiveness in treatment group(95.4%)was significantly higher than the control group(80.0%)(P< 0.05).Conclusion Shuxietong cytidine diphosphate choline injection in treatment of acute cerebral infarction clinical curative effect,can significantly improve the patients' consciousness,inteligence and prognosis.

  11. 氯化胆碱/草酸型低共熔溶剂氧化脱除模拟油硫化物%Oxidative desulfurization of model oil with choline chloride/oxalic acid as a eutectic solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳慧; 胡嘉; 赵荣祥; 乔海燕; 李秀萍

    2014-01-01

    通过氯化胆碱和草酸在100℃下搅拌,合成了氯化胆碱/草酸型低共熔溶剂。以氯化胆碱/草酸为催化剂、过氧化氢为氧化剂、咪唑氟硼酸盐离子液体为萃取剂氧化萃取一体法脱除模拟油中的二苯并噻吩(DBT)。考察了反应温度、反应时间、氧化剂加入量、萃取剂类型、硫化物类型等因素对脱硫效率的影响。结果表明,当以咪唑氟硼酸盐为萃取剂,n(H2 O2)/n(S)=8、反应温度30℃、反应80 min 时,二苯并噻吩的脱除率可以达到95%。催化剂重复使用5次后,脱硫率仍然保持在90%。%Choline chloride / oxalic acid as a eutectic solvent was synthesized by the reaction of choline chloridewith oxalic acid at 100 ℃ via simple stirring. The removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil was carried out by using choline chloride / oxalic acid as a catalyst, hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, imidazoliumtetrafluoroborate ionic liquid as extractant; the influence of reaction temperature and time, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, the type of extractant, the type of sulfur-containing compound ( thiophene and itshomologues ) on the desulfurization efficiency were investigated. The results indicated that under the optimal reaction conditions of n ( H2 O2 ) / n ( S ) = 8, reaction temperature of 30 ℃ and time of 80 min, thedesulfurization efficiency for DBT reaches without a significant decrease in the desulfurization activity. 95% . Moreover, the reaction system can be recycled for 5 times.

  12. 氯化胆碱对异丙肾上腺素诱导大鼠心肌成纤维细胞增殖及胶原合成的影响%Effect of choline chloride on isoproterenol-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis of rat cardiac fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范凯; 王超; 宋浩鑫; 蒋雅楠; 刘艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of choline chloride (choline) on isoproterenol (Iso)-induced cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) proliferation and collagen synthesis. Methods CFs were isolated from neonatal Wistar rats and cultured in vitro. They were divided into groups as follows: control group, Iso group, Iso + choline group. After 48 h, the proliferation of CFs was measured by MTT assay, the collagen synthesis was detected by hydroxyproline method. Re-sults CFs significantly increased by 10-4 mol/L Iso(P <0. 05) ,1 mmol/L choline obviously inhibited CFs proliferation and collagen synthesis ( P < 0. 05 ) , which were mediated by 10-4 mol/L Iso. Conclusion Choline chloride inhibits the proliferation and collagen synthesis of CFs induced by Iso.%目的 探讨氯化胆碱对异丙肾上腺素(Iso)诱导的心肌成纤维细胞(CFs)增殖和胶原合成的影响.方法 体外培养新生Wistar大鼠心肌成纤维细胞,分为对照组、Iso组和Iso+氯化胆碱组.各组药物分别作用48 h.应用MTF实验方法检测心肌成纤维细胞增殖,羟脯氨酸试剂盒检测胶原合成.结果 10-4 mol/L Iso明显促进CFs增殖(P<0.05),1 mmol/L氯化胆碱明显抑制10-4 mol/L Iso诱导的成纤维细胞增殖(P<0.05)与胶原合成(P<0.05).结论 氯化胆碱抑制异丙肾上腺素诱导的心肌成纤维细胞增殖及胶原合成.

  13. 外源氯化胆碱可提高小麦线粒体膜的流动性%EFFECT OF CHOLINE CHLORIDE ON MEMBRANE FLUIDITY OF MITOCONDRIA ISOLATED FROM ETIOLATED SEEDLINGS OF WHEAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世名; 季玉龙; 陈靠山; 彭正华; 张举仁; 张长铠; 梁峥

    2002-01-01

    分别用ANS、DPH及16-NS三种不同的标记物标记小麦黄化苗的线粒体,研究氯化胆碱(choline chloride,CC)对线粒体膜的荧光光谱、平均微粘度()及ESR图谱的影响.结果表明,0.21-1.79mmol@L-1的CC均能显著降低线粒体膜的荧光强度、值及ESR图谱的序参数(S)和旋转相关时间(τc),表明CC可增加线粒体膜的流动性.为揭示CC的提高植物抗冷机制提供依据.

  14. Selective host-guest chemistry investigated by mass spectrometry: Which of the two, choline or acetylcholine, is the preferred one by the 3iPO triphosphonate-cavitand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Carime, Hassan; Harb, Mahdi M.; Montano, Carla G.; Teyssier, Cécile; Farizon, Bernadette; Farizon, Michel; Vachon, Jérôme; Harthong, Steven; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Jeanneau, Erwann; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2012-04-01

    Triphosphonate cavitand, 3iPO, has been designed for the recognition of ammonium in solution. This Letter presents a study of the selective guest-host recognition between Acetylcholine and Choline ions, ACh+ and Ch+, and the host. We are able to observe that the ACh+ ion replaces the Ch+ ion in the 3iPO-Ch+ complexes with a concomitant exchange/substitution constant of 7 × 104 M-1. Conversely a replacement of the ACh+ ions by the Ch+ ions in the 3iPO-ACh+ complexes has been also observed with a concomitant exchange constant of 5.8 × 103 M-1. The structure of the 3iPO-ACh+ complex is determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography.

  15. Primary Studies on Application of Choline Chloride in Culturing of Spirulina platensis%氯化胆碱在钝顶螺旋藻(Spirulina platensis)养殖中的应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大志; 单保党; 程兆弟; 洪华生

    1999-01-01

    Spirulina platensis was grown in Zarrouk′s meida with low NaHCO3 content (5~2 g/dm3), anf effects of growth hormone, choline chloride(CC) on growth, biomassa and biochemical composition were studied. The results showed that S. Platensis could grow very well at the condition of 4 g/dm3 NaHCO3 with 10.0 mg/dm3 CC ; biomass, protein and total carbohydrate contents were also increased to some extent. Low concentration of NaHCO3 (10.0 g/dm3 ) both have harmful effect on growth , biomass or protein content of S. platensis, but no effect on total carbohydrate content. Therefore CC can be used as an effective succedaneum of NaHCO3 in culturing of S.platensis and lead to decrease in the cultural cost.

  16. 氯化胆碱叶面喷施对大豆生理指标及产量品质的影响%Effect of Choline Chloride Leaf Spraying on Physiology and Yield Quality of Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玖香; 郑殿峰; 冯乃杰; 赵黎明

    2008-01-01

    以垦农4号为试验材料,在大田条件下,研究氯化胆碱(choline chloride,Cc)对大豆光合特性及产量品质的影响.试验于始花期叶面喷施Cc,结果表明:氯化胆碱促进大豆叶片光合作用,显著增加叶片厚度、栅栏细胞个数和栅海比值,改善产量构成因素,显著提高大豆产量,增产达25.23%.

  17. Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Choline Chloride on the Physiological Indices of Eucalyptu urophylla Seedlings%赤霉素和氯化胆碱对尾叶桉幼苗生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓福春; 韦泳丽; 杨振德; 翟明普; 王美英

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the effects of physiological variations that the complex preparations, which were made up of the biological active fertilizers rich in trace elements and the gibberellic acid and choline chloride, on the growth of Eucalyptu urophylla. [ Method] Pot experiment was used in the paper to study changes of physiological indices of chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and so on of Eucalyptu urophylla seedlings caused by eight kinds of complex preparations, [ Result ] The effects caused by different treatments on the physiological indices of Eucalyptus urophylla seedling were different. General analyses showed that the treatment with 0.1 ml peptide, 30 mg choline chloride and 10 mg gibberellic acid as well as the treatment with 30 mg choline chloride and 10 mg gibberellic acid could obviously improve net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings. [ Conclusion] The gibberellic acid and choline chloride had a certain effects on the growth of Eucalyptu urophylla seedlings, therefore, plant growth regulators will have great potential to promote the growth of Eucalyptus and it is worthy of being further researched and developed.%[目的]探讨富含微量元素的生物活性肥添加赤霉素和氯化胆碱2种植物生长调节剂的复合制剂对尾叶桉幼苗生理的影响.[方法]采用8种药剂组合对盆栽尾叶按幼苗进行试验,研究其对尾叶桉幼苗叶绿素含量、净光合速率、蒸腾速率等生理指标的影响.[结果]不同的药剂组合对尾叶桉幼苗的生理影响效果不同.从总体上看,养生肽0.1ml+氯化胆碱30 mg+赤霉素10 mg和氯化胆碱30mg+赤霉素10 mg的处理能明显提高尾叶桉幼苗的净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度及水分利用效率.[结论]赤霉素和氯化胆碱对尾叶桉幼苗的生长具有一定的促进作用,植物生长调节剂在进

  18. Proton (1H) MR spectroscopy of the breast at 3.0T. Detectability of the choline peak of breast cancer in comparison with a 1.5T imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the breast demonstrated that choline could be detected in breast cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of the choline peak (Tcho) in breast cancer using a 3.0T imager. A total of 52 female patients who underwent MR imaging were evaluated. Localization methods included the single-voxel system (SVS) and point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS), with acquisition times of approximately 5 minutes. Correlations among tumor size, histological type, and the presence of Tcho were evaluated. Of 52 breast lesions that were pathologically diagnosed, 50 were malignant [45 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), five ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS)] and 2 were benign. The presence of Tcho was evaluated in 50 cases. The average diameter of malignant tumors was 2.2 cm and that of benign tumors was 1.9 cm. Tcho was identified in 24 of 48 breast cancers (sensitivity 50%, specificity 100%). There was a significant difference between the identification in tumors according to tumor size. Tcho was identified in 76.9% of IDC cases with a diameter greater than the voxel size (1.5 cm), while it was identified in only 17.6% of tumors less than 1.5 cm in size. Tcho was identified in approximately 77% of breast cancer tumors overall with a diameter greater than the voxel size. The result was comparable with the detectability at 1.5T, although the acquisition times at 3.0T were much shorter than at 1.5T. The advantages at 3.0T include the ability to investigate smaller lesions within a shorter time frame. (author)

  19. Detection of related substances in polyene phosphatidyl choline extracted from soybean and in its commercial capsule by comprehensive supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometry compared with HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qikun; Liu, Wanjun; Li, Xiaoting; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used to comprehensively profile polyene phosphatidyl choline (PPC) extracted from soybean. We achieved an efficient chromatographic analysis using a BEH-2EP column (3 × 100 mm(2) , 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of CO2 and a cosolvent in gradient combination at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The cosolvent consisted of methanol, acetonitrile, and water (containing 10 mM ammonium acetate and 0.2% formic acid). The total single-run time was 7 min. We used this method to accurately detect ten different phospholipids (PLs) during extraction. The limits of quantification for phosphatidyl choline, lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidic acid (PA), sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol (PI), cholesterol, cardiolipin, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) were 20.6, 19.52, 1.21, 2.38, 0.50, 2.28, 54.3, 0.60, 0.65, and 4.85 ng/mL, respectively. However, adopting the high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection method issued by the China Food and Drug Administration, only PA, LPC, PE, PI, and PPC could be analyzed accurately, and the limits of quantification were 33.89, 60.5, 30.3, 10.9, and 61.79 μg/mL, respectively. The total single-run time was at the least 20 min. Consequently, the supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was more suitable for the analysis of related PLs.

  20. 原子吸收分光光度法测定多烯磷脂酰胆碱中砷盐含量%Determination of Arsenic Salt Content in Polyene Phosphatidyl Choline by Atomic Absorption Spectryphotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘文嘉; 张玉英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To innovatively establish an atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for determining the arsenic salt content in polyene phosphatidyl choline. Methods After the sample digestion by mized acid,the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method was adopted to detect arsenic at the characteristic absorption wavelength of arsenic element(193. 7 nm). Results The mass concentration of arsenic demonstrated a good linear relationship with the absorption in the range of 0-20 ng/mL,r=0. 999 4( n=5),and the adding standard recovery rate was good. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate with little interference,and can be used for the deter-mination of arsenic salt content in polyene phosphatidyl choline.%目的:创新性地建立测定多烯磷脂酰胆碱中砷盐含量的原子吸收分光光度法。方法样品经混合酸消解后,采用原子吸收分光光度法在砷元素的特征吸收波长(193.7 nm)处测定砷。结果砷的质量浓度在0~20 ng/mL范围内与吸光度线性关系良好,r=0.9994( n=5),加样回收率良好。结论该方法操作简便、准确、干扰少,可用于多烯磷脂酰胆碱中砷盐含量的测定。

  1. First case of 18F-FACBC PET/CT-guided salvage retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for disease relapse after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and negative 11C-choline PET/CT: new imaging techniques may expand pioneering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavina, Riccardo; Concetti, Sergio; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Nanni, Cristina; Borghesi, Marco; Gentile, Giorgio; Cevenini, Matteo; Bianchi, Lorenzo; Molinaroli, Enrico; Fanti, Stefano; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We present the first case of salvage retroperitoneal lymph node dissection based on the results of (18)F-FACBC PET/CT performed for a prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy. The patients underwent (11)C-choline PET/CT, which turned out negative, while (18)F-FACBC PET/CT visualized two lymph node metastases confirmed at pathological examination. Preliminary clinical reports showed an improvement in the detection rate of 20-40% for (18)F-FACBC in comparison with (11)C-choline, rendering the (18)F-FACBC the potential radiotracer of the future. Salvage surgery for prostate cancer is a fascinating but controversial approach. New diagnostic tools may improve its potential by increasing the assessment and the selection of the patients.

  2. Plasma microRNAs are sensitive indicators of inter-strain differences in the severity of liver injury induced in mice by a choline- and folate-deficient diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryndyak, Volodymyr P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Montgomery, Beverly [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Ross, Sharon A. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, conserved, tissue-specific regulatory non-coding RNAs that modulate a variety of biological processes and play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the association between inter-individual differences in susceptibility to NAFLD and altered miRNA expression is largely unknown. In view of this, the goals of the present study were (i) to determine whether or not individual differences in the extent of NAFLD-induced liver injury are associated with altered miRNA expression, and (ii) assess if circulating blood miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers for the noninvasive evaluation of the severity of NAFLD. A panel of seven genetically diverse strains of inbred male mice (A/J, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, 129S/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ) were fed a choline- and folate-deficient (CFD) diet for 12 weeks. This diet induced liver injury in all mouse strains; however, the extent of NAFLD-associated pathomorphological changes in the livers was strain-specific, with A/J, C57BL/6J, and C3H/HeJ mice being the least sensitive and WSB/EiJ mice being the most sensitive. The morphological changes in the livers were accompanied by differences in the levels of hepatic and plasma miRNAs. The levels of circulating miR-34a, miR-122, miR-181a, miR-192, and miR-200b miRNAs were significantly correlated with a severity of NAFLD-specific liver pathomorphological features, with the strongest correlation occurring with miR-34a. These observations suggest that the plasma levels of miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for noninvasive monitoring the extent of NAFLD-associated liver injury and susceptibility to NAFLD. -- Highlights: ► Choline- and folate-deficiency induces a strain-specific fatty liver injury in mice. ► The extent of liver pathology was accompanied by the changes in microRNA expression. ► The levels of circulating microRNAs mirror the magnitude of

  3. Effects of Choline Chloride Seed-coating on Seed Germination and the Physiological and Biochemical Guideline of Seedling in Maize under Low Temperature Stress%低温逆境下氯化胆碱包衣对玉米种子萌发及幼苗生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏; 王玺; 王晓丽; 张伟伟; 苏展; 杨玉廷

    2011-01-01

    Effects of choline chloride seed-coating on seed germination and the physiological and biochemical guideline of seedling in maize were investgated under low temperature stress through sand culture method. The results indicated that the germination percent-age, germination index and vigor index of maize with choline chloride seed-coating under low temperature stress were significantly higher than those of the uncoated controls, but the germination energy was a few higher than contrast. And the treatment with choline chloride seed-coating could significantly improve the control of seedling height, root length, stem diameter, dry weight per plant and the root-cap ratio. So it could help the strong seedling well. After low temperature stress, the chlorophyll content and proline about choline chloride seed-coating were all higher than contrast, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity were lower than contrast.%通过室内砂培试验,研究低温逆境下氯化胆碱包衣玉米种子对其萌发及幼苗生理生化指标的影响.结果表明,低温逆境下氯化胆碱包衣能显著提高种子发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数,并提高种子发芽势;包衣处理明显提高低温逆境下玉米幼苗的苗高、根长、茎粗、根冠比和单株干重,具有良好的壮苗作用;低温逆境下包衣处理的幼苗叶片叶绿素含量和脯氨酸含量均高于对照,丙二醛含量和相对电导率低于对照.

  4. First case of 18F-FACBC PET/CT-guided salvage radiotherapy for local relapse after radical prostatectomy with negative 11C-Choline PET/CT and multiparametric MRI: New imaging techniques may improve patient selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Brunocilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the first case of salvage radiotherapy based on the results of 18F-FACBC PET/CT performed for a PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy. The patients underwent 11CCholine PET/CT and multiparametric MRI that were negative while 18F-FACBC PET/CT visualized a suspected local relapse confirmed by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. No distant relapse was detected. Thus the patient was submitted to salvage radiotherapy in the prostatic fossa. After 20 months of follow-up, the PSA was undetectable and 18F-FACBC PET/CT was negative. Salvage radiotherapy after surgery, provided that it is administered at the earliest evidence of the biochemical relapse, may improve cancer control and favourably influence the course of disease as well as the adjuvant approach. New imaging techniques may increase the efficacy of the salvage radiotherapy thus helping in the selection of the patients. Preliminary clinical reports showed an improvement in the detection rate of 20-40% of 18F-FACBC in comparison with 11C-Choline for the detection of disease relapse after radical prostatecomy, rendering the 18F-FACBC the potential radiotracer of the future for prostate cancer.

  5. First case of 18F-FACBC PET/CT-guided salvage radiotherapy for local relapse after radical prostatectomy with negative 11C-Choline PET/CT and multiparametric MRI: New imaging techniques may improve patient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Schiavina, Riccardo; Nanni, Cristina; Borghesi, Marco; Cevenini, Matteo; Molinaroli, Enrico; Vagnoni, Valerio; Castellucci, Paolo; Ceci, Francesco; Fanti, Stefano; Gaudiano, Caterina; Golfieri, Rita; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2014-09-30

    We present the first case of salvage radiotherapy based on the results of 18F-FACBC PET/CT performed for a PSA relapse after radical prostatectomy. The patients underwent 11CCholine PET/CT and multiparametric MRI that were negative while 18F-FACBC PET/CT visualized a suspected local relapse confirmed by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. No distant relapse was detected. Thus the patient was submitted to salvage radiotherapy in the prostatic fossa. After 20 months of follow-up, the PSA was undetectable and 18F-FACBC PET/CT was negative. Salvage radiotherapy after surgery, provided that it is administered at the earliest evidence of the biochemical relapse, may improve cancer control and favourably influence the course of disease as well as the adjuvant approach. New imaging techniques may increase the efficacy of the salvage radiotherapy thus helping in the selection of the patients. Preliminary clinical reports showed an improvement in the detection rate of 20-40% of 18F-FACBC in comparison with 11C-Choline for the detection of disease relapse after radical prostatecomy, rendering the 18F-FACBC the potential radiotracer of the future for prostate cancer.

  6. Effects of choline chloride on germination of wheat seeds under osmotic stress%渗透胁迫下氯化胆碱对小麦种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田会玉; 陈靠山; 刘世名; 季玉龙

    2001-01-01

    在15% PEG6000胁迫条件下,研究了氯化胆碱(choline chloride,CC)对小麦种子萌发的影响.研究结果表明,CC对受15%PEG6000胁迫的小麦种子的萌发及根、芽的生长具有明显的促进作用,且以60 mg/L CC的效果最好.与对照相比,在该浓度下,平均根长及平均芽长分别可提高14.6%和12.9%,总鲜重可提高17.7%,根/芽比值及萌发率也有所提高,但对生根数无多大影响.同时,CC可使小麦种子α-淀粉酶的活力提高28.0%,使培养介质电导率增长率显著降低,还可使POD活性上升幅度低30.6%.表明,CC促进小麦种子萌发及根、芽生长与提高α-淀粉酶酶活力、降低萌发种子中电解质外渗量及降低POD活性有密切联系.

  7. Structure of choline di-. mu. -hydroxo-bis(dinitratodioxouranate(VI)), (C/sub 5/H/sub 14/NO)/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/(OH)/sub 2/)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viossat, B.; Soye, C. (Laboratoire de Chimie Generale, UER de Medecine et Pharmacie, Poitiers, France); Dung, N.H. (Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Structurale, UER des Sciences Pharmaceutiques de Caen, France)

    1983-05-15

    Msub(r) = 1030.44, P2/sub 1//b, a = 9.782(4), b = 13.763(2), c = 12.968(1) A, ..gamma.. = 127.227(7)/sup 0/, V = 1390.1 A/sup 3/, Dsub(m) = 2.54(2), Dsub(x) = 2.46 Mg m/sup -3/, Z = 2, lambda(Mo K..cap alpha..) = 0.71069 A, room temperature, F(000) = 952. The structure was solved by the heavy-atom method and refined by the least-squares method to a final R = 0.046 and Rsub(w) = 0.041 for 1881 independent reflections. The ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/=N-CH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/OH)/sup +/ choline cations are linked by hydrogen bonding to dimeric and centrosymmetric dinuclear anion complexes ((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/(OH)/sub 2/)/sup 2 -/. The U atoms are eight-coordinated and double-bridged via centrosymmetrically related hydroxyl O atoms. The nitrate groups are bidentate and occupy cis positions in the U coordination polyhedron.

  8. Studies of vegans: the fatty acid composition of plasma choline phosphoglycerides, erythrocytes, adipose tissue, and breast milk, and some indicators of susceptibility to ischemic heart disease in vegans and omnivore controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Ellis, F R; Dickerson, J W

    1978-05-01

    The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes, of plasma choline phosphoglycerides, and of adipose tissue, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and vitamin B12 concentrations, weights, heights and skinfold thickness were determined on 22 vegans and 22 age and sex matched omnivore controls. The fatty acid composition of breast milk from four vegan and four omnivore control mothers, and of erythrocytes from three infants breast fed by vegan mothers and six infants breast fed by omnivore control mothers was determined. The proportions of linoleic acid and its long-chain derivatives were higher, the proportion of the long-chain derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid was lower, and the ratio of 22:5omega3/22:6omega3 was greater in the tissues of the vegans and infants breast-fed by vegans than in controls; the most marked differences were in the proportions of linoleic (18:2omega6) and docosahexenoic (22:6omega3) acids. Weights, skinfold thickness, serum vitamin B12, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were less in vegans than in controls. The difference in serum cholesterol concentration was most marked. It is concluded that a vegan-type diet may be the one of choice in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, and certain hyperlipidemias.

  9. Desempenho produtivo de tilápia do Nilo alimentada com níveis de colina na dieta - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8862 Growth performance of Nile tilapia fed graded choline levels in the diet - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Gomes Guimarães

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com níveis de colina na dieta pelo período de 109 dias. Foram utilizados 192 alevinos com 4,0 ± 0,15 g de peso médio, distribuídos em 32 tanques-rede de 200 L, na densidade de seis peixes por tanque-rede, dispostos em aquários de 1.000 L. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram suplementadas com 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 e 1.200 mg de colina kg-1 de ração. Não foram observadas diferenças para ganho de peso, taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar aparente, porcentagem de extrato etéreo do filé e do fígado, índice hepatossomático e concentração de lipídeos no plasma. Concluiu-se que os diferentes níveis de colina não melhoraram o desempenho produtivo dos peixes nestas condições, pois a dieta basal supostamente supriu a exigência do peixe para colina.A 109-day feeding trial was undertaken aiming to evaluate the growth performance of Nile tilapia fed graded choline levels. One hundred and ninety-two (initial weight 4.0 ± 0.15 g fingerlings were distributed into 32 net cages (200 L each, four cages per treatment and six fish per cage, placed in eight 1000L aquaria in a closed recirculation system. The treatments were assigned to the tanks comprising eight treatments and four replications arranged in a completely randomized experimental design. Diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 mg of choline per kg of feed and an unsupplemented diet. No significant differences were observed in growth performance, survival, apparent feed conversion, liver and fillet ether extract, hepatosomatic index and plasma lipid concentration, among treatments. Choline levels did not improve growth performance, possibly because the amount of choline in the diet had already met fish

  10. Effects of Choline Chloride on Performance and Serum Biochemical Indexes of White Leghorn Breeding Hens in Late of Peak Production%氯化胆碱对白来航蛋种鸡产蛋高峰后期生产性能和血清生化指标影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严华祥; 徐志刚; 袁超; 邹晓庭

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of choline chloride on performance and serum biochemi-cal indexes of white Leghorn breeding hens in late of peak production. A total of 240 white Leghorn breeding hens,48-week-old,were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 12 breeding hens in each replicate. Hens in the four groups were fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with 450,750, 1 050 and 1 650 mg/kg choline chloride,respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 weeks. The research showed as follows:1)no significant difference of laying rate was found among all groups( P>0.05),and the livability of the 450 mg/kg choline chloride group was the lowest,which had a significant difference from oth-er groups( P0.05). Yolk color of the 750 mg/kg choline chloride group was the highest. Choline chloride added level could not improve the ability of storing eggs( P>0.05). 3)The 750 mg/kg choline chlo-ride group had the highest fertile hatchability than other groups( P<0.05). 4)The 750 mg/kg choline chloride group had the highest serum albumin content than other groups( P<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen,urea acid and triglyceride contents of the 750 mg/kg choline chloride group were significantly lower than those of the 450 mg/kg choline chloride group( P<0.05). The research implies that the appropriate choline chloride added level(750 mg/kg)can improve the livability and fertile egg hatchability,reduce serum urea nitrogen,urea acid and triglyceride contents of breeding hens in late of peak production.%本研究旨在评估饲粮氯化胆碱对白来航蛋种鸡生产性能和血清生化指标的影响。选取240只48周龄白来航蛋种鸡,随机分成4组,每组5个重复,每个重复12只蛋种鸡。饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,氯化胆碱添加水平分别是450、750、1050和1650 mg/kg,试验期13周。结果表明:1)各组蛋种鸡产蛋率差异不显著( P>0.05),450 mg/kg氯化胆碱组蛋种鸡成活率

  11. Effect of high trimethylamine residuals in choline chloride on the feed intake in weaned piglets%氯化胆碱中三甲胺超标对断奶仔猪采食量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    Two animal trials were conducted to verify whether the high trimethylamine residuals in choline chloride would affect the daily feed intake in weaned piglets. In trail 1 , 90 Duroc× (Landrace · Large white) crossbred weaned piglets at average weighted 7. 3 kg were divided into 10 groups randomly. The trial diet had the same ingredient composition with control diet cxcept a 22 g/kg trimethylamine hydro-chloride addition. Five groups of animals were randomly assigned to test or control diets. After 8 days, it was demonstrated that the average daily feed intake in test groups was steadily less than that of control groups (291 g/d vs 382 g/d) , especially at the beginning stage of trial, 0~3 day (213 g/p/d vs 313 g/p/d, P<0. 05). Twenty-four piglets, as above, were divided into 6 groups in the second trial. Both the trial and control diets were given simultaneously to each group. After 10 days, it was demonstrated that the intake of test feed was less than control in 5 ~ 10 day and whole tested days (202 g/d vs 305 g/d; 179 g/d vs 287 g/d, P<0. 05). It concluded that the high residual of trimethylamine in choline hydrochloride products had an adverse effect on the feed intake in weaned piglets.%在断奶仔猪日粮中添加三甲胺盐酸盐,探讨氯化胆碱中三甲胺超标对断奶仔猪采食量的影响.试验分为两组,对照日粮和试验日粮的氯化胆碱中三甲胺含量分别为220 mg/kg和22 g/kg,同时进行组内比较和组间比较2个试验.组间比较试验采用断奶后5~9d的杜×(大·长)三元杂交仔猪90头,随机分为对照组及试验组,每组5个重复,每重复9头猪,每栏一个料槽,饲喂对照日粮或试验日粮,试验期8d.试验结果表明,试验组平均日采食量明显低于对照组(291 g/头vs 382g/头),其中第0~3天的日采食量差异显著(213g/头vs 313g/头,P<0.05).组内比较试验采用断奶后4~13 d的杜×(大·长)三元杂交仔猪24头,随机分为6组,每组4头猪,每栏设两个

  12. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous gold decorated with manganese oxide nanowires from eutectic urea/choline chloride ionic liquid. Part II – Electrodeposition of Au–Mn: A study based on soft X-ray microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Electrodeposited AuMn is the starting material for functionalised nanoporous gold. •Nanoporous-Au/MnO2-nanowire hybrids were fabricated from AuMn precursor alloys. •Submicrometric Mn distribution monitored quasi-in situ by scanning X-ray microscopy. •Mn chemical state followed by quasi-in situ by micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy. •Ideal nanoporous-Au/Mn-oxide electronic contact achieved by controlled AuMn oxidation. -- Abstract: In a previous paper (C. Mele, M. Catalano, A. Taurino, B. Bozzini. Electrochim. Acta 1 (2013) 918), we demonstrated the possibility of growing high-capacitance hybrid materials consisting of nanoporous gold (NPG)-supported MnO2 nanowires (NW) for supercapacitors, by electrochemical etching of electrodeposited single-phase Au–Mn alloys. The present paper concentrates on the electrodeposition of Au–Mn alloys from urea/choline-chloride ionic liquid solutions: the precursors of the high-capacitance hybrid material. The electrodeposition process, giving rise to alloys with 4–26% Mn content, was followed by space-resolved soft X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and absorption (XAS) microspectroscopy, complemented with electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry), structural (X-ray diffraction) and morphological (scanning electron microscopy) characterisations. The purposely developed electrochemical cells, exhibiting a specifically designed current density distribution, have allowed the quasi-in situ mapping of the local morphology-composition changes at the electrodes. Supersaturated Au–Mn solid solutions were obtained in the whole investigated compositional range under mass transport control of Mn. Variations in the Mn oxidation state were evidenced comparing low- and high-Mn content regions. It was found that, notwithstanding the heterogeneity of the current density, the morphologically compact high-Mn regions of the particular alloys with 20–26% Mn show a notable compositional homogeneity, rendering this material ideally

  13. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine as protectants against osmotic and cold stress: uptake through the SigB-controlled betaine-choline- carnitine transporter-type carrier EctT from Virgibacillus pantothenticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Anne U; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bursy, Jan; Jebbar, Mohamed; Bremer, Erhard

    2011-09-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus has been shown to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine in response to high salinity or low growth temperature. We found that exogenously provided ectoine and hydroxyectoine also serve as protectants against these challenges. Transport studies with [(14)C]ectoine revealed that both types of stress induced a high-affinity ectoine uptake activity in V. pantothenticus. By using an Escherichia coli mutant defective in osmoprotectant uptake systems, a functional complementation approach for osmostress resistance in the presence of ectoine was employed to retrieve a gene encoding an ectoine transporter from V. pantothenticus. The cloned gene (ectT) encodes a protein (EctT) that is a member of the BCCT (betaine-choline-carnitine-transporter) family of carriers. Osmoprotection assays demonstrated that the EctT carrier mediates the preferential import of ectoine and hydroxyectoine but also possesses minor uptake activities for the compatible solutes proline and glycine betaine. Northern blot analysis with RNA isolated from V. pantothenticus revealed that a rise in the external osmolality or a reduction in growth temperature strongly increased the transcription of the ectT gene. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that ectT was transcribed under these conditions from a SigB-type promoter. SigB is the master regulator of the general stress regulon of bacilli and provides protection to cells against various challenges, including high salinity and low temperature. Both the synthesis of ectoine and the EctT-mediated uptake of ectoine and hydroxyectoine are triggered by the same environmental cues, high salinity and cold stress, and thereby provide, in a concerted fashion, the protection of V. pantothenticus against these challenges. PMID:21764932

  14. Feed Additives of Choline Chloride and Vitamin K3 :Dioxin Compound Concentrations and the Distribution Characteristics of Monomers%氯化胆碱和维生素K3饲料添加剂中二(噁)英类化合物浓度及其单体分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志斌; 张建清; 蒋友胜; 周健; 李胜浓

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate dioxin compound concentrations and the distribution characteristics of monomers in two kinds of common feed additives (choline chloride and vitamin K3). Seventeen samples of choline chloride and 29 samples of vitamin K3 were detected. Dioxin compounds were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE) , purified by fluid management system ( FMS) , and quantitative analyzed by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC/ HRMS). The results showed as follows: the concentrations of dioxin compounds in choline chloride and vitamin K3 were 4. 370 and 13. 871 pg/g, respectively. The average concentration of toxic equivalent was 0.184 and 0. 379 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. The toxic equivalent concentration in 1 choline chloride sample and 5 vitamin K3 samples exceeded the executive standard of European Union (0. 75 pg WHO-TEQ/g). OCDF was the dominant contributory congener both in the samples of choline chloride and vitamin K3, and the main contributors of toxic equivalent were 2 ,3 ,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2 ,3 ,4,7,8-HxCDF. Furthermore, PCDFs accounted for 88% and 97% of total toxic equivalent in choline chloride and vitamin K3, respectively, and was the main pollutant in the distribution characteristic of pollutional congeners. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(10) :2006-2012]%本试验旨在调查2种常用饲料添加剂氯化胆碱和维生素K3中二(噁)英类化合物浓度及其单体分布特征.共检测17个氯化胆碱和29个维生素K3样品,二(噁)英化合物分别采用加速溶剂萃取仪和自动纯化系统进行提取和净化,并采用同位素稀释-高分辨气相色谱/高分辨双聚焦磁式质谱联用技术(HRGC/HRMS)进行准确定量分析检测.结果表明:氯化胆碱与维生素K3中二(噁)英类化合物浓度分别为4.370和13.871 pg/g,它们的毒性当量平均浓度分别是0.184和0.379 pg WHO-TEQ/g,其中有1

  15. Effect of Crocodile Choline Combined with Doxorubicin on Proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells SMMC-7721%鳄胆素联合阿霉素对人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓轶韬; 丁玉梅; 李华亮; 董欣; 沈雪莹; 陈清西

    2015-01-01

    研究了鳄胆素(crocodile choline)联合阿霉素(doxorubiein)对人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721的体外抑制作用.以不同浓度鳄胆素、阿霉素单用药组和两药联合用药组作用SMMC-7721细胞,应用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法和集落形成实验检测细胞增殖抑制、流式细胞仪分析细胞周期分布、免疫印记检测凋亡相关蛋白表达.结果显示鳄胆素、阿霉素单药与两药联合均能抑制SMMC-7721细胞的增殖,且呈剂量依赖效应,两药联合有协同效应.集落形成实验中对照组、鳄胆素单用药组、阿霉素单用药组和两药联合组的克隆形成率分别为88.0%,30.8%,28.5%和1.0%,表明两药联合使克隆形成率显著降低.细胞周期分析显示药物处理组出现S期阻滞,联合组与对照组相比,S期细胞含量由12%上升到59%;各组均能诱导SMMC-7721细胞凋亡,并以两药联合组效果更佳,细胞核经Hoechst染色出现浓染致密的固缩形态和强蓝色荧光;细胞中促凋亡蛋白Bax表达上调诱导细胞凋亡.研究结果表明鳄胆素与阿霉素联合对人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721有显著的抑制作用,作用效果具有协同效应.

  16. 氯化胆碱对棉花产量及某些酶活性的影响%Effect of Choline on Yield and Some Enzyme Activity of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伶俐; 杜远仿; 李文; 魏培军

    2000-01-01

    氯化胆碱(choline chloride简称CC)在植物体内极易代谢,它能够改善植物的多种生理活动,如促进水稻、小麦、棉花幼苗健壮生长,提高抗逆性;改善玉米、苹果、葡萄及甘薯品质;促进根系发生,提高块茎和块根产量;促进水稻、小麦的光合产物向生殖器官运输,增加产量等。但CC在棉花上的应用效果报道较少,本文研究了棉花生育过程中叶面喷施不同浓度的CC对棉花产量及某些生理活性的影响,为CC在棉花生产上的应用提供依据。   1 材料和方法   试验于1 999年在河南农业大学试验地进行,供试棉花品种为豫棉12,于5月10日育苗,麦收后移栽,株行距为20cm×60cm;CC为分析纯品,在棉花开花初期(7月9日)和结铃盛期(8月4日)分别用0、20、30、40、50 mg·L-1的CC水溶液叶面喷施,喷药10d后从棉株上部倒数第3片叶上打孔取样,测定NR及转化酶活性;从距地面10~20cm、距棉株5~20cm土层挖土冲洗取根,测定根活力,取开花后15d及25d棉铃的种子及纤维测其转化酶。

  17. Effect of Gibberellic Acid and Choline Chloride on the Growth Indexes of Eucalyptu urophylla Seedling%赤霉素和氯化胆碱对尾叶桉幼苗生长指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓福春; 韦泳丽; 杨振德; 翟明普

    2012-01-01

    采用盆栽方法,把赤霉素和氯化胆碱2种生长调节剂添加到富含微量元素的生物活性肥中,探讨这种复合制剂处理对尾叶桉幼苗生长的影响,为桉树生长调控和人工林精准化栽培提供理论依据。结果表明:喷施Lc复合药荆对尾叶桉幼苗的生长、根系的发育具有明显的促进作用。幼苗的株高、地径、生物量的增长分别比对照大36.7cm、0.25cm、3g,经方差分析均有显著差异(P〈0.05)。与对照相比,根冠比增加19.07%。Lc复合药剂处理后桉幼苗的分支数有所减少,但与对照相比没有显著差异(P〉0.05)。此外,Lc复合药剂具有促使生物量优先分配到茎干的作用。%Pot experiment was used to study the effect of complex preparation on the growth of Euca- lyptu urophylla seedling, which added the gibberellic acid and choline chloride to the biological active fertilizer rich in trace elements. This was aimed to provide the theoretical basis for eucalyptus growth regulation and accurated cultivation technology of eucalyptus plantation. The results showed that Lc treatment could remarkably improve the growth of seedling and root system. Height, ground diameter and biomass of E. urophylla seedlings increased by 36.7 cm, 0.25 cm, 3 g more than the control (P 〈 0.05) respectively. Compared with control, root-shoot ratio increased by 19.07 %. Meanwhile, branch number of E. urophylla seedlings after treating by Lc complex preparation decreased, but not significant compared with control group ( P〉0.05 ). In addition, Lc treatment could promote biomass to preferably be distributed into stem.

  18. 褪黑素对异氟醚麻醉大鼠海马胆碱乙酰基转移酶的影响%Effects of melatonin on choline acetyltransferase in rat hippocampus after isoflurane anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪诚; 谭刚; 罗爱伦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of melatonin on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the hippocampus of rats after isoflurane anesthesia.Methods Sixty male SD rats weighing 390-440 g were randomized into five groups (n =12 each):control group (group C),1% isoflurane group (group Ⅰ),1% isoflurane + melatonin group (group IM),2% isoflurane group (group J) and 2% isoflurane + melatonin group (group JM).Rats in groups IM and JM received intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 7 days,and rats in other groups received normal saline.On the 7th day of injection,rats in groups Ⅰ and IM inhaled 1% isoflurane for 4 hours,and rats in groups J and JM inhaled 2% isoflurane for 4 hours.One day after anesthesia,all the rats began Morris water maze to assess the learning and memory ability,which was made for continuous 5 days.At the end of probe test,6 rats in each group were randomly selected,blood samples were collected to detect plasma melatonin level,and the hippocampi were removed to evaluate the expression and activity of ChAT.The other rats were sacrificed to perform immunofluorescence to detect ChAT in hippocampal CA1 region and dentate gyrus.Results The plasma melatonin level,and the expression and activity of ChAT were significantly lower in group Ⅰ than in group C (P < 0.01).The escape latency was significantly longer,the probe time was significantly shorter,and the plasma melatonin level and the expression and activity of ChAT were significantly lower in group J than in group C (P < 0.05 or 0.01).The escape latency was significantly shorter,the probe time was significantly longer,and the plasma melatonin level and the expression and activity of ChAT were significantly higher in group IM than in group Ⅰ (P < 0.05 or 0.01).The escape latency was significantly shorter,and the plasma melatonin level and the ChAT activity were significantly higher in group JM than in group J (P< 0.05 or 0.01).Conclusion Melatonin can attenuate

  19. 体检人群血清甜菜碱、胆碱水平及其影响因素分析%SERUM LEVELS OF BETAINE AND CHOLINE AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES AND LIFE STYLE RELATED FACTORS IN PEOPLE UNDERGOING PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓玲; 常颖; 王丽君; 周瑞芬; 刘燕; 朱惠莲

    2015-01-01

    目的胆碱和甜菜碱是体内重要的甲基供体,探讨性别、年龄、体格测量指标、吸烟、饮酒等因素与血清甜菜碱、胆碱水平的关联性,为甜菜碱和胆碱在慢病防治中的应用提供流行病学依据。方法采用问卷调查的方法收集1643例(男1078,女565)体检人群的一般情况和生活行为方式资料,测量身高、体重、腰围、臀围并计算体质指数(body mass index,BMI)和腰臀比率,采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法检测血清中甜菜碱、胆碱的水平。结果男性血清甜菜碱、胆碱水平分别比女性高16.9%和12.0%;65岁及以上人群血清甜菜碱和胆碱水平显著高于其他年龄组人群;与 BMI、腰围、腰臀比率正常的人群相比,诊断为肥胖的人群血清甜菜碱水平均显著降低,但血清胆碱水平无统计学差异;不饮酒者血清甜菜碱水平高于饮酒者,但只与酒精摄入量≥21g/d 的饮酒者间的差异有统计学意义,血清甜菜碱的水平在不同吸烟状态的人群中无统计学差异,血清胆碱水平在不同吸烟状态及不同酒精摄入量的人群中差异均无统计学意义。结论男性血清胆碱、甜菜碱水平高于女性,中老年人血清胆碱、甜菜碱水平较高,肥胖人群血清甜菜碱水平较低,过量饮酒可能会降低血清甜菜碱的水平。[营养学报,2015,37(3):239-244]%Objective Choline and betaine are major methyl donors. This study investigated the association between serum betaine/choline and gender, age, anthropometric indices,smoking and drinking. Method A questionnaire containing information of general characteristics and lifestyle behavior was used for 1643 participants (1078 males, 565 females). Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference were measured and BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio) were calculated. Serum betaine and choline concentrations were assayed by HPLC

  20. PET-CT11C-胆碱和18F-FDG显像剂联合对肺占位病变鉴别诊断价值分析%Joint value analysis of 11C-choline and 18F-FDG PET-CT in pulmonary occupying lesions diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕学鹏; 董伟; 刘立恒; 赵书强; 郑劲松; 杨国仁

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨18F-氟化脱氧葡萄糖(18F-FDG)与11C-胆碱PET-CT联合应用在肺部占位性病变鉴别诊断中的价值.方法:选取196例肺部占位性病变患者,注射造影剂18F-FDG和11C-胆碱后行PET-CT检查和诊断,观察2种造影剂PET-CT检查方法的标准摄取值(SUV)以及单独和联合应用的诊断灵敏度、特异性和准确率.结果:良性和恶性患者的18F-FDG(2.20±1.23 vs 5.29±2.75)及11C-胆碱(0.81±0.79 vs 3.28±1.76)的SUVmax差异有统计学意义,P<0.01;18F-FDG和11C-胆碱在良性及恶性患者中差异有统计学意义,P<0.01.18F-FDG和11C-胆碱PET-CT各自的灵敏度(58.16% vs 58.67%)、特异性(78.05%vs 84.00%)和准确率(80.61% vs 85.20%)差异无统计学意义,P>0.05.联合诊断的灵敏度、特异性和准确率分别为53.57%(105/196)、90.11% (82/91)和94.39% (185/196),与单独应用比较,灵敏度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),特异性和准确率均提高,P<0.01.结论:将18 F-FDG和11C-胆碱PET-CT检查联合运用于同一患者进行综合诊断能明显提高肺部占位病变的诊断水平.%OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis value of the combination of 18 F-f luorinated deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and 11C-choline PET-CT imaging in pulmonary occupying lesions. METHODS: Consecutive 196 patients with pulmonary occupying lesions from February 2009 to April 2011 in our hospital were performed 18F-FDG and 11C-choline PET -CT imaging, and the standardized uptake value (standard uptake value, SUV) of each tracer was measured for each lesion. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for each single and the combination technique, respectively. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in 18F-FDG SUVmax(2.20+1.23 vs 5. 29 + 2.75, P0. 05). Combining 18F-FDG and 11C-choline PET-CT imaging significantly increased the diagnostic specificity (90.11%, 82/91) and accuracy (94. 39%, 185/196) than 18F-FDG or 11C-choline PET

  1. Resposta hemática de tilápias-do-nilo alimentadas com dietas suplementadas com colina e submetidas a estímulo por baixa temperatura Hematic response of Nile tilapia fed diets supplemented with choline and submitted to stimulus by low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Calvo Fernandes Junior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta hemática de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus arraçoadas com dietas suplementadas com colina e submetidas a estímulo por baixa temperatura. O período experimental foi realizado em duas etapas: a primeira, de 109 dias, e a segunda, de 7 dias. Durante a primeira etapa, foram utilizados 192 alevinos com peso médio inicial de 4 g, distribuídos em 32 tanques-rede de 200 L instalados em aquários de mil litros. As rações foram formuladas de modo a apresentar 28,0% de proteína digestível e 3.100,0 kcal ED/kg e mesma concentração de aminoácidos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram suplementadas com colina (cloreto de colina 60,0%, de modo a apresentar 100,0; 200,0; 400,0; 600,0; 800,0; 1.000,0 e 1.200,0 mg/kg de ração, e avaliadas em comparação a uma ração sem suplementação. Após o período de 109 dias, foram efetuadas as análises hematológicas dos peixes. Após as análises, os peixes foram transferidos para a sala de desafio e distribuídos em 24 aquários, onde foram mantidos a 17ºC durante sete dias. Após esse período, foram feitas as mesmas análises do período anterior ao desafio. A suplementação de colina não influenciou a eritropoiese ao estímulo pelo frio. A suplementa��ão dietética de colina não interfere na síntese de eritrócitos e leucócitos e a temperatura de 17,0ºC determina linfopenia e neutrofilia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematic response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with choline and submitted to temperature stress. The experimental period was realized in two phases: the first, during 109 days, and the second, for seven days. During the first stage, 192 fingerlings with average initial weight of 4 g were distributed in 32 net cages (200 L allocated in 1,000-L aquaria. The diets were formulated

  2. 电刺激大鼠皮层桶状区对胆碱乙酰移位酶表达的影响%Expression of choline acetyltransferase in the rat barrel cortex by electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊红琨; 杨春; 张艳燕; 乐小平; 郑春光; 师黎; 章茜

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察电脉冲刺激大鼠大脑皮层桶状区(BC)诱导的转向运动,并观察电刺激后胆碱乙酰移位酶(ChAT)在大鼠BC区的表达.方法:将大鼠随机分为3组:空白组、对照组、实验组.对照组和实验组大鼠在双侧BC区埋植刺激电极;术后7d实验组大鼠给予电刺激诱导左右转向运动;连续刺激3d后,取脑行冰冻切片常规HE染色和免疫组织化学染色;并提取3组大鼠海马和脑组织蛋白,用Western blot方法检测ChAT的表达.结果:给予电脉冲刺激大鼠BC区,实验动物均出现向左或向右转;HE染色显示电极周围组织没有明显形态学变化.与对照组和空白组相比,免疫组化和Western blot结果均显示实验组大鼠BC区ChAT阳性的表达率增高.结论:电刺激BC区可诱导大鼠产生特定的方向性运动;且大鼠脑组织中ChAT表达增加,提示胆碱能神经递质参与了感觉-运动皮层之间的信息传递.%Objective:To observe a turning performance in the rats excited by using a proper electrical stimuli of the barrel cortex region (BC),and the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the BC regions after electoral stimulation.Methods:SD rats were divided into three groups.The stimulation electrodes were surgically implanted into the bilateral BC regions in the control group and the experimental group rats.The experiment group post surgery for seven days was given the electrical impulses via connection with the electrodes for three times each day through consecutive three days.Three groups of the rats were killed and the brains were quickly removed for frozen sections and then perfomed with conventional HE and immunohistochemistry staining.And protein samples were prepared from brain and the hippocampus tissues of the three groups to detect the level of the ChAT protein by Western blot.Results:The experimental rats turn left or right when continuously stimulation in the bilateral BC regions with electric pulse

  3. Fluoro choline({sup 18}F) has a clinical usefulness in prostate cancer and in hepatocellular carcinoma sometimes in the same patient;La fluorocholine({sup 18}F) a une utilite clinique dans le cancer de la prostate et le carcinome hepatocellulaire parfois chez le meme malade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogova, S.; Kerrou, K.; Huchet, V.; Gutman, F.; Montravers, F.; Talbot, J.N. [Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Tenon, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Balogova, S. [Universite Comenius, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bumsel, F. [Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Service d' hepato-gastro-enterologie, hopital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Nataf, V. [Hopital Tenon, AP-HP, Radiopharmacie, 75 - Paris (France); Mal, F. [Institut mutualiste Montsouris, Departement de pathologie digestive, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    Case report: In order to stage hepatocellular carcinoma (H.C.C.), a patient was referred to PET/CT using fluorodeoxyglucose({sup 18}F) (F.D.G.) and, if necessary, fluoro choline({sup 18}F) (F.C.H.). H.C.C. was proven by biopsy of a hepatic mass discovered on CT performed for a biological recurrence of prostate cancer. Result: F.D.G. PET/CT did not show any anomaly. F.C.H. PET/CT was thus performed and showed various foci: the hepatic mass, a large abdominal adenopathy and an unexpected sub centimeter lung nodule. The diagnostic uncertainty mostly concerned this lung nodule which was biopsied and consisted of a metastasis of the prostate cancer. Due to the presence of two metastatic cancers, the patient's management was altered, with chemotherapy for the H.C.C. and hormone therapy for the prostate cancer. Conclusion: Several types of cancer take-up fluoro choline({sup 18}F), which is a powerful tool to detect metastases, in particular in case of rising levels of marker with a negative F.D.G. PET/CT. Even when F.D.G. PET/CT is positive, F.C.H. may reveal unexpected foci with other metabolic characteristics, although it is not specific of a given primary cancer, as well as F.D.G.. For staging of H.C.C., we thus recommend to perform PET/CT with both tracers. (authors)

  4. 胞二磷胆碱提高心肺复苏效果和减轻心肌损伤的作用研究%The effects of CDP-Choline on the improvement of the successful rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and post-resuscitation cardiac function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄煜; 何庆; 詹磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of CDP-Choline on the improvement of recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and protection against myocardial injury in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into four groups:control group (n =5,no asphyxia),model group (n =10),adrenaline group (n =10) and CDP-Choline group (n =10).Cardiac arrest (CA) was induced by asphyxia,and then CPR was initiated.Drugs were administered at 5 minutes before CPR and at the initiation of CPR.Equal amount of normal saline was given in the control group and the model group.The hemodynamic parameters were monitored during CPR and after ROSC.After 2 hours,the myocardial tissue of the rats was harvested to assess the degree of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by measuring ATPase activity,superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content.Results Compared with the model group,the rate of ROSC was significantly elevated (90%,80% vs.20%,both P<0.01) in the CDP-Choline group and the adrenaline group,the time of achieving ROSC (s) was shorter (53 ± 10,55 ± 9 vs.95 ± 7,both P<0.01),and the heart rate (HR,bpm) and mean arterial pressure (MAP,mm Hg,1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) at 2 hours after CPR were higher (HR:222.78 ±41.55,167.75 ± 11.76 vs.131.50 ±0.70; MAP:36.53 ±8.69,39.30 ±6.45 vs.30.19 ±5.15,all P<0.01).The cardiac function [the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure increase/decline (± dp/dt max)] in the CDP-Choline group was gradually stabilized and significantly higher than that in the model and the adrenaline groups.The cardiac function in the adrenaline group was higher than that of the model group,but it was in a tendency of lowering.Compared with the model group and the adrenaline group,the reduction of Na+-K+-ATPase (μmol· mg-1· h-1) and SOD (U/mg) activity were significantly increased in the CDP-Choline group (Na+-K+-ATPase:7.35 ± 0.20 vs.5.11 ± 0.69,4.70 ± 0.41; SOD activity:320.65 ± 47.25 vs.225

  5. 离子色谱法测定奶粉中氯化胆碱、钠、钾、镁、钙的含量%Determination of Choline Chloride,Na^+,K^+, Mg^2+ and Ca^2+ in Milk Powder by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文军; 崔晗; 沈葆真; 苏海滨; 贺舒文; 黄大亮; 李莉

    2012-01-01

    A method was established to determine choline chloride,Na+,K+,Mg2+ and Ca2+ in milk powder by using ion exchange chromatography with conductivity detector.The samples were separated on a IonPac CS-12A(250mm×4 mm) cation exchange column using gradient elution of MSA,and the velocity was 1.0 mL/min.The detection limit of the method was 0.5~10 mg/L.The relative standard deviation of this method is 2.3%-4.7%(n=6)and the recovery is the range of 74.7%~93.5%.The method is accurate and simple,and is suitable for rapid detection choline chloride,Na+,K+,Mg2+ and Ca2+in milk powder.%建立离子色谱定量测定奶粉中钠、钾、氯化胆碱、镁、钙的方法,应用IonPac CS-12A(250 mm×4 mm)阳离子交换柱,淋洗液为20 mmol/L MSA,等浓度淋洗,流速为1.0 mL/min,电导检测器检测,方法检出限为0.5~10 mg/kg。6次测定平行样,相对标准偏差2.3%~4.7%,5种阳离子加标回收率74.7%~93.5%,该方法具有准确、操作简便等特点,可用于奶粉中钠、钾、氯化胆碱、镁、钙的检测。

  6. 过瘤胃胆碱对围产期奶牛生产性能和能量代谢的影响%Effect of rumen protected choline supplemented into diet on performance and energy metabolism of dairy cows in transition period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑家三; 夏成; 张洪友; 徐闯

    2012-01-01

    为阐明日粮中添加过瘤胃胆碱对围产期奶牛生产性能和能量代谢的影响,选取年龄、胎次和泌乳量相近的健康荷斯坦奶牛40头,随机分为4组,每组10头。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组每天分别在基础日粮中添加5、10和20g过瘤胃胆碱,Ⅳ组饲喂基础日粮。试验期内(产前14d~产后42d)分别调查和检测奶牛的生产性能(泌乳量和干物质摄入量)、血液生化指标(葡萄糖、β-羟丁酸、游离脂肪酸、甘油三酯和胆固醇)和内分泌指标(胰岛素和胰高血糖素)。结果显示:1)围产期奶牛日粮中添加过瘤胃胆碱能明显提高奶牛泌乳量(MY)和干物质摄入量(DMI),以每头奶牛每天添加10g过瘤胃胆碱效果最好。2)围产期奶牛日粮添加过瘤胃胆碱,能延缓血浆葡萄糖(Glu)水平的下降(P〈0.05),显著降低试验奶牛血浆β-羟丁酸(BHBA)、游离脂肪酸(NEFA)总胆固醇(TCHO)含量(P〈0.05),与对照组相比,血浆甘油三酯(TG)有升高的趋势(P〉0.05)。3)添加过瘤胃胆碱,有提高试验奶牛血浆胰岛素(Ins)含量、降低胰高血糖素(Gn)含量的趋势,但差异不显著(P〉0.05)。上述结果表明围产期奶牛日粮添加过瘤胃胆碱能够提高奶牛的生产性能,改善奶牛体内脂肪代谢,促进体内糖异生作用,缓解围产期和泌乳早期奶牛的能量负平衡。%To ascertain effect of rumen protected choline on performance and energy metabolism of dairy cows in transition period,In this experiment forty tested cows that were divided randomly into four groups(in turn group Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ 10 cows per group) from an intensive dairy farm.according to different dosage of rumen-protected choline(5,10,20,and 0 g dosage of choline,per day for each cow) supplemented into diet from day 14 before calving to day 42 after calving.production performances(MY,and DMI) were investigated,blood biochemical

  7. 氯化胆碱与制动性骨骼肌萎缩肌肉生成抑制素mRNA的表达%Effects of choline chloride on myostatin mRNA expression in rats with immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开元; 寇建民; 木拉提别克; 刁和信

    2011-01-01

    背景:研究发现类胆碱物质可增加乙酰胆碱的弥散及终板电流的幅度,对神经肌肉接点功能退化有一定的对抗作用.目的:观察氯化胆碱对制动性骨骼肌萎缩的防治作用及对骨骼肌萎缩大鼠肌肉生成抑制素mRNA表达的影响.方法:将30只雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组和治疗组,每组10只.采用可塑性石膏固定模型组和治疗组大鼠右后肢制备肌萎缩模型.治疗组每日灌胃氯化胆碱(150 mg/kg),对照组和模型组灌胃等体积蒸馏水.4周后解剖右后肢腓肠肌,检测腓肠肌收缩张力、肌湿质量、蛋白质水平及肌肉生成抑制素mRNA的表达.结果与结论:与对照组比较,模型组大鼠腓肠肌的收缩张力、肌湿质量、蛋白质水平均显著降低(P < 0.05或P < 0.01),肌肉生成抑制素mRNA表达显著增高(P < 0.01).与模型组比较,治疗组大鼠腓肠肌的收缩张力、肌湿质量、蛋白质水平均显著升高(P < 0.05),肌肉生成抑制素mRNA表达显著降低(P < 0.05).说明氯化胆碱能够显著提高制动性萎缩骨骼肌的收缩张力、肌湿质量、蛋白质水平,减少肌肉生成抑制素mRNA的表达,从而有效抑制骨骼肌制动性萎缩的发生.%BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that choline-based material can not only increase dispersion of acetylcholine and amplitude of endplate current, but also play an antagonistic action on function reduction of neuromuscular junction. OBJECTIVE: To observe the prevention effects of choline chloride on immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and myostatin mRNA expression. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into control group, model group and treatment group, with 10 rats in each group. The right hind limbs of the rats were fixed with compliant plaster to prepare atrophy models. The rats in the treatment group received choline chloride (150 mg/kg). The same volume of distilled water was intragastric administrated into rats

  8. 辽宁碱蓬胆碱单加氧酶基因克隆及转基因烟草的耐盐性%Cloning of cDNA Encoding Choline Monooxygenase from Suaeda liaotungensis and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋莉; 刘大伟; 高晓蓉; 苏乔; 安利佳

    2003-01-01

    甜菜碱是生物体内普遍存在的一种很有效的渗透调节剂.在高等植物中,甜菜碱由胆碱经两步酶催氧化得到,即:胆碱→甜菜碱醛→甜菜碱,催化第一步反应的酶是胆碱单加氧酶(choline monooxygenase,CMO).用RT-PCR和RACE技术从盐生植物辽宁碱蓬(Suaeda liaotungensis Kitag)中分离了CMO cDNA全序列,其中包括5′端非编码区123 bp, 3′端非编码区368 bp, 开放阅读框1 329 bp,编码一个由442个氨基酸构成的多肽,与菠菜、甜菜和山菠菜CMO的氨基酸序列同源性分别为77%、72% 和74%.克隆了其编码区,构建了植物表达载体pBI121-CMO,根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)介导转化烟草(Nictiana tabacum L.cv.89),获得卡那霉素抗性植株.PCR和Southern杂交均证明外源CMO基因已整合到烟草基因组中,转基因烟草的甜菜碱含量明显高于对照,转基因烟草膜的相对电导率明显低于对照,说明盐胁迫下转基因烟草的膜结构所受损伤小于对照,转基因烟草具有一定的耐盐性,能在含250 mmol/L NaCl的培养基中正常生长.%Betaine is a very effective osmoprotectant found in many organisms. In high plants, betaine is synthesized by oxidation of choline in two sequential steps: choline→betaine aldehyde→betaine. The first step is catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO). In this study, the full-length CMO cDNA (1 820 bp) was cloned from halophyte Suaeda liaotungensis Kitag by RT-PCR and RACE. It included a 123 bp 5′ UTR, a 368 bp 3′ UTR and a 1 329 bp open reading frame encoding a 442-amino-acid polypeptide with 77%, 72% and 74% sequence identity compared to CMOs from spinach, sugar beet and Atriplex hortensis, respectively. The CMO open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and the plant expression vector pBI121-CMO was constructed. It was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. 89) via Agrobacterium mediation. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that the CMO gene was integrated

  9. Comparaison of lymphoblast apoptosis induced by different combinations of choline and folate between healthy and breast cancer Individuals%胆碱与叶酸不同浓度组合诱导正常人与乳腺癌患者成淋巴细胞凋亡效应的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高微微; 徐伟江; 周滔; 汪旭

    2010-01-01

    目的:比较携带BRCAI基因突变的乳腺癌患者与正常人成淋巴细胞株对胆碱(choline chloride,CC)与叶酸(folic acid,FA)缺乏诱发细胞凋亡的差异.方法:实验设置了6个cc(0~21.5μtmol/L)与4个FA(30~240 nmol/L)的24种不同浓度的组合,培养乳腺癌患者BRCAl基因突变的人成淋巴细胞株GM13705(病例组)和人成淋巴细胞株GM12593(正常对照组),9 d后,用胞质阻断微核细胞组分析(CBMN Cyt),比较胆碱与叶酸不同浓度组合中两种细胞株的凋亡率.结果:当Ccc≥6 μmol/L、CFA≥120 nmol/L时,两细胞株的凋亡率均显著降低(P0.05).结论:乳腺癌患者人成淋巴细胞株对胆碱和叶酸的凋亡效应无特殊敏感性.

  10. 围头湾5种海藻提取物 AChE 抑制活性与 DPPH.清除能力的比较%Acetyl Choline Enzyme Inhibitory Activity and DPPH. Radical Scavenging Capacity of the Extracts from Five Seaweeds in Fujian Weitou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓冬; 李裕红; 黄晓昆; 戴聪杰

    2015-01-01

    对福建省围头海域5种海藻提取物及萃取部位的乙酰胆碱酶抑制活性与 DPPH.清除能力进行比较研究,并分别测定其总酚与总黄酮含量.结果表明:裙带菜与羊栖菜提取物具有较高含量的总酚与总黄酮;裙带菜的乙酸乙酯部位、二氯甲烷部位和羊栖菜石油醚部位、二氯甲烷部位在10 mg/mL 质量浓度时表现出较强的乙酰胆碱酶抑制活性,并且裙带菜乙酸乙酯部位、二氯甲烷部位以及羊栖菜二氯甲烷部位的DPPH.清除能力均明显高于其他提取物或萃取部位.%The acetyl choline enzyme inhibitory activity and DPPH. radical scavenging capacity of the extracts and its solvent fraction from five kinds of seaweed in Fujian Weitou bay were studied.Results showed that the exracts from Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum fusiforme had higher concentra-tion of polyphenols and flavonoids.Ethyl acetate fraction and methylene chloride fraction from Un-daria pinnatifida,petroleum ether fraction and dichloromethane fraction from Sargassum fusiforme had strong acetylcholine enzyme inhibitory activity at 10 mg/mL.At the concentration of 1 mg/mL, the DPPH . scavenging abilities of ethyl acetate fraction and methylene chloride fraction from Un-daria pinnatifida ,dichloromethane fraction from Sargassum fusiforme were higher than other ex-tracts or fractions.

  11. Effect of Choline Chloride on Photosynthetic Physiology and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Spinach under Low NaCl Treatment%氯化胆碱对低盐处理下菠菜光合生理和抗氧化酶的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 张边江; 华春; 邱念伟

    2012-01-01

    Effects of choline chloride (CC) on growth and antioxidant enzyme activity of non halophyte spinach (Spinacia oleraceal) were studied by spraying 300 mg/L CC solutions on the leaves of spinach subjected to low NaCl concentration. The results demonstrated that CC significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate ( Pn) , superoxide dismutase(SOD) ,peroxidase( POD) and calatase( CAT) activities of spinach at low NaCl concentration. The chlorophyll content and protein content were increased but the uperoxide anion(O2 ) and malondialdehyde( MDA) content decreased after CC treatment. It demonstrated that CC could increase salt tolerance of spinach.%用300 mg/L氯化胆碱(CC)喷施低盐处理下的非盐生植物菠菜叶片,研究了CC对不同浓度NaCl处理的菠菜光合生理和抗氧化酶活性的变化.结果表明:300 mg/L氯化胆碱喷施后,显著促进低盐处理后菠菜净光合速率和抗氧化酶系统中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性,叶绿素和蛋白质含量增加,超氧阴离子(O2-)和丙二醛(MDA)含量明显低于未经CC喷施的.这说明CC可提高菠菜的耐盐性.

  12. Espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco curto: a razão colina/N-acetil-aspartato e a graduação dos astrocitomas cerebrais Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Vasco Aragão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a relação colina/N-acetil-aspartato (Co/NAA, obtida pela espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco (TE curto, na graduação histológica dos astrocitomas encefálicos (graus I, II e III-IV, comparando com o parênquima cerebral normal. Observou-se aumento significativo (pThe choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA ratio, obtained by the multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time (TE, was evaluated, in the histological grading of the brain astrocytomas (grades I, II and III-IV in comparison with the normal cerebral parenchyma. A significant increase (p<0.05 in the average ratios of Cho/NAA was observed in the three astrocytoma groups studied in relation to normal tissue, having a tendency to increase with the increase in grading, without any statistic significance, which corresponded to: 0.53±0.24 in the control group, 1.19±0.49 in grade I, 1.58±0.65 in grade II and 5.13±8.12 in the high grade group (grades III-IV, with variation in the values encountered. There was an increase in the Cho/NAA ratio in 4/5 (80% in grade I, 5/6 (83% in grade II and 10/20 (50% in grades III and IV. We conclude that multivoxel spectroscopy with short TE can be used in discriminating between normal parenchyma and neoplasm tissue. However, not all neoplasm tissue studied presented an increase in Cho/NAA, especially in the group with higher grade of malignancy.

  13. 瘤胃保护胆碱对围产期高产奶牛产奶性能和血液生化指标的影响%Effect of Rumen-protected Choline on Milk Performances and Blood Biochemical Parameters of High Productive Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和立文; 孟庆翔; 王新宇; 刘辉; 李辉; 任丽萍

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of rumen-protected choline (RPC) supplementation on milk performances and blood biochemical parameters of high productive periparturient dairy cows.Forty-four healthy Holstein cows with similar parity,expected calving date and milk yield were blocked into 22 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one of 2 treatments.Both groups received the same basal diet.The treatment group was supplemented with 20 g/d rumen-protected choline per cow.Treatments were applied from 2 wk before until 4 wk after calving,during which milk performances and blood biochemical parameters were investigated,respectively.The results showed that the average daily milk yield of the fourth week after calving increased by 2.31% (P>0.05).Lactose percentage decreased by 3.75% (P<0.05) and milk fat percentage,milk protein percentage,(milk fat)/(milk protein) and dry matter percentage increased by 11.11%,5.56%,6.38% and 2.94% without significant difference (P>0.05),respectively.There were no significant difference (P>0.05) on the content of both plasma triglyceride (TG) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) between treatments on the time-point of calving,day 7 poscalving and day 14 postcalving,but the contents of plasma TG and BHBA of treatment group were apparently lower than the control.These results indicated that under the condition of this experiment RPC supplementation for high productive periparturient dairy cows could increase milk yield,improve milk quality and fat metabolism,relieve negative energy balance and reduce the risk of fat deposition in the liver.%为探究补充瘤胃保护胆碱(rumen-protected choline,RPC)对围产期高产奶牛产奶性能和血液生化指标的影响,试验选取44头健康的荷斯坦高产奶牛,按胎次、预产期、上一胎次产奶量等基本一致原则分为试验组和对照组,每组22头,饲喂相同基础日粮,试验组牛群补充20g/(d·头)的RPC.试验期内(产前14

  14. 转北美海蓬子胆碱单加氧酶基因(cmo)烟草的获得及耐盐性鉴定%Transformation of Salicornia bigelovii Choline Monooxygenase Gene (cmo) into Nicotiana tabacum and Salt Resistance Identification of Transgenic Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱天艺; 龚一富; 刘增美; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    胆碱单加氧酶(choline monooxygenase,CMO)是植物甜菜碱合成过程中重要的限速酶.为探讨转北美海蓬子(Salicornia bigelovii)cmo基因烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)在耐盐基因工程中的应用,利用基础质粒pCAMBIA1300UR构建pCAMBIA 1300UR-cmo植物表达载体,通过电击法将重组质粒导入农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)EHA105中,并采用农杆菌介导的叶盘转化法转入烟草,经抗生素筛选、PCR和qRT-PCR检测后,对阳性烟草植株进行耐盐性鉴定.结果表明,北美海蓬子cmo基因在烟草中具有80%的转化效率,在200 mmol/L盐胁迫下,转基因植株的超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、过氧化物酶(peroxidase,POD)、过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)及脯氨酸(proline,PRO)含量明显高于非转基因的烟草植株,而丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量和过氧化氢(hydrogen peroxide,H2O2)含量则低于非转基因组.结果表明,cmo基因的转化提高了烟草的耐盐性,为进一步阐明cmo基因在植物体内的甜菜碱合成代谢途径、抗逆调控机制及培育耐盐植物新品种提供基因资源库和理论参考.

  15. 鳄胆素与阿霉素联合应用对肝癌SMMC-7721细胞凋亡的影响%Effect of Crocodile Choline Combined with Doxorubicin on Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells SMMC-7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉梅; 翁梦婷; 毛云子; 董欣; 邓轶韬; 陈清西

    2016-01-01

    研究了鳄胆素(crocodile choline,Cro)联合阿霉素(doxorubicin,Dox)对人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721凋亡的诱导作用.用鳄胆素(15 μg/mL)和阿霉素(0.4μg/mL)单独或联合作用SMMC-7721细胞后,测定了培养基中乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)的渗漏率,吖啶橙/溴化乙锭(AO/EB)荧光染色观察细胞的凋亡形态,流式细胞仪检测细胞内活性氧(ROS)水平和细胞线粒体膜电位变化,免疫印迹(Western blot)检测凋亡相关蛋白细胞色素C(CytC)及p53的表达量变化.结果(图3)显示鳄胆素和阿霉素单独或者联合作用都能促进细胞中LDH的渗漏,与对照组相比,联合作用组有极显著差异(p<0.01),其作用呈时间依赖性.经药物处理后,AO/EB荧光染色发现细胞核出现明显的凋亡特征.细胞中ROS水平显著升高,同时细胞线粒体膜电位降低.Western blot结果显示单独用药组及联合用药组都能上调促凋亡蛋白p53的表达,促进凋亡蛋白CytC由线粒体释放到胞质中,联合用药组作用效果更为显著.以上结果表明鳄胆素和阿霉素单独或联合作用都对人肝癌SMMC-7721细胞凋亡有诱导作用,且以联合用药组作用效果更加显著.两药联合作用可能通过线粒体介导的内源性途径诱导细胞发生凋亡.本研究有望为肝癌的联合用药治疗提供理论依据.

  16. Effects of Seed Soaking in Choline Chloride Solution on Seeds Germination and Some Physiological Characteristics of Spinach Seedlings%氯化胆碱浸种对菠菜种子萌发·幼苗某些生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素蓉; 周晓丽; 周峰; 华春

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The spinach seeds were soaked with choline chloride(CC) solution of different concentration, and the effects of CC on seeds germination and some phvsiological characteristics of spmach seedlings were studied. [ Method ] The germination rate and germination inde ,obble protein, solube sugar. chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, production rate of O2 · and MDA content were measured. [ Result] CC could increase germination rate and germination index of spinach seeds. It also could increase soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll ontent of spmach seedlings. The superoxide dismutase, the calatasc and the peroxidase activities also was increased after soakiag with CC solution Moreover, the production rate of O2 · and MDA content decreased markedly contrasting with spinach seedlings without CC treatment. [ Conclusion ] The effects on seeds germination and some physiological characteristics of spinach seedlings were best after treatment by CC with the concentration of 25 mg/L.%[目的]用不同浓度的氯化胆碱(CC)溶液浸种后, 研究CC对菠菜种子萌发及幼苗某些生理特性的影响.[方法]测定了种子萌发率、发芽指数、蛋白质、叶绿素和可溶性糖含量、抗氧化酶活性、丙二醛含量和超氧阴离子的产生速率.[结果]CC溶液浸种后能提高种子萌发率和发芽指数,提高幼苗叶片中可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量,超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶的活性均有所提高, 而超氧阴离子的产生速率和丙二醛含量明显低于未经CC处理的.[结论]各浓度的CC溶液浸种以25 mg/L浸种效果最好.

  17. Conformational analysis of acetylcholine and related choline esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Jensen, B

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structures of carbamoylcholine [2-(carbamoyloxy)-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium] chloride, bromide and iodide, methoxycarbonylcholine [2-(methoxycarbonyloxy)-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium] iodide, acetylcholine [2-(acetyloxy)-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium] chloride and succinylcholine ¿2...

  18. Improving agar electrospinnability with choline-based deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

    2015-09-01

    Very recently our group has produced novel agar-based fibers by an electrospinning technique using water as solvent and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as co-blending polymer. Here, we tested the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride/urea prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, as an alternative solvent medium for agar electrospinning. The electrospun materials were collected with an ethanol bath adapted to a previous electrospinning set-up. One weight percent agar-in-DES showed improved viscoelasticity and hence, spinnability, when compared to 1 wt% agar-in-water and pure agar nanofibers were successfully electrospun if working above the temperature of sol-gel transition (∼80 °C). By changing the solvent medium we decreased the PVA concentration (5 wt% starting solution) and successfully produced composite fibers with high agar contents (50/50 agar/PVA). Best composite fibers were formed with the 50/50 and 30/70 agar/PVA solutions. These fibers were mechanically resistant, showed tailorable surface roughness and diverse size distributions, with most of the diameters falling in the sub-micron range. Both nano and micro forms of agar fibers (used separately or combined) may have potential for the design of new and highly functional agar-based materials. PMID:26116384

  19. Repairing effects of reduced glutathione and polyene phosphatidyl choline on liver injury evoked by cyclophosphamide in mice%还原型谷胱甘肽与多烯磷脂酰胆碱对环磷酰胺诱导小鼠肝损伤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向菊; 吴玉波; 蒋爱华; 徐娜; 梁晶; 吴禹蒙

    2014-01-01

    磷脂酰胆碱组肝组织 AST、ALT、SOD 和 CAT 活性均低于对照组[(144.5±7.9)、(223.1±15.1)、(173.9±5.3)U/ mg 比(332.6±7.3)U/ mg],[(50.5±4.0)、(108.0±8.0)、(62.3±2.0)U/ mg 比(139.6±7.0)U/ mg],[(99.0±9.7)、(165.0±114.6)、(115.6±7.3)U/ mg 比(207.6±8.3)U/ mg],[(35.4±1.0)、(39.3±1.1)、(36.3±1.2)U/ mg比(42.5±2.3)U/ mg](均 P <0.01);MDA 水平均高于对照组[(23.4±2.6)、(16.3±1.5)、(20.2±1.9)nmol/ mg 比(10.2±2.2)nmol/ mg](均 P <0.01),但还原型谷胱甘肽组4种酶活性均高于多烯磷脂酰胆碱组和肝损伤模型组(P <0.01或 P <0.05),MDA 水平低于多烯磷脂酰胆碱组和肝损伤模型组(均 P <0.05)。肝损伤模型组小鼠肝组织出现大量小坏死灶,肝细胞结构不清晰,细胞间隙增大,有大量炎性反应细胞浸润;还原型谷胱甘肽组出现少量小坏死灶,大部分肝细胞结构正常;多烯磷脂酰胆碱组部分肝细胞出现间隙增大、肿胀和小坏死灶。结论还原型谷胱甘肽对环磷酰胺诱导小鼠肝损伤有明显的防护作用,多烯磷脂酰胆碱仅能提高环磷酰胺诱导肝损伤小鼠模型 ALT 活性。%Objective To analyze and compare the prothetic effects of reduced glutathione and polyene phosphatidyl choline on liver injury evoked by cyclophosphamide in mice. Methods Forty Kunming mice were divided into the liver injury model group,the reduced glutathione group,the polyene phosphatidyl choline group,and the control group by simple random sampling. Each group comprised 10 mice. The mice in the fornamed 3 groups received intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide(100 mg ·kg-1 ·d-1 )to evoke the liver injury on day 1 to 4 of the experiment and 0. 9% sodium chloride solution 0. 2 ml,reduced glutathione 180 mg· kg-1 · d-1 ,and polyene phosphatidyl choline 90 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 were given respectively in the 3 groups on day 5 to 14 of the

  20. 术后睡眠剥夺对老龄大鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶表达的影响%Effects of postoperative sleep deprivation on expression of choline acetyltransferase in hippocampi of aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 丁明; 张迅; 宗波; 张蕊

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨术后睡眠剥夺对老龄大鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶(ChAT)表达的影响.方法 健康雄性Wistar大鼠48只,体重500~ 600 g,20月龄,采用随机数字表法将其分为4组(n=12):对照组(C组)、手术组(O组)、睡眠剥夺组(S组)和术后睡眠剥夺组(OS组).OS组于脾切除术清醒后,S组于相应时点采用小平台水环境法制备睡眠剥夺模型,剥夺睡眠24 h.于术后24 h时行Morris水迷宫实验.水迷宫测试完成后,行海马CA1区ChAT阳性细胞计数.结果 与C组比较,O组和OS组术后逃避潜伏期延长,原平台象限停留时间缩短,穿越原平台次数减少,海马CA1区ChAT阳性细胞数减少(P<0.05),S组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与O组比较,OS组术后逃避潜伏期延长,原平台象限停留时间缩短,穿越原平台次数减少(P<0.05),海马CA1区ChAT阳性细胞数差异无统计学意义,S组上述指标差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与S组比较,OS组术后逃避潜伏期延长,原平台象限停留时间缩短,穿越原平台次数减少,海马CA1区ChAT阳性细胞数减少(P<0.05).结论 术后睡眠剥夺诱发老龄大鼠术后认知功能减退的机制与海马ChAT的表达无关.%Objective To investigate the effects of postoperative sleep deprivation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in hippocampi of aged rats.Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats,aged 20 months,weighing 500-600 g,were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =12 each) using a random number table:control group (group C) ; operation group (group O) ; sleep deprivation group (group S) ; postoperative sleep deprivation group (group OS).Sleep deprivation was induced in the rats by housing them on small platforms over water.They fell into the water if they lost muscle tone.All the rats had free access to food and water.In group OS,splenectomy was performed,and all the rats underwent 24 h sleep deprivation after the rats were awake.All the rats underwent 24 h

  1. 穹窿海马伞切断大鼠不同脑区胆碱乙酰化转移酶表达的变化%Expressive variety of choline acetyltransferase in different cerebral regions of rats with fimbria/fornix transection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宗君; 金丽英; 银建军

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) is the key synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, and is the important symbol of the functional activity of the cholinergic system. There was a relationship of the cholinergic neurons damage with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and the mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whether or not the fimbria/fornix transection may affect the expressive variety of ChAT in different cerebral regions of rats (cortex, hippocammpi CA1, amygdala, Meynert nucleus) is very important for the recognition of the pathogenesis of AD and MCI and the establishment of experimental animal model of AD.OBJECTIVE: To observe the expressive variety of ChAT in different cerebral regions of rats with fimbria/fornix transection and discuss exploratorily the methods of simulative experimental AD.DESIGN: A randomized and control study.SETTING: Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of the Qingdao University Medical College and the Department of Neurology, No. 1People' s Hospital of Jining.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed in the Institute of Cerebrovascular Disease, Affiliated Hospital of the Qingdao University Medical College from March to December 2003. Totally 14 adult healthy female Wistar rats aged 5 months were randomly divided into model group and control group with 7 in each group.METHODS: ① The bilateral fimbria-fornix of brain in model group were transected on the stereotaxic apparatus to set animal model. After opening the skull, at the coordinates, along the bregma posterior 2.2 mm-2.5 mm and lateral 1.0 mm according to the atlas of Paxinos and Watson, and the dorsal fornix, the anterior part of hippocampus and the fimbria were cut off with a double blade under visual inspection. Rats in the control group were not performed with fimbria/fornix transection, and the other procedures were completed as those in the model group. ② On the 28 day after the surgery, all rats were killed under anesthesia to take out

  2. β-淀粉样蛋白与载脂蛋白E4对大鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶的影响%Effects of beta-amyloid and apolipoprotein E4 on hippocampal choline acetyl transferase in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽霞; 郭锋; 李新毅

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察β-淀粉样蛋白(Aβ)和载脂蛋白E(apoE)4对大鼠海马胆碱乙酰转移酶(ChAT)的影响以及二者是否具有协同作用.方法 将雄性Wistar大鼠分为4组:对照组海马注射生理盐水,Aβ组注射Aβ1-40,apoE4组注射apoE4,Aβ+ apoE4组注射Aβ1-40+apoE4.水迷宫检测各组大鼠的学习记忆能力,原位杂交法检测海马CA1区ChAT的表达.结果 大鼠第5天的逃避潜伏期、跨台次数、ChAT mRNA PU值分别为:对照组(10.75 s±2.44 s,4.13 ±0.64,28.90±4.43)、apoE4组(23.88 s ±4.32 s,2.38 ±0.52,20.85±3.98)、Aβ组(43.50s±9.78 s,1.38±0.52,16.96 ±2.53)、A β+ apoE4组(70.63 s±10.04 s,0.75 ±0.71,13.01±2.21).apoE4组、Aβ组与对照组比较大鼠第5天的逃避潜伏期明显延长,跨台次数明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Aβ组与apoE4组比较,大鼠第5天的逃避潜伏期明显延长,跨台次数明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Aβ与apoE4之间存在交互作用(F=7.098,P<0.01).apoE4组、Aβ组比对照组ChAT mRNA PU值下降明显(均P<0.01);Aβ组比apoE4组ChAT mRNA PU值下降明显(P <0.01);Aβ+ apoF4组比对照组、apoE4组及Aβ组均下降明显(均P<0.01);Aβ与apoE4具有交互作用(P<0.05).结论 (1)Aβ及apoE4均可损伤海马胆碱能系统,影响大鼠学习记忆能力;Aβ对海马胆碱能系统及学习记忆能力的损伤比apoE4严重.(2)Aβ与apoE4对海马胆碱能系统及学习记忆能力的损伤具有协同作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) on choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) in hippocampus and to explore possible the synergistic effect of both Aβ and apoE4.Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups:control group,Aβ group,apoE4 group and Aβ + apoE4 group.Rats in different group received injection of normal saline,Aβ1-40,apoE4 and Aβ1-40 + apoE4,respectively,into bilateral hippocampus CA1 regions under the control of a brain

  3. Statistical analysis of the processes controlling choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipid molecular species composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Zarringhalam

    Full Text Available The regulation and maintenance of the cellular lipidome through biosynthetic, remodeling, and catabolic mechanisms are critical for biological homeostasis during development, health and disease. These complex mechanisms control the architectures of lipid molecular species, which have diverse yet highly regulated fatty acid chains at both the sn1 and sn2 positions. Phosphatidylcholine (PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE serve as the predominant biophysical scaffolds in membranes, acting as reservoirs for potent lipid signals and regulating numerous enzymatic processes. Here we report the first rigorous computational dissection of the mechanisms influencing PC and PE molecular architectures from high-throughput shotgun lipidomic data. Using novel statistical approaches, we have analyzed multidimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic data from developmental mouse heart and mature mouse heart, lung, brain, and liver tissues. We show that in PC and PE, sn1 and sn2 positions are largely independent, though for low abundance species regulatory processes may interact with both the sn1 and sn2 chain simultaneously, leading to cooperative effects. Chains with similar biochemical properties appear to be remodeled similarly. We also see that sn2 positions are more regulated than sn1, and that PC exhibits stronger cooperative effects than PE. A key aspect of our work is a novel statistically rigorous approach to determine cooperativity based on a modified Fisher's exact test using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. This computational approach provides a novel tool for developing mechanistic insight into lipidomic regulation.

  4. Cellular localization of choline-utilization proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae using novel fluorescent reporter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberhardt, Alice; Wu, Ling J.; Errington, Jeff; Vollmer, Waldemar; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2009-01-01

    P>The molecular mechanisms underlying cell growth, cell division and pathogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae are still not fully understood. Single-cell methodologies are potentially of great value to investigate S. pneumoniae cell biology. Here, we report the construction of novel plasmids for sin

  5. Formulation and utilization of choline based samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarization by the dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique permits the generation of high spin polarization of solution state. However, sample formulation for dissolution-DNP is often difficult, as concentration and viscosity must be optimized to yield a dissolved sample...

  6. Niedervalente Bismut-Organyle, chirale Stibane und Antimon-Analoge des Betains und Cholins

    OpenAIRE

    Balazs Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The cyclobismuthanes (RBi):sub:n:/sub:, [R = 2-(Me:sub:2:/sub:NCH:sub:2:/sub:)C:sub:6:/sub:H:sub:4:/sub:, n = 3 (:b:1a:/b:), 4 (:b:1b:/b:)] were synthesized by reduction of RBiCl:sub:2:/sub: with Na in liquid ammonia or by reaction of R:sub:2:/sub:BiCl with LiAlH:sub:4:/sub: in ether. The reaction of :b:1a / b:/b: with W(CO):sub:5:/sub:THF (THF = tetrahydrofuran) gives the bismuthinidene complex RBi[W(CO):sub:5:/sub:]:sub:2:/sub: (:b:2:/b:). R:sub:2:/sub:BiCl reacts with Mg in THF to give R:s...

  7. The Hepatocarcinogenic Effect of Methionine and Choline Deficient Diets: an Adaptation to the Warburg Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C

    2011-01-01

    Normal differentiated hepatocytes primarily metabolize methionine, via homocysteine synthesis, through the transsulfuration pathway. In addition to glutathione, this pathway produces α-ketobutyrate that is further metabolized in the mitochondria. It is only under low methionine conditions that differentiated hepatocytes predominantly regenerate methionine from homocysteine. In contrast, proliferating hepatocytes and liver cancer cells regenerate methionine from homocysteine regardless of the ...

  8. Anodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence behavior and the choline biosensing application of blue emitting conjugated polymer dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Lu, Qiyi; Liao, Jiayao; Yuan, Ruo; Chen, Shihong

    2016-06-01

    The anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) dots was studied and applied in oxidoreductase-based ECL biosensing using Chox as the model enzyme. PMID:27181622

  9. An improved synthesis of a fluorescent gabapentin-choline conjugate for single molecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haitao; Kaur, Gurpreet; Griffiths, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium ion channels are comprised of pore-forming α1 and auxiliary α2δ, β and γ subunits. They are important molecular devices involved in a variety of cell functions. Fluorescently labeled acylcholine analogues are important in studies such as ion channel regulation. Cy3-3-acetylcholine has recently been synthesized for single molecule detection studies; albeit in an extremely low overall yield (0.06 %). In this work, an alternative route to that used in the previous Cy3-3-acetylcholine synthesis was developed with a 90 % yield at a significantly lower material cost. PMID:20161233

  10. Combined uridine and choline administration improves cognitive deficits in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Kiliaan, A.J.; Wilde, M.C. de; Broersen, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale. Hypertension is considered a risk factor for the development of cognitive disorders, because of its negative effects on cerebral vasculature and blood flow. Genetically induced hypertension in rats has been associated with a range of cognitive impairments. Therefore, spontaneously hyperte

  11. Drug: D02017 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02017 Mixture, Drug Choline theophylline (JAN); Oxtriphylline (USP); Choline theop... Choline theophylline (JAN); Oxtriphylline (USP); Choline theophyllinate (INN) CAS: 4499-40-5 PubChem: 7849079 Drug

  12. 氯化胆碱/尿素和氯化胆碱/甘油的性质与应用%Properties and applications of choline chloride/urea and choline chloride/glycerol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盈盈; 吉晓燕; 陆小华

    2014-01-01

    作为绿色溶剂,离子液体在化学和物理学科引起广泛关注.低共融溶剂,如氯化胆碱/尿素和氯化胆碱/甘油,不仅被认为是一类新型的离子液体,还具有价格低廉、环境友好及合成简便等优势.为了促进氯化胆碱/尿素和氯化胆碱/甘油这两种低共融溶剂的应用,本文考察了氯化胆碱/尿素和氯化胆碱/甘油的微观结构、物理化学性质及水分对其物性的影响,并将其与传统离子液体进行了比较.此外,还分析了氯化胆碱/尿素和氯化胆碱/甘油在摩擦学及CO2分离中的潜在应用.已有研究结果表明,氯化胆碱/尿素和氯化胆碱/甘油有希望应用于摩擦学及CO2分离中,但是在大规模工业应用之前依然存在很多不确定性和瓶颈,还需要进一步在其纳米结构、实验测定及模型等方面进行研究.

  13. Enzyme Electrode for Determination of Choline Chloride in Succinyl Choline Chloride Injection%酶电极法测定氯化琥珀胆碱注射液中氯化胆碱含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙士青; 史建国; 李雪梅; 杨俊慧; 马跃宏; 孟庆军; 张立群; 杨艳; 王丙莲; 赵晓华

    2007-01-01

    以固定化胆碱氧化酶(EC 5896)复合H2O2电极构成电流型酶电极生物传感分析仪,酶电极测定线性范围:0 mg.L-1~200 mg.L-1,精度RSD<1.5%,响应时间:40 s,固定化胆碱氧化酶膜使用寿命大于60 d,实际测定氯化琥珀胆碱注射液中氯化胆碱含量回收率:100.3%~102.3%,采用酶电极法测定氯化琥珀胆碱注射液中氯化胆碱含量具有专一性高、成本低、分析速度快等优点.

  14. Tissue methionine cycle activity and homocysteine metabolism in female rats: impact of dietary methionine and folate plus choline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, F.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Calder, A.G.; O'Kennedy, N.; Holtrop, G.; Rees, W.D.; Lobley, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Impaired transfer of methyl groups via the methionine cycle leads to plasma hyperhomocysteinemia. The tissue sources of plasma homocysteine in vivo have not been quantified nor whether hyperhomocysteinemia is due to increased entry or decreased removal. These issues were addressed in female rats off

  15. Degradable Dextran Nanopolymer as a Carrier for Choline Kinase (ChoK) siRNA Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihang Chen; Balaji Krishnamachary; Zaver M. Bhujwalla

    2016-01-01

    Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy has proven to be a specific and effective treatment in cells, the delivery of siRNA is a challenge for the applications of siRNA therapy. We present a degradable dextran with amine groups as an siRNA nano-carrier. In our nano-carrier, the amine groups are conjugated to the dextran platform through the acetal bonds, which are acid sensitive. Therefore this siRNA carrier is stable in neutral and basic conditions, while the amine groups can be cleav...

  16. Pembuatan Deep Eutectic Solvent Berbasis Choline Chloride (ChCl) dengan Hydrogen Bond Donor Glukosa dan Etilen Glikol

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Golda Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) is a new generation of ionic liquids / ILS because it has physical properties and solvent properties comparable with ILS. However, DES has advantages in terms of cost and environmental impact compared to the ILS, because of that DES has the potential as an environmentally friendly solvent that can replace ILS in various industrial applications. DES is a simple mixture of a salt and a compound of Hydrogen Bond Donor (HBD) and both are connected to ...

  17. 折射法测定氯化胆碱浓度%Determination ot Choline Chloride by Refractometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光兴

    1987-01-01

    @@氯化胆碱[(CH,)3NCH2CH2OH]+Cl-是重要的水溶性维生素,能促进入体和动物的机体循环和生长发育,有着重要的生理功能,五十年代以来便大量用于医药工业及作为饲料添加剂.我国以前仅有少量氯化胆碱应用于医药工业,近年来由于农村经济和畜牧业的大力发展,氯化胆碱已逐步用作饲料添加剂.因此,快速准确地测定氯化胆碱浓度就成了亟待解决的问题. 已有文献报道的氯化胆碱化学分析法有四苯硼钠重量法[1],Reinecke盐沉淀法[2],高氯酸容量法[3]等,它们都存在分析时间长等不足之处.折光法是利用二元液体体系中化合物浓度差异因而折光率不同,用折光仪测定浓度的一种快速简便的方法.此方法广泛地应用于各种有机化合物鉴定和浓度测定.但迄今为止未见到用折光法测定氯化胆碱浓度的报道.本文报道了用折光法测定氯化胆碱浓度,方法简便,准确度较高,易于推广.

  18. Visual evoked potentials (VEP and visual acuity improvement after cytidine 52 -diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline therapy in amblyopic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Halfeld Furtado de Mendonça

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Citicoline may be used in many neurological disorders. Combined treatment of citicoline with patching in amblyopia has previously been researched. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effect of citicoline in non-patching amblyopic patient. A 11-year-old amblyopic boy underwent complete ophthalmological examinations, including VEP with flash and pattern stimulus. Two averages of 100 sweep were performed for flash stimulus. Pattern reversal stimulus obtained with high contrast was performed with 60', 30' and 15' checks stimuli. The VEP was repeated 90 days later after a therapy with citicoline and vitamin and the results compared with the responses of the previous recording session. The visual acuity (VA was 0,7 in the RE and 1,0 in the LE. The VEP pattern amplitude was normal in both eyes. Delayed in latency was detected for all spatial frequency stimulus (SFS in the RE. Delay in latency was detected only for high SFS in the LE. After the treatment, the VA was 1,0 in both eyes. The latency was normalized with low SFS on the RE and with high SFS on the LE. The flash VEP was normal before and after the therapy. In conclusion, the citicoline demonstrated that it was effective in the treatment of amblyopic eye without patching. The VA and the VEP latency improvement demonstrated that the citicoline enhance the transmission of the electric impulse from retina to visual cortex. Further research is required to understand the immediate and long-term effect of coline treatment in amblyopic patients.

  19. Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene are modestly associated with normal cognitive function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, J; Christensen, K; Thinggaard, M;

    2011-01-01

    and singletons (N = 2070). The ChAT rs3810950 A allele, which has been associated with increased risk for AD, was found to be associated with a decrease cognitive status evaluated by a five-component cognitive composite score [P = 0.03, regression coefficient -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57 to -0.......02], and the rs3810950 and rs8178990 ancestral GC haplotype was also associated with better cross-sectional cognitive composite score (P = 0.04, regression coefficient 0.59, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.16). Growth curve model analyses applied to up to 10 years of follow-up data showed that the rs3810950 A allele...... was associated with a lower cognitive composite score and Mini Mental State Examination at the lowest age (73 years of age), and was lower in the whole interval 73-82 although the absolute difference became smaller with age. Stratification by the presence of the APOE ε4 allele showed that rs3810950 AG/non-APOE ε...

  20. Relationships between choline acetyl-transferase and muscarinic binding in aging rodent brain and in Alzheimers disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines how the relation between ChAT and muscarinic binding might be affected by aging in mouse and rat brains. Preliminary data are presented regarding this relation in postmortem cerebral cortex samples from human subjects who died with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from age-matched controls. The effect of acetyl coenzme A (1- C 14-acetyl coenzyme A concentration on enzyme activity was determined by varying the concentration of the coenzyme in the assay medium. Assays of muscarinic binding were performed on tissue sonicates diluted with Tris-HC1 buffer using tritium-quinuclidinyl benzilate tritium-QNB as the ligand. For brain regions obtained from rats, significance of age differences were assessed by one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni t statistics. Differences in ChAT activity and binding site density from human postmortem samples between diagnostic groups were assessed separately by region using an analysis of covariance

  1. The Long and Winding Road: From the High-Affinity Choline Uptake Site to Clinical Trials for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, P R; Castro, M G

    2016-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are one of the most lethal cancers. They originate from glial cells which infiltrate throughout the brain. Current standard of care involves surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy; median survival is currently ~14-20 months postdiagnosis. Given that the brain immune system is deficient in priming systemic immune responses to glioma antigens, we proposed to reconstitute the brain immune system to achieve immunological priming from within the brain. Two adenoviral vectors are injected into the resection cavity or remaining tumor. One adenoviral vector expresses the HSV-1-derived thymidine kinase which converts ganciclovir into a compound only cytotoxic to dividing glioma cells. The second adenovirus expresses the cytokine fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L). Flt3L differentiates precursors into dendritic cells and acts as a chemokine that attracts dendritic cells to the brain. HSV-1/ganciclovir killing of tumor cells releases tumor antigens that are taken up by dendritic cells within the brain tumor microenvironment. Tumor killing also releases HMGB1, an endogenous TLR2 agonist that activates dendritic cells. HMGB1-activated dendritic cells, loaded with glioma antigens, migrate to cervical lymph nodes to stimulate a systemic CD8+ T cells cytotoxic immune response against glioma. This immune response is specific to glioma tumors, induces immunological memory, and does neither cause brain toxicity nor autoimmune responses. An IND was granted by the FDA on 4/7/2011. A Phase I, first in person trial, to test whether reengineering the brain immune system is potentially therapeutic is ongoing. PMID:27288077

  2. Production and Application of Choline Chloride%氯化胆碱的生产与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 秦鹏

    2007-01-01

    @@ 氯化胆碱的化学名称是2-羟乙基三甲基氯化铵,分子式为C5H14NOCl,分子质量139.63.胆碱分子式为C5H15NO2,分子质量121.6.胆碱属于B族维生素的一种,通常被称为维生素B4.等量的氯化胆碱相当于胆碱的121.6/139.63=87%.

  3. 氯化胆碱含量测定方法探讨%Study on determination of choline chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐执文; 周永红

    2002-01-01

    @@ 胆碱是生物体磷脂、乙酰胆碱等物质的重要组成成分.畜禽胆碱不足时会产生胫骨短粗、关节畸形、生长缓慢、行动不协调等症状,死亡率高.饲料添加剂中常用的胆碱为氯化胆碱,商品剂型有50 %粉剂、60 %粉剂和70 %水剂.在我国饲料添加剂市场使用的多是50 %氯化胆碱粉剂,其外观因载体不同而有所差异.

  4. 微囊化氯化胆碱的制备工艺%Manufacturing Technology of Microcapsule Choline Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 许丽; 李杰

    2003-01-01

    @@ 胆碱是猪、禽、犊牛全价配合饲料中不可缺少的添加物质.在饲料工业上,胆碱是以氯化胆碱的形式添加到饲料中的.氯化胆碱是胆碱的盐酸盐,分子式为C5Hi4C1NO,分子量为139.63.氯化胆碱为极性化合物,它本身性质十分稳定,但极易从空气中吸收水分而潮解,并吸收空气中的二氧化碳.

  5. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION OF INTUBATING CONDITIONS AND HAEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF SUCCINYL CHOLINE & ROCURONIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid and safe endotracheal intubation is of paramount importance in practice of general anesthesia . Succinylcholine chloride , a depolarizing muscl e relaxant due to its quick onset of action and excellent intubating conditions has remained a muscle relaxant of choice . Rocuronium was proved to be safe alternative to Succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation . AIMS : Study was conducted to evaluate & c ompare the onset time , clinical duration and intubating condition of Succinylcholine and Rocuronium Bromide and Haemodynamic changes caused by these agents . METHODS & MATERIALS : 80 patients were randomly divided into two groups . Group - 1 , Succinylcholine ( 1 . 5mg/kg and group - 2 Rocuronium Bromide ( 0 . 6mg/kg . After 60 sec of administration of muscle relaxant , intubating conditions were judged according to scoring system by Cooper et al . 1 Onset time and duration of action was noted . Hemodynamic parameters ( H eart rate , Systolic Blood Pressure , Diastolic Blood Pressure , Mean Atrial pressure and SPO 2 were monitored before intubation , during intubation and just after intubation at 1 , 2 and 5 minutes . RESULTS : The mean onset time and duration of action was signi ficantly longer for Rocuronium ( 95 . 15±9 . 47 seconds than Succinylcholine ( 59 . 80±14 . 30 seconds and Rocuronium ( 42 . 60±13 . 15 minutes than Succinylcholine ( 5 . 10±2 . 35 minutes . Intubating conditions was excellent in 35 ( 87% and good in 5 ( 12 . 5% patients in su ccinylcholine whereas , in Rocuronium produced excellent intubation in only 23 ( 57 . 5% patients and good intubation in 14 ( 35% patients . The heart rate increased significantly after induction ( maximum at 1 minute with both Rocuronium ( 98 . 75±15 . 53 and Succi nylcholine ( 112 . 75±15 . 89 . But it gradually declined towards normal and change in heart rate with either drug was not significant at 5 minutes . The mean blood pressure increased significantly after induction ( maximum at 1 minute with both Succinylcholine ( 100 . 52±8 . 11 and Rocuronium ( 100 . 61±7 . 83 . But it gradually declined towards normal in 5 minutes after induction . CONCLUSION : Rocuronium bromide is a safe , haemodynamically stable and good alternative for Suxamethonium for endotracheal intubation and can be used for safe induction and intubation , if there is no prediction of difficult intubation .

  6. Study on Synthesizing Technology of Choline Chloride%氯化胆碱合成工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉民; 杨高文

    2003-01-01

    在氯化胆碱的作用下,三甲胺与氯乙醇反应合成氯化胆碱.讨论了影响产品收率及纯度的主要因素.实验发现氯化胆碱有自催化作用,在优化工艺条件下,氯化胆碱的收率达到95.8%,纯度达到98.0%.该工艺具有操作简单、易分离、易干燥、收率高、纯度高、成本低、易推广等优点.

  7. Theoretical evidence of charge transfer interaction between SO₂ and deep eutectic solvents formed by choline chloride and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Chang, Yonghui; Zhu, Wenshuai; Wang, Changwei; Wang, Chao; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Huaming

    2015-11-21

    The nature of the interaction between deep eutectic solvents (DESs), formed by ChCl and glycerol, and SO2 has been systematically investigated using the M06-2X density functional combined with cluster models. Block-localized wave function energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis shows that the interaction between SO2 and DESs is dominated by a charge transfer interaction. After this interaction, the SO2 molecule becomes negatively charged, whereas the ChCl-glycerol molecule is positively charged, which is the result of Lewis acid-base interaction. The current result affords a theoretical proof that it is highly useful and efficient to manipulate the Lewis acidity of absorbents for SO2 capture. Moreover, hydrogen bonding as well as electrostatic interactions may also contribute to the stability of the complex. Structure analysis shows that solvent molecules will adjust their geometries to interact with SO2. In addition, the structure of SO2 is barely changed after interaction. The interaction energy between different cluster models and SO2 ranges from -6.8 to -14.4 kcal mol(-1). It is found that the interaction energy is very sensitive to the solvent structure. The moderate interaction between ChCl-glycerol and SO2 is consistent with the concept that highly efficient solvents for SO2 absorption should not only be solvable but also regenerable. PMID:26446782

  8. The Effect of Dietary Supplements of w3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Fatty Acid Composition of Platelets and Plasma Choline Phosphoglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, T.; Younger, Katherine

    1981-01-01

    Although it is not known iflinolenic acid (18:3w3) is essential its derivatives are important (Tinoco et a/. 1979). Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5w3) is the precursor of the triene prostaglandins (Gryglewski et a/. 1979) and when incorporated into platelet lipids may influence bleeding time (Sanders et al. 1980). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:0013) is a major component of human brain and retinal lipids and is found in its highest concentrations in the phosphoglycerides of synaptic membranes and rod o...

  9. In vivo relaxation of N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine plus phosphocreatine, and choline containing compounds during the course of brain infarction: a proton MRS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Henriksen, O

    1992-01-01

    containing compounds (CHO) in a 27-ml voxel located in the affected area of the brain. Ten healthy volunteers served as controls. We found no difference in T1 or T2 of the metabolites between the patients and the normal controls. The T2 of CHO was longer than that of NAA and Cr+PCr. Our results indicate...

  10. Lipocalin 2, an essential multi-regulator of hepatic homeostasis during a Methionine Choline deficient diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Asimakopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a 25-kDa secretory protein with great importance as a sensitive and specific screening and diagnostic biomarker for hepatic inflammation, acute hepatic injury, hepatic cancer, radiation-induced early phase hepatic damage and lipid abnormalities. However, little is known about LCN2's functions in the homeostasis and metabolism of hepatic lipids or in the development of steatosis as well as its actual role in the event of inflammation. The aim of this study was to prospect...

  11. 产前胆碱水平与精神分裂症的发生%Prenatal choline and the development of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freedman R; Ross RG

    2015-01-01

      结论:产前膳食补充磷脂酰胆碱,提倡食用富含胆碱的食物(肉类、大豆、鸡蛋),可能会促进胎儿大脑发育,从而降低今后发生精神疾病的风险。这种短期(6个月)干预风险低,特别适用于普通人群。这类似于以往研究发现叶酸能预防腭裂,因而建议产前补充相应的药物并改善饮食。然而,数十年内还无法获得产前补充胆碱有效性的确切证据(因为精神分裂症的发生要滞后约20年),所以公共卫生领域的官员只能根据现有的有限信息来决定是否提倡补充胆碱。

  12. Prophylactic combined supplementation of choline and docosahexaenoic acid attenuates vascular cognitive impairment and preserves hippocampal cell viability in rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sivakumar

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Prophylactic combined Cho-DHA suppl. may be envisaged as an effective preventive strategy to attenuate VCI and neuronal injury in high-risk individuals susceptible for a future event of an ischemic stroke. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 522-530

  13. 胆碱的补充与运动性中枢疲劳的推迟%Supplement of Choline and the Postpone of Central Fatigue in Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀英

    2004-01-01

    主要运用文献资料法,就胆碱补充对提高运动能力和推迟运动性疲劳问题进行综述.认为,胆碱的适量补充对中枢乙酰胆碱的水平及中枢兴奋传导具有调节作用,对推迟运动性中枢疲劳可能具有一定的积极性作用.

  14. Premarin improves memory, prevents scopolamine-induced amnesia and increases number of basal forebrain choline acetyltransferase positive cells in middle-aged surgically menopausal rats

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Jazmin I.; Mayer, Loretta; Talboom, Joshua S.; Zay, Cynthia; Scheldrup, Melissa; Castillo, Jonathan; Demers, Laurence M.; Enders, Craig K.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) is the most commonly prescribed estrogen therapy, and is the estrogen used in the Women's Health Initiative study. While in-vitro studies suggest that CEE is neuroprotective, no study has evaluated CEE's effects on a cognitive battery and brain immunohistochemistry in an animal model. The current experiment tested whether CEE impacted: I) spatial learning, reference memory, working memory and long-term retention, as well as ability to handle mnemonic delay and...

  15. 氯化胆碱的质量监控及掺假鉴定%The quality evaluation and adulteration identification of the choline chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素蓉

    2011-01-01

    胆碱( VB4)作为动物生长所必须的水溶性维生素,在动物体内起着极其重要的作用.氯化胆碱是最直接、最经济的补充胆碱的方式,而且逐渐成为了在饲料中添加量最大的水溶性维生素,为畜禽业不可或缺的添加剂.但是,随着氯化胆碱的需求量的不断提高,市场上氯化胆碱的掺假现象也越来越引起饲料行业的普遍重视.为此,本文综述了氯化胆碱的质量评定和几种常用的掺假鉴定方法,以便在饲料原料的接收和使用中提供参考.

  16. 氯化胆碱几种常用测定方法之比较%Comparison of Several Identification Methods of Choline Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝春; 王惠英

    2003-01-01

    @@ 氯化胆碱,化学名称为2-羟乙基-三甲基胺盐酸盐,是一种水溶性维生素,氯化胆碱类型中以50%粉剂最为常见.近年来,市场上饲料级氯化胆碱掺假现象日趋严重,掺假现象泛滥的一个很重要的原因是:掺假者利用现行的检测标准HG2941-1999中含量测定方法--高氯酸非水滴定法以及四苯硼酸钠法、定氮法反应选择性不高的缺点,在氯化胆碱中掺入廉价的无机氯化物、有机盐酸盐和某些含氮化合物.

  17. 饲料级氯化胆碱掺假鉴别及含量的测定%Discrimination and detection of the feed - grade Choline Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红; 胡京枝; 钟红舰

    2004-01-01

    氯化胆碱在动物体内具有抗脂肪肝作用,同时作为甲基供体还可减少蛋氨酸、色氨酸的消耗,因此各类饲料中均添加氯化胆碱,市场需求量很大。一些氯化胆碱生产厂为了获取高额利润,向产品中大量掺假,造成市场掺假产品泛滥,使许多消费者蒙受了损失。

  18. 饲用氯化胆碱稳定化处理技术的研究%Stabilization Treatment for Feeding Choline Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈辉; 尹希宝; 陈中兵

    2000-01-01

    研究出了有效、经济实用的液态氯化胆碱的稳