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Sample records for choline acetyltransferase chat

  1. Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene are modestly associated with normal cognitive function in the elderly

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    Mengel-From, J; Christensen, K; Thinggaard, M

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene have been suggested as risk factors for neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the importance of genetic variants in the ChAT gene in normal cognitive function of elderly in a study sample of Danish twins...... and singletons (N = 2070). The ChAT rs3810950 A allele, which has been associated with increased risk for AD, was found to be associated with a decrease cognitive status evaluated by a five-component cognitive composite score [P = 0.03, regression coefficient -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57 to -0...

  2. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

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    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  3. Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Douglas A.; Dougherty, Edward J.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward

  4. Human Neural Stem Cells Overexpressing Choline Acetyltransferase Restore Unconditioned Fear in Rats with Amygdala Injury

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    Kyungha Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdala is involved in the fear memory that recognizes certain environmental cues predicting threatening events. Manipulation of neurotransmission within the amygdala affects the expression of conditioned and unconditioned emotional memories such as fear freezing behaviour. We previously demonstrated that F3.ChAT human neural stem cells (NSCs overexpressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT improve cognitive function of Alzheimer’s disease model rats with hippocampal or cholinergic nerve injuries by increasing acetylcholine (ACh level. In the present study, we examined the effect of F3.ChAT cells on the deficit of unconditioned fear freezing. Rats given N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA in their amygdala 2 weeks prior to cat odor exposure displayed very short resting (freezing time compared to normal animals. NMDA induced neuronal degeneration in the amygdala, leading to a decreased ACh concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. However, intracerebroventricular transplantation of F3.ChAT cells attenuated amygdala lesions 4 weeks after transplantation. The transplanted cells were found in the NMDA-injury sites and produced ChAT protein. In addition, F3.ChAT-receiving rats recuperated freezing time staying remote from the cat odor source, according to the recovery of brain ACh concentration. The results indicate that human NSCs overexpressing ChAT may facilitate retrieval of unconditioned fear memory by increasing ACh level.

  5. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

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    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by a series of 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacio, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ten substituted 2-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinones were synthesized and evaluated for their relative potency as in vitro inhibitors of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis was followed radiometrically by the incorporation of labeled acetate originating from 14 C-acetyl-CoA. Woolf-Augustinsson-Hofstee data analysis was used to calculate Vmax, Km, and Ki values. The inhibition was found to be noncompetitive or uncompetitive with respect to choline. Quantitative structure activity relationship correlations demonstrated a primary dependence on κ-σ, as well as steric properties of the substituted benzene ring. Additional radiometric and spectrophotometric were performed with 2-(3'-methyl)-benzylidene-3-quinuclidinone, one of the more potent analogs, to further elucidate the inhibitory mechanism. ChAT-mediated cleavage of ACh was measured spectrophotometrically by following the appearance of NADH at 340 nanometers in an enzyme coupled assay. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to both substrates of the forward reaction, suggesting interference with a rate limiting step

  7. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

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    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  8. Regulation of choline acetyltransferase expression by 17 β-oestradiol in NSC-34 cells and in the spinal cord.

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    Johann, S; Dahm, M; Kipp, M; Zahn, U; Beyer, C

    2011-09-01

    Motoneurones located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord conciliate cholinergic innervation of skeletal muscles. These neurones appear to be exceedingly affected in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The dysfunction of motoneurones is typically accompanied by alterations of cholinergic metabolism and signalling, as demonstrated by a decrease in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression. 17 β-Oestradiol (E(2)) is generally accepted as neuroprotective factor in the brain under acute toxic and neurodegenerative conditions and also appears to exert a protective role for motoneurones. In the present study, we attempted to analyse the role of E(2) signalling on ChAT expression in the motoneurone-like cell line NSC-34 and in vivo. In a first step, we demonstrated the presence of oestrogen receptor α and β in NSC-34 cells, as well as in the cervical and lumbar parts, of the male mouse spinal cord. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of E(2) treatment on ChAT expression. The application of E(2) significantly increased the transcription of ChAT in NSC-34 cells and in the cervical but not lumbar part of the spinal cord. Our results indicate that E(2) can influence the cholinergic system by increasing ChAT expression in the mouse spinal cord. This mechanism might support motoneurones, in addition to survival-promoting mechanisms, in the temporal balance toxic or neurodegenerative challenges. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Human neural stem cells over-expressing choline acetyltransferase restore cognition in rat model of cognitive dysfunction.

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    Park, Dongsun; Lee, Hong Jun; Joo, Seong Soo; Bae, Dae-Kwon; Yang, Goeun; Yang, Yun-Hui; Lim, Inja; Matsuo, Akinori; Tooyama, Ikuo; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Seung U

    2012-04-01

    A human neural stem cell (NSC) line over-expressing human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene was generated and these F3.ChAT NSCs were transplanted into the brain of rat Alzheimer disease (AD) model which was induced by application of ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) that specifically denatures cholinergic nerves and thereby leads to memory deficit as a salient feature of AD. Transplantation of F3.ChAT human NSCs fully recovered the learning and memory function of AF64A animals, and induced elevated levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transplanted F3.ChAT human NSCs were found to migrate to various brain regions including cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and septum, and differentiated into neurons and astrocytes. The present study demonstrates that brain transplantation of human NSCs over-expressing ChAT ameliorates complex learning and memory deficits in AF64A-cholinotoxin-induced AD rat model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling the Interaction between β-Amyloid Aggregates and Choline Acetyltransferase Activity and Its Relation with Cholinergic Dysfunction through Two-Enzyme/Two-Compartment Model

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    Hedia Fgaier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of β-amyloid aggregates on activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT which is responsible for synthesizing acetylcholine (ACh in human brain is investigated through the two-enzyme/two-compartment (2E2C model where the presynaptic neuron is considered as compartment 1 while both the synaptic cleft and the postsynaptic neuron are considered as compartment 2 through suggesting three different kinetic mechanisms for the inhibition effect. It is found that the incorporation of ChAT inhibition by β-amyloid aggregates into the 2E2C model is able to yield dynamic solutions for concentrations of generated β-amyloid, ACh, choline, acetate, and pH in addition to the rates of ACh synthesis and ACh hydrolysis in compartments 1 and 2. It is observed that ChAT activity needs a high concentration of β-amyloid aggregates production rate. It is found that ChAT activity is reduced significantly when neurons are exposed to high levels of β-amyloid aggregates leading to reduction in levels of ACh which is one of the most significant physiological symptoms of AD. Furthermore, the system of ACh neurocycle is dominated by the oscillatory behavior when ChAT enzyme is completely inhibited by β-amyloid. It is observed that the direct inactivation of ChAT by β-amyloid aggregates may be a probable mechanism contributing to the development of AD.

  11. Nuclear 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase decreases amyloidogenic APP metabolism in neurons from APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

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    Albers, Shawn; Inthathirath, Fatima; Gill, Sandeep K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Jaworski, Ewa; Wong, Daisy Y L; Gros, Robert; Rylett, R Jane

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with increased amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to β-amyloid peptides (Aβ), cholinergic neuron loss with decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and cognitive dysfunction. Both 69-kDa ChAT and 82-kDa ChAT are expressed in cholinergic neurons in human brain and spinal cord with 82-kDa ChAT localized predominantly to neuronal nuclei, suggesting potential alternative functional roles for the enzyme. By gene microarray analysis, we found that 82-kDa ChAT-expressing IMR32 neural cells have altered expression of genes involved in diverse cellular functions. Importantly, genes for several proteins that regulate APP processing along amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways are differentially expressed in 82-kDa ChAT-containing cells. The predicted net effect based on observed changes in expression patterns of these genes would be decreased amyloidogenic APP processing with decreased Aβ production. This functional outcome was verified experimentally as a significant decrease in BACE1 protein levels and activity and a concomitant reduction in the release of endogenous Aβ1-42 from neurons cultured from brains of AD-model APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The expression of 82-kDa ChAT in neurons increased levels of GGA3, which is involved in trafficking BACE1 to lysosomes for degradation. shRNA-induced decreases in GGA3 protein levels attenuated the 82-kDa ChAT-mediated decreases in BACE1 protein and activity and Aβ1-42 release. Evidence that 82-kDa ChAT can enhance GGA3 gene expression is shown by enhanced GGA3 gene promoter activity in SN56 neural cells expressing this ChAT protein. These studies indicate a novel relationship between cholinergic neurons and APP processing, with 82-kDa ChAT acting as a negative regulator of Aβ production. This decreased formation of Aβ could result in protection for cholinergic neurons, as well as protection of other cells in the vicinity that are sensitive to

  12. Chaperone-Mediated Regulation of Choline Acetyltransferase Protein Stability and Activity by HSC/HSP70, HSP90, and p97/VCP

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    Trevor M. Morey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT synthesizes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons, and mutations of this enzyme are linked to the neuromuscular disorder congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS. One CMS-related mutation, V18M, reduces ChAT enzyme activity and cellular protein levels, and is located within a highly-conserved N-terminal proline-rich motif at residues 14PKLPVPP20. We showed previously that disruption of this proline-rich motif by either proline-to-alanine mutation (P17A/P19A or mutation of residue Val18 (V18M enhances ubiquitination and degradation of these mutant ChAT proteins expressed in cholinergic SN56 cells by an unknown mechanism. In this study, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID, co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity-ligation assay (PLA, we identified the heat shock proteins (HSPs HSC/HSP70 and HSP90 as novel ChAT protein-interactors. These molecular chaperones are well-known for promoting the folding and stabilization of cellular proteins. Thus, we found that inhibition of HSPs by treatment of cells with either the HSC/HSP70 inhibitors 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES or VER-155008, or the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG reduced cellular ChAT activity and solubility, and enhanced the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent loss of ChAT protein. Importantly, the effects of HSP inhibition were greater for mutant ChAT proteins (P17A/P19A-ChAT and CMS-related V18M- and A513T-ChAT compared to wild-type ChAT. HSPs can promote ubiquitination and degradation of terminally misfolded proteins through cooperative interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP/Stub1, and while we show that ChAT interacts with CHIP in situ, siRNA-mediated knock-down of CHIP had no effect on either wild-type or mutant ChAT protein levels. However, inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER- and HSP-associated co-chaperone p97/VCP prevented degradation of ubiquitinated ChAT. Together, these results identify novel mechanisms

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of two types of choline acetyltransferase in neurons and sensory cells of the octopus arm.

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    Sakaue, Yuko; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Shin; D'Este, Loredana; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic structures in the arm of the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antisera for two types (common and peripheral) of acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT): antiserum raised against the rat common type ChAT (cChAT), which is cross-reactive with molluscan cChAT, and antiserum raised against the rat peripheral type ChAT (pChAT), which has been used to delineate peripheral cholinergic structures in vertebrates, but not previously in invertebrates. Western blot analysis of octopus extracts revealed a single pChAT-positive band, suggesting that pChAT antiserum is cross-reactive with an octopus counterpart of rat pChAT. In immunohistochemistry, only neuronal structures of the octopus arm were stained by cChAT and pChAT antisera, although the pattern of distribution clearly differed between the two antisera. cChAT-positive varicose nerve fibers were observed in both the cerebrobrachial tract and neuropil of the axial nerve cord, while pChAT-positive varicose fibers were detected only in the neuropil of the axial nerve cord. After epitope retrieval, pChAT-positive neuronal cells and their processes became visible in all ganglia of the arm, including the axial and intramuscular nerve cords, and in ganglia of suckers. Moreover, pChAT-positive structures also became detectable in nerve fibers connecting the different ganglia, in smooth nerve fibers among muscle layers and dermal connective tissues, and in sensory cells of the suckers. These results suggest that the octopus arm has two types of cholinergic nerves: cChAT-positive nerves from brain ganglia and pChAT-positive nerves that are intrinsic to the arm.

  14. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene

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    Cha, Yeseul [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Su Kil [Division of Marine Molecular Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Park, Dongsun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gwi Yeong; Yeon, Sungho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Yong [Worldway Co., Ltd., Sejong (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ehn-Kyoung [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seong Soo [Division of Marine Molecular Biotechnology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Heon-Sang, E-mail: hsjeong@cbu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-Bae, E-mail: solar93@cbu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight. Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300 mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. - Highlights: • Cognition-enhancing effects of SP-NN, a silk peptide preparation, were investigated. • SP-NN enhanced ChAT mRNA expression in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. • Active molecule was identified as a dipeptide composed of tyrosine-glycine. • SP-NN reversed cognitive dysfunction elicited by AF64A. • Neuroprotection followed by increased acetylcholine level was achieved with SP-NN.

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase and muscarinic ACh receptors in the antenna during development of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

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    Clark, Julie; Meisner, Shannon; Torkkeli, Päivi H

    2005-04-01

    Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was used to investigate the locations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sections of the developing antennae of the moth Manduca sexta. The results were correlated with a previous morphological investigation in the developing antennae which allowed us to locate different cell types at various stages of development. Our findings indicated that the muscarinic cholinergic system was not restricted to the sensory neurons but was also present in glial and epidermal cells. By day 4-5 of adult development, immunoreactivity against both antibodies was present in the axons of the antennal nerve, and more intense labeling was present in sections from older pupae. At days 4-9, the cell bodies of the sensory neurons in the basal part of the epidermis were also intensely immunolabeled by the anti-mAChR antibody. In mature flagella, large numbers of cells, some with processes into hairs, were strongly labeled by both antibodies. Antennal glial cells were intensely immunolabeled with both antibodies by days 4-5, but in later stages, it was not possible to discriminate between glial and neural staining. At days 4-9, we observed a distinctly labeled layer of epidermal cells close to the developing cuticle. The expression of both ChAT and mAChRs by neurons in moth antennae may allow the regulation of excitability by endogenous ACh. Cholinergic communication between neurons and glia may be part of the system that guides axon elongation during development. The cholinergic system in the apical part of the developing epidermis could be involved in cuticle formation.

  16. Choline acetyltransferase expression during periods of behavioral activity and across natural sleep-wake states in the basal forebrain.

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    Greco, M A; McCarley, R W; Shiromani, P J

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined whether the expression of the messenger RNA encoding the protein responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is associated with sleep-wakefulness. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were analysed using a semi-quantitative assay in which reverse transcription was coupled to complementary DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. To examine the relationship between steady-state messenger RNA and behavioral activity, rats were killed during the day (4.00 p.m.) or night (4.00 a.m.), and tissue from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal bands of Broca was analysed. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were higher during the day than during the night. The second study examined more closely the association between choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels and individual bouts of wakefulness, slow-wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were low during wakefulness, intermediate in slow-wave sleep and high during rapid eye movement sleep. In contrast, protein activity, measured at a projection site of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, was higher during wakefulness than during sleep. These findings suggest that choline acetyltransferase protein and messenger RNA levels exhibit an inverse relationship during sleep and wakefulness. The increased messenger RNA expression during sleep is consistent with a restorative function of sleep.

  17. Increasing proportions of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive interneurons colocalize with choline acetyltransferase or vasoactive intestinal peptide in the developing rat cerebral cortex

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    Asmus, Stephen E.; Cocanougher, Benjamin T.; Allen, Donald L.; Boone, John B.; Brooks, Elizabeth A.; Hawkins, Sarah M.; Hench, Laura A.; Ijaz, Talha; Mayfield, Meredith N.

    2011-01-01

    Cortical interneurons are critical for information processing, and their dysfunction has been implicated in neurological disorders. One subset of this diverse cell population expresses tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) during postnatal rat development. Cortical TH-immunoreactive neurons appear at postnatal day (P) 16. The number of TH cells sharply increases between P16 and P20 and subsequently decreases to adult values. The absence of apoptotic markers in these cells suggests that the reduction in cell number is not due to cell death but is due to a decline in TH production. Cortical TH cells lack all additional catecholaminergic enzymes, and many coexpress GABA and calretinin, but little else is known about their phenotype or function. Because interneurons containing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) share characteristics with cortical TH neurons, the coexpression of TH with ChAT or VIP was examined throughout the neocortex at P16, P20, and P30. The proportions of TH cell profiles double-labeled for ChAT or VIP significantly increased between P16 and P30. Based on their proximity to blood vessels, intrinsic cholinergic and VIPergic cells have been hypothesized to regulate cortical microcirculation. Labeling with the gliovascular marker aquaporin-4 revealed that at least half of the TH cells were apposed to microvessels at these ages, and many of these cells contained ChAT or VIP. Cortical TH neurons did not coproduce nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that increasing proportions of cortical TH neurons express ChAT or VIP developmentally and that a subset of these TH neurons may regulate local blood flow. PMID:21295554

  18. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

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    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  19. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

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    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  20. Patterns of Direct Projections from the Hippocampus to the Medial Septum-Diagonal Band Complex : Anterograde Tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris Leucoagglutinin Combined with Immunohistochemistry of Choline Acetyltransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Kuil, J. van der; Hersh, L.B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The projections from the Ammon's horn to the cholinergic cell groups in the medial septal and diagonal band nuclei were investigated with anterograde tracing of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with immunocytochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase, in the rat. Tracer injections

  1. Differential co-localization with choline acetyltransferase in nervus terminalis suggests functional differences for GnRH isoforms in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo).

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    Moeller, John F; Meredith, Michael

    2010-12-17

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is a vertebrate cranial nerve whose function in adults is unknown. In bonnethead sharks, the nerve is anatomically independent of the olfactory system, with two major cell populations within one or more ganglia along its exposed length. Most cells are immunoreactive for either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or RF-amide-like peptides. To define further the cell populations and connectivity, we used double-label immunocytochemistry with antisera to different isoforms of GnRH and to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The labeling patterns of two GnRH antisera revealed different populations of GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell profiles in the NT ganglion. One antiserum labeled a large group of cells and fibers, which likely contain mammalian GnRH (GnRH-I) as described in previous studies and which were ChAT immunoreactive. The other antiserum labeled large club-like structures, which were anuclear, and a sparse number of fibers, but with no clear labeling of cell bodies in the ganglion. These club structures were choline acetyltrasferase (ChAT)-negative, and preabsorption control tests suggest they may contain chicken-GnRH-II (GnRH-II) or dogfish GnRH. The second major NT ganglion cell-type was immunoreactive for RF-amides, which regulate GnRH release in other vertebrates, and may provide an intraganglionic influence on GnRH release. The immunocytochemical and anatomical differences between the two GnRH-immunoreactive profile types indicate possible functional differences for these isoforms in the NT. The club-like structures may be sites of GnRH release into the general circulation since these structures were observed near blood vessels and resembled structures seen in the median eminence of rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in cultured embryonic chicken retina neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakis, J.M.; Hausman, R.E.; Peterson, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the appearance of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase in embryonic chicken retina neurons cultured in defined medium was studied. In the presence of a minimal level of insulin (1 ng/ml), ChoAcT activity increased with time in culture. A correspondence between the insulin concentration in the defined medium (1-100 ng/ml) and both the rate of increase and maximum attained level of ChoAcT activity was observed. Maximal ChoAcT activity was 2- to 3-fold greater in cells cultured in the presence of 100 ng of insulin per ml than in cells cultured in the presence of 1 ng of insulin per ml. To elicit maximum ChoAcT activity, insulin at 100 ng/ml was required in the medium for only the first 4 days of the culture period, at which time insulin could be reduced to maintenance levels (10 ng/ml) without affecting ChoAcT activity. Insulin binding assays performed during a 7-day culture period revealed that irrespective of the 125 I-insulin concentration in the medium during culture, cell-surface insulin receptors decreased by ≅ 90% between 4 and 7 days in culture. This decrease in insulin binding corresponded to the observed decrease in the sensitivity of ChoAcT activity to insulin. The findings suggest that insulin plays a role in mediating cholinergic differentiation in the embryonic chicken retina

  3. Experimental study of vascularized nerve graft: evaluation of nerve regeneration using choline acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, M; Tamai, S; Yajima, H; Kawanishi, K

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of nerve regeneration was performed on vascularized nerve graft (VNG) and free nerve graft (FNG) in Fischer strain rats. A segment of the sciatic nerve with vascular pedicle of the femoral artery and vein was harvested from syngeneic donor rat for the VNG group and the sciatic nerve in the same length without vascular pedicle was harvested for the FNG group. They were transplanted to a nerve defect in the sciatic nerve of syngeneic recipient rats. At 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after operation, the sciatic nerves were biopsied and processed for evaluation of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, histological studies, and measurement of wet weight of the muscle innervated by the sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation of the grafted nerve was also performed before sacrifice. The average CAT activity in the distal to the distal suture site was 383 cpm in VNG and 361 cpm in FNG at 2 weeks; 6,189 cpm in VNG and 2,264 cpm in FNG at 4 weeks; and 11,299 cpm in VNG and 9,424 cpm in FNG at 6 weeks postoperatively. The value of the VNG group was statistically higher than that of the FNG group at 4 weeks postoperatively. Electrophysiological and histological findings also suggested that nerve regeneration in the VNG group was superior to that in the FNG group during the same period. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups after 6 weeks postoperatively in any of the evaluations. The CAT measurement was useful in the experiments, because it was highly sensitive and reproducible. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The Advantages of Human Milk Recognize the Spatiotemporal Locations of Toxins and Intelligently Bypass Them by Forming a Hummingbird-Like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Based on an Organic Biomimetic Choline Acetyltransferase Memristor/Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. CHEN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated a unique approach to study human milk’s advantage in promoting and protecting infant early brain cognitive development by recognizing toxins and intelligently bypassing the toxin by forming high frequency oscillation (HFO in the brain circuitry when compared with organic cow milk samples based on an organic memristor/memcapacitor biomimetic Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT neural network circuitry prosthesis along with a 3D Energy-sensory dynamic mapping method under antibody- free, radiolabeling-free, and reagent-less conditions. We also demonstrated cow milk is unfit for infant cognitive development, and it is actually harmful in terms of mutating infant brain synapse circuitry conformation, current flow direction, and energy output that lead to multiple Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO formations, and further, it led to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS based on our prediction.

  5. Choline acetyltransferase and TrkA expression, as well as the improvement in cognition produced by E2 and P4 in ovariectomized rats, are blocked by ICI 182 780 and RU486.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Raya, Judith; Cruz-Raya, Ulises; López-Martínez, Margarita; Picazo, Ofir

    2018-01-09

    Treatment with 17-β estradiol and progesterone improves the performance of ovariectomized rats in an autoshaping learning task, representing cognitive improvement. To test whether this is attributable to genomic mechanisms, the antiestrogen ICI 182 780 or antiprogesterone RU486 was injected into ovariectomized animals primed previously with estrogen or progesterone, respectively. Compared with the vehicle control, each hormone administered alone produced an elevated expression of choline acetyltransferase and TrkA, along with an improvement in performance on the behavioral test. E2+ICI reverted the increase in these two proteins. However, RU alone elicited higher ChAT expression. With this exception, there was a clear linear regression between the number of conditioned responses and the level of ChAT and TrkA in the basal forebrain. The results suggest that TrkA may be more important than ChAT for regulating autoshaping learning tasks, and that genomic mechanisms in the basal forebrain could possibly underlie hormonal improvement of cognition.

  6. Effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid on the nerve growth factor and the choline acetyltransferase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tujioka, Kazuyo; Thanapreedawat, Panicha; Yamada, Takashi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Horie, Kenji; Kim, Mujo; Tsutsui, Kazumi; Hayase, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The brain protein synthesis and the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) is sensitive to the dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in ovariectomized female rats; however, the role of dietary GABA on biomarkers including nerve growth factor (NGF) and choline acetyltransferase for the function of cholinergic neurons remains unknown in ovariectomized female rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dietary GABA affects the concentration and mRNA level of NGF, and the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the brains of ovariectomized female rats. Experiments were done on two groups of 24-wk-old ovariectomized female rats given 0 or 0.5% GABA added to a 20% casein diet. The concentrations of NGF and activities of choline acetyltransferase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and mRNA level of NGF in the hippocampus increased significantly with the 20% casein+0.5% GABA compared with the 20% casein diet alone. In the hippocampus, the mRNA level of NGF significantly correlated with the NGF concentration (r=0.714, pGABA to ovariectomized female rats is likely to control the mRNA level and concentration of NGF and cause an increase in the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the brains.

  7. Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons in the mouse spinal cord: A focus on lamina X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Jittima; Atkinson, Lucy; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Deuchars, Susan A

    2016-09-01

    Lamina X of the spinal cord is a functionally diverse area with roles in locomotion, autonomic control and processing of mechano and nociceptive information. It is also a neurochemically diverse region. However, the different populations of cells in lamina X remain to be fully characterised. To determine the co-localisation of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine (which play major roles in the spinal cord) in lamina X of the adult and juvenile mouse, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurons, combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurons were observed in lamina X of both adult and juvenile mice and in both age groups a population of cells containing both ChAT-IR and GAD67-GFP were observed in lumbar, thoracic and cervical spinal cord. Such dual labelled cells were predominantly located ventral to the central canal. Immunohistochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and GAD67 revealed a small number of double labelled terminals located lateral, dorsolateral and ventrolateral to the central canal. This study therefore describes in detail a population of ChAT-IR/GAD67-GFP neurons predominantly ventral to the central canal of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord of adult and juvenile mice. These cells potentially correspond to a sub-population of the cholinergic central canal cluster cells which may play a unique role in controlling spinal cord circuitry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Generation patterns of four groups of cholinergic neurons in rat cervical spinal cord: a combined tritiated thymidine autoradiographic and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, P.E.; Barber, R.P.; Vaughn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report examines the generation of cholinergic neurons in the spinal cord in order to determine whether the transmitter phenotype of neurons is associated with specific patterns of neurogenesis. Previous immunocytochemical studies identified four groups of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in the cervical enlargement of the rat spinal cord. These cell groups vary in both somatic size and location along the previously described ventrodorsal neurogenic gradient of the spinal cord. Thus, large (and small) motoneurons are located in the ventral horn, medium-sized partition cells are found in the intermediate gray matter, small central canal cluster cells are situated within lamina X, and small dorsal horn neurons are scattered predominantly through laminae III-V. The relationships among the birthdays of these four subsets of cholinergic neurons have been examined by combining 3H-thymidine autoradiography and ChAT immunocytochemistry. Embryonic day 11 was the earliest time that neurons were generated within the cervical enlargement. Large and small ChAT-positive motoneurons were produced on E11 and 12, with 70% of both groups being born on E11. ChAT-positive partition cells were produced between E11 and 13, with their peak generation occurring on E12. Approximately 70% of the cholinergic central canal cluster and dorsal horn cells were born on E13, and the remainder of each of these groups was generated on E14. Other investigators have shown that all neurons within the rat cervical spinal cord are produced in a ventrodorsal sequence between E11 and E16. In contrast, ChAT-positive neurons are born only from E11 to E14 and are among the earliest cells generated in the ventral, intermediate, and dorsal subdivisions of the spinal cord

  9. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, G.C.; Trimmer, B.A.; Landis, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues

  10. Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase reveals a novel neuronal phenotype in the mouse medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Jittima; Atkinson, Lucy; Edwards, Ian J; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2015-12-01

    GABAergic and cholinergic systems play an important part in autonomic pathways. To determine the distribution of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine in areas involved in autonomic control in the mouse brainstem, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurones, combined with choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurones were observed throughout the brainstem. A small number of cells contained both ChAT-IR and GAD67-GFP. Such double labelled cells were observed in the NTS (predominantly in the intermediate and central subnuclei), the area postrema, reticular formation and lateral paragigantocellular nucleus. All ChAT-IR neurones in the area postrema contained GAD67-GFP. Double labelled neurones were not observed in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus or hypoglossal nucleus. Double labelled ChAT-IR/GAD67-GFP cells in the NTS did not contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity, whereas those in the reticular formation and lateral paragigantocellular nucleus did. The function of these small populations of double labelled cells is currently unknown, however their location suggests a potential role in integrating signals involved in oromotor behaviours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of a mutation in the CHAT gene of Old Danish Pointing Dogs affected with congenital myasthenic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Flagstad, Annette; Cirera, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    The presence of a recessive inherited muscle disease in Old Danish Pointing Dogs has been well known for years. Comparisons of this disease with myasthenic diseases of other dog breeds and humans have pointed toward a defect in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine possibly due...... to decreased activity of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. We sequenced exons 5-18 of the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) in 2 affected and 2 unaffected dogs and identified a G to A missense mutation in exon 6. The mutation causes a valine to methionine substitution and segregates...... in agreement with the inheritance of the disease. The mutation was not detected in 50 dogs representing 25 other dog breeds. A DNA test has been developed and is now available to the breeders of Old Danish Pointing Dogs....

  12. Hippocampal “cholinergic interneurons” visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Catudio-Garrett, Elizabeth; Gábriel, Robert; Wilhelm, Marta; Erdelyi, Ferenc; Szabo, Gabor; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations. PMID:25798106

  13. Hippocampal "cholinergic interneurons" visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Feng; Catudio-Garrett, Elizabeth; Gábriel, Robert; Wilhelm, Marta; Erdelyi, Ferenc; Szabo, Gabor; Deisseroth, Karl; Lawrence, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus (HC) occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa) mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlap with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM) exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP) of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-Rosa mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations.

  14. Hippocampal cholinergic interneurons visualized with the choline acetyltransferase promoter: anatomical distribution, intrinsic membrane properties, neurochemical characteristics, and capacity for cholinergic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eYi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Release of acetylcholine (ACh in the hippocampus (HC occurs during exploration, arousal, and learning. Although the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB is the major extrinsic source of cholinergic input to the HC, cholinergic neurons intrinsic to the HC also exist but remain poorly understood. Here, ChAT-tauGFP and ChAT-CRE/Rosa26YFP (ChAT-Rosa mice were examined in HC. The HC of ChAT-tauGFP mice was densely innervated with GFP-positive axons, often accompanied by large GFP-positive structures, some of which were Neurotrace/DAPI-negative and likely represent large axon terminals. In the HC of ChAT-Rosa mice, ChAT-YFP cells were Neurotrace-positive and more abundant in CA3 and dentate gyrus than CA1 with partial overlapping with calretinin/VIP. Moreover, an anti-ChAT antibody consistently showed ChAT immunoreactivity in ChAT-YFP cells from MS-DBB but rarely from HC. Furthermore, ChAT-YFP cells from CA1 stratum radiatum/stratum lacunosum moleculare (SR/SLM exhibited a stuttering firing phenotype but a delayed firing phenotype in stratum pyramidale (SP of CA3. Input resistance and capacitance were also different between CA1 SR/LM and CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Bath application of ACh increased firing frequency in all ChAT-YFP cells; however, cholinergic modulation was larger in CA1 SR/SLM than CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells. Finally, CA3 SP ChAT-YFP cells exhibited a wider AP half-width and weaker cholinergic modulation than YFP-negative CA3 pyramidal cells. Consistent with CRE expression in a subpopulation of principal cells, optogenetic stimulation evoked glutamatergic postsynaptic currents in CA1 SR/SLM interneurons. In conclusion, the presence of fluorescently labeled hippocampal cells common to both ChAT-Rosa and ChAT-tauGFP mice are in good agreement with previous reports on the existence of cholinergic interneurons, but both transgenic mouse lines exhibited unexpected anatomical features that departed considerably from earlier observations.

  15. Carnitine acetyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Sofia Mikkelsen; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Færgeman, Nils Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) deficiency has previously been shown to result in muscle insulin resistance due to accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines. However, differences in the acylcarnitine profile and/or changes in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT in myotubes obtained...

  16. Effects of short-term hormonal replacement on learning and on basal forebrain ChAT and TrkA content in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Raya, Judith; Plata-Cruz, Noemí; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Picazo, Ofir

    2011-02-23

    It has been proposed that sex steroid hormones improve performance in some cognitive tasks by regulating the basal forebrain cholinergic function. However, the molecular basis of such influence still remains unknown. Current study analyzed the performance of ovariectomized rats in an autoshaping learning task after a short-term treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2: 4 and 40μg/kg) and/or progesterone (P4: 4mg/kg). These results were correlated with basal forebrain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and TrkA protein content. The high dose of E2 enhanced both acquisition in the autoshaping task and the content of ChAT and TrkA. P4 treatment increased ChAT and TrkA content without affecting performance of rats in the autoshaping learning task. Interestingly, the continuous and simultaneous administration of E2 plus P4 did not significantly modify behavioral and biochemical evaluated parameters. These results address the influence of both E2 and P4 on cholinergic and TrkA activity and suggest that the effects of ovarian hormones on cognitive performance involve basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontanschreibung im Chat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article spontaneous writing in chat communication is analyzed in two aspects. On one hand, the spelling forms found here show some language change tendencies in the German spoken language. On the other hand, the article tries to describe on which writing conventions these spontaneous spellings are based.

  18. Acetyltransferases and tumour suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A C; Vousden, Karen H

    2000-01-01

    The acetyltransferase p300 was first identified associated with the adenoviral transforming protein E1A, suggesting a potential role for p300 in the regulation of cell proliferation. Direct evidence demonstrating a role for p300 in human tumours was lacking until the recentl publication by Gayther et al, which strongly supports a role for p300 as a tumour suppressor. The authors identify truncating mutations associated with the loss or mutation of the second allele in both tumour samples and cell lines, suggesting that loss of p300 may play a role in the development of a subset of human cancers

  19. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun

    2005-01-01

    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  20. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  1. Video Chat with Multiple Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    MacCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    The dominant paradigm for video chat employs a single camera at each end of the conversation, but some conversations can be greatly enhanced by using multiple cameras at one or both ends. This paper provides the first rigorous investigation of multi-camera video chat, concentrating especially on the ability of users to switch between views at either end of the conversation. A user study of 23 individuals analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of permitting a user to switch between views at...

  2. Promotional Chat on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Mayzlin

    2006-01-01

    Chat rooms, recommendation sites, and customer review sections allow consumers to overcome geographic boundaries and to communicate based on mutual interests. However, marketers also have incentives to supply promotional chat or reviews in order to influence the consumers' evaluation of their products. Moreover, firms can disguise their promotion as consumer recommendations due to the anonymity afforded by online communities. We explore this new setting where advertising and word of mouth bec...

  3. Multimedia chatting system on LAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chu-Sheng; Wang, Chun-Chao; Lee, Ching-Long; Huang, Huang-Chen

    1994-04-01

    An interactive system designed for talking via multimedia presentation with other parties on Ethernet- LAN is proposed. Our Multimedia Chatting System will take several media services into consideration, like still image, text, pen writing, voice, and slow-motion video, to integrate a practical chatting system. The prototyping subsystem to implement the above idea is currently under development using NETBIOS communication interface and Microsoft Windows environment.

  4. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  5. Peer Interaction in Text Chat: Qualitative Analysis of Chat Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Ewa M.; Tare, Medha; Bonilla, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has shown that intermediate-level adult learners of Russian who worked interactively with partners using text chat improved their vocabulary and oral production skills more than students who worked independently (Tare et al., 2014). Drawing on the dataset from Tare et al. (2014), the current study follows up to explore the nature of…

  6. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  7. Stimuli that induce a cholinergic neuronal phenotype of NG108-15 cells upregulate ChAT and VAChT mRNAs but fail to increase VAChT protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Vladimír; Castell, X.; Tomasi, M.; Diebler, M. F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2001), s. 363-373 ISSN 0361-9230 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/98/0469 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : choline acetyltransferase * vesicular acetylcholine transporter * NG108-15 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.783, year: 2001

  8. Analisis Web Accessibility Pada Perancangan Website Chat

    OpenAIRE

    Yushan, Subhansyah

    2011-01-01

    Chat is a popular application where one user can communicate to another using text. Nowadays in the internet, many websites provide chat applications, such as Instant Messaging, Yahoo Messanger, and etc. Website which provides chat application cannot accomodate users who have any dissabilities, especialy users with visual disabilities. This situation makes communication process more complicated, where accessibility level of sending and receiving information has became low. The ...

  9. Investigating L2 Performance in Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon; Smith, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chatscripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for…

  10. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  11. Extending Prior Posts in Dyadic Online Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    This study explores whether chat users are able to extend prior, apparently completed posts in the dyadic online text chat context. Dyadic text chat has a unique turn-taking system, and most chat softwares do not permit users to monitor one another's written messages-in-progress. This is likely to impact on their use of online extensions as an…

  12. NOTICING AND TEXT-BASED CHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the capacity of text-based online chat to promote learners’ noticing of their problematic language productions and of the interactional feedback from their interlocutors. In this study, twelve ESL learners formed six mixed-proficiency dyads. The same dyads worked on two spot-the-difference tasks, one via online chat and the other through face-to-face conversation. Stimulated recall sessions were held subsequently to identify instances of noticing. It was found that text-based online chat promotes noticing more than face-to-face conversations, especially in terms of learners’ noticing of their own linguistic mistakes.

  13. Chat Bots Implementation and User Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Sajjad

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the concept of Chat Bots, and to analyse its importance and place in today’s communication platforms. The goal of the project was to build a Chat Bot prototypically for Metropolia University of Applied Sciences helpdesk on a messaging platform, which would replace the traditional way of reserv- ing old devices for purchase sold at Metropolia’s helpdesk in different times throughout the year. The chat bot was developed using a high-level implementat...

  14. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  15. The Chat Is Coming from inside the House: An Analysis of Perceived Chat Behavior and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt-Morris, Elizabeth; Minnis, Samantha M.

    2014-01-01

    When looking for ways to improve library services, we considered what data sources were readily available to us and how we could harvest and use this data. We investigated three years of chat reference statistics at Central Michigan University, a large research institution, to gain a better understanding of our patrons' chat behavior. We then…

  16. A brief history of choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1850, Theodore Gobley, working in Paris, described a substance “lecithine”, which he named after the Greek “lekithos” for egg yolk. Adolph Strecker noted in 1862 that when lecithin from bile was heated, it generated a new nitrogenous chemical that he named “choline”. Three years later, Oscar Liebreich identified a new substance, “neurine”, in the brain. After a period of confusion, neurine and choline were found to be the same molecule, and the name choline was adapted. Lecithin was eventually characterized chemically as being phosphatidylcholine. In 1954, Eugene Kennedy described the cytidine 5-dihphosphocholine pathway by which choline is incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. A second route, the phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase pathway, was identified by Jon Bremer and David Greenberg in 1960. The role of choline as part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine was established by Otto Loewi and Henry Dale. Working in the 1930s at the University of Toronto, Charles Best showed that choline prevented fatty liver in dogs and rats. The importance of choline as an essential nutrient for human health was determined in the 1990s through controlled feeding studies in humans. Recently, an understanding of the role of genetic variation in setting the dietary requirement for choline in people is being unraveled. PMID:23183298

  17. Acetylcholine and choline contents of rat skeletal muscle determined by a radioenzymatic microassay: effects of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolo, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a specific, radioenzymatic microassay for measuring picomole quantities of ACh in skeletal muscle. The levels of ACh as well ascholine in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), soleus and gastrocnemiusmuscles of the rat are reported after focussed microwave irradiation to the hind limb to prevent post-mortem changes in ACh and choline contents. Particular attention was directed to the effect of some drugs potently affecting neuromuscular transmission at the end plate. Preparation of tissue samples, extraction and electrophoresis are described. A 26 ul portion of a second incubation mixture of tritium-acetylcoenzyme A and 14 ul of a partially purified choline acetyltransferase solution were added. A flow sheet giving an overview of he analytical steps involved in the method are shown

  18. CONVERSATIONS -- AND NEGOTIATED INTERACTION -- IN TEXT AND VOICE CHAT ROOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jepson

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the expanded use of the Internet for language learning and practice, little attention if any has been given to the quality of interaction among English L2 speakers in conversational text or voice chat rooms. This study explored the patterns of repair moves in synchronous non-native speaker (NNS text chat rooms in comparison to voice chat rooms on the Internet. The following questions were posed: (a Which types of repair moves occur in text and voice chats; and (b what are the differences, if any, between the repair moves in text chats and voice chats when time is held constant? Repair moves made by anonymous NNSs in 10, 5-minute, synchronous chat room sessions (5 text-chat sessions, 5 voice-chat sessions were counted and analyzed using chi-square with alpha set at .05. Significant differences were found between the higher number of total repair moves made in voice chats and the smaller number in text chats. Qualitative data analysis showed that repair work in voice chats was often pronunciation-related. The study includes discussion that may affect teachers' and learners' considerations of the value of NNS chat room interaction for second language development.

  19. NOTICING HYBRID RECASTS IN TEXT CHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ten EFL learners’ noticing of the corrective nature of a form of text-based SCMC (text chat feedback that combined a recast of a grammatical error with metalinguistic information. The feedback, termed a hybrid recast, was provided by a native-speaker interlocutor during two text chat activities: a spot-the-difference and picture-ordering task. Data was collected in two ways: analysis of task-based dyadic text chat interaction in which uptake was used as an indicator of learner noticing, and a post-task questionnaire containing questions that identified evidence of learner noticing. Interaction analysis showed that learners responded to almost two thirds of the hybrid recasts with uptake. In addition, every learner provided evidence that they had correctly perceived at least some of the hybrid recasts as corrective in their post-task questionnaire responses.

  20. [Clinical application of M-CHAT and CHAT-23 for autism screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuang; Ma, Hong-Wei; Hu, Man; Wang, Li-Bo; Wang, Lin; Li, Fang; Song, Ying; Tan, Ying-Hua

    2012-12-01

    To analyze and compare Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-23 (CHAT-23) in terms of clinical applicability, and to provide a basis for the understanding of early specific clinical manifestations of children with autism. A total of 350 children aged 18-36 months who visited the Department of Developmental Pediatrics of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University were enrolled as subjects. Of the 350 children, 284 who had not been previously diagnosed with autism were screened according to the two checklists. Sixty-eight confirmed cases of autism (including two of the 284 screening subjects diagnosed with autism) were assigned to the autism group, and 278 of the 284 screening subjects (except six children diagnosed with autism, mental retardation or cerebral palsy) were assigned to the control group. The two groups were compared with respect to the positive rate for each item in the checklists. The efficacy of the M-CHAT and CHAT-23 assessment criteria was evaluated by comparative analysis. The autism group showed the highest positive rate for Item 9. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of the positive rates for all items except Item 16 (PCHAT showed the lowest rate of missed diagnosis (0%); when the assessment criterion was that autism was confirmed if there were positive results for at least 6 of a total of 23 items, CHAT-23 showed the lowest rate of misdiagnosis (1.77%). The specificity of M-CHAT is lower than that of CHAT-23 (P0.05). CHAT-23 is more suitable than M-CHAT for clinical autism screening due to higher specificity, as well as having the advantages of low cost, easy completion,high efficiency and easy result judgment.

  1. Detecting Predatory Behaviour in Online Game Chats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnadottir, Elin Rut; Jensen, Alaina K.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung

    This paper describes a machine learning approach to detect sexually predatory behaviour in the massively multiplayer online game for children, MovieStarPlanet. The goal of this work is to take a chat log as an input and outputs its label as either the predatory category or the non......-predatory category. From the raw in-game chat logs provided by MovieStarPlanet, we first prepared three sub datasets via extensive preprocessing. Then, two machine learning algorithms, naive Bayes and Decision Tree, were employed to model the predatory behaviour using different feature sets. Our evaluation has...

  2. Improving Automated Lexical and Discourse Analysis of Online Chat Dialog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    chatbots ”. Chatbots are automated user software independent of the chat room system that assist human participants, provide entertainment to the chat...both the chat room system and chatbots as well as information provided by the system and chatbots were often preceded by either the token “.” or...personal chatbots . Finally, we also classified chatbot responses as system dialog acts. The Yes/No Question chat dialog act is simply a question that

  3. Development of a Client-Server Chat Application

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the Bachelor’s thesis was to develop a simple client-server chat application. The focus was on the development process and the underlying technologies that were utilized in the development of the chat application. The chat application was developed with the C++ programming language and the SDL software development library. The development environment consisted primarily of command-line operated tools. The thesis resulted in a functional chat application. The program is a d...

  4. Satisfaction with Online Commercial Group Chat: The Influence of Perceived Technology Attributes, Chat Group Characteristics, and Advisor Communication Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dolen, W.M.; Dabholkar, P.A.; de Ruyter, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines online commercial group chat from a structuration theory perspective. The findings support the influence of perceived technology attributes (control, enjoyment, reliability, speed, and ease of use) and chat group characteristics (group involvement, similarity, and receptivity) on

  5. You Are There: No Budget for Travel? Try Video Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses how he used video chat as an alternative to a physical trip. Any teacher with an Internet hookup and a $30 webcam can connect with anyone in the world using video chat. Programs like Skype Video and the Google Mail's video chat function make it easy and, best of all, are completely free. The author discusses how to get started…

  6. Chat as a technically mediated social system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of chat as a technical media for communication. This is realized using the strategy for analyzing that I have called Media Sociography (Tække 2006). The Media Sociography is a synthesis of Medium Theory and the Systems Theoretical Sociology of Niklas Luhmann. The aim...

  7. Will online chat help alleviate mood loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mu

    2009-04-01

    The present study examines the relationship between social Internet use and loneliness and reviews the studies about this topic from both social psychology and computer-mediated communication literature, as a response to the call for interdisciplinary research from scholars in these two areas. Two hundred thirty-four people participated in both the survey testing trait loneliness and a 5-condition (face-to-face chatting, instant message chatting, watching video, writing assignments, and "do nothing") experiment. Participants reported increase of mood loneliness after chatting online. The level of mood loneliness after online chat was higher than that in face-to-face communication. For people with high trait loneliness, the mood loneliness increase in the computer-mediated communication condition was significantly higher than in the face-to-face communication condition. The author of the current study hopes to help clarify the mixed research findings in previous social Internet use literature about this topic and reminds communication researchers of the need to explore the constructs included in "psychological well-being" in terms of their nature, mechanism, causes, consequences, and furthermore, how they are related to communication.

  8. First Things First: Internet Relay Chat Openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintel, E. Sean; Mulholland, Joan; Pittam, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    Argues that Internet Relay Chat (IRC) research needs to systematically address links between interaction structures, technological mediation and the instantiation and development of interpersonal relationships. Finds that openings that occur directly following user's entries into public IRC channels are often ambiguous, can disrupt relationship…

  9. WeChat impact on social and economic in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Mengmeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyse WeChat in China. On the hand, this thesis analyses the impact of WeChat on social and economic based on its features. WeChat changes Chinese way of life. Customers are directly taken part in economic activities in WeChat. On the other hand, this thesis is intended to help entrepreneurs and organizations to know more about WeChat B2B and B2C model in China. The thesis will be helpful for those entrepreneurs who are going to enter Chinese market. Th...

  10. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. Emotional persistence in online chatting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-05-01

    How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

  13. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  14. LANGUAGE AWARENESS IN AN INTERNET CHAT ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Szymański

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When communicating on the Internet, the participants, so to say, mingle two traditional modes of communication: writing and speech. The phenomenon appears to be most noticeable in chat room interactions. This suggestion is based on the fact that users try to behave as though they are engaged in a spoken act of communication, though the actual medium of communication employs written language forms. Therefore, Internet users need to know what conventions to employ and how to perform such actions in order to express the desired meanings, all with the aim of driving the interaction as close as possible to speech. Such implementations of certain language-related customs require a specific kind of language awareness from the users. This concept, plus the applied conventions, constitute the essence of this article. The discussion begins with an introduction to the research problem, in this case the intentional utilization by Internet chat participants of the graphic mode of communication in order to express their desired meanings. Second, the reader becomes acquainted with the terminology used in the paper, which includes: language awareness, (Internet chat, and (language corpus. Moreover, the source of the studied language material—a corpus of Internet chats—is presented. The said description additionally includes the informants’ characteristics, as well as the topicality of their conversations. The further sections of the paper discus the application of selected non-normative spelling conventions and word-formation processes, with the support of examples taken from the corpus. Based on the discussion, an attempt is made to indicate which features comprise certain values to the participants of Internet chats.

  15. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  16. Analýza historie komunikace xChat

    OpenAIRE

    RYNEŠ, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Based on the needs of forensic examination of communication history of various communication programs for the police authorities and forensic experts is needed documentation chat history of "xChat". This is especially necessary to analyze the data files containing records of contacts and communication history at a local PC. Based on the contact information to analyze the possibility of obtaining identification information from the portal xChat

  17. RTP/I Payload Type Definition for Chat Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    This document specifies an application-level protocol (i.e., payload type) for chat tools using the Real Time Protocol for Distributed Interactive Media (RTP/I). RTP/I defines a standardized framing for the transmission of application data and provides protocol mechanisms that are universally needed for the class of distributed interactive media. A chat tool provides an instant messaging service among an arbitrary number of users. This documents specifies how to employ a chat tool with RTP/I ...

  18. Improv Chat: Second Response Generation for Chatbot

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Furu

    2018-01-01

    Existing research on response generation for chatbot focuses on \\textbf{First Response Generation} which aims to teach the chatbot to say the first response (e.g. a sentence) appropriate to the conversation context (e.g. the user's query). In this paper, we introduce a new task \\textbf{Second Response Generation}, termed as Improv chat, which aims to teach the chatbot to say the second response after saying the first response with respect the conversation context, so as to lighten the burden ...

  19. Relationship Between Organophosphate Toxicity and Choline Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Results from studies on the actions of the organophosphates on the central nervus system have suggested that these compounds, through an action on...Grganophosphates alter the disposition and metabolism of choline and choline-containing compounds in the nervous system , the relationshi ý of these changes to...mechanisms regulating the metabolism of choline, as well as the specific interactions of the organophospha:es with biochemical systems , may differ

  20. Online chats: A strategy to enhance learning in large classes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muntuwenkosi Mtshali

    2015-11-10

    Nov 10, 2015 ... interact with one another via online chats in the process of ... of learning using online chats in Business Management Education. ... results suggested that students' academic performance as measured ... contact in a way that could essentially 'scaffold' .... at the same time, participants had very little time to.

  1. Comparative loneliness of users versus nonusers of online chatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chorng-Shyong; Chang, Shu-Chen; Wang, Chih-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Online chatting is an important component of improving interpersonal relationships online, but it may reduce participants' communication time with family members. We conducted a study of the relationship between participants' intent to engage in online chatting and three dimensions of loneliness: social, familial, and romantic. This study was designed to show the effect of online chatting on each of these three dimensions of loneliness. The participants in the study were 709 students at two universities in Taiwan who were classified on the basis of whether or not they had ever engaged in online chatting. Of the participants, 651 (91.82%) fully completed the questionnaires that served as the study instruments and were included in data analysis. The study found that individuals who had participated in online chatting exhibited greater familial loneliness than those who had not because the time spent in online chatting reduced the time spent in familial relationships. Social loneliness was related to the quality of Internet relationships rather than to the time spent online. Individuals who participated in online chatting had less romantic loneliness because of a greater ease of maintaining romantic relationships online. We conclude that online chatting can reduce social loneliness through high-quality Internet relationships but may exacerbate familial loneliness.

  2. Teacher Twitter Chats: Gender Differences in Participants' Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Stacey L.; Schmeichel, Mardi J.

    2018-01-01

    Gender differences in participation were examined across four Twitter chats for social studies teachers. Analyses drawing on mixed methods revealed that while there was parity across most kinds of tweets, participants identified as men were more likely to use the examined Twitter chats to share resources, give advice, boast, promote their own…

  3. The Value of Chat Reference Services: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, JoAnn; Ward, David; Avery, Susan; Marcyk, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course. Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…

  4. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  5. Choline Theft-An Inside Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-09-13

    Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Factors influencing erythrocyte choline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Jenden, D J; Tang, C; Read, S

    1989-01-01

    Choline concentrations in human erythrocytes increase after freezing and thawing, during incubation in Krebs-phosphate for 30 min or on storage at 0 degrees C for 3-24 hr. The increase is prevented by protein precipitation by 10% perchloric acid, 10% zinc hydroxide, 10% sodium tungstate or boiling in water. It is not prevented by EDTA (10 mM) and is increased by oleate (5 mM). We suggest that the increase is due to the action of phospholipase D on erythrocyte phospholipids.

  7. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  8. Rapid quantitative assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.R.; Morency, C.A.; Russian, K.O.

    1987-01-01

    Measuring the expression of exogenous genetic material in mammalian cells is commonly done by fusing the DNA of interest to a gene encoding an easily-detected enzyme. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase(CAT) is a convenient marker because it is not normally found in eukaryotes. CAT activity has usually been detected using a thin-layer chromatographic separation followed by autoradiography. An organic solvent extraction-based method for CAT detection has also been described, as well as a procedure utilizing HPLC analysis. Building on the extraction technique, they developed a rapid sensitive kinetic method for measuring CAT activity in cell homogenates. The method exploits the differential organic solubility of the substrate ([ 3 H] or [ 14 C]acetyl CoA) and the product (labeled acetylchloramphenicol). The assay is a simple one-vial, two-phase procedure and requires no tedious manipulations after the initial setup. Briefly, a 0.25 ml reaction with 100mM Tris-HCL, 1mM chloramphenicol, 0.1mM [ 14 C]acetyl CoA and variable amounts of cell homogenate is pipetted into a miniscintillation vial, overlaid with 5 ml of a water-immiscible fluor, and incubated at 37 0 C. At suitable intervals the vial is counted and the CAT level is quantitatively determined as the rate of increase in counts/min of the labeled product as it diffuses into the fluor phase, compared to a standard curve. When used to measure CAT in transfected Balb 3T3 cells the method correlated well with the other techniques

  9. GOOF: OCTOPUS error messages, ORDER, ORDERLIB, FLOE, CHAT, and LOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, G.

    1977-07-10

    This is a compilation of the error messages returned by five parts of the Livermore timesharing system: the ORDER batch-processor, the ORDERLIB subroutine library, the FLOE operating system, the CHAT compiler, and the LOD loader.

  10. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA

  11. El chat: la conversación escrita

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Rodríguez, María José

    2002-01-01

    This study analyses the linguistic characteristics of a new medium of synchronous text-based computer-mediated communication called Chat. This communication and the type of discourse developed exhibit many oral qualities. These qualities of orality are analyzed starting from the conditions that surround the communication act and of the type of discursive activity that is developed, because the chat should be understood as a new communication system, with rules and forms of i...

  12. Histone acetyltransferases : challenges in targeting bi-substrate enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, Hannah; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are epigenetic enzymes that install acetyl groups onto lysine residues of cellular proteins such as histones, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and enzymes. HATs have been shown to play a role in diseases ranging from cancer and inflammatory diseases to

  13. The effect of cytidine-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on brain lipid changes during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Medio, G.E.; Trovarelli, G.; Piccinin, G.L.; Porcellati, G.

    1984-01-01

    Lipid synthesis has been tested in vivo in different brain areas of 12-month-old male rats. Cortex, striatum, brainstem, and subcortex of brain have been examined. The cerebellum was discarded. Mixtures of (2- 3 H)glycerol and (Me- 14 C)choline were injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain as lipid precursors, and their incorporation into total lipid, water-soluble intermediates and choline-containing phospholipids was examined 1 hr after isotope injection. In another series of experiments cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) was injected intraventricularly to the aged rats 10 min before sacrifice with a simultaneous injection, and radioactivity assays were performed as above. Distribution of radioactivity content of CDP-choline among brain areas 10 min after its administration showed a noticeable enrichment of the nucleotide and water-soluble-related compounds in the examined areas, but to a lesser degree in the cerebral cortex. The incorporation of labelled glycerol, which is severely depressed in aged rats in all four areas [Gaiti et al, 1982, 1983], was increased only in the cortex, and apparently decreased in the other areas. This last result is probably due to a dilution effect brought about by the administered cold CDP-choline upon the ( 14 C)-containing water-soluble metabolites. As a consequence, the ( 3 H)/( 14 C) ratio in total lipid and in isolated phosphatidylcholine and choline plasmalogen increased after CDP-choline treatment

  14. The efflux of choline from nerve cells: mediation by ionic gradients and functional exchange of choline from glia to neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Ferret, B.; Massarelli, R.; Mykita, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between ions and the efflux of choline, and suggests the possibility of a balance effect for choline fluxes which is produced and maintained by ioinic gradients. It is also suggested that glial cells may actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve activity, and that they may function as a choline reservoir for neuronal needs. The study shows that neurons and glial cells spontaneously discharge choline into the incubation medium. The exiting choline is essentially of free origin, as can be seen in an illustration provided. Neurons and glial cells had been prelabelled with ( 14 C) choline overnight, and labelled for 15 min with tritium-choline. The higher amount of tritium-choline exiting the cells indicates that it is the freshly labelled choline which is preferentially released. The remaining of ( 14 C) - choline exiting the cells corresponds to the free choline of phospholipid origin which amounts to about one third of the total free choline content

  15. Expanding Suicide Crisis Services to Text and Chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Zachary; Ramchand, Rajeev; Ayer, Lynsay; Kotzias, Virginia; Engel, Charles; Ebener, Patricia; Kemp, Janet E; Karras, Elizabeth; Haas, Gretchen L

    2017-07-01

    Crisis support services have historically been offered by phone-based suicide prevention hotlines, but are increasingly becoming available through alternative modalities, including Internet chat and text messaging. To better understand differences in the use of phone and chat/text services. We conducted semistructured interviews with call responders at the Veterans Crisis Line who utilize multimodal methods to respond to veterans in crisis. Responders indicated that veterans may access the chat/text service primarily for reasons that included a desire for anonymity and possible inability to use the phone. Responders were divided on whether callers and chatters presented with different issues or risk of suicide; however, they suggested that veterans frequently use chat/text to make their first contact with mental health services. We spoke with call responders, not the veterans themselves. Additionally, as this is qualitative research, applicability to other settings may be limited. While new platforms offer promise, participants also indicated that chat services can supplement phone lines, but not replace them.

  16. Structure, complexity and cooperation in parallel external chat interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønning, Anette

    2012-01-01

    This article examines structure, complexity and cooperation in external chat interactions at the workplace in which one of the participants is taking part in multiple parallel conversations. The investigation is based on an analysis of nine chat interactions in a work-related context, with partic......This article examines structure, complexity and cooperation in external chat interactions at the workplace in which one of the participants is taking part in multiple parallel conversations. The investigation is based on an analysis of nine chat interactions in a work-related context...... focus is on “turn-taking organisation as the fundamental and generic aspect of interaction organisation” (Drew & Heritage, 1992, p. 25), including the use of turn-taking rules, adjacency pairs, and the importance of pauses. Even though the employee and the union members do not know one another...... and cannot see, hear, or touch one another, it is possible to detect an informal, pleasant tone in their interactions. This challenges the basically asymmetrical relationship between employee and customer, and one can sense a further level of asymmetry. In terms of medium, chat interactions exist via various...

  17. Recorded peer video chat as a research and development tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    When practising teachers take time to exchange their experiences and reflect on their teaching realities as critical friends, they add meaning and depth to educational research. When peer talk is facilitated through video chat platforms, teachers can meet (virtually) face to face even when...... recordings were transcribed and used to prompt further discussion. The recording of the video chat meetings provided an opportunity for researchers to listen in and follow up on points they felt needed further unpacking or clarification. The recorded peer video chat conversations provided an additional...... opportunity to stimulate and support teacher participants in a process of critical analysis and reflection on practice. The discussions themselves were empowering because in the absence of the researcher, the teachers, in negotiation with peers, choose what is important enough to them to take time to discuss....

  18. Chat reference service in medical libraries: part 2--Trends in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.

  19. Online Chat Dependency: The Influence of Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Chang, Shu-Chen

    Recent developments in information technology have made it easy for people to “chat” online with others in real time, and many do so regularly. “Virtual” relationships can be attractive, especially for people with social interaction problems in the “real world”. This study examines the influence on online chat dependency of three dimensions of social anxiety: general social situation fear, negative evaluation fear, and novel social situation fear. Participants of this study were 454 college students. The survey results show that negative evaluation fear and general social situation fear are relative to online chat dependency, while novel social situation fear does not seem to be a relevant factor.

  20. ANDROID CHATTING APPLICATION BASED ON WI-FI TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ekata M. Lambture *, Prof. Z.M. Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    As we know that Android operating system is one of the popular operating system for mobile applications.It supports mobile applications such as Chatting based applications,File sharing applications etc. In market thosands of applications are available in which users can send-receive messages,shares the files,send images,audio,video through network connectivity such as 2G,3G,4G. Android chatting application based on wi-fi technology provides same features but using WI-FI(Wireless Fidelity)...

  1. An Empirical Study of Spam and Prevention Mechanisms in Online Video Chat Services

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xinyu; Ahn, Junho; Lee, Wenke; Han, Richard; Mishra, Shivakant

    2012-01-01

    Recently, online video chat services are becoming increasingly popular. While experiencing tremendous growth, online video chat services have also become yet another spamming target. Unlike spam propagated via traditional medium like emails and social networks, we find that spam propagated via online video chat services is able to draw much larger attention from the users. We have conducted several experiments to investigate spam propagation on Chatroulette - the largest online video chat web...

  2. Building Community Through a #pulmcc Twitter Chat to Advocate for Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher L; Bruno, Kristi; Ramachandran, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    Social media sites such as Twitter can significantly enhance education and advocacy efforts. In 2013, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) launched a Twitter chat series using the hashtag #pulmcc to educate and advocate for topics related to pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. To assess the reach of these chats, we analyzed the metrics using Symplur analytics, and compared data from each chat, as well as participant data. Since December 19, 2013, there have been 12 Twitter chats: six have been on critical care-related topics, four have been on pulmonary-/sleep-related topics, and two have been conducted during the CHEST annual meeting on more general topics. During these 1-h Twitter chats, there were a total of 4,212 tweets by 418 participants, resulting in 9,361,519 impressions (ie, views). There were similar numbers of participants and tweets in the three categories of Twitter chats, but there was a significantly greater reach during the more general Twitter chats conducted at the CHEST annual meeting, with 1,596,013 ± 126,472 impressions per chat session at these chats, compared with 739,203 ± 73,109 impressions per chat session during the critical care Twitter chats and 621,965 ± 123,933 impressions per chat session in the pulmonary/sleep chats. Seventy-five participants participated in two or more #pulmcc Twitter chats, and the average percent of return participants in each chat was 30% ± 7%. Most of the return participants were health-care providers. Twitter chats can be a powerful tool for the widespread engagement of a medical audience. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analisis Kinerja Trafik Video Chatting Pada Sistem Client- Client Dengan Aplikasi Wireshark

    OpenAIRE

    Yuvandra, Rayhan

    2014-01-01

    Teknologi Video chat adalah salah satu media komunikasi yang memberikan kemudahan pengguna untuk dapat melihat wajah lawan bicara dalam chatting dengan menggunakan kamera yang terdapat di notebook atau perangkat komputer. Video chat juga membutuhkan jaringan internet sebagai media transmisinya. Salah satu aplikasi untuk video chat adalah skype. Skype adalah software aplikasi komunikasi suara berbasis IP dengan teknologi P2P ( peer to peer ) melalui internet antara sesama pengguna skype. Pene...

  4. Opinions of Female Juvenile Delinquents about Their Interactions in Chat Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Long, Amie; Ritzman, Mitzi; Stofer, Keri; Davis, Candy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the opinions of 62 adolescent females residing in a correctional facility about their use of the Internet to participate in chat room conversations. Findings indicated that 54 of 62 girls (87.09%), with a mean age of 16.72 years, participated in chat room interactions. Most (n = 47) interacted in chat rooms…

  5. When technological affordances meet interactional norms: the value of pre-screening in online chat counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stommel, Wyke; te Molder, Hedwig Frederica Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present a conversation analysis of openings sequences of online text-based chat counseling. Particular about this chat counseling is that the clients made available their help question through pre-screening. The data consisted of 40 chat sessions with pre-screening and 34 sessions without

  6. Reviving a Digital Dinosaur: Text-Only Synchronous Online Chats and Peer Tutoring in Communication Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative content analysis was conducted of all text-based synchronous online chats at an oral communication peer tutoring center throughout a semester. As a comparative benchmark, chats at the same university's main library were analyzed over the same time period. The library's chats were much more heavily weighted toward…

  7. Uso del chat en el desarrollo de cursos en línea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Henrik; Zurita, L.

    2006-01-01

    Chat has been used for support to development of environmental courses in a network of universities (ELAC) in Latin America and EU. 12 thematic chats were held on various common learning subjects as themes and 11 course chats focussed specifically on the design of 5 courses. 36 participants parti...

  8. Mobile Chatting Behaviour of Arts and Science College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Priya, J. Johnsi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile connectivity is the order of the day. Personas irrespective of their socio-economic status possess mobile device either basic or advanced android or windows or IOS. The chat applications have become popular with younger generation. It has started trickling down to children below the age of eighteen. The behaviour has influenced the aged…

  9. Signal Detection using ICA: Application to Chat Room Topic Spotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Thomas; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    signals with weak a priori assumptions in multimedia contexts. ICA of real world data is typically performed without knowledge of the number of non-trivial independent components, hence, it is of interest to test hypotheses concerning the number of components or simply to test whether a given set...... can detect meaningful context structures in a chat room log file....

  10. Online chats: A strategy to enhance learning in large classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Online-supported teaching and learning is a technological innovation in education that integrates face-to-face teaching in plenary lectures, with an online component using a learning management system. This extends opportunities to students to interact with one another via online chats in the process of transacting their ...

  11. Assessing the Language of Chat for Teamwork Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibani, Antonette; Koh, Elizabeth; Lai, Vivian; Shim, Kyong Jin

    2017-01-01

    In technology-enhanced language learning, many pedagogical activities involve students in online discussion such as synchronous chat, in order to help them practice their language skills. Besides developing the language competency of students, it is also crucial to nurture their teamwork competencies for today's global and complex environment.…

  12. Structure, complexity and cooperation in parallel external chat interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Grønning

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines structure, complexity and cooperation in external chat interactions at the workplace in which one of the participants is taking part in multiple parallel conversations. The investigation is based on an analysis of nine chat interactions in a work-related context, with particular focus on the content of the parallel time spans of the chat interactions. The analysis was inspired by applied conversation analysis (CA. The empirical material has been placed at my disposal by Kristelig Fagbevægelse (Krifa, which is Denmark’s third-largest trade union. The article’s overall focus is on “turn-taking organisation as the fundamental and generic aspect of interaction organisation” (Drew & Heritage, 1992, p. 25, including the use of turn-taking rules, adjacency pairs, and the importance of pauses. Even though the employee and the union members do not know one another and cannot see, hear, or touch one another, it is possible to detect an informal, pleasant tone in their interactions. This challenges the basically asymmetrical relationship between employee and customer, and one can sense a further level of asymmetry. In terms of medium, chat interactions exist via various references to other media, including telephone calls and e-mails.

  13. Afrikaans-English code switching on internet relay chat (IRC)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data examined in this paper consist of logs of IRC interactions in public IRC channels on irc.sun.ac.za (the Stellenbosch University IRC server) and logs of interaction on local hubs in DC++ (a file-sharing application that allows for synchronous chatting). Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2008, ...

  14. Constructing Sexuality and Identity in an Online Teen Chat Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K.; Greenfield, P. M.; Tynes, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we propose that adolescents' online interactions are both a literal and a metaphoric screen for representing major adolescent developmental issues, such as sexuality and identity. Because of the public nature of Internet chat rooms, they provide an open window into the expression of adolescent concerns. Our study utilizes this…

  15. Choline or methionine reverses impaired secretion of VLDL by hepatocytes from choline-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Vance, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet for three days accumulated triacylglycerol (TG) in the liver. Hepatocytes from these rats were cultured and maintained in a medium + choline. The rate of secretion of TG was reduced by 50% in the CD cells. Correspondingly, [ 3 H]oleate and [ 3 H]glycerol were incorporated at a 2-fold higher rate into TG secreted by choline-supplemented cells compared to CD cells. Isolation of lipoprotein fractions by ultracentrifugation showed that the reduced secretion of TG by CD hepatocytes was mainly due to an impaired secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into secreted apoB/sub H/, apoB/sub L/ and apoE was markedly reduced in CD cells compared to choline-supplemented cells. Secretion of high density lipoprotein was not reduced in the CD hepatocytes. Normal secretion of VLDL was resumed upon addition of methionine to the CD cells

  16. Iterative Chat Transcript Analysis: Making Meaning from Existing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Baumgart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – In order to better contextualize library data about patron satisfaction with reference services, we analyzed an existing corpus of chat transcripts. Having conducted a similar analysis in 2010, we also compared librarian behaviors over time. Methods – Drawing from the library literature, we identified a set of librarian behaviors closely associated with patron satisfaction. These behaviors include listening to and understanding patrons’ needs, inviting patrons to use the service again, and providing instruction or completing a search for patrons. Analysis of the chat transcripts included establishing a coding schema, applying these codes to individual chat transcripts, and analyzing these codes across the corpus of transcripts for frequency and correlation with other codes. The currently presented analysis used chat transcripts from the fall of 2013 and seeks changes in librarian behavior over time in order to gauge the success of establishing best practices and improving training standardization over the last three years. Results – The analysis shows that librarian behaviors have changed over time, pointing to what campus librarians are doing well, and that implementation of best practices at a campus level after the 2010 analysis may have increased these positive behaviors. The analysis also shows opportunities for further standardization and reinforcement of best practices. Conclusion – Qualitative analysis of already-collected data serves as a model for other units and suggests areas for process improvement, including enhanced coder training and code schema design. Further analysis of chat patrons’ questions is also warranted, including investigation of the relationship between subject- and location-specific questions and referrals.

  17. Analisa Kinerja Jaringan Provider untuk Aplikasi Video Chatting (Studi Kasus di Daerah Marpoyan)

    OpenAIRE

    Danur, Jeri Dwi; ', Febrizal '

    2016-01-01

    Video chat is a communication that allows users to chat and can see the other person's face directly. Video chatting requires a good network to transmit audio and video data in a short time. This paper examines the performance of three mobile network provider (Provider A and Provider B Provider C) in a video chat in the area Marpoyan and the effect of time when doing video chat on the performance of each provider. The method used is the method using packet sniffing software wireshark to see Q...

  18. “New Weapons” of Ideological and Political Education in Universities—WeChat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available WeChat, a new instant messaging software, has been popularized nowadays. In order for WeChat to have the maximum impact on the ideological and political education areas, we need to have a deep understanding of the characteristics and regulars which attract students in the communication process, and combine WeChat platform with ideological and political education to attract students motivated to learn the content of ideological politics. This article, starting with college students, aims to understand their thinking and use of WeChat, and pertinently use WeChat platform to enhance the attractiveness and effectiveness of ideological and political education.

  19. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  20. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  1. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  2. A comparison of choline:urea and choline:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents at 338 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Moura, Leila M.; Turner, Adam H.; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata; Callear, Samantha K.; McCune, Jade A.; Scherman, Oren A.; Holbrey, John D.

    2018-05-01

    1:2 choline chloride:urea and 1:1 choline chloride:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents are compared at 338 K using liquid-phase neutron diffraction with H/D isotopic substitution to obtain differential neutron scattering cross sections and fitting of models to the experimental data using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. In comparison to the previously reported study of choline chloride:urea at 303 K, we observed significant weakening and lengthening of choline-OH⋯Cl- and choline-OH⋯hydrogen-bond acceptor correlations.

  3. Harnessing the Power of Informal Learning: Using WeChat, the Semi-Synchronous Group Chat, to Enhance Spoken Fluency in Chinese Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoux, Marion

    2017-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that seeks to evaluate the potentials of the Chinese app WeChat to enhance the spoken fluency of learners of French in China, who report having limited and insufficient opportunities to practice speaking in their daily life. WeChat is an extremely popular instant messenger facilitating communication through a…

  4. Location based chat application for iPhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Pradeep

    With the increasing use of mobile devices everywhere in the world, there is a lack of social interaction between people. The objective of this thesis project is to create a location based chat application, which will help users to interact with other people around them. It will provide an opportunity to meet people when someone visits a new place. The app will use GPS coordinates of the user and will show him a list of other users based on his location. The user can then choose any of the other users from the list and start chatting with them. This app will consist of a frontend and backend. The frontend will be an iOS application and the backend will be a PHP/MYSQL server.

  5. Learners’ Participation in Informal Japanese-English Internet Chat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pasfield-Neofitou

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely claimed that computer mediated communication offers unique opportunities for language learners, including the ability to take on the roles of ‘writer’ and ‘reader’, ‘teacher’ and ‘learner’. Hence, it is important for teachers and learners to be aware of not only the linguistic and interactional characteristics of especially bilingual chat, but also how participants in an intercultural setting may switch between roles. Learning about one’s second language from a peer, and in turn, teaching that peer about one’s native language may allow both participants opportunities to develop as language experts.This article utilises naturalistic bilingual chat data and follow-up interviews to examine the implications of these findings for learners, teachers and researchers.

  6. Restrictions on running IRC (Internet Relay Chat) at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Due to the large number of computer security incidents at CERN where intruders have used IRC (Internet Relay Chat) software to control computers, IRC connections will be blocked in the CERN firewall from 1st February 2005. Personal use of IRC software is not permitted at CERN. Further details of the restrictions on both personal and professional use of IRC are documented at http://cern.ch/security/IRC.

  7. Designing a large-scale video chat application

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Jeremiah; Parnes, Peter; McCarthy, John D.; Sasse, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Studies of video conferencing systems generally focus on scenarios where users communicate using an audio channel. However, text chat serves users in a wide variety of contexts, and is commonly included in multimedia conferencing systems as a complement to the audio channel. This paper introduces a prototype application which integrates video and text communication, and describes a formative evaluation of the prototype with 53 users in a social setting. We focus the evaluation on bandwidth an...

  8. Collective emotion dynamics in chats with agents, moderators and Bots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šuvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Using agent-directed simulations, we investigate fluctuations in the collective emotional states on a chat network where agents interchange messages with a fixed number of moderators and emotional Bot. To design a realistic chat system, the interaction rules and some statistical parameters, as well as the agent's attributes, are inferred from the empirical chat channel Ubuntu. In the simulations, the Bot's emotion is fixed; the moderators tune the level of its activity by passing a fraction ε of messages to the Bot. At ε ≥ 0, the collective emotional state matching the Bot's emotion polarity gradually arises; the average growth rate of the dominant emotional charge serves as an order parameter. Due to self-organizing effects, the collective dynamics is more explosive when positive emotions arise by positive Bot than the onset of negative emotions in the presence of negative Bot at the same ε. Furthermore, when the emotions matching the Bot's emotion polarity are spread over the system, the underlying fractal processes exhibit higher persistence and stronger clustering of events than the processes spreading of emotion polarity opposite to the Bot's emotion. On the other hand, the relaxation dynamics is controlled by the external noise; the related nonextensive parameter, estimated from the statistics of returns, is virtually independent of the Bot's activity level and emotion contents.

  9. New approaches to the synthesis of diclofenac choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dąbrowska-Maś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process described herein proceeds to obtaining diclofenac choline from choline bicarbonate and diclofenac acid in mild conditions, using non-toxic solvent, with the same impurity profile deriving from diclofenac particle as for diclofenac sodium EP. The substance is also substantially free from impurities deriving from choline and free from inorganic by-products, what means that the quality may be accepted for use as an active substance in medicine.

  10. Por que é difícil participar de Chats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Collins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O chat é uma ferramenta e um serviço de comunicação síncrona na internet, cuja função educacional apresenta controvérsias nos meios acadêmicos. Possuindo interfaces supostamente intuitivas (salas de bate-papo em web, proporcionam, em tese, um meio fácil de usar e potencialmente rico para fins educacionais. Para testar esse meio, uma sessão de chat foi realizada com fins acadêmicos por estudantes e professores de uma disciplina de pós-graduação. Com seus propósitos aparentemente frustrados, essa sessão foi estudada sob instrumentais teórico-metodológicos diversos, no intuito de analisar, de diferentes ângulos, os obstáculos ao uso educacional do chat e sugerir algumas soluções. Com base nos turnos registrados pela ferramenta, foram analisadas as relações interpessoais e as dificuldades no ritmo da conversação; interações e dificuldades relativas a assimetrias, domínios e desenvolvimento de tópicos; fases da construção de conhecimento, e dificuldades técnico-operacionais. Entre os resultados convergentes das diversas análises, demonstrou-se principalmente o impacto da experiência prévia de uso da ferramenta para o sucesso do uso educacional do chat na evolução dos tópicos, no ritmo da conversação e nos domínios interacionais; também constatou-se o impacto do papel do professor e da experiência prévia nas fases de construção do conhecimento identificadas nos turnos dos alunos. Esses resultados sugerem que, para o chat ser proveitoso do ponto de vista educacional, é necessária uma preparação prévia cuidadosa. Para que a ferramenta possa ser mediadora de aprendizagem, é necessário evitar digressões, manter uma pequena variedade de tópicos e, portanto, um foco mais definido no tema programado para a discussão. Igualmente cuidadosa deve ser a mediação do professor para incentivar as problematizações e as sínteses, além de garantir, mediante o apoio aos turnos dos alunos menos experientes

  11. Formulation and utilization of choline based samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2013-01-01

    their performance to more traditional sample formulations. Choline yields stable samples with exceptional polarization performance while simultaneously offering the capability to easily remove the choline after dissolution, perform experiments with the hyperpolarized choline, or anything in between....

  12. Contents of lecithin and choline in crude drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Kikuoka, M; Nishi, H; Kokusenya, Y; Miyamoto, T; Matsuo, M; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    The determination of lecithin and choline in crude drugs was established by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector (ECD) and enzyme reaction. Lecithin in crude drugs extracted with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) at room temperature was hydrolyzed by phospholipase D. The hydrolyzate was injected to HPLC, and choline was separated from impurities by reverse phase column. The choline was converted to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by passing through column packed with immobilized choline oxidase. This hydrogen peroxide was detected by ECD. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from lecithin was proportional to the concentration of lecithin from 0.10 to 1.52 microgram/ml. Choline in crude drugs was extracted with ethanol under reflux and determined under the same HPLC conditions as lecithin. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from choline was proportional to the concentration of choline from 0.01 to 0.45 microgram/ml. The contents of lecithin and choline in 31 kinds of crude drugs were determined by these established methods. The results showed that Cervi Parvum Cornu, Kokurozin, Foenigraeci Semen and Psoraleae Semen contained more lecithin than other crude drugs, while Angelicae Radix, Foenigraeci Semen, Psoraleae Semen, and especially Hippocampus were found to contain more choline than other crude drugs.

  13. Perancangan Dan Pembuatan Pengamanan Video Chat Dengan Menggunakan Metode Enkripsi RC4

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Stevie Suwanto; Budhi, Gregorius Satia; Andjarwirawan, Justinus

    2015-01-01

    Technological development at this time has been growing rapidly with the internet. Along with the development the more the usefulness of the Internet. Not only used for browsing, now the Internet is also used for communication. Such as email, chat, and etc. The increasing development of communication technology, then people start to think about the secure of the communication technology. As in a video chat, only the person entitled to know the information in the video chat. But the encryption...

  14. “New Weapons” of Ideological and Political Education in Universities—WeChat

    OpenAIRE

    Wei He; Ke Liang

    2014-01-01

    WeChat, a new instant messaging software, has been popularized nowadays. In order for WeChat to have the maximum impact on the ideological and political education areas, we need to have a deep understanding of the characteristics and regulars which attract students in the communication process, and combine WeChat platform with ideological and political education to attract students motivated to learn the content of ideological politics. This article, starting with college students, aims to un...

  15. Choline transport via choline transporter-like protein 1 in conditionally immortalized rat syncytiotrophoblast cell lines TR-TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-Y; Choi, H-M; Kang, Y-S

    2009-04-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for phospholipids and acetylcholine biosynthesis in normal development of fetus. In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of choline transport system and inhibitory effect of cationic drugs on choline transport in rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT). Choline transport was weakly Na(+) dependent and significantly influenced by extracellular pH and by membrane depolarization. The transport process of choline is saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of 68microM and 130microM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2 respectively. Choline uptake in the cells was inhibited by unlabeled choline and hemicholinium-3 as well as various organic cations including guanidine, amiloride and acetylcholine. However, the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium and cimetidine showed very little inhibitory effect of choline uptake in TR-TBT cells. RT-PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) are expressed in TR-TBT cells. The transport properties of choline in TR-TBT cells were similar or identical to that of CTL1 but not OCT2. CTL1 was also detected in human placenta. In addition, several cationic drugs such as diphenhydramine and verapamil competitively inhibited choline uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 with K(i) of 115microM and 55microM, respectively. Our results suggest that choline transport system, which has intermediate affinity and weakly Na(+) dependent, in TR-TBT seems to occur through a CTL1 and this system may have relevance with the uptake of pharmacologically important organic cation drugs.

  16. Research on Human Dynamics of Information Release of WeChat Users

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Juliang; Zhang, Shengtai; Duo, Fan; Wang, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    The information release behavior of WeChat users is influenced by many factors, and studying the rules of the behavior of users in WeChat can provide theoretical help for the dynamic research of mobile social network users. By crawling WeChat moments information of nine users within 5 years, we used the human behavioral dynamics system to analyze users' behavior. The results show that the information distribution behavior of WeChat users is consistent with the power-law distribution for a cer...

  17. Introduction to the WeChat marketing advantages and development prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    WeChat is evolved into a large commercial trading platform, and this can be the further research of this thesis. According to the development of WeChat, the consumers can realize the integration service mode of the commodity inquiry, the choose and buy, experience, interactive, online ordering and paying, as long as consumers by WeChat platform.. The objective of this thesis was to introduce the advantages of WeChat and its development prospects. The main research is focus on the analysis...

  18. UChat: chat accesible para la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    García Morales, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha producido un increíble aumento en el uso de aplicaciones en telefonía gracias al auge de los teléfonos inteligentes, especialmente las aplicaciones de mensajería instantánea de tipo chat. Estas aplicaciones, además, en los últimos años se han ido utilizando cada vez más en docencia, facilitando la comunicación entre alumnos y profesores en todo momento. A pesar de su popularidad, todavía presentar barreras de accesibilidad que impiden que muchas personas (personas co...

  19. The functionalities of mobile applications : case study: WeChat

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Si; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to find out the functionalities of mobile application. And the purpose of this study is to make a research on WeChat’s functionalities. A native application and mobile web application are the two different types of mobile applications. When designers start to create an application, companies need to discuss which type of app is more suitable for business targets. Each has both pros and cons which influence companies’ choice. WeChat is a popular mobile applicati...

  20. Crystal structure of homoserine O-acetyltransferase from Leptospira interrogans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingzhu; Liu Lin; Wang Yanli; Wei Zhiyi; Zhang Ping; Li Yikun; Jiang Xiaohua; Xu Hang; Gong Weimin

    2007-01-01

    Homoserine O-acetyltransferase (HTA, EC 2.3.1.31) initiates methionine biosynthesis pathway by catalyzing the transfer of acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to homoserine. This study reports the crystal structure of HTA from Leptospira interrogans determined at 2.2 A resolution using selenomethionyl single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method. HTA is modular and consists of two structurally distinct domains-a core α/β domain containing the catalytic site and a helical bundle called the lid domain. Overall, the structure fold belongs to α/β hydrolase superfamily with the characteristic 'catalytic triad' residues in the active site. Detailed structure analysis showed that the catalytic histidine and serine are both present in two conformations, which may be involved in the catalytic mechanism for acetyl transfer

  1. Insight into cofactor recognition in arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ximing; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inés; Kubiak, Xavier Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the acetyl-CoA-dependent acetylation of arylamines. To better understand the mode of binding of the cofactor by this family of enzymes, the structure of Mesorhizobium loti NAT1 [(RHILO)NAT1] was determined...... for Bacillus anthracis NAT1 and Homo sapiens NAT2. Therefore, in contrast to previous data, this study shows that different orthologous NATs can bind their cofactors in a similar way, suggesting that the mode of binding CoA in this family of enzymes is less diverse than previously thought. Moreover......, it supports the notion that the presence of the `mammalian/eukaryotic insertion loop' in certain NAT enzymes impacts the mode of binding CoA by imposing structural constraints....

  2. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline...

  3. Structure of Mesorhizobium loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, Simon J. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Dairou, Julien [CNRS-UMR 7000, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, 105 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Sandy, James [Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT (United Kingdom); Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie [CNRS-UMR 7000, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, 105 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); UFR de Biochimie, Université Denis Diderot-Paris 7, 75005 Paris (France); Noble, Martin E. M. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Sim, Edith, E-mail: edith.sim@pharm.ox.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structure of a M. loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes have been found in a broad range of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The NAT enzymes catalyse the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl Co-enzyme A onto the terminal nitrogen of a range of arylamine, hydrazine and arylhydrazine compounds. Recently, several NAT structures have been reported from different prokaryotic sources including Salmonella typhimurium, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioinformatics analysis of the Mesorhizobium loti genome revealed two NAT paralogues, the first example of multiple NAT isoenzymes in a eubacterial organism. The M. loti NAT 1 enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme was crystallized in 0.5 M Ca(OAc){sub 2}, 16% PEG 3350, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set diffracting to 2.0 Å was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic spacegroup P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.2, b = 97.3, c = 114.3 Å. The structure was refined to a final free-R factor of 24.8%. The structure reveals that despite low sequence homology, M. loti NAT1 shares the common fold as reported in previous NAT structures and exhibits the same catalytic triad of residues (Cys-His-Asp) in the active site.

  4. Structure of Mesorhizobium loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, Simon J.; Dairou, Julien; Sandy, James; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Noble, Martin E. M.; Sim, Edith

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of a M. loti arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes have been found in a broad range of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The NAT enzymes catalyse the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl Co-enzyme A onto the terminal nitrogen of a range of arylamine, hydrazine and arylhydrazine compounds. Recently, several NAT structures have been reported from different prokaryotic sources including Salmonella typhimurium, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioinformatics analysis of the Mesorhizobium loti genome revealed two NAT paralogues, the first example of multiple NAT isoenzymes in a eubacterial organism. The M. loti NAT 1 enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme was crystallized in 0.5 M Ca(OAc) 2 , 16% PEG 3350, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set diffracting to 2.0 Å was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic spacegroup P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 53.2, b = 97.3, c = 114.3 Å. The structure was refined to a final free-R factor of 24.8%. The structure reveals that despite low sequence homology, M. loti NAT1 shares the common fold as reported in previous NAT structures and exhibits the same catalytic triad of residues (Cys-His-Asp) in the active site

  5. Peer counseling in an online chat service: a content analysis of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukkink, R.

    2011-01-01

    In a recently launched one-on-one chat service for young people with psychosocial problems, young peer volunteers (ages 16-23) have a leading role in the conversations, comparable to the role of counselors in web-based and telephone-based child help-line services. A content analysis of the chat

  6. Look at That! Video Chat and Joint Visual Attention Development among Babies and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Elisabeth R.; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E.; Holochwost, Steven J.; Parrott, W. G.; Barr, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Although many relatives use video chat to keep in touch with toddlers, key features of adult-toddler interaction like joint visual attention (JVA) may be compromised in this context. In this study, 25 families with a child between 6 and 24 months were observed using video chat at home with geographically separated grandparents. We define two types…

  7. Color Visions from the Past in Science Teaching within a Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokouri, Eleni; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study uses history of science in teaching natural sciences from the early grades. The theoretical framework used is Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), which is a theory with expanding applications in different fields of science. The didactical scenario, in which history of science is used in a CHAT context, refers to Newton's…

  8. Adding a Feature: Can a Pop-Up Chat Box Enhance Virtual Reference Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Fought, Rick L; Gahn, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Online users seek help from virtual reference services via email, phone, texting, and live chat. Technologies have enabled new features in library websites to help make this service more accessible and effective. This article is an evaluation of an experimental pop-up live chat box on the website of a health sciences library to see whether the feature would enhance virtual reference services.

  9. Evaluating a Chat Reference Service at the University of South Alabama's Baugh Biomedical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Clista C.; Staggs, Geneva B.; Williams, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Alabama's Baugh Biomedical Library recently initiated a chat reference service targeted at distance education students in the biomedical sciences. After one year of service, the library conducted an evaluation of the chat reference to assess the success of this mode of reference service. Both traditional reference and…

  10. Goethe Gossips with Grass: Using Computer Chatting Software in an Introductory Literature Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Catherine C.

    1999-01-01

    Students in a third-year introduction to German literature course chatted over networked computers, using "FirstClass" software. A brief description of the course design is provided with detailed information on how the three chat sessions were organized. (Author/VWL)

  11. Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases and acetyltransferases as potential therapeutics in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Thea; Leus, Niek; Timmerman, Tirza; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer are, among others, regulated by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modification is lysine acetylation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), acetylate histone lysine residues,

  12. Sequence analysis of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yazun Bashir Jarrar

    2017-11-26

    Nov 26, 2017 ... Sequence analysis of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) among Jordanian volunteers, Libyan. Journal of Medicine .... For molecular modeling of NAT2 protein, visualized ..... cal clustering. .... cular dynamics simulation.

  13. Insights into the phylogeny or arylamine N-acetyltransferases in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; Dairou, Julien; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Silar, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that Eumycetes fungi can acylate arylamine thanks to arylamine N-acetyltransferases, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes also found in animals and bacteria. In this article, we present the results of mining 96 available fungal genome sequences for arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes and propose their phylogeny. The filamentous Pezizomycotina are shown to possess many putative N-acetyltransferases, whilst these are often lacking in other fungal groups. The evolution of the N-acetyltransferases is best explained by the presence of at least one gene in the opisthokont ancestor of the fungi and animal kingdoms, followed by recurrent gene losses and gene duplications. A possible horizontal gene transfer event may have occurred from bacteria to the basidiomycetous yeast Malassezia globosa.

  14. Modelo Empírico, Descriptivo y Predictivo Para el Compromiso de Identidad en el Chat en Adolescentes Escolares Chilenos Empirical, Descriptive and Predictive Model for Identity Involvement in Chat use by Chilean School Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Altuzarra

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolla un modelo empírico, descriptivo y predictivo de regresión múltiple de las relaciones entre compromiso de identidad en el Chat y salud mental, sexo, curso y tipo de Chat en una muestra de 385 alumnos de ambos sexos, de I, II, III y IV Medio de tres colegios de Santiago de Chile. Se aplicó un cuestionario sobre uso de Internet, Escala de Compromiso de Identidad en el Chat y Cuestionario de Salud Mental en la Edad Juvenil. Se encontró que tanto la salud mental como el tipo de Chat predecían el compromiso de la identidad en el Chat. Se observó un mayor compromiso entre jóvenes mujeres de I y II Medio y que empleaban Chat abierto o mixto.An empirical descriptive and predictive model of multiple regression on the relationships between identity involvement in the Chat and mental health, sex, grade and modality of Chat in a sample of 385 male and female high school students, from Santiago de Chile, is presented. The instruments used were: a questionnaire about Internet usage, an Identity Compromise Scale in the Chat and a Youth Mental Health Scale. Results indicate that both, mental health and type of Chat, predicted compromise of identity in the Chat. It was observed a greater compromise among female teenagers from 9th and 10th grade who used open and mixed Chat.

  15. Nosql Technology In Android Based Mobile Chat Application Using Mongodb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Tunardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of data storage technology which previously using relational concept began to change to the non-relational concept or sometimes referred to as the term NoSQL technology. Data storage in NoSQL is no longer based on the relations between tables but using another methods, one of them is document-oriented. This method was applied specifically in MongoDB. This concept brings new hope because oftheir superiority that can handle very large data with promising performance and is perfect for agile system development. The purpose of this research was to measure the performance NoSQL, especially MongoDB with implemented it in a Android based mobile chat application. This research uses three methods, analysis method including literature study, analysis of similar application, questionnaires, design method using Agile SofwareDevelopment, and evaluation method including eight golden rules, analysis of similar application, questionnaires, and interview. The results of this research is a mobile chat application that uses MongoDB as the data storage technology. Through this research can be drawn the conclusion that NoSQL technology implementation, MongoDB, give special advantages like lighter data storage and faster data access.

  16. Technical Evaluation Report 6: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stein

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Text-based conferencing can be both asynchronous (i.e., participants log into the conference at separate times, and synchronous (i.e., interaction takes place in real time. It is thus subject to the same wide variation as the online audio- and video-conferencing methods (see the earlier Reports in this series. Synchronous text-based approaches (e.g., online chat groups and instant messaging systems are highly popular among online users generally owing to their ability to bring together special-interest groups from around the world without cost. In distance education (DE, however, synchronous chat methods are less widely used, owing in part to the problems of arranging for working adults in different time zones to join a discussion group simultaneously. Instant text messaging is more popular among DE users in view of the choice it provides between responding to a message immediately (synchronous communication or after a delay (asynchronous. The different synchronous and asynchronous approaches are likely to become more widely used in parallel with one another, as they are integrated in individual product packages.

  17. Chaotic Traversal (CHAT): Very Large Graphs Traversal Using Chaotic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changaival, Boonyarit; Rosalie, Martin; Danoy, Grégoire; Lavangnananda, Kittichai; Bouvry, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Graph Traversal algorithms can find their applications in various fields such as routing problems, natural language processing or even database querying. The exploration can be considered as a first stepping stone into knowledge extraction from the graph which is now a popular topic. Classical solutions such as Breadth First Search (BFS) and Depth First Search (DFS) require huge amounts of memory for exploring very large graphs. In this research, we present a novel memoryless graph traversal algorithm, Chaotic Traversal (CHAT) which integrates chaotic dynamics to traverse large unknown graphs via the Lozi map and the Rössler system. To compare various dynamics effects on our algorithm, we present an original way to perform the exploration of a parameter space using a bifurcation diagram with respect to the topological structure of attractors. The resulting algorithm is an efficient and nonresource demanding algorithm, and is therefore very suitable for partial traversal of very large and/or unknown environment graphs. CHAT performance using Lozi map is proven superior than the, commonly known, Random Walk, in terms of number of nodes visited (coverage percentage) and computation time where the environment is unknown and memory usage is restricted.

  18. Chat-Bots for People with Parkinson's Disease: Science Fiction or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, David; Liddle, Jacki; McBride, Simon; Ding, Hang; Knuepffer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    People with Parkinson's disease are known to have difficulties in language and communication. This paper proposes the use of an artificial conversational agent, commonly known as a chat-bot that runs on a smart-phone device and performs two-way conversation with the user. In this paper, initial work on a Parkinson's disease themed chat-bot that interacts with the user relative to their symptoms is presented. Potential dialogues are provided to illustrate the various roles chat-bots can play in the management of Parkinson's disease. The chat-bot can be used for measuring voice and communication outcomes during the daily life of the user, and for gaining information about challenges encountered. Moreover, it is anticipated that it may also have an educational and support role. The chat-bot is now ready for usability testing with a clinical population.

  19. WeChat Addiction Suppresses the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Shengyi; Zhai, Huizhen

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the influences of stressful life events and WeChat addiction on life satisfaction, and investigated the mediating role of WeChat addiction on the relationship between the two research variables. A total of 463 undergraduates completed self-reported scales for stressful life events, WeChat addiction, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the questionnaire data. The results showed the suppressing effect of WeChat addiction on the negative impact of stressful life events on life satisfaction. Stressful life events affect life satisfaction both directly and indirectly. Stressful life events are positively associated with WeChat addiction, which exerts positive impact on life satisfaction. The contributions of the findings are discussed.

  20. [Method of immunocytochemical demonstration of cholinergic neurons in the central nervous system of laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Grigor'ev, I P; Kirik, O V; Zelenkova, N M; Sukhorukova, E G

    2013-01-01

    A protocol of immunocytochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a key enzyme of acetylcholine synthesis, in paraffin sections of the brain of some laboratory animals, is presented. The method is simple, gives fairly reproducible results and allows for demonstration of ChAT in neurons, nerve fibers, and terminals in preparations of at least three species of laboratory animals including rat, rabbit, and cat. Different kinds of fixation (10% formalin, 4% paraformaldehyde, or zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde) were found suitable for immunocytochemical visualization of ChAT, however, optimal results were obtained with the application of zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde

  1. Exploring the Affordances of WeChat for Facilitating Teaching, Social and Cognitive Presence in Semi-Synchronous Language Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Fang, Wei-Chieh; Han, Julia; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2016-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that evaluates the affordances of WeChat for the development of a community of inquiry (CoI) in semi-synchronous language exchange supported by WeChat. WeChat is an instant messenger that facilitates a multimodal environment in which interaction can happen synchronously, semi-synchronously and asynchronously…

  2. CDP-choline modulates matrix metalloproteinases in rat sciatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Elif Basaran; Bekar, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Gumus, Abdullah; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa; Cansev, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    CDP-choline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine) improves functional recovery, promotes nerve regeneration, and decreases perineural scarring in rat peripheral nerve injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of CDP-choline with regard to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the rat-transected sciatic nerve injury model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into Sham, Saline, and CDP-choline groups. Rats in Sham group received Sham surgery, whereas rats in Saline and CDP-choline groups underwent right sciatic nerve transection followed by immediate primary saturation and injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl (1 mL/kg) and CDP-choline (600 μg/kg), respectively. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 1, 3, and 7 d after the surgery and analyzed for levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-3, and axonal regeneration. CDP-choline treatment decreased the levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas increasing levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 significantly on the third and seventh day after injury compared to Saline group. In addition, CDP-choline administration resulted in new axon formation and formation and advancement of myelination on newly formed islets (compartments) of axonal regrowth. Our data show, for the first time, that CDP-choline modulates MMP activity and promotes the expression of TIMPs to stimulate axonal regeneration. These data help to explain one mechanism by which CDP-choline provides neuroprotection in peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dan Goldin chats with First Lady Hillary Clinton

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (right) chats with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and others while waiting for the launch of STS-93. Much attention has been generated over STS-93 due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20.

  4. Hello Harlie: Enabling Speech Monitoring Through Chat-Bot Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, David; Atay, Christina; Liddle, Jacki; Bradford, Dana; Lee, Helen; Rushin, Olivia; Mullins, Thomas; Angus, Dan; Wiles, Janet; McBride, Simon; Vogel, Adam

    2016-01-01

    People with neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and dementia are known to have difficulties in language and communication. This paper presents initial testing of an artificial conversational agent, called Harlie. Harlie runs on a smartphone and is able to converse with the user on a variety of topics. A description of the application and a sample dialog are provided to illustrate the various roles chat-bots can play in the management of neurological conditions. Harlie can be used for measuring voice and communication outcomes during the daily life of the user, and for gaining information about challenges encountered. Moreover, it is anticipated that she may also have an educational and support role.

  5. A CHAT Perspective on Mobile Technology in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenild, Kåre; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    The body of research within the design of mobile technology for use in k-12 education has primarily focused on the features and thereby new options that are brought about when utilizing mobile technologies in education. However, the theoretical concern for mobile technology’s effect on the child......’s development is not yet fully covered. In this paper we argue that mobile technology is a valuable resource in K-12 education. Based on CHAT theory, we argue that mobile technology potentially mediates subject matter knowledge and everyday knowledge and thereby supports the child to acquire valuable......Bag) in a participatory design context involving both teachers and students in the process. A four-month evaluation of the final version of the eBag was conducted to make a preliminary evaluation of the possibilities of mobile supported education. The result of this preliminary evaluation indicates that mobile technology...

  6. Twitter Chats as a Research Tool: A Study of Young Adult Financial Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara O’Neill

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers collect online survey data because it is cost-effective and less time-consuming than traditional research methods. This paper describes Twitter chats as a research tool vis-à-vis two other online research methods: providing links to electronic surveys to respondents and use of commercially available survey panels through vendors with readily available respondents. Similar to a face-to-face focus group, Twitter chats provide a synchronous environment for participants to answer a structured series of questions and to respond to both the chat facilitator and each other. This paper also reports representative responses from a Twitter chat that explored financial decisions of young adults. The chat was sponsored by a multi-state group of land-grant university researchers, in cooperation with WiseBread, a personal finance website targeted to millennials, to recruit respondents for a more extensive month-long online survey about the financial decisions of young adults. The Twitter chat responses suggest that student loans were the top concern of participants, and debt and housing rounded out the top three concerns. The internet, both websites and social media, was the most frequently cited source of financial information. The article concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from the Twitter chat experience and suggestions for professional practice.

  7. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide.

  8. Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

    In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

  9. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero

    OpenAIRE

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Glenn, Melissa J.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then re...

  10. The nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of the dietary requirement for choline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have been instrumental in demonstrating that nutrient requirements vary among individuals. This is exemplified by studies of the nutrient choline, in which gender, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen status, and gut microbiome composition have been shown to influence its optimal intake level. Choline is an essential nutrient with a wide range of biological functions, and current studies are aimed at refining our understanding of its requirements and, importantly, on defining the molecular mechanisms that mediate its effects in instances of suboptimal dietary intake. This chapter introduces the reader to challenges in developing individual nutrition recommendations, the biological function of choline, current and future research paradigms to fully understand the consequences of inadequate choline nutrition, and some forward thinking about the potential for individualized nutrition recommendations to become a tangible application for improved health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-06

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  12. LibraryH3lp: A New Flexible Chat Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Sessoms

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available LibraryH3lp is an integrated IM and web chat system designed specifically for Virtual Reference services in libraries. The software was designed for, and is currently used by, a night-time chat reference collaboraton between several large academic libraries. LibraryH3lp is designed for the workflow of chat reference, supporting multiple simultaneous operators and routing to queues of operators in a particular service area. It also supports web page embeddable chat 'widgets', as well as simultaneous gateways to multiple IM protocols. This article discusses the motivation for the development of the software, and provides an overview of LibraryH3lp's features and technical architecture. Parts of LibraryH3lp are available as open source. The complete application is available as a low-cost hosted service, and will eventually be available to be licensed for local hosting.

  13. Optical test course teaching practice on WeChat public platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying

    2017-08-01

    With the development of information technological progress, M-Learning and Micro-learning is becoming more and more popular among learners as a new micro-learning resources. Micro-curriculum is playing a more and more important role in daily learning. The students can create a new way of optical course learning through "WeChat". Under the mutual interaction of two or more parties, the use of "WeChat" can fully arouse the students' interest in learning, make the subjective initiative of students, and achieve the ultimate goal of improving the level of students. In this paper, through the analysis of the current situation of college students using the "WeChat", a new teaching model suitable for "optics" teaching is summarized, and the use of "WeChat" has been infiltrated into the teaching process, using science and technology to assist teaching. Students' interest in autonomous learning.

  14. "Live Chat" Clients at Kids Help Phone: Individual Characteristics and Problem Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haner, Dilys; Pepler, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Young people in Canada prefer to use the Internet over face-to-face contact when seeking help for problems of daily living and mental health problems. Kids Help Phone (KHP) provides on-demand, anonymous help to young people via telephone and Live Chat technologies. Two hundred thirty-two phone clients and 230 Live Chat clients responded to a questionnaire at this otherwise anonymous service, providing previously inaccessible data about their individual characteristics and characterizations of the problems for which they sought help. There was a larger proportion of weighty problems (mental health and suicide) among chatters than callers. There were also more non-heterosexual youth, and those who identified as Asian and Black African or Caribbean, using Live Chat than phone. Implications for training Live Chat counsellors to respond effectively to chatters are discussed.

  15. Conversation Thread Extraction and Topic Detection in Text-Based Chat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Paige H

    2008-01-01

    Text-based chat systems are widely used within the Department of Defense, but the standard systems available do not provide robust capabilities for search, information retrieval, or information assurance...

  16. Kinetic characterisation of arylamine N-acetyltransferase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Edith

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs are important drug- and carcinogen-metabolising enzymes that catalyse the transfer of an acetyl group from a donor, such as acetyl coenzyme A, to an aromatic or heterocyclic amine, hydrazine, hydrazide or N-hydroxylamine acceptor substrate. NATs are found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and they may also have an endogenous function in addition to drug metabolism. For example, NAT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been proposed to have a role in cell wall lipid biosynthesis, and is therefore of interest as a potential drug target. To date there have been no studies investigating the kinetic mechanism of a bacterial NAT enzyme. Results We have determined that NAT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which has been described as a model for NAT from M. tuberculosis, follows a Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic mechanism. We also describe substrate inhibition by 5-aminosalicylic acid, in which the substrate binds both to the free form of the enzyme and the acetyl coenzyme A-enzyme complex in non-productive reaction pathways. The true kinetic parameters for the NAT-catalysed acetylation of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetyl coenzyme A as the co-factor have been established, validating earlier approximations. Conclusion This is the first reported study investigating the kinetic mechanism of a bacterial NAT enzyme. Additionally, the methods used herein can be applied to investigations of the interactions of NAT enzymes with new chemical entities which are NAT ligands. This is likely to be useful in the design of novel potential anti-tubercular agents.

  17. An Acetyltransferase Conferring Tolerance to Toxic Aromatic Amine Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dairou, Julien; Lamouri, Aazdine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AA) are a major class of environmental pollutants that have been shown to have genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials toward most living organisms. Fungi are able to tolerate a diverse range of chemical compounds including certain AA and have long been used as models to understand general biological processes. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying this tolerance may improve our understanding of the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments and pave the way for novel pharmaceutical and/or biotechnological applications. We have identified and characterized two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes (PaNAT1 and PaNAT2) from the model fungus Podospora anserina that acetylate a wide range of AA. Targeted gene disruption experiments revealed that PaNAT2 was required for the growth and survival of the fungus in the presence of toxic AA. Functional studies using the knock-out strains and chemically acetylated AA indicated that tolerance of P. anserina to toxic AA was due to the N-acetylation of these chemicals by PaNAT2. Moreover, we provide proof-of-concept remediation experiments where P. anserina, through its PaNAT2 enzyme, is able to detoxify the highly toxic pesticide residue 3,4-dichloroaniline in experimentally contaminated soil samples. Overall, our data show that a single xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme can mediate tolerance to a major class of pollutants in a eukaryotic species. These findings expand the understanding of the role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme and in particular of NATs in the adaptation of organisms to their chemical environment and provide a basis for new systems for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19416981

  18. Carnitine acetyltransferase: A new player in skeletal muscle insulin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Mikkelsen Berg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT deficiency has previously been shown to result in muscle insulin resistance due to accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines. However, differences in the acylcarnitine profile and/or changes in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT in myotubes obtained from obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and glucose-tolerant obese and lean controls remain unclear. The objective of the study was to examine whether myotubes from obese patients with T2DM express differences in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT and in acylcarnitine species pre-cultured under glucose and insulin concentrations similar to those observed in healthy individuals in the over-night fasted, resting state. Primary myotubes obtained from obese persons with or without T2DM and lean controls (n=9 in each group were cultivated and harvested for LC-MS-based profiling of acylcarnitines. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of CRAT were determined by qPCR and Western Blotting, respectively. Our results suggest that the mRNA levels and protein abundance of CRAT were similar between groups. Of the 14 different acylcarnitine species measured by LC-MS, the levels of palmitoylcarnitine (C16 and octadecanoylcarnitine (C18 were slightly reduced in myotubes derived from T2DM patients (p<0.05 compared to glucose-tolerant obese and lean controls. This suggests that the CRAT function is not the major contributor to primary insulin resistance in cultured myotubes obtained from obese T2DM patients.

  19. Ubiquitylation of the acetyltransferase MOF in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunter, Sarah; Villa, Raffaella; Flynn, Victoria; Heidelberger, Jan B; Classen, Anne-Kathrin; Beli, Petra; Becker, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear acetyltransferase MOF (KAT8 in mammals) is a subunit of at least two multi-component complexes involved in transcription regulation. In the context of complexes of the 'Non-Specific-Lethal' (NSL) type it controls transcription initiation of many nuclear housekeeping genes and of mitochondrial genes. While this function is conserved in metazoans, MOF has an additional, specific function in Drosophila in the context of dosage compensation. As a subunit of the male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex (MSL-DCC) it contributes to the doubling of transcription output from the single male X chromosome by acetylating histone H4. Proper dosage compensation requires finely tuned levels of MSL-DCC and an appropriate distribution of MOF between the regulatory complexes. The amounts of DCC formed depends directly on the levels of the male-specific MSL2, which orchestrates the assembly of the DCC, including MOF recruitment. We found earlier that MSL2 is an E3 ligase that ubiquitylates most MSL proteins, including MOF, suggesting that ubiquitylation may contribute to a quality control of MOF's overall levels and folding state as well as its partitioning between the complex entities. We now used mass spectrometry to map the lysines in MOF that are ubiquitylated by MSL2 in vitro and identified in vivo ubiquitylation sites of MOF in male and female cells. MSL2-specific ubiquitylation in vivo could not be traced due to the dominance of other, sex-independent ubiquitylation events and conceivably may be rare or transient. Expressing appropriately mutated MOF derivatives we assessed the importance of the ubiquitylated lysines for dosage compensation by monitoring DCC formation and X chromosome targeting in cultured cells, and by genetic complementation of the male-specific-lethal mof2 allele in flies. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of MOF ubiquitylation as a reference for future studies.

  20. Ubiquitylation of the acetyltransferase MOF in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schunter

    Full Text Available The nuclear acetyltransferase MOF (KAT8 in mammals is a subunit of at least two multi-component complexes involved in transcription regulation. In the context of complexes of the 'Non-Specific-Lethal' (NSL type it controls transcription initiation of many nuclear housekeeping genes and of mitochondrial genes. While this function is conserved in metazoans, MOF has an additional, specific function in Drosophila in the context of dosage compensation. As a subunit of the male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex (MSL-DCC it contributes to the doubling of transcription output from the single male X chromosome by acetylating histone H4. Proper dosage compensation requires finely tuned levels of MSL-DCC and an appropriate distribution of MOF between the regulatory complexes. The amounts of DCC formed depends directly on the levels of the male-specific MSL2, which orchestrates the assembly of the DCC, including MOF recruitment. We found earlier that MSL2 is an E3 ligase that ubiquitylates most MSL proteins, including MOF, suggesting that ubiquitylation may contribute to a quality control of MOF's overall levels and folding state as well as its partitioning between the complex entities. We now used mass spectrometry to map the lysines in MOF that are ubiquitylated by MSL2 in vitro and identified in vivo ubiquitylation sites of MOF in male and female cells. MSL2-specific ubiquitylation in vivo could not be traced due to the dominance of other, sex-independent ubiquitylation events and conceivably may be rare or transient. Expressing appropriately mutated MOF derivatives we assessed the importance of the ubiquitylated lysines for dosage compensation by monitoring DCC formation and X chromosome targeting in cultured cells, and by genetic complementation of the male-specific-lethal mof2 allele in flies. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of MOF ubiquitylation as a reference for future studies.

  1. Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room: Global and Local Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Shun Eva Lam

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers how global practices of English on the Internet intersect with local practices of English in the territorial or national sphere in constructing the language experiences of immigrant learners. Using a multi-contextual approach to language socialization, this paper examines the social and discursive practices in a Chinese/English bilingual chat room and how this Internet chat room provides an additional context of language socialization for two teenage Chinese immigrants in...

  2. Bla-bla-bla: video chat service on the Internet - a market feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgreen, Adam; Antioco, Michael; Wetzels, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is changing the way that companies carry out their business and, in fact, constitutes an entirely new application domain, which makes product innovation possible. Moreover, it is a new medium for reaching consumers, which is a central preoccupation to organisations in the current business market. Here interest lies in video chatting on the Internet. This is a type of service that adds video support to chatting using a Web cam and is gradually attracting more Internet users. The p...

  3. Implementación de un bot de ChatOps compatible con varias plataformas de chat para interactuar con un entorno basado en microservicios

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Rodríguez, David

    2017-01-01

    ChatOps, un término atribuido a GitHub, representa un modelo de desarrollo de software en el que la mayor parte de las operaciones se realizan a través de un chat, donde un equipo se comunica con un bot que interpreta comandos escritos por los usuarios y permite automatizar numerosas tareas del flujo de trabajo. Éstas pueden ser prácticamente cualquier cosa: desde revisión de código, compilación, tests, actualización y despliegue de servicios, hasta avisos, control y asignación de tareas, con...

  4. Phosphinothricin Acetyltransferases Identified Using In Vivo, In Vitro, and Bioinformatic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDrisse, Chelsey M.; Hentchel, Kristy L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acetylation of small molecules is widespread in nature, and in some cases, cells use this process to detoxify harmful chemicals. Streptomyces species utilize a Gcn5 N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), known as Bar, to acetylate and detoxify a self-produced toxin, phosphinothricin (PPT), a glutamate analogue. Bar homologues, such as MddA from Salmonella enterica, acetylate methionine analogues such as methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO), but not PPT, even though Bar homologues are annotated as PPT acetyltransferases. S. enterica was used as a heterologous host to determine whether or not putative PPT acetyltransferases from various sources could acetylate PPT, MSX, and MSO. In vitro and in vivo analyses identified substrates acetylated by putative PPT acetyltransferases from Deinococcus radiodurans (DR_1057 and DR_1182) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (GK0593 and GK2920). In vivo, synthesis of DR_1182, GK0593, and GK2920 blocked the inhibitory effects of PPT, MSX, and MSO. In contrast, DR_1057 did not detoxify any of the above substrates. Results of in vitro studies were consistent with the in vivo results. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were used to predict the functionality of annotated PPT acetyltransferases in Burkholderia xenovorans, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baylyi, and Escherichia coli. IMPORTANCE The work reported here provides an example of the use of a heterologous system for the identification of enzyme function. Many members of this superfamily of proteins do not have a known function, or it has been annotated solely on the basis of sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes. The critical role of Gcn5 N-acetyltransferases (GNATs) in the modulation of central metabolic processes, and in controlling metabolic stress, necessitates approaches that can reveal their physiological role. The combination of in vivo, in vitro, and bioinformatics approaches reported here identified GNATs that can

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PAT, an acetyltransferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ching-Chang; Luo, Ching-Wei; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2008-01-01

    PAT, an acetyltransferase from the archaeon S. solfataricus that specifically acetylates the chromatin protein Alba, was expressed, purified and crystallized. PAT is an acetyltransferase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus that specifically acetylates the chromatin protein Alba. The enzyme was expressed, purified and subsequently crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Native diffraction data were collected to 1.70 Å resolution on the BL13C1 beamline of NSRRC from a flash-frozen crystal at 100 K. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44.30, b = 46.59, c = 68.39 Å

  6. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  7. Learning patterns of life from intelligence analyst chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael K.; Alford, Mark; Babko-Malaya, Olga; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Lingji; Crespi, Valentino; HandUber, Jason; Haney, Phil; Nagy, Jim; Richman, Mike; Von Pless, Gregory; Zhu, Howie; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2016-05-01

    Our Multi-INT Data Association Tool (MIDAT) learns patterns of life (POL) of a geographical area from video analyst observations called out in textual reporting. Typical approaches to learning POLs from video make use of computer vision algorithms to extract locations in space and time of various activities. Such approaches are subject to the detection and tracking performance of the video processing algorithms. Numerous examples of human analysts monitoring live video streams annotating or "calling out" relevant entities and activities exist, such as security analysis, crime-scene forensics, news reports, and sports commentary. This user description typically corresponds with textual capture, such as chat. Although the purpose of these text products is primarily to describe events as they happen, organizations typically archive the reports for extended periods. This archive provides a basis to build POLs. Such POLs are useful for diagnosis to assess activities in an area based on historical context, and for consumers of products, who gain an understanding of historical patterns. MIDAT combines natural language processing, multi-hypothesis tracking, and Multi-INT Activity Pattern Learning and Exploitation (MAPLE) technologies in an end-to-end lab prototype that processes textual products produced by video analysts, infers POLs, and highlights anomalies relative to those POLs with links to "tracks" of related activities performed by the same entity. MIDAT technologies perform well, achieving, for example, a 90% F1-value on extracting activities from the textual reports.

  8. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  9. Using a book chat to improve attitudes and perceptions of long-term care staff about dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Natasha; Schotsman, Chloe; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Crawshaw, Diane; McAiney, Carrie; Brazil, Emma

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate a book chat intervention based on Lisa Genova's novel, Still Alice, to influence long-term care (LTC) staff perceptions and attitudes when caring for individuals with dementia. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Eleven participants partook in a 2.5-hour book chat at a southern Ontario LTC facility. Following the book chat, participants answered two open-ended questions to assess how the book chat influenced their views on dementia. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative questionnaire. Content analysis of the participants' responses revealed that the book chat positively influenced their attitudes and perceptions toward dementia, particularly by providing more insight into the individual's personal struggle with the disease. Furthermore, participants found that the book chat influenced their care practices. By creating innovative learning opportunities, attitudes and perceptions about dementia care can be transcended and greatly benefit staff, family, and residents. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. N-acetyltransferase 2 gene polymorphism and presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Murat; Tamer, Lülüfer; Doğruer, Zeynep Nil; Yildirim, Hatice; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf; Camdeviren, Handan

    2005-12-01

    The enzyme of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is involved in the metabolism and detoxification of cytotoxic and carcinogenic compounds as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). The excessive amount of ROS generation occurs in the ageing inner ear. The exact etiopathogenesis of presbycusis is not known, but it is generally accepted that it is the result of series of insults, such as physiologic age-related degeneration, noise exposure, medical disorders and their treatment, as well as hereditary susceptibility. The effect of aging shows a wide interindividual range; we aimed to investigate whether profiles of NAT2 genotypes may be associated with the risk of presbycusis. Hospital-based, case-control study. We examined 68 adults with presbycusis and 98 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the polymorphisms of NAT2*5A, NAT2*6A, NAT2*7A/B, and NAT2*14A were determined using a real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a Light-Cycler Instrument. Associations between specific genotypes and the development of presbycusis were examined by use of logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Gene polymorphisms at NAT2*5A, NAT2*7A/B, and NAT2*14A in subjects with presbycusis were not significantly different from in the controls (P > .05). However, in NAT2*6A, the risk of presbycusis was 15.2-fold more in individuals with mutant allele than subjects with wild genotype (P = .013). Individuals with NAT2*6A heterozygote allele had a 0.34-fold less risk in the development of presbycusis than subjects with mutant allele (P = .032) We demonstrated a significant association between the NAT2*6A polymorphism and age-related hearing loss in this population. However, the sample size was relatively small, and further studies need to investigate the exact role of NAT2 gene polymorphism in the etiopathogenesis of the presbycusis.

  11. Biocompatible choline based ionic salts: Solubility in short-chain alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Joana M.; Paninho, Ana B.; Môlho, Marta F.; Nunes, Ana V.M.; Rocha, Angelo; Lourenço, Nuno M.T.; Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biocompatible ionic liquids based on choline esters were synthesized in this work. • Solubility of choline and choline esters based ionic salt in alcohols were measured. • Activity coefficients were calculated. • Experimental data were correlated by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation. -- Abstract: In this work, we report data on solubility of choline chloride and choline acetate in short-chain linear alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol) at various temperatures. Furthermore, we synthesize two choline derivatives: hydrogen choline chloride glutarate ([CholGlut][Cl]) and hydrogen choline chloride succinate ([CholSucc][Cl]). Their characterization and solubility in short-chain alcohols as a function of temperature are also included. Activity coefficients were calculated and their comparisons with ideal solutions were discussed. The experimental data were correlated successfully by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation

  12. Video chat technology to remotely quantify dietary, supplement and medication adherence in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Apolzan, John W; Wright, Courtney; Martin, Corby K

    2016-11-01

    We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.

  13. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Steven H Zeisel Nutrition Research Institute at Kannapolis, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Adequate inta...

  14. X-ray diffraction study of choline chloride's β form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrouleas, V.; Lemmon, R.M.; Christensen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The organic salt choline chloride exists in two crystalline polymorphs. One (the α form) is extraordinarily sensitive to ionizing radiation, the other (the β form) is not. The present report describes an x-ray diffraction study of the β form. The structure has been found to be highly disordered face centered cubic. A reasonable least-square refinement of the intensity data has been achieved in the centrosymmetric space group Fm3 or Fm3m by use of a molecular model with restrained bond lengths. The results show that in the β form the electronic density due to the choline cation is closely spaced around the N, so that hydrogen bonding to the chloride is unlikely. Comparison with infrared and NMR data indicates that the disordering is dynamic and can be ascribed to rotations of the choline ion around crystallographic symmetry axes. Possible connections of these results with the radiation stability of the β form are discussed

  15. Sequence analysis of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yazun Bashir Jarrar

    2017-11-26

    Nov 26, 2017 ... Sequence analysis of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) among Jordanian volunteers. Yazun Bashir Jarrar, Ayat Ahmed Balasmeh and Wassan Jarrar. Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, AlZaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. ABSTRACT. The present study aimed to identify ...

  16. Modulation of Escherichia coli serine acetyltransferase catalytic activity in the cysteine synthase complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benoni, Roberto; De Bei, O.; Paredi, G.; Hayes, C. S.; Franko, N.; Mozzarelli, A.; Bettati, S.; Campanini, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 591, č. 9 (2017), s. 1212-1224 ISSN 0014-5793 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cysteine synthase * protein - protein interaction * serine acetyltransferase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.623, year: 2016

  17. p300 Acetyltransferase Regulates Androgen Receptor Degradation and PTEN-Deficient Prostate Tumorigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, J.; Ding, L.; Bohrer, L.R.; Pan, Y.; Liu, P.; Zhang, J.; Sebo, T.J.; Karnes, R.J.; Tindall, D.J.; Deursen, J.M. van; Huang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the histone acetyltransferase p300 is implicated in the proliferation and progression of prostate cancer, but evidence of a causal role is lacking. In this study, we provide genetic evidence that this generic transcriptional coactivator functions as a positive modifier of prostate

  18. Experiencing the use of a chat room in EFL teaching in a public school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélvio Frank de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The technological aids available in public schools may be used during teaching experiences through methods and methodologies which provide the student an extensive network of opportunities to (reconfigure their way of building knowledge in a foreign language, in order to reflect on their own learning approach. From this perspective, beyond the reflection and desire to use these tools, an autonomous and active attitude by the student is essential in order to use significant environments with on-line activities. An experience was conducted with high school first graders at a public school in a country town of the State of Goiás, aiming at identifying and analyzing the possibilities for the use of the foreign language (English by employing Omegle.com chat tool. This is  a free random chat that allows people from all over the world to interact in several languages, Twenty-one participants used the chat to interact in English with several people from different places in of the world. The data include chat dialogues as well as others collected by means of questionnaires, a researcher journal and classroom observation notes. Results show that the experience, which was inedited in this context of investigation, was developed with enthusiasm by the participants who, through the chat, improved their communication in an independent way.

  19. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Glenn, Melissa J; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

    2008-10-27

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age, we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats. When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less affected. These changes in performance were reversible when the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task, which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the in utero availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the adult choline supply.

  20. Technical Evaluation Reports 15. Chat and Instant Messaging Systems (synchronous: Report 3/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ludwig

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available [Previous reviews of chat and IM systems are presented in Reports 6 and 14 in this series.]A further set of four text-based instant messaging (IM products was evaluated: AT&T Anywhere, Parachat, Sonork, and Yahoo Messenger, all available at no cost. Yahoo Messenger was judged to be the most effective of the three products for use by distance education (DE teachers and students, being compatible with most common operating systems and accommodating up to 50 chat room participants. Yahoo Messenger also possesses integrated audio and video capabilities. AT&T Anywhere is an efficient product, which supports Windows-based operating systems only. Parachat (Basic version is a basic, browser accessed chat board without instant messaging (IM capabilities.

  1. [Dental education for college students based on WeChat public platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Jun; Sun, Tan

    2016-06-01

    The authors proposed a model for dental education based on WeChat public platform. In this model, teachers send various kinds of digital teaching information such as PPT,word and video to the WeChat public platform and students share the information for preview before class and differentiate the key-point knowledge from those information for in-depth learning in class. Teachers also send reference materials for expansive learning after class. Questionaire through the WeChat public platform is used to evaluate teaching effect of teachers and improvement may be taken based on the feedback questionnaire. A discussion and interaction based on WeCchat between students and teacher can be aroused on a specific topic to reach a proper solution. With technique development of mobile terminal, mobile class will come true in near future.

  2. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia's second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer's income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey and assess the impact of crop on the community. It has been observed to implicate health problems, reduces savings and nutritional standards of the family members. The chat yields in the area ranges from 1500-1800 kg/ha through monoculture. During the study, the average monthly income of the family practicing chat cultivation was from Birr 8, 533.00 to 13, 166.00 kg/ha per year in Baate and Genede cultivating areas. When the average cost per/ha was rupees 60/kg. The present study shows that during the recent past, leaf consumption has increased significantly. Chat growers are not only producers but also traders and consumers. Its consumption has become a widespread habit from secondary schools. Highest number of consumers was found to be among drivers followed by students and shopkeepers. The consumption of the plant is not considered a taboo but on contrary a status symbol in the region. It has no legal or moral implications and is considered as a part of custom and habit of local people. High value cash crop like vegetables and orchard fruits needs to be used as a replacement for chat which could be a regular source of income to farmers. Alternative sources of income for farmers needs to be scientifically worked out and proposed keeping in view the proportion of agricultural land reserved under chat cultivation and to increase the production of food grains being produced.

  3. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  4. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  5. Importance of Choline as Essential Nutrient and Its Role in Prevention of Various Toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somava Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient included as a member of the vitamin B12 group owing to its structural similarities with that of the other members of the group. Its roles and functions, however, extend much wider than that of the vitamins with which it is grouped. Choline is vital for maintenance of various key metabolic processes which play a role in the prevention or progression of various health impairments. The occurrence of diseases like neural tube defect (NTD and Alzheimer’s is prevented by the metabolic role of choline. It is also indispensable for mitigation of various forms of toxic contamination. While adequate level of choline in the body is essential, an excess of choline can result in various forms of disorder. To maintain the optimal level of choline in the body can be a challenge. The vital roles played by choline together with the range of contradictions and problems that choline presents make choline an interesting area of study. This paper attempts to summarize and review some recent publications on choline that have opened up new prospect in understanding the multiple role played by choline and in throwing light on the role played by this wonder essential nutrient in mitigating various forms of toxic contamination.

  6. Effects of face-to-face versus chat communication on performance in a collaborative inquiry modeling task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Joolingen, W.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In many contemporary collaborative inquiry learning environments, chat is being used as a means for communication. Still, it remains an open issue whether chat communication is an appropriate means to support the deep reasoning process students need to perform in such environments. Purpose of the

  7. Effects of Face-to-Face versus Chat Communication on Performance in a Collaborative Inquiry Modeling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sins, Patrick H. M.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    In many contemporary collaborative inquiry learning environments, chat is being used as a means for communication. Still, it remains an open issue whether chat communication is an appropriate means to support the deep reasoning process students need to perform in such environments. Purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of chat…

  8. Observations of Chat Room Conversations on the Internet: Implications for Educators Addressing the Needs of Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; LaCost, Barbara; Stofer, Keri; Long, Amie; Grady, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the meanings of chat room conversations through observations of teenagers using the Internet. Adolescent girls were a focus because of their shaky sense of self. Participants in ten chat rooms included 534 individuals. Six themes, emerging from analyzing 2526 utterances [descriptive statements], included (a)…

  9. Bringing Japan and Taiwan Closer Electronically: A Look at an Intercultural Online Synchronic Chat Task and Its Effect on Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, Mark R.; Huang, Hsin-chou

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motivation of 20 Japanese students of English as a foreign language (EFL) who chatted electronically with 19 Taiwanese EFL students using online synchronous chat software. In particular, we were interested in four factors that affect task-based motivation: the willingness to communicate, task attractiveness, task…

  10. 77 FR 49059 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHAT DE MER; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel CHAT DE MER; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As described by the applicant the intended service of the vessel CHAT... Francisco Bay. Geographic Region: ``California.'' The complete application is given in DOT docket MARAD-2012...

  11. Investigating the Building of a WeChat-Based Community of Practice for Language Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Grace Yue; Wang, Yuping

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the process of Community of Practice (CoP) building for language teachers' professional development through the support of a WeChat group. WeChat is an instant messenger app that provides a multimodal platform for one-on-one and group interactions through text, audio and video. In order to support the implementation of flipped…

  12. Changes in the lichen flora influenced by the Bełchatów Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of our study, i.e.. before opening the Bełchatów brown coal mine and the power station 155 species of lichens were registered in the period 1970-1985. A preliminary estimation of the influence of the Bełchatów Industrial Region (BIR on the lichen flora has been performed. More than 1% of the lichen flora has entirely disappcared, about 43% of the species have shown partial devastation of their localities and numerous localities of more than 35% of taxa have been threatened.

  13. CHAT 2013: Experience, University College London, 8–10 November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Philip Sterling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For ten years now CHAT (Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory has set out to challenge assumptions around the archaeology of the recent past with a series of thought provoking thematic conferences. This year, the 11th  annual CHAT Conference was held at University College London and jointly organised by the Institute of Archaeology and Atkins,1  with a broad focus on the topic of ‘experience.’ Over three days, established academics, early career researchers and practicing heritage professionals from across the world offered up their take on this sometimes nebulous theme. The results were - in turn - captivating, frustrating, enlightening and provocative, but never boring.

  14. Chatting, Chatten or Chattare: Using a Multilingual Workspace for Language and Culture Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Stickler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe the results of analyses carried out on multilingual chat sessions that took place in the context of LITERALIA, a 24-months long project funded by the European Union’s Grundtvig initiative to support: “Learning In Tandem to Encourage Reciprocal Autonomous Learning In Adults - LITERALIA”. An online workspace was created for the project that allowed learners to communicate with others in four different countries and to enhance their linguistic and cultural competence in four European languages: English, German, Italian, and Polish. Participation in the chat was voluntary and took place in an integrated Moodle workspace.

  15. Case Report - Le syndrome de Cri du Chat : A propos d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome du Cri du Chat (Cri du Chat syndrome, CdCS) est une anomalie chromosomique résultant d'une délétion de taille variable de l'extrémité du bras court du chromosome 5 (5p), incluant une région critique située en p15.2. Il représente une des délétions chromosomiques les plus fréquentes, son incidence dans ...

  16. Characteristics and Diffusion Model of the Individual Knowledge in the WeChat Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingzhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] According to the model of the individual knowledge diffusion, we conduct a behavior research and analyze the characteristics of that based on WeChat which is the most popular communication platform in China.[Method/process] By analyzing the methods of the diffusion on WeChat, we analyzed the characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion. [Result/conclusion]The characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion include real-time, short-term, speciality, friendship and transmission.

  17. Dysregulated choline metabolism in T-cell lymphoma: role of choline kinase-α and therapeutic targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, J; Bian, J; Wang, L; Zhou, J-Y; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y; Wu, L-L; Hu, J-J; Li, B; Chen, S-J; Yan, C; Zhao, W-L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have distinct metabolomic profile. Metabolic enzymes regulate key oncogenic signaling pathways and have an essential role on tumor progression. Here, serum metabolomic analysis was performed in 45 patients with T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and 50 healthy volunteers. The results showed that dysregulation of choline metabolism occurred in TCL and was related to tumor cell overexpression of choline kinase-α (Chokα). In T-lymphoma cells, pharmacological and molecular silencing of Chokα significantly decreased Ras-GTP activity, AKT and ERK phosphorylation and MYC oncoprotein expression, leading to restoration of choline metabolites and induction of tumor cell apoptosis/necropotosis. In a T-lymphoma xenograft murine model, Chokα inhibitor CK37 remarkably retarded tumor growth, suppressed Ras-AKT/ERK signaling, increased lysophosphatidylcholine levels and induced in situ cell apoptosis/necropotosis. Collectively, as a regulatory gene of aberrant choline metabolism, Chokα possessed oncogenic activity and could be a potential therapeutic target in TCL, as well as other hematological malignancies with interrupted Ras signaling pathways

  18. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuhiko; Zhang, Yue; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2015-04-01

    Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were identified using double-transgenic rats, in which the cholinergic and inhibitory neurons express the fluorescent proteins tdTomato and Venus, respectively. To characterize the neurons that express both tdTomato and Venus (D+ neurons), the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) profiles and firing patterns of these neurons were investigated via whole-cell recordings of brainstem slice preparations. Regarding the three AHP profiles and four firing patterns that the D+ neurons exhibited, an AHP with an afterdepolarization and a firing pattern that exhibited a delay in the generation of the first spike were the preferential properties of these neurons. In the three morphological types classified, the multipolar type that exhibited radiating dendrites was predominant among the D+ neurons. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the VGAT-immunopositive axonal boutons that expressed tdTomato were primarily located in the dorsal cap of inferior olive (IO) and the PHN. Although the PHN receives cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, D+ neurons were absent from these brain areas. Together, these results suggest that PHN neurons that co-express ACh and GABA exhibit specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, and innervate the dorsal cap of the IO and the PHN. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Maren; Terletskaia-Ladwig, Elena; Rabenau, Holger F; Doerr, Hans W; Diedrich, Sabine; Enders, Gisela; Enders, Martin

    2010-12-09

    In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV) containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P Sabin 1 varied between 8 and 64. Following IPV booster, anti-CHAT antibodies increased rapidly in sera of CHAT-negative adults with OPV history. Sera from children with IPV history neutralised CHAT and Sabin 1 strains equally. The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.

  20. Muscarinic receptor compensation in hippocampus of alzheimer patients. [Autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, A; Larsson, C; Adolfsson, R; Alafuzoff, I; Winblad, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1983-01-01

    The activity of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) (presynaptic marker) and number of muscarine-like receptor binding sites have been measured in the hippocampus from eight individuals with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and ten controls. A negative correlation (r=0.80; p<0.05) was found between the ChAT activity and the number of muscarine-like receptors in the SDAT group but not in the controls. The findings might indicate an ongoing compensatory receptor mechanism as a response to changes in presynaptic cholinergic activity.

  1. Regioselective Acetylation of C21 Hydroxysteroids by the Bacterial Chloramphenicol Acetyltransferase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Azzam; Hutter, Michael C; Zapp, Josef; Bernhardt, Rita; Hannemann, Frank

    2015-07-27

    Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase I (CATI) detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and confers a corresponding resistance to bacteria. In this study we identified this enzyme as a steroid acetyltransferase and designed a new and efficient Escherichia-coli-based biocatalyst for the regioselective acetylation of C21 hydroxy groups in steroids of pharmaceutical interest. The cells carried a recombinant catI gene controlled by a constitutive promoter. The capacity of the whole-cell system to modify different hydroxysteroids was investigated, and NMR spectroscopy revealed that all substrates were selectively transformed into the corresponding 21-acetoxy derivatives. The biotransformation was optimized, and the reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of a computationally modeled substrate docking into the crystal structure of CATI. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Expression profiling of S. pombe acetyltransferase mutants identifies redundant pathways of gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Anthony PH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs are implicated in regulation of transcription. HATs from different families may overlap in target and substrate specificity. Results We isolated the elp3+ gene encoding the histone acetyltransferase subunit of the Elongator complex in fission yeast and characterized the phenotype of an Δelp3 mutant. We examined genetic interactions between Δelp3 and two other HAT mutants, Δmst2 and Δgcn5 and used whole genome microarray analysis to analyze their effects on gene expression. Conclusions Comparison of phenotypes and expression profiles in single, double and triple mutants indicate that these HAT enzymes have overlapping functions. Consistent with this, overlapping specificity in histone H3 acetylation is observed. However, there is no evidence for overlap with another HAT enzyme, encoded by the essential mst1+ gene.

  3. Structural and functional characterization of an arylamine N-acetyltransferase from the pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocaign, Angélique; Kubiak, Xavier Jean Philippe; Xu, Ximing

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic rapid-growing mycobacterium and is one of the most resistant organisms to chemotherapeutic agents. However, structural and functional studies of M. abscessus proteins that could modify/inactivate antibiotics remain nonexistent. Here, the structural...... is endogenously expressed and functional in both the rough and smooth M. abscessus morphotypes. The crystal structure of (MYCAB)NAT1 at 1.8 Å resolution reveals that it is more closely related to Nocardia farcinica NAT than to mycobacterial isoforms. In particular, structural and physicochemical differences from...... and functional characterization of an arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) from M. abscessus [(MYCAB)NAT1] are reported. This novel prokaryotic NAT displays significant N-acetyltransferase activity towards aromatic substrates, including antibiotics such as isoniazid and p-aminosalicylate. The enzyme...

  4. Crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast by counter-diffusion and preliminary X-ray study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.maes@vub.ac.be; Crabeel, Marjolaine [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Martial, Joseph [Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et de Génie Génétique, Université de Liège, Allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Peeters, Eveline; Charlier, Daniël [Erfelijkheidsleer en Microbiologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Decanniere, Klaas; Vanhee, Celine; Wyns, Lode; Zegers, Ingrid [Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-12-01

    A study on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, catalysing the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis, is presented. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either batch or hanging-drop techniques. A study is presented on the crystallization of ornithine acetyltransferase from yeast, which catalyzes the fifth step in microbial arginine synthesis. The use of the counter-diffusion technique removes the disorder present in one dimension in crystals grown by either the batch or hanging-drop techniques. This makes the difference between useless crystals and crystals that allow successful determination of the structure of the protein. The crystals belong to space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.98, c = 427.09 Å, and a data set was collected to 2.76 Å.

  5. Alert: the dark side of chats--internet without boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderet, Avshalom

    2009-01-01

    The web has some unique advantages: It eliminates barriers of space and time; information flows quicker and is more accessible to all; the markets are more effective; community and interpersonal communication is more evolved. However, the web is also anonymous, without supervision, freedom of speech is exploited, minors and other web users are exploited, racism and prejudice are encouraged. These manifestations of violence not only hurt many people but actually pose a threat to the existence of the web as a place for exchanging ideas and thoughts, as a tool for relaying messages in a liberal and democratic fashion. Today, it is not legally possible to stop any discussion group or chats, like the one in which Eran participated, which develop dialogues regarding death or suicide. A wise and proper use of the web will be achieved by agreements and not enforcement. It is a process of education in its widest meaning that will be accomplished through the acceptance of norms. Proper use of the web will be possible when all sides--users, site owners and suppliers--willingly commit to values of mutual respect, decency and protection of individual fundamental rights to freedom. The web, which is a great blessing to the communication between people, organizations and cultures, carries with it substantial risks, especially to young users. The rapid expansion of the web and the increase in the number of users has brought many social-ideological dangers alongside the many advantages. In order to deal with these issues, a few years ago I initiated an association known as Eshnav (www.eshnav.org.il) which acts to increase public awareness to the risks and dangers of the web. Eshnav's mission, established to commemorate Eran's memory, is to promote public awareness to the positive and negative aspects of using the web on society and its values, and to promote the wise and safe use of the web. Eran was in great distress and needed empathy, encouragement and support. Sadly, when his

  6. Induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, A E; Erwin, B G; Persson, L

    1985-10-17

    The anti-tumor agent methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was found to be a competitive inhibitor of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase with a Ki of about 8 microM. Treatment of rats with this drug lead to a very large increase in the total amount of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in liver, kidney and spleen. The total increase as measured using a specific antiserum amounted to 700-fold in liver and 100-fold in kidney within 18 h of treatment with 80 mg/kg doses. At least part of this induction was due to a pronounced increase in the half-life of the acetyltransferase which increased from 15 min to more than 12 h. The very large increase in the amount of the enzyme is likely to overwhelm the direct inhibition, and a net increase in the acetylation of polyamines by this enzyme would be expected to occur after treatment with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). The acetylated polyamines are known to be rapidly degraded by polyamine oxidase producing putrescine. Direct evidence that a substantial part of the increase in the content of putrescine in the liver of rats treated with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) occurs via the induction of this acetylase/oxidase pathway was obtained. These results indicate that methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) affects cellular polyamine levels not only by means of its inhibitory effect on S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and diamine oxidase but also by the induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. They also raise the possibility that the enormous increase in this enzyme which occurs with higher doses may contribute to the very severe toxicity of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

  7. Mechanism of the lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA:α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase is a lysosomal membrane enzyme, deficient in the genetic disease Sanfilippo C syndrome. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to terminal α-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate within the organelle. The reaction mechanism was examined using high purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver and human fibroblasts. The N-acetyltransferase reaction is optimal above pH 5.5 and a 2-3 fold stimulation of activity is observed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicate that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. The binding of acetyl-CoA to the enzyme is measured by exchange label from [ 3 H]CoA to acetyl-CoA, and is optimal at pH's above 7.0. The acetyl-enzyme intermediate is formed by incubating membranes with [ 3 H]acetyl-CoA. The acetyl group can be transferred to glucosamine, forming [ 3 H]N-acetylglucosamine; the transfer is optimal between pH 4 and 5. Lysosomal membranes from Sanfilippo C fibroblasts confirm that these half reactions carried out by the N-acetyltransferase. The enzyme is inactivated by N-bromosuccinimide and diethylpyrocarbonate, indicating that a histidine is involved in the reaction. These results suggest that the histidine residue is at the active site of the enzyme. The properties of the N-acetyltransferase in the membrane, the characterization of the enzyme kinetics, the chemistry of a histidine mediated acetylation and the pH difference across the lysosomal membrane all support a transmembrane acetylation mechanism

  8. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  9. C³TO: an architecture for implementing a chat based call centre and tutoring online

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available questions or provide information to thousands of people using inexpensive chat protocols on their cell phones. The first practical implementation of C³TO was the re-design and re-implementation of the Dr Math project in South Africa where thousands...

  10. From "Hello" to Higher-Order Thinking: The Effect of Coaching and Feedback on Online Chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Slagle, Paula; Trinko, Lynn A.; Lutz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of a coaching and feedback intervention in teaching presence and social presence on higher-order thinking in an online community of inquiry. Coaching occurred before each chat, and feedback was provided immediately afterwards. The findings suggest that over time, the frequency of higher-order thinking…

  11. More than "Hello" and "Bye-Bye": Opening and Closing the Online Chats in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De

    2014-01-01

    Reporting on a descriptive study on the first semester Chinese language learners' openings and closings in online chats with age-peer native speakers of Chinese, this paper demonstrates the great promise that telecollaboration holds for foreign language education, and argues for an increasing role of pragmatics in Chinese language instruction, and…

  12. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  13. Polymorphisms of CHAT but not TFAM or VR22 are Associated with Alzheimer Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Jinghua; Yu, Wenbing; Yu, Yunxia

    2016-06-07

    BACKGROUND Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that is one of the most prevalent health problems among seniors. The cause of AD has not yet been elucidated, but many risk factors have been identified that might contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AD. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies involving CHAT, TFAM, and VR22 polymorphisms and AD susceptibility to further understand the pathogenesis of AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles. Rs1880676, rs2177369, rs3810950, and rs868750 of CHAT; rs1937 and rs2306604 of TFAM; and rs10997691 and rs7070570 of VR22 are studied in this meta-analysis. RESULTS A total of 51 case-control studies with 16 446 cases and 16 057 controls were enrolled. For CHAT, rs2177369 (G>A) in whites and rs3810950 (G>A) in Asians were found to be associated with AD susceptibility. No association was detected between rs1880676 and rs868750 and AD risk. For TFAM and VR22, no significant association was detected in studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). CONCLUSIONS Rs2177369 and rs3810950 of CHAT are associated with AD susceptibility, but rs1880676 and rs868750 are not. Rs1937 and rs2306604 of TFAM, and rs10997691 and rs7070570 of VR22 are not significantly associated with AD risk.

  14. "Nous" versus "on": Pronouns with First-Person Plural Reference in Synchronous French Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores variation in the use of the pronouns "nous" and "on" for first-person plural reference in a substantial corpus of French-language Internet chat discourse. The results indicate that "on" is nearly categorically preferred to "nous," which is in line with previous research on informal spoken French. A qualitative analysis of…

  15. Office Hours as You Like Them: Integrating Real-Time Chats into the Course Media Mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Reports on one professor's use of integrated synchronous electronic office hours (i.e., a "chat room") with asynchronous course conferencing (i.e., email) in a class on introductory marketing. Describes its uses, limitations, benefits, potential problems, and results from a student survey. (EV)

  16. Recycler l'orientalisme: 'Le Chat du rabbin' de Joann Sfar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, I.

    2013-01-01

    The complete edition of Le Chat du rabbin (The Rabbi’s Cat), the graphic novel created by Joann Sfar, appeared in 2011, followed by a 3D film version in the same year. It tells the story of the author’s ancestors, Sephardic Jews, who lived in Algeria under French colonial rule during the Interwar

  17. A Technology User's Bill of Rights: Lessons Learned in Chat Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton-Meier, Lori A.

    2004-01-01

    For the past five years, the author has spent time talking with, interviewing, interacting with, and investigating language with adolescent females in chat rooms while they engage in synchronous talk. The discussion often centers on their interest in pop culture--music, movies, television, books, games, and anything else that is worthy of…

  18. Automated topic spotting provides added efficiency in a chat based tutoring environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dr Math is a mobile, online tutoring project which allows primary and secondary school pupils to contact tutors in mathematics using text based chat systems on their cell phones. The tutors use traditional Internet based workstations. Dr Math...

  19. Baby FaceTime: Can Toddlers Learn from Online Video Chat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; LeWitt, Rachel B.; Gallo, Renee E.; Maselli, Nicole M.

    2017-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for the "video deficit": children under 2 years old learn better in person than from video. We evaluated whether these findings applied to video chat by testing whether children aged 12-25 months could form relationships with and learn from on-screen partners. We manipulated social contingency: children…

  20. Chat It Up: Backchanneling to Promote Reflective Practice among In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, Laura D.; Cassada, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    In a graduate education course geared toward developing reflective teaching practice in in-service teachers, backchannels, in the form of chat rooms, were employed in small groups to facilitate peer feedback during viewings of video recorded instruction. This study examined the nature and quality of peer feedback exchanged in the digital medium…

  1. Text Chat during Video/Audio Conferencing Lessons: Scaffolding or Getting in the Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Private online language tutoring is growing in popularity. An important prerequisite for development of effective pedagogies in this context is a good understanding of how different modalities can be combined. This study provides a detailed account of how several experienced private online teachers use text chat in their Skype-based English…

  2. Comparing Six Video Chat Tools: A Critical Evaluation by Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz-Tuga, Betil; Sadler, Randall

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical comparison of the usefulness and practicality of six CMC video chat tools (CUworld, ICQ, MSN Messenger, Paltalk, Skype, and Yahoo Messenger) from the perspective of language teaching professionals. This comparison is based on the results of a semester-long project between graduate students at an American university…

  3. Status Quo and Prospective of WeChat in Improving Chinese English Learners' Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kanghui

    2017-01-01

    With the ubiquitous usage of wireless, portable, and handheld devices gaining popularity in 21st century, the revolutionary mobile technology introduces digital new media to educational settings, which has changed the way of traditional teaching and learning. WeChat is one of the most popular social networking applications in China featured by its…

  4. Face-to-face talk and synchronous chat as learning tools in tutorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings suggest that although synchronous chat and small-group discussion share certain characteristics, they are also distinct in several significant ways. The implications that these differences hold for language instruction are then discussed. Keywords: synchronous CMC, tutorials, CLT, group work, blended learning, ...

  5. Managing family healthcare with multimedia chat apps: A survey on what is missing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Meixner (Britta); M. Lee (Matthew); S. Carter (Scott)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractChatting and messaging apps allow people to share information (text, images, etc.) using a simple, well-understood interaction metaphor of a conversational time-line. These apps can help small task-oriented user groups, like caregivers of a family member, to coordinate with each other in

  6. Chatting in L2 Spanish: Interactivity, Self-Efficacy and Interpersonal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Castro, Olga; Mrowa-Hopkins, Colette

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to examine variations in patterns of interactivity as they are displayed in the ongoing discourse construction of high and low self-efficacy learners of Spanish in the context of computer-mediated-communication. The paper specifically focuses on the analysis of synchronous text chats of six university students of Spanish at…

  7. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna F.; Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Kaur, Gurmeash; Jephcott, Lesley; Cornish, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat…

  8. Mobile-Based Chatting for Meaning Negotiation in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, María Dolores; Martín-Monje, Elena; Bárcena, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the adequacy of mobile chatting via Whatsapp for the enhancement of a type of spontaneous and colloquial written interaction which has a strong connection with oral discourse. This is part of a research project undertaken with Spanish students of German as a foreign language with a beginner's or quasi-beginner's level. The…

  9. Effects of Interactive Chat versus Independent Writing on L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa M.; Vatz, Karen; Bonilla, Carrie L.; Crooks, Carolyn; Strong, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the importance of interaction for second language (L2) acquisition by analyzing outcomes from two types of out-of-class activities. The study compared: (a) interactive homework, completed via text chat, and (b) individual homework, completed via independent writing. In a between-subjects design, participants in two…

  10. Integration of Three CBI Models and WeChat Mobile Learning in Business English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqi, Che

    2017-01-01

    Content-Based Instruction (CBI) is considered effective not only in mastering language skills, but also in acquiring the content knowledge of business subjects. WeChat, a popular communicative and interactive platform, is acknowledged as a new instrument to improve verbal teaching proficiency and obtain relevant information. The integration of…

  11. Screening for Autism in Iranian Preschoolers: Contrasting M-CHAT and a Scale Developed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Suitable screening instruments for the early diagnosis of autism are not readily available for use with preschoolers in non-Western countries. This study evaluated two tools: M-CHAT which is widely used internationally and one developed in Iran called Hiva. A population sample was recruited of nearly 3000 preschoolers in one Iranian city. Parents…

  12. Mediated Group Development and Dynamics: An Examination of Video Chatting, Twitter, and Facebook in Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Brandi N.; Kaufmann, Renee; Beck, Anna-Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Instructors incorporate technological tools into the classroom to address short attention spans, appeal to technologically savvy students, and to increase engagement. This study used both quantitative descriptive and qualitative embedded assessment data to examine the use of three popular tools (i.e. Twitter, Facebook, and video chatting) in…

  13. Comparing Protest Movements in Chile and California: Interculturality in an Internet Chat Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of chat transcripts from an English-language telecollaboration project between students at universities in Chile and California. This research found that the richest intercultural interactions involved events that could not have been foreseen: the immigrant rights demonstrations in the USA and the massive student…

  14. Technical Evaluation Report 14: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems (synchronous: Report 2/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kinsel

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the earlier review of online chat systems (Report 6, by reviewing a further seven products that provide text-based instant messaging (IM. The functionality of these products in distance education contexts is stressed in relation to their comparative costs, complexity, control, clarity, technical framework, and other functional options.

  15. Metodologia de utilização do chat na enfermagem Metodología para el uso del chat en enfermería Methodology for the use of chat in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Prado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a metodologia da utilização do bate-papo (Chat para comunicação em tempo real em um grupo de pesquisa em enfermagem. O papel do coordenador compreende as dimensões de planejamento, mediação e tecnológica. Cada dimensão pode determinar o sucesso ou o fracasso da comunicação. Elas devem ser vistas de forma integrada e a modificação em alguma delas interfere na qualidade do resultado final da atividade. O software de comunicação adotado foi o Skype® por permitir comunicação grátis entre muitos usuários em tempo real. Para a execução do Chat foram estabelecidas cinco etapas: abertura, acolhimento/ aquecimento, desenvolvimento da pauta, síntese e encerramento. A metodologia permitiu otimização e flexibilização de tempo, organização das atividades e alcance dos objetivos.El objetivo del estudio fue describir la metodología de utilizar una herramienta para chat para la comunicación en tiempo real en un grupo de investigación de enfermería. El rolo del coordinador comprende las dimensiones del planeamiento, mediación y tecnología. Cada dimensión puede determinar el suceso o fracaso de la comunicación. Ellas deben ser vistas de manera integrada y la modificación en algún de ellas interfiere la calidad del resultado final de la actividad. El software de comunicación ha sido aprobado por Skype® para la comunicación libre entre muchos usuarios en tiempo real. Para la ejecución del chat fueron establecidas cinco pasos: apertura, acogida / hospitalidad, desarrollo del personal, síntesis y encerramiento. La metodología permitió la optimización y flexibilidad de tiempo, la organización de las actividades y el alcance de las metas.The purpose of this study was to describe the methodology of the use of chat for real-time communication in a group of nursing research. The role of coordinator understands the dimensions of planning, mediation and technology. Each dimension can

  16. Multimodal elucidation of choline metabolism in a murine glioma model using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 11C-choline positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrl, H.F.; Schwab, J.; Hasenbach, K.; Reischl, G.; Tabatabai, G.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Jiru, F.; Chughtai, K; Kiss, A.; Cay, F.; Bukala, D.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Pichler, B.J.; Sauter, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolites, transporters, and enzymes involved in choline metabolism are regarded as biomarkers for disease progression in a variety of cancers, but their in vivo detection is not ideal. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS using chemical shift imaging (CSI) total choline (tCho)] and

  17. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  18. Evaluation of the 113Online Suicide Prevention Crisis Chat Service: Outcomes, Helper Behaviors and Comparison to Telephone Hotlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkenstorm, Jan K; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Huisman, Annemiek; Wiebenga, Jasper; Gilissen, Renske; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Smit, Johannes H

    2017-06-01

    Recognizing the importance of digital communication, major suicide prevention helplines have started offering crisis intervention by chat. To date there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of crisis chat services. To evaluate the reach and outcomes of the 113Online volunteer-operated crisis chat service, 526 crisis chat logs were studied, replicating the use of measures that were developed to study telephone crisis calls. Reaching a relatively young population of predominantly females with severe suicidality and (mental) health problems, chat outcomes for this group were found to be comparable to those found for crisis calls to U.S. Lifeline Centers in 2003-2004, with similar but not identical associations with specific helpers' styles and attitudes. Our findings support a positive effect of the 113Online chat service, to be enhanced by practice standards addressing an apparent lack of focus on the central issue of suicidality during chats, as well as by the development of best practices specific for online crisis intervention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  19. Does the Use of WeChat Lead to Subjective Well-Being?: The Effect of Use Intensity and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhengbao; Geng, Xiaowei; Ye, Yinghua

    2016-10-01

    Recently, WeChat has been widely used in China. The positive and negative effects of WeChat on users have received attention from researchers gradually. Using the questionnaire method, we recruited 339 undergraduates and graduates as participants, and tested the effects of WeChat on their subjective well-being (SWB) in terms of intensity. In addition, we confirmed the mediating effects of WeChat with respect to motivation. The results showed that the participants' WeChat use intensity was at a mid-level, 85.3 percent of them spending no more than 2 hours on WeChat every day. Furthermore, there have been no demographic differences in the variables of gender, place of residence, or grade. Participants' WeChat use intensity can significantly predict their use motivation and life satisfaction, and intrinsic use motivation was the mediator between the use intensity and SWB, while the other three types of motivation (external, introjection, and identification) cannot predict SWB significantly. The user's ultimate emotional experience is primarily derived from why and how they use it. We also tested whether the use motivation can be shaped.

  20. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  1. Effect of increased yeast alcohol acetyltransferase activity on flavor profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, M; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    2000-02-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  2. Diversification of the Histone Acetyltransferase GCN5 through Alternative Splicing in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic modulatory SAGA complex is involved in various developmental and stress responsive pathways in plants. Alternative transcripts of the SAGA complex's enzymatic subunit GCN5 have been identified in Brachypodium distachyon. These splice variants differ based on the presence and integrity of their conserved domain sequences: the histone acetyltransferase domain, responsible for catalytic activity, and the bromodomain, involved in acetyl-lysine binding and genomic loci targeting. GCN5 is the wild-type transcript, while alternative splice sites result in the following transcriptional variants: L-GCN5, which is missing the bromodomain and S-GCN5, which lacks the bromodomain as well as certain motifs of the histone acetyltransferase domain. Absolute mRNA quantification revealed that, across eight B. distachyon accessions, GCN5 was the dominant transcript isoform, accounting for up to 90% of the entire transcript pool, followed by L-GCN5 and S-GCN5. A cycloheximide treatment further revealed that the S-GCN5 splice variant was degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. All alternative BdGCN5 transcripts displayed similar transcript profiles, being induced during early exposure to heat and displaying higher levels of accumulation in the crown, compared to aerial tissues. All predicted protein isoforms localize to the nucleus, which lends weight to their purported epigenetic functions. S-GCN5 was incapable of forming an in vivo protein interaction with ADA2, the transcriptional adaptor that links the histone acetyltransferase subunit to the SAGA complex, while both GCN5 and L-GCN5 interacted with ADA2, which suggests that a complete histone acetyltransferase domain is required for BdGCN5-BdADA2 interaction in vivo. Thus, there has been a diversification in BdGCN5 through alternative splicing that has resulted in differences in conserved domain composition, transcript fate and in vivo protein interaction partners. Furthermore, our

  3. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  4. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  5. Influence of WeChat on sleep quality among undergraduates in Chongqing, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xianglong; Lin, Qianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Runzhi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that social media is associated with sleep quality. WeChat (a native social media in China) is very popular in China, especially among the youth. In the second quarter of 2016, Tencent?s WeChat had 806 million monthly active users. The study sought to identify the influence of WeChat on the sleep quality among undergraduate students. Methods A cross-sectional survey adopted a multi-stage stratified sampling survey to investigate undergraduates in Chongqing, ...

  6. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  7. Choline-mediated modulation of hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viktoria; Both, Martin; Draguhn, Andreas; Egorov, Alexei V

    2014-06-01

    The cholinergic system is critically involved in the modulation of cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Acetylcholine acts through muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), which are both abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Previous evidence indicates that choline, the precursor and degradation product of Acetylcholine, can itself activate nAChRs and thereby affects intrinsic and synaptic neuronal functions. Here, we asked whether the cellular actions of choline directly affect hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) and can induce gamma oscillations. In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields CA3 and CA1. Surprisingly, these effects are mediated by activation of both mAChRs and α7-containing nAChRs. Most nicotinic effects became only apparent after local, fast application of choline, indicating rapid desensitization kinetics of nAChRs. Effects were still present following block of choline uptake and are, therefore, likely because of direct actions of choline at the respective receptors. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned network activity within the hippocampus. These actions may be of importance for understanding state transitions in normal and pathologically altered neuronal networks. In this study we asked whether choline, the precursor and degradation product of acetylcholine, directly affects hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R). In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields. These effects are mediated by direct activation of muscarinic as well as nicotinic cholinergic pathways. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned activity within hippocampal

  8. Brain cholinergic involvement during the rapid development of tolerance to morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Z. Z.; Oriaku, E. T.; Soliman, S. F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated administration of morphine on the activities of the cholinergic enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in specific brain regions were studied in rats treated with 10 mg/kg morphine for one or two days. Repeated administration of morphine was associated with a decline in the degree of analgesia produced and with a significant increase of AChE activity of the medulla oblongata. A single injection of morphine resulted in a significant decline in ChAT activity in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata regions. After two consecutive injections, no decline in ChAT was observed in these regions, while in the cerebral cortex the second administration elicited a significant decline. The results suggest that the development of tolerance to morphine may be mediated through changes in ChAT activity and lend support to the involvement of the central cholinergic system in narcotic tolerance.

  9. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  10. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  11. Anaerobic choline metabolism in microcompartments promotes growth and swarming of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Eleanor; Fu, Tiantian; Brown, Ian R; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Purdy, Kevin J; Frank, Stefanie; Chen, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Gammaproteobacteria are important gut microbes but only persist at low levels in the healthy gut. The ecology of Gammaproteobacteria in the gut environment is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that choline is an important growth substrate for representatives of Gammaproteobacteria. Using Proteus mirabilis as a model, we investigate the role of choline metabolism and demonstrate that the cutC gene, encoding a choline-trimethylamine lyase, is essential for choline degradation to trimethylamine by targeted mutagenesis of cutC and subsequent complementation experiments. Proteus mirabilis can rapidly utilize choline to enhance growth rate and cell yield in broth culture. Importantly, choline also enhances swarming-associated colony expansion of P. mirabilis under anaerobic conditions on a solid surface. Comparative transcriptomics demonstrated that choline not only induces choline-trimethylamine lyase but also genes encoding shell proteins for the formation of bacterial microcompartments. Subsequent analyses by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of such novel microcompartments in cells cultivated in liquid broth and hyper-flagellated swarmer cells from solid medium. Together, our study reveals choline metabolism as an adaptation strategy for P. mirabilis and contributes to better understand the ecology of this bacterium in health and disease. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Estimation of volume and mass and of changes in volume and mass of selected chat piles in the Picher mining district, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod

    2013-01-01

    From the 1890s through the 1970s the Picher mining district in northeastern Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was the site of mining and processing of lead and zinc ore. When mining ceased in about 1979, as much as 165–300 million tons of mine tailings, locally referred to as “chat,” remained in the Picher mining district. Since 1979, some chat piles have been mined for aggregate materials and have decreased in volume and mass. Currently (2013), the land surface in the Picher mining district is covered by thousands of acres of chat, much of which remains on Indian trust land owned by allottees. The Bureau of Indian Affairs manages these allotted lands and oversees the sale and removal of chat from these properties. To help the Bureau of Indian Affairs better manage the sale and removal of chat, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, estimated the 2005 and 2010 volumes and masses of selected chat piles remaining on allotted lands in the Picher mining district. The U.S. Geological Survey also estimated the changes in volume and mass of these chat piles for the period 2005 through 2010. The 2005 and 2010 chat-pile volume and mass estimates were computed for 34 selected chat piles on 16 properties in the study area. All computations of volume and mass were performed on individual chat piles and on groups of chat piles in the same property. The Sooner property had the greatest estimated volume (4.644 million cubic yards) and mass (5.253 ± 0.473 million tons) of chat in 2010. Five of the selected properties (Sooner, Western, Lawyers, Skelton, and St. Joe) contained estimated chat volumes exceeding 1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses exceeding 1 million tons in 2010. Four of the selected properties (Lucky Bill Humbah, Ta Mee Heh, Bird Dog, and St. Louis No. 6) contained estimated chat volumes of less than 0.1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses of less than 0.1 million tons in 2010. The total volume of all

  13. {sup 18}F-Choline, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of {sup 18}F-/{sup 11}C-choline or {sup 11}C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning. (orig.)

  14. New N-Acetyltransferase Fold in the Structure and Mechanism of the Phosphonate Biosynthetic Enzyme FrbF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Brian; Cobb, Ryan E.; DeSieno, Matthew A.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC)

    2015-10-15

    The enzyme FrbF from Streptomyces rubellomurinus has attracted significant attention due to its role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial phosphonate FR-900098. The enzyme catalyzes acetyl transfer onto the hydroxamate of the FR-900098 precursors cytidine 5'-monophosphate-3-aminopropylphosphonate and cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate. Despite the established function as a bona fide N-acetyltransferase, FrbF shows no sequence similarity to any member of the GCN5-like N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. Here, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of FrbF in complex with acetyl-CoA, which demonstrates a unique architecture that is distinct from those of canonical GNAT-like acetyltransferases. We also utilized the co-crystal structure to guide structure-function studies that identified the roles of putative active site residues in the acetyltransferase mechanism. The combined biochemical and structural analyses of FrbF provide insights into this previously uncharacterized family of N-acetyltransferases and also provide a molecular framework toward the production of novel N-acyl derivatives of FR-900098.

  15. Weibo or WeChat? Assessing Preference for Social Networking Sites and Role of Personality Traits and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Pan, Xuefei; Chen, Shuangyi; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2018-01-01

    Research trying to understand individual difference in the use of different social networking sites (SNSs) is minimal. In the present study, we collected data from 714 college students in China (273 males) to assess how personality traits and psychological factors relate to excessive use of WeChat and Weibo. We found that excessive use of Weibo and WeChat correlated positively with neuroticism, loneliness, and external locus of control and negatively with agreeableness, social support, and social interaction. Furthermore, people that scored high on loneliness, lack of social support, and poor social interaction skills excessively used Weibo more than WeChat. These results entail that by fulfilling different needs, WeChat and Weibo attract different kinds of people; significant lesson for future development of SNSs.

  16. Weibo or WeChat? Assessing Preference for Social Networking Sites and Role of Personality Traits and Psychological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Pan, Xuefei; Chen, Shuangyi; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2018-01-01

    Research trying to understand individual difference in the use of different social networking sites (SNSs) is minimal. In the present study, we collected data from 714 college students in China (273 males) to assess how personality traits and psychological factors relate to excessive use of WeChat and Weibo. We found that excessive use of Weibo and WeChat correlated positively with neuroticism, loneliness, and external locus of control and negatively with agreeableness, social support, and social interaction. Furthermore, people that scored high on loneliness, lack of social support, and poor social interaction skills excessively used Weibo more than WeChat. These results entail that by fulfilling different needs, WeChat and Weibo attract different kinds of people; significant lesson for future development of SNSs. PMID:29755384

  17. Weibo or WeChat? Assessing Preference for Social Networking Sites and Role of Personality Traits and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research trying to understand individual difference in the use of different social networking sites (SNSs is minimal. In the present study, we collected data from 714 college students in China (273 males to assess how personality traits and psychological factors relate to excessive use of WeChat and Weibo. We found that excessive use of Weibo and WeChat correlated positively with neuroticism, loneliness, and external locus of control and negatively with agreeableness, social support, and social interaction. Furthermore, people that scored high on loneliness, lack of social support, and poor social interaction skills excessively used Weibo more than WeChat. These results entail that by fulfilling different needs, WeChat and Weibo attract different kinds of people; significant lesson for future development of SNSs.

  18. Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase is acetylated on multiple lysine residues by a protein acetyltransferase with a single Gcn5-type N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Di; Yao, Li-Li; Huang, Dan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2014-09-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) is used by cells of all domains of life to modulate protein function. To date, bacterial acetylation/deacetylation systems have been studied in a few bacteria (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia amylovora, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Geobacillus kaustophilus), but little is known about RLA in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. Here, we identify the Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase AcuA of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (SacAcuA, SACE_5148) as the enzyme responsible for the acetylation of the AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (SacAcsA, SACE_2375). Acetylated SacAcsA was deacetylated by a sirtuin-type NAD(+)-dependent consuming deacetylase (SacSrtN, SACE_3798). In vitro acetylation/deacetylation of SacAcsA enzyme was studied by Western blotting, and acetylation of lysine residues Lys(237), Lys(380), Lys(611), and Lys(628) was confirmed by mass spectrometry. In a strain devoid of SacAcuA, none of the above-mentioned Lys residues of SacAcsA was acetylated. To our knowledge, the ability of SacAcuA to acetylate multiple Lys residues is unique among AcuA-type acetyltransferases. Results from site-specific mutagenesis experiments showed that the activity of SacAcsA was controlled by lysine acetylation. Lastly, immunoprecipitation data showed that in vivo acetylation of SacAcsA was influenced by glucose and acetate availability. These results suggested that reversible acetylation may also be a conserved regulatory posttranslational modification strategy in antibiotic-producing actinomycetes. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. [Influence of WeChat platform on the compliance of continuous treatment of scar in adult burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Zhang, H L

    2018-03-20

    Objective: To explore influence of the WeChat platform on the compliance of continuous treatment of scar in adult burn patients. Methods: A total of 124 adult burn patients, conforming to the study criteria, admitted in the Department of Burns of our hospital from January 2015 to January 2016 were divided into WeChat group ( n =63) and control group ( n =61) according to the random number table. Patients in control group only received regular discharging rehabilitation guide, while patients in WeChat group received regular discharging rehabilitation guide and joined WeChat platform after being discharged from hospital. Through pushing rehabilitation plan and rehabilitation related knowledge, organizing support discussion of burn patients, answering the patients' questions, members of WeChat platform intervention group conducted continuous treatment for 6 months on patients of WeChat group. The compliance of functional exercise of patients in two groups in one week before discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge was evaluated by using the self-made functional exercise compliance log sheet. The compliance of using anti-scar drug and appliance of patients in two groups in 3 and 6 months after discharge was evaluated by using self-made anti-scar drug and appliance usage log sheets. Data were processed with chi-square test, independent sample t test, non-parametric rank sum test of independent sample, and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: (1) The compliance ratio of functional exercise of patients in WeChat group (95.24%, 60/63) was close to 93.44% (57/61) in control group in one week before discharge ( χ (2)=0.188, P >0.05). The compliance ratios of functional exercise of patients in WeChat group were respectively 93.65% (59/63) and 87.30% (55/63) in 3 and 6 months after discharge, which were higher than 68.85% (42/61) and 65.57% (40/61) in control group ( χ (2)=12.615, 8.166, P WeChat group was significantly better than that in control group in 3 and 6 months

  20. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hou

    Full Text Available In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS. We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- "mood modification," "salience" and ''conflict"- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking.

  1. Effects of Video Games and Online Chat on Mathematics Performance in High School: An Approach of Multivariate Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Wu; Wenyi Lu; Ye Li

    2016-01-01

    Regarding heavy video game players for boys and super online chat lovers for girls as a symbolic phrase in the current adolescent culture, this project of data analysis verifies the displacement effect on deteriorating mathematics performance. To evaluate correlation or regression coefficients between a factor of playing video games or chatting online and mathematics performance compared with other factors, we use multivariate analysis technique and take gender difference into account. We fin...

  2. The Changing Physical and Social Environment of Newsgathering: A Case Study of Foreign Correspondents Using Chat Apps During Unrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Belair-Gagnon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile chat apps have shaped multiple forms of communication in everyday life, including education, family, business, and health communication. In journalism, chat apps have taken on a heightened significance in reporting political unrest, particularly in terms of audience/reporter distinctions, sourcing of information, and community formation. Mobile phones are now essential components in reporters’ everyday communication, and particularly during political unrest. In East Asia, the latest trends point toward private networking apps, such as WeChat and WhatsApp, as the most important digital tools for journalists to interact with sources and audiences in news production. These apps provide a set of private (and, increasingly, encrypted alternatives to open, public-facing social media platforms. This article is the first to examine foreign correspondents’ usage of chat apps for newsgathering during political unrest in China and Hong Kong since the 2014 “Umbrella Movement,” a time when the use of chat apps in newsgathering became widespread. This article identifies and critically examines the salient features of these apps. It then discusses the ways these journalistic interactions on chat apps perpetuate, disrupt, and affect “social” newsgathering. This article argues that chat apps do not represent one interactive space; rather they are hybrid interactions of news production embedded in social practices rather than pre-existing physical/digital spaces. This research is significant as the emergence of chat apps as tools in foreign correspondents’ reporting has implications for journalistic practices in information gathering, storage, security, and interpretation and for the informational cultures of journalism.

  3. Chat Transcript Analysis Reveals that Undergraduate Students are Open to Instruction, While Instructors and Librarians Care About Supporting Student Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Sullo

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Jacoby, J., Ward, D., Avery, S., & Marcyk, E. (2016). The value of chat reference services: A pilot study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(1), 109-129. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2016.0013 Objective – To investigate student, instructor, and librarian perspectives of chat reference service in the context of first-year undergraduate students conducting research for an introductory composition course. Design – Focus groups, individual interviews, and surveys. S...

  4. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Jiang, Yingying; Ye, Zi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Pang, Liangjun; Kong, Yan; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- "mood modification," "salience" and ''conflict"- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking.

  5. Excessive use of WeChat, social interaction and locus of control among college students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingying; Ye, Zi; Wang, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Pang, Liangjun; Kong, Yan; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    In China, the number of college students using mobile phone based messaging and social networking applications like WeChat is increasing rapidly. However, there has been minimal research into the addictive nature of these applications and the psychological characteristics associate with their excessive use. There is also no published scale available for assessing excessive use of WeChat and similar applications. In the current study, we collected data from 1,245 college students in China (715 females) and developed the WeChat Excessive Use Scale (WEUS). We then assessed the relationship between excessive use of WeChat and excessive use of a social networking application-Weibo, problematic use of mobile phones, external locus of control, and social interaction skills. Our 10-item scale featured three factors, namely- “mood modification,” “salience” and ‘‘conflict”- critical factors in assessing different forms of addiction. The WEUS was found to be a reliable instrument in assessing excessive use of WeChat as it showed good internal consistency and correlated with other measures of problematic use social networking and mobile phone addiction. Our results showed that excessive users of WeChat are more likely to excessively use Weibo than they are to problematically use mobile phones. Our study also showed that greater excessive use of WeChat is associated with higher external locus of control and greater online social interaction skills. These results reveal that WeChat has unique and strong appeal among college students in China. Further, practitioners should consider dealing with malleable factors like locus of control and real life social skills in treating people with problematic messaging and social networking. PMID:28817710

  6. How useful are bounded online chat rooms as a source of pastoral support in a sixth-form college?

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of chat technology there has been resistance within education to fully engage with it partly due to policy making that has left teachers disempowered (UCLAN 2002:66). Unlike other innovative technologies, its use has been limited. Pastoral support has developed significantly in education but in some instances, like chat rooms, has been viewed with scepticism. One reason for this scepticism may be that a clear measurable link between support and achievement is not easily...

  7. Towards educational data mining: Using data mining methods for automated chat analysis to understand and support inquiry learning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Anjewierden , Anjo; Kolloffel , Bas; Hulshof , Casper

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of data mining methods to provide learners with real-time adaptive feedback on the nature and patterns of their on-line communication while learning collaboratively.We derived two models for classifying chat messages using data mining techniques and tested these on an actual data set [16]. The reliability of the classification of chat messages is established by comparing the models performance to that of humans. Results indicate that the classifica...

  8. Ostracism via virtual chat room-Effects on basic needs, anger and pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves Donate

    Full Text Available Ostracism is characterized by a social pain provoked by being excluded and ignored. In order to address the effects of social ostracism in virtual non-physical interactions, we developed a more realistic paradigm as an alternative to Cyberball and assessed its effects on participant's expression of basic social needs, emotional experience and painful feeling. The chat room consisted of controlled social dialogue interactions between participants and two other (confederate chat room partners. Exclusion was manipulated by varying the number of messages a participant received (15% and 33% in exclusion and inclusion, respectively. Analysis of participant (N = 54 responses revealed that exclusion induced a lower experience of basic-need states and greater anger, compared with included participants. In addition, excluded participants reported higher levels of two specific self-pain feelings, namely tortured and hurt. Our findings suggest that this procedure is effective in inducing social ostracism in a realistic and yet highly controlled experimental procedure.

  9. Cuerpos e identidades on line: construcción de identidades corporales en el chat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marilyn Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito analizar el proceso de construcción de la identidad en sus relaciones con el cuerpo en el contexto de la Comunicación Mediada por Computación (CMC, particularmente por usuarios del chat. En la primer parte se trata el tema de laidentidad en la época digital, desde una perspectiva no esencialista del concepto de identidad. En la segunda parte se analiza la “emergencia epistemológica” del cuerpo en esta nueva forma de comunicación. La tercera parte enfatiza los efectos de la CMC en los modos y estrategias de construcción de identidades corporales por usuarios del chat, entendido este como un dispositivo de enunciación virtual en la que el sujeto se textualiza mediante lenguajes multimodales.

  10. Tutorial chat: a case study of synchronous communication in a learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Rutter

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study describes the use of a web-based synchronous chat application, run during computing tutorials. The chat room was moderated by a paid demonstrator, who assisted and encouraged students whenever possible. Most of the discussion was banter, which acted as a lubricant for relevant factual communication. Students were permitted a degree of anonymity, but nevertheless learned to treat the facility in a useful manner. The application and its mode of employment were found to be both motivating and supportive. Use was evaluated by questionnaire and an analysis of student input. As a result of the experience, it is suggested that abuse will certainly occur and may be minimised by technical improvements, but never eliminated. The Rogerian approach adopted was found to have transferred emphasis from teaching a topic to the learning of generic skills.

  11. Species specific substrates and products choices of 4-O-acetyltransferase from Trichoderma brevicompactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Kumari, Indu; Hussain, Razak; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2017-09-01

    Antagonistic species of Trichoderma such as T. harzianum, T. viride, T. virens and T. koningii are well-known biocontrol agents that have been reported to suppress pathogenic soil microbes and enhance the growth of crop plants. Secondary metabolites (SMs) including trichothecenes are responsible for its biocontrol activities. The trichothecenes, trichodermin and harzianum A (HA) are produced in species dependent manner respectively, by Trichoderma brevicompactum (TB) and Trichoderma arundinaceum (TA). The last step in the pathway involves the conversion of trichodermol into trichodermin or HA alternatively, which is catalyzed by 4-O-acetyltransferase (encoded by tri3 gene). Comparative sequence analysis of acetyltransferase enzyme of TB with other chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) family proteins revealed the conserved motif involved in the catalysis. Multiple substrate binding studies were carried out to explore the mechanism behind the two different outcomes. His188 was found to have a role in initial substrate binding. In the case of trichodermin synthesis, represented by ternary complex 1, the trichodermol and acetic anhydride (AAn), the two substrates come very close to each other during molecular simulation analysis so that interactions become possible between them and acetyl group may get transferred from AAn to trichodermol, and Tyr476 residue mediates this phenomenon resulting in the formation of trichodermin. However, in case of the HA biosynthesis using the TB version of enzyme, represented by ternary complex 2, the two substrates, trichodermol and octa-2Z,4E,6E-trienedioic acid (OCTA) did not show any such interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of using WeChat-assisted perioperative care instructions for parents of pediatric patients undergoing day surgery for herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zheng, Xin; Chai, Shouxia; Lei, Meirong; Feng, Zehui; Zhang, Xuelin; Lopez, Violeta

    2018-02-19

    This study examined the effects of WeChat-assisted perioperative instructions for parents whose children were to undergo herniorrhaphy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a day surgery center in China. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (WeChat) group (n = 209) and the control (Leaflet) group (n = 209). The primary outcomes of this study were parents' knowledge regarding hernia and rate of cancellation of children's surgery. The secondary outcomes were the rate of lost-to-follow-up and the rate of complications and adverse events during the seventh postoperative follow-up day. There was a significant difference in the rate of cancelling the surgery and the mean knowledge score between the WeChat group and leaflet groups. The lost-to-follow-up rate was significantly lower in the WeChat group (0.54%) than in the leaflet group (3.66%). The incidence of postoperative complications were higher in the control group. WeChat-assisted perioperative care instructions enhanced parents' knowledge on perioperative instructions and promoted the preparation of their children for day surgery resulting in lower rate of cancelling the surgery. WeChat has the ability to expand health services outside the hospital confines and could be used as an important low-cost health educational medium in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of information diffusion on social networks with applications to WeChat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qu, Bo; Chen, Bin; Hanjalic, Alan; Wang, Huijuan

    2018-04-01

    Traces of user activities recorded in online social networks open new possibilities to systematically understand the information diffusion process on social networks. From the online social network WeChat, we collected a large number of information cascade trees, each of which tells the spreading trajectory of a message/information such as which user creates the information and which users view or forward the information shared by which neighbours. In this work, we propose two heterogeneous non-linear models, one for the topologies of the information cascade trees and the other for the stochastic process of information diffusion on a social network. Both models are validated by the WeChat data in reproducing and explaining key features of cascade trees. Specifically, we apply the Random Recursive Tree (RRT) to model the growth of cascade trees. The RRT model could capture key features, i.e. the average path length and degree variance of a cascade tree in relation to the number of nodes (size) of the tree. Its single identified parameter quantifies the relative depth or broadness of the cascade trees and indicates that information propagates via a star-like broadcasting or viral-like hop by hop spreading. The RRT model explains the appearance of hubs, thus a possibly smaller average path length as the cascade size increases, as observed in WeChat. We further propose the stochastic Susceptible View Forward Removed (SVFR) model to depict the dynamic user behaviour including creating, viewing, forwarding and ignoring a message on a given social network. Beside the average path length and degree variance of the cascade trees in relation to their sizes, the SVFR model could further explain the power-law cascade size distribution in WeChat and unravel that a user with a large number of friends may actually have a smaller probability to read a message (s)he receives due to limited attention.

  14. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  15. Cinnamoyl compounds as simple molecules that inhibit p300 histone acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto; Artico, Marino; Miele, Gaetano; Valentini, Paola; Novellino, Ettore; Cereseto, Anna

    2007-04-19

    Cinnamoly compounds 1a-c and 2a-d were designed, synthesized, and in vitro tested as p300 inhibitors. At different degrees, all tested compounds were proven to inactivate p300, particularly, derivative 2c was the most active inhibitor, also showing high specificity for p300 as compared to other histone acetyltransferases. Most notably, 2c showed anti-acetylase activity in mammalian cells. These compounds represent a new class of synthetic inhibitors of p300, characterized by simple chemical structures.

  16. Chat educacional em enfermagem: possibilidades de interação no meio virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Scheffer Schell da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa documental com abordagem qualitativa do tipo estudo de caso, que analisou os diálogos produzidos por alunos de Enfermagem em um contexto mediado por chat educacional em Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizagem (AVA. Os dados constituíram-se de oito discussões promovidas por alunos, professores e monitores da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul no chat do AVA TelEduc® sobre a atividade denominada Cliente Virtual. Para a categorização dos dados, utilizou-se o software NVivo®; e para a análise das informações, a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. Os resultados revelaram sentimentos como ansiedade, medo e motivação perante a prática hospitalar, bem como o posicionamento dicotômico dos alunos frente à atividade proposta: alguns gostaram das discussões virtuais, enquanto outros preferiram as presenciais. O artigo apresenta recomendações para o uso de chat educacional no ensino de Enfermagem.

  17. “Why Caipirinha?”- The Online via Chat Laddering Technique CAN Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bordeaux-Rego

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As customers are becoming increasingly connected to the internet, this means that they are available for online interviews, thus opening up a space for investigating research methods, especially qualitative research, in an attempt to identify how to adapt data collecting instruments to the so-called “connected customer era”. In this context, the focus of this article is on the application viability analysis of the laddering technique used online and in real-time chat by asking the following question: “Why caipirinha?”. Conducting online in-depth interviews through the MSN Messenger and Skype (the most commonly used chat tools in Brazil, 23 attributes, 22 consequences and 13 values were identified, resulting in 133 ladders, 71 of which reached the value level. Along with friends/mates, Integration, Entertainment and Fun, in addition to Alcohol, Insouciance/ relaxation and Pleasure constitute the most frequent ladders. Concerning the application itself, the participants gave positive feedback, even though some of them did not feel satisfied because they became tired. Convenience, objectivity, disinhibition, easy scheduling and flexibility were identified. The viability of online in-depth interviewing via real-time chats was confirmed, raising the question of the possibility of it achieving other qualitative research techniques.

  18. NUEVO ESCENARIO DE SOCIALIZACIÓN DEL LENGUAJE: EL CHAT Y LOS ADOLESCENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Julieta Galera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto de investigación denominado “Las Nuevas Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación y sus efectos en el lenguaje escrito de los adolescentes”.Los objetivos que intentaremos develar a través de esta investigación son: analizar el lenguaje escrito derivado del uso del chat como fenómeno cultural emergente; indagar si el lenguaje derivado del uso del chat es la expresión de una nueva forma de percibir, de comunicar y de concebir el mundo; caracterizar al lenguaje escrito emergente por el uso y apropiación de las TICs por parte de los adolescentes.La elección del tema fue motivada por la amplia difusión y discusión que existía sobre los problemas o consecuencias por el uso del chat en el lenguaje escrito de los adolescentes debido a la existencia de prejuicios ampliamente difundidos sobre este problema en el mundo académico y en el ámbito escolar en particular.

  19. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  20. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  1. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  2. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    M and evoked secretory responses comparable with those of acetylcholine (0.05-1.0 microM) administered at similar Na concentrations. Continuous infusion of choline, in contrast to acetylcholine, did not lead to a fall off in the secretory response (desensitization or tachyphylaxis) until the choline...

  3. Umbilical choline and related methylamines betaine and dimethylglycine in relation to birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Heijer, M. den; Semmekrot, B.A.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Ueland, P.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the newborn and risk of chronic disease in adulthood. Choline plays an essential role in the integrity of cell membranes, methylation reactions, and memory development. We examined whether choline, betaine,

  4. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  6. Choline Alleviates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Duodenal Motility Disorder in Infant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Role of choline PET/CT in guiding target volume delineation for irradiation of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.M.; Kurth, J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Gocke, C.; Kuhnt, T.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy, Rostock (Germany); Krause, B.J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Choline PET/CT has shown limitations for the detection of primary prostate cancer and nodal metastatic disease, mainly due to limited sensitivity and specificity. Conversely in the restaging of prostate cancer recurrence, choline PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for the detection of local regional and nodal recurrence with an impact on therapy management. This review highlights current literature on choline PET/CT for radiation treatment planning in primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Due to limited sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between benign and malignant prostatic tissues in primary prostate cancer, there is little enthusiasm for target volume delineation based on choline PET/CT. Irradiation planning for the treatment of single lymph node metastases on the basis of choline PET/CT is controversial due to its limited lesion-based sensitivity in primary nodal staging. In high-risk prostate cancer, choline PET/CT might diagnose lymph node metastases, which potentially can be included in the conventional irradiation field. Prior to radiation treatment of recurrent prostate cancer, choline PET/CT may prove useful for patient stratification by excluding distant disease which would require systemic therapy. In patients with local recurrence, choline PET/CT can be used to delineate local sites of recurrence within the prostatic resection bed allowing a boost to PET-positive sites. In patients with lymph node metastases outside the prostatic fossa and regional metastatic lymph nodes, choline PET/CT might influence radiation treatment planning by enabling extension of the target volume to lymphatic drainage sites with or without a boost to PET-positive lymph nodes. Further clinical randomized trials are required to assess treatment outcomes following choline-based biological radiation treatment planning in comparison with conventional radiation treatment planning. (orig.)

  8. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  9. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of the novel acetyltransferase retrogene Ard1b in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Peacock, Stephanie; Johnson, Warren; Bear, Deborah H; Rennert, Owen M; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2009-08-01

    N-alpha-terminal acetylation is a modification process that occurs cotranslationally on most eukaryotic proteins. The major enzyme responsible for this process, N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase, is composed of the catalytic subunit ARD1A and the auxiliary subunit NAT1. We cloned, characterized, and studied the expression pattern of Ard1b (also known as Ard2), a novel homolog of the mouse Ard1a. Comparison of the genomic structures suggests that the autosomal Ard1b is a retroposed copy of the X-linked Ard1a. Expression analyses demonstrated a testis predominance of Ard1b. A reciprocal expression pattern between Ard1a and Ard1b is also observed during spermatogenesis, suggesting that Ard1b is expressed to compensate for the loss of Ard1a starting from meiosis. Both ARD1A and ARD1B can interact with NAT1 to constitute a functional N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase in vitro. The expression of ARD1B protein can be detected in mouse testes but is delayed until the first appearance of round spermatids. In a cell culture model, the inclusion of the long 3' untranslated region of Ard1b leads to reduction of luciferase reporter activity, which implicates its role in translational repression of Ard1b during spermatogenesis. Our results suggest that ARD1B may have an important role in the later course of the spermatogenic process.

  10. p27Kip1 Modulates Axonal Transport by Regulating α-Tubulin Acetyltransferase 1 Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Morelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The protein p27Kip1 plays roles that extend beyond cell-cycle regulation during cerebral cortex development, such as the regulation of neuronal migration and neurite branching via signaling pathways that converge on the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Microtubule-dependent transport is essential for the maturation of neurons and the establishment of neuronal connectivity though synapse formation and maintenance. Here, we show that p27Kip1 controls the transport of vesicles and organelles along the axon of mice cortical projection neurons in vitro. Moreover, suppression of the p27Kip1 ortholog, dacapo, in Drosophila melanogaster disrupts axonal transport in vivo, leading to the reduction of locomotor activity in third instar larvae and adult flies. At the molecular level, p27Kip1 stabilizes the α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1, thereby promoting the acetylation of microtubules, a post-translational modification required for proper axonal transport. : Morelli et al. report that p27Kip1/Dacapo modulates the acetylation of microtubules in axons via stabilization of ATAT1, the main α-tubulin acetyltransferase. Its conditional loss leads to the reduction of bidirectional axonal transport of vesicles and mitochondria in vitro in mice and in vivo in Drosophila. Keywords: p27Kip1, dacapo, acetylation, axonal transport, ATAT1, alpha-tubulin, HDAC6, Drosophila, mouse, cerebral cortex

  11. The usability of WeChat as a mobile and interactive medium in student-centered medical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Gao, Furong; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Jieping; Li, Siguang; Xu, Guo-Tong; Xu, Lei; Chen, Jianjun; Lu, Lixia

    2017-09-01

    Biochemistry and cellular biology courses for medical students at Tongji University include the assessment that provides students with feedback to enhance their learning, which is a type of formative assessment. However, frequent instant feedback and guidance for students is often absent or inconsistently included in the teaching process. WeChat, the most popular Chinese social media, was introduced in biochemistry and cellular biology course. A WeChat official account (OA) was set up as an instant interactive platform. Over a period of two semesters, OA sent 73 push notifications. The components included course notices, preclass thought questions, after-class study materials, answer questions and feedback, simulation exercises, teacher-student interaction, and research progress relevant to the course. WeChat OA served as an active-learning teaching tool, provided more frequent feedback and guidance to students, and facilitated better student-centered communication in the teaching process. Using the WeChat OA in medical teaching emphasized interactive, interoperable, effective, engaging, adaptable, and more participatory teaching styles. As a new platform, WeChat OA was free, Internet-reliant, and easily managed. Using this new medium as a communication tool accelerated further advancement of instant feedback and improvement in teaching activities. Notifications and interactive feedback via the mobile social medium WeChat OA anytime and anywhere facilitated a student-centered teaching mode. Use of WeChat OA significantly increased the proportion of students interactively participating and resulted in a high degree of student satisfaction. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):421-425, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab in Germany

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    Diedrich Sabine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral polio vaccine (OPV containing Sabin strain LSc-2ab. The vaccination schedule was changed from OPV to an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV containing wild polio virus type 1 strain Mahoney in 1998. In the present study, we assessed potential differences in neutralising antibody titres to Sabin and CHAT in persons with a history of either OPV, IPV, or OPV with IPV booster. Methods Neutralisation poliovirus antibodies against CHAT and Sabin 1 were measured in sera of 41 adults vaccinated with OPV. Additionally, sera from 28 children less than 10 years of age and immunised with IPV only were analysed. The neutralisation assay against poliovirus was performed according to WHO guidelines. Results The neutralisation activity against CHAT in adults with OPV vaccination history was significantly lower than against Sabin poliovirus type 1 strains (Wilcoxon signed-rank test P Conclusion The lack of neutralising antibodies against the CHAT strain in persons vaccinated with OPV might be associated with an increased risk of reinfection with the CHAT polio virus type 1, and this implies a putative risk of transmission of the virus to polio-free communities. We strongly suggest that laboratory workers who were immunised with OPV receive a booster vaccination with IPV before handling CHAT in the laboratory.

  13. Extending IM beyond the Reference Desk: A Case Study on the Integration of Chat Reference and Library-Wide Instant Messaging Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Chan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Openfire is an open source IM network and a single unified application that meets the needs of chat reference and internal communications. In Fall 2009, the California State University San Marcos (CSUSM Library began use of Openfire and other Jive software instant messaging technologies, to simultaneously improve our existing IM-integrated chat reference software and implement an internal IM network. This case study describes the chat reference and internal communications environment at the CSUSM Library and the selection, implementation, and evaluation of Openfire. In addition, the authors discuss the benefits of deploying an integrated instant messaging and chat reference network.

  14. Regulation of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in L6 cells by polyamines and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, B G; Pegg, A E

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of rat L6 cells in culture to exogenous polyamines led to a very large increase in the activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. Spermine was more potent than spermidine in bringing about this increase, but in both cases the elevated acetyltransferase activity increased the cellular conversion of spermidine into putrescine. The N1-acetyltransferase turned over very rapidly in the L6 cells, with a half-life of 9 min after spermidine and 18 min after spermine. A wide variety of synthetic polyamine analogues also brought about a substantial induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. These included sym-norspermidine, sym-norspermine, sym-homospermidine, N4-substituted spermidine derivatives, 1,3,6-triaminohexane, 1,4,7-triaminoheptane and deoxyspergualin, which were comparable with spermidine in their potency, and N1N8-bis(ethyl)spermidine, N1N9-bis(ethyl)homospermidine, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and 1,1'-[(methylethanediylidene)dinitrilo]bis(3-amino-guanidine ), which were even more active than spermidine. It is suggested that these polyamine analogues may bring about a decrease in cellular polyamines not only by inhibiting biosynthesis but by stimulating the degradation of spermidine into putrescine. PMID:3800951

  15. Influence of WeChat on sleep quality among undergraduates in Chongqing, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Lin, Qianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Runzhi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that social media is associated with sleep quality. WeChat (a native social media in China) is very popular in China, especially among the youth. In the second quarter of 2016, Tencent's WeChat had 806 million monthly active users. The study sought to identify the influence of WeChat on the sleep quality among undergraduate students. A cross-sectional survey adopted a multi-stage stratified sampling survey to investigate undergraduates in Chongqing, China. Data were collected on 1979 eligible adults, aged 20.27 (SD: 1.26) years old, using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality. Respondents aged 20.27 ± 1.26 years included 535 (27.0%) males, and 1311 (66.3%) reported as having poor sleep quality. Of the 1979 participants, 1320 (66.70%) were WeChat users. In multivariable analyses, gender, grade, nationality, living costs, the student leader, the only child, type of university, WeChat usage was associated with domains of PSQI among undergraduates ( p  students.

  16. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake. These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  17. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline and its changes in the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Keisuke; Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Okuda, Kunio

    1975-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), its structural changes in the digestive tract, and hepatic uptake have been investigated in rats using 14 C-labeled ( 14 CH 3 attached to N of choline) and 3 H-labeled (at C 5 of pyrimidine) compounds. The results indicate that: 1) CDP-choline is relatively stable in the stomach, but is quickly degraded into cytidine and choline in the intestine; 2) The hepatic uptakes of 14 C and 3 H reach the maximum in two to three hours after oral administration; 3) Whereas the amount of 14 C remaining in the gut is inversely related to the hepatic uptake, no similar correlation is seen with 3 H-labeled CDP-choline, and 4) Extrahepatic uptake of 14 C and 3 H is very small. The possibility of phosphorylation in the mucosa of choline and cytidine has been discussed, based on the differences in relative amount of radioactivity in individual broken-down products in the intestinal lumen and mucosa. (auth.)

  19. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  20. Behavioural effects of chronic manipulations of dietary choline in senescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaro, A; Paschero, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Senescent rats were maintained on choline-deficient and choline-enriched diets. The modifications in rat behaviour caused by the chronic manipulations of dietary choline were studied in two schedules of operant conditioning. 2. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the schedule of reinforcement, in a 100 min trial, was changed from a fixed ratio to a fixed interval schedule. In the "reversal" test the contingency for food delivery was switched four times from one lever to the other in a two lever Skinner box. 3. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the choline enriched group (430 mg/Kg/day) showed the same reduction of responses/reinforcement as controls, from the beginning to the end of trial; in the same group the time course reduction of responses/reinforcement became significant earlier than in the control group. The deficient-choline group in the last 40 min of "periodic conditioning" trial gave a reduction of responses/reinforcement greater than controls and one rat in the group did not learn the change of experimental schedule and extinguished its operant behaviour. 4. In the "reversal" test, the choline-enriched diet (320 mg/Kg/day) improved the reinforced responses in the IV reversal; one rat of the deficient-choline group could not learn the new operant schedule since the first reversal and continued to respond on the same lever during the whole of the test.

  1. Comparison of the computational NMR chemical shifts of choline with the experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, C; Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Ghandi, K

    2012-01-01

    One of the main biological markers of the presence of cancer in living patients is an over-expression of total choline (tCho), which is the sum of free choline and its derivatives. 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, or H-MRS, enables the quantification of tCho via its proton spectra, and thus has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for the presence of cancer and an accurate early indicator of the response of cancer to treatment. However, it remains difficult to quantify individual choline derivatives, since they share a large structural similarity ((CH 3 ) 3 -N + -CH 2 -CH 2 -O-), of which the strongest signal detectable by MRS is that of the choline h ead group : the three methyl groups bonded to the nitrogen. This work used ACENet, a high performance computing system, to attempt to model the NMR parameters of choline derivatives, with the focus of this report being free choline. Optimized structures were determined using Density Functional Theory and the B3LYP electron correlation functional. The Polarizable Continuum Model was used to evaluate solvent effects. The Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital method was found to be the superior method for calculating the NMR parameters of cholines.

  2. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of [methyl- 3 H]methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the [ 3 H]PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine

  3. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  4. Association with the origin recognition complex suggests a novel role for histone acetyltransferase Hat1p/Hat2p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenblatt Jack F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modifications have been implicated in the regulation of transcription and, more recently, in DNA replication and repair. In yeast, a major conserved histone acetyltransferase, Hat1p, preferentially acetylates lysine residues 5 and 12 on histone H4. Results Here, we report that a nuclear sub-complex consisting of Hat1p and its partner Hat2p interacts physically and functionally with the origin recognition complex (ORC. While mutational inactivation of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT gene HAT1 alone does not compromise origin firing or initiation of DNA replication, a deletion in HAT1 (or HAT2 exacerbates the growth defects of conditional orc-ts mutants. Thus, the ORC-associated Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase activity suggests a novel linkage between histone modification and DNA replication. Additional genetic and biochemical evidence points to the existence of partly overlapping histone H3 acetyltransferase activities in addition to Hat1p/Hat2p for proper DNA replication efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrated a dynamic association of Hat1p with chromatin during S-phase that suggests a role of this enzyme at the replication fork. Conclusion We have found an intriguing new association of the Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase in addition to its previously known role in nuclear chromatin assembly (Hat1p/Hat2p-Hif1p. The participation of a distinct Hat1p/Hat2p sub-complex suggests a linkage of histone H4 modification with ORC-dependent DNA replication.

  5. Interaction between cytotoxic effects of γ-radiation and folate deficiency in relation to choline reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Vipen; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2009-01-01

    The search for non-toxic radio-protective drugs has yielded many potential agents but most of these compounds have certain amount of toxicity. Recent studies have indicated that bio-molecules such as folate and choline might be of radio-protective value as they are, within broad dose ranges, non-toxic to humans and experimental animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate choline dependent adaptive response to potential synergistic cytotoxic effect of folate deficiency and γ-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on folate sufficient diet (FSD) and folate free diet (FFD) based on AIN-93 M formula, were subjected to 1-4 Gy total body γ-irradiation. To investigate liver DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) were quantified. A significant increase in liver DNA AP sites with concomitant depletion of liver choline reserves was observed when γ-radiation was combined with folate deficiency. Further work in this direction suggested that cytotoxic interaction between folate deficiency and gamma radiation might induce utilization of choline and choline containing moieties by modifying levels of key regulatory enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and choline oxidase (ChoOx). Another major finding of these studies is that significant liver damage at higher doses of radiation (3-4 Gy), might release considerable amounts of choline reserves to serum. In conclusion, a plausible interpretation of the present studies is that folate deprivation and γ-radiation interact to mobilize additional choline reserves of hepatic tissue, for redistribution to other organs, which could not be utilized by folate deficiency alone. Present results clearly indicated a distinct choline pool in liver and kidney tissues that could be utilized by folate deficient animals only under radiation stress conditions

  6. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). On the other hand, as dietary choline increased, the total lipid and triglyceride in liver decreased linearly and liver phospholipid increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the lipotropic activity of choline may be associated with increasing phospholipid at a high dietary choline level. According to broken-line regression, the choline requirements for weight gain and feed intake were 810 and 823 mg/kg, respectively, but higher requirement should be considered to prevent perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend <0.01 comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed for betaine or total choline+betaine intakes. For choline-containing compounds, lower colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake.These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  8. Proposal and Evaluation of Sequencing Words in Chat Conversation between Japanese and Chinese using Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    李, 芬慧; 由井薗, 隆也

    2010-01-01

    日中翻訳チャットにおいて単語を並べた会話によるチャットコミュニケーションを提案する.比較評価のために,通常の文章チャットによる評価実験も行った.その結果,日中翻訳チャットにおいて,(1)単語チャットは会話速度や会話内容の理解において文章チャットと同等に使えること,(2)利用者は,単語チャットよりは文章チャットを好む傾向があること,(3)翻訳された会話の理解は日本人と中国人とで文化的違いがある可能性が得られた.今後は単語チャットの応用を検討する予定である. : We propose a chat conversation between Japanese and Chinese using machine translation by sequencing words. By comparison with a conventional chat using machine translation, it is showed that (1) sequencing words in the chat is as same speed and understanding as the...

  9. The chatting gathering as a methodological strategy in in-service learning: moving along dialogical dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Alonso

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an experience of in-service training carried out by a group of educators in literacy. The novelty of the undertaking lies in the methodological proposal analysed: using “chatting gatherings” as a methodological strategy, which supports critical reflection and the construction of knowledge, both in in-service training of professionals and in basic adult education. This experience reveals the nature of learning achieved through dialogical educational processes. Further, it allows us to observe the impact that they may have on the improvement of the professionals’ educational practices.

  10. IRC on your dime? What you really need to know about Internet relay chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERayome, J.; Romig, S., LLNL

    1998-05-22

    The purpose of this paper is to describe recent trends CIAC has encountered while working with sites that have been compromised. Frequently, the intruders set up and run Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to exchange information and to show off their success at having compromised a site. Invariably, this protocol consumes bandwidth, uses CPU cycles and is a source of embarrassment for the site. This paper focuses on these negative aspects of IRC and concedes that one can cite numerous examples where IRC is used in a positive manner.

  11. Fault Detection and Diagnosis System in Process industry Based on Big Data and WeChat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zengqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault detection and diagnosis information in process industry can be received, anytime and anywhere, based on bigdata and WeChat with mobile phone, which got rid of constraints that can only check Distributed Control System (DCS in the central control room or look over in office. Then, fault detection, diagnosis information sharing can be provided, and what’s more, fault detection alarm range, code and inform time can be personalized. The pressure of managers who worked on process industry can be release with the mobile information system.

  12. Design and Implementation of Mobile Blended Learning Model Based on WeChat Public Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Merging together the ideas of mobile learning, blended learning and flipped classroom, a Mobile Blended Learning Model (MBLM is constructed. Based on WeChat Public Platform (WPP, MBLM can optimize the instructional process and improve the learning efficiency. A Mobile Blended Learning System(MBLS is implemented by using MBLM, and it is constructed by both WPP and auxiliary learning system which based on Java Web. This system has reasonable designed function, easy operation, and beautiful interface, so it can effectively promote the popularization of MBLM.

  13. Unusual nocturnal feeding by Brown Rock-chat Cercomela fusca (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown Rock-chat is a diurnal insectivorous bird commonly associated with human habitations. I report here nocturnal foraging of the species in and around Bikaner in Rajasthan. The birds showed a marked bimodal activity during their nocturnal foraging which peaked in early morning and late evening hours. Bright sodium-vapour lights that attracted a horde of insects during monsoons offered ideal foraging opportunities for the birds. This behavior is explained here as an adaptation to maximize their food intake during the period when the birds breed and their nutritional requirements are naturally high.

  14. Cholinergic drugs as therapeutic tools in inflammatory diseases: participation of neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) from acetylcoenzime A and choline. This reaction occurs not only in pre-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system and post-ganglionic parasympathetic nervous fibers but also in non neuronal cells. This knowledge led to expand the role of ACh as a neurotransmitter and to consider it as a "cytotransmitter" and also to evaluate the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system comprising ACh, ChAT, acetylcholinesterase, and the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors, outside the nervous system. This review analyzes the participation of cholinergic system in inflammation and discusses the role of different muscarinic and nicotinic drugs that are being used to treat skin inflammatory disorders, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as, intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases, among others, to assess the potential application of these compounds as therapeutic tools.

  15. Experience in using ceretone (choline alfoscerate in brain concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics are used to treat patients who have sustained concussion of the brain and complain of reductions in memory and working capacity, as well as emotional disorders. The efficacy of ceretone® (choline alfoscerate was studied in 76 patients (45 men and 31 women whose age was 21-56 years who had sustained brain concussion and had complaints of headache, easy fatigability, nocturnal sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and bad mood. Thirty-nine patients received intravenous ceretone® in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days; the other 37 patients formed a control group. A one-year follow-up indicated that ceretone® had a positive effect on health, autonomic, and emotional status and working capacity.

  16. "Floating signifiers": Negotiating the meaning of national in Montenegro, at the Internet chat room Café del Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čarna Brković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the analysis of the narratives that deal with the sentiment of national belonging in Montenegro within the chat room Café del Montenegro. The practice of the Internet chat room users is perceived as cultural engagement – „practicing" the State and the emotion of national identification of its own kind. By writing, arguing, negotiating the meaning of the state and nation an abundance of different and broken knowledge’s are created- many histories, geographies, ethics and politics are offered. On the one hand, these directly undermines, jeopardizes and questions the power of the State narrative, hitherto negotiating the nation, the State, authentic devotion, simultaneously manufacturing the state-nation as a reality. The result of mutual correspondence in the chat room is persistent negotiation of the meaning of national categories in Montenegro over the years.

  17. Histone acetyltransferase PCAF is required for Hedgehog-Gli-dependent transcription and cancer cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malatesta, Martina; Steinhauer, Cornelia; Mohammad, Faizaan

    2013-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic patterning and development of many tissues and organs as well as in maintaining and repairing mature tissues in adults. Uncontrolled activation of the Hh-Gli pathway has been implicated in developmental abnormalities as well...... that the histone acetyltransferase PCAF/KAT2B is an important factor of the Hh pathway. Specifically, we show that PCAF depletion impairs Hh activity and reduces expression of Hh target genes. Consequently, PCAF downregulation in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells leads to decreased proliferation and increased...... apoptosis. In addition, we found that PCAF interacts with GLI1, the downstream effector in the Hh-Gli pathway, and that PCAF or GLI1 loss reduces the levels of H3K9 acetylation on Hh target gene promoters. Finally, we observed that PCAF silencing reduces the tumor-forming potential of neural stem cells...

  18. Mechanism by which arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 ablation causes insulin resistance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camporez, João Paulo; Wang, Yongliang; Faarkrog, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2) gene has recently been identified as associated with insulin resistance in humans. To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which alterations in Nat2 activity might cause insulin resistance, we...... examined murine ortholog Nat1 knockout (KO) mice. Nat1 KO mice manifested whole-body insulin resistance, which could be attributed to reduced muscle, liver, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Hepatic and muscle insulin resistance were associated with marked increases in both liver and muscle...... adipose tissue, and hepatocytes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Nat1 deletion promotes reduced mitochondrial activity and is associated with ectopic lipid-induced insulin resistance. These results provide a potential genetic link among mitochondrial dysfunction with increased ectopic lipid...

  19. Cigarette Smoking, N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylation Status, and Bladder Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcus, P.M.; Hayes, R.B.; Vineis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder...... cancer risk therefore has been hypothesized to be stronger among slow acetylators. The few studies to formally explore such a possibility have produced inconsistent results, however. To assess this potential gene-environment interaction in as many bladder cancer studies as possible and to summarize...... results, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 16 bladder cancer studies conducted in the general population (n = 1999 cases), Most had been conducted in European countries. Because control subjects were unavailable for a number of these studies, we used a case-series design, which can be used...

  20. Primary structure of the human M2 mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppel, R.L.; McNeilage, L.J.; Surh, C.D.; Van De Water, J.; Spithill, T.W.; Whittingham, S.; Gershwin, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency of autoantibodies to a M r 70,000 mitochondrial antigen a component of the M2 antigen complex. The authors have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects

  1. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudeen, P.K.; Reiter, R.J.; Texas Univ., San Antonio

    1980-01-01

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  2. The adipogenic acetyltransferase Tip60 targets activation function 1 of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beekum, Olivier; Brenkman, Arjan B; Grøntved, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a key role in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in adipocytes, by regulating their differentiation, maintenance, and function. The transcriptional activity of PPARgamma is dictated by the set...... in cells, and through use of chimeric proteins, we established that coactivation by Tip60 critically depends on the N-terminal activation function 1 of PPARgamma, a domain involved in isotype-specific gene expression and adipogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the endogenous Tip...... of proteins with which this nuclear receptor interacts under specific conditions. Here we identify the HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein 60 (Tip60) as a novel positive regulator of PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we found that PPARgamma and the acetyltransferase Tip60 interact...

  3. A method to detect transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression in intact animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, R.; Jastreboff, M.M.; Chiu, Chang Fang; Ito, Etsuro; Bertino, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid procedure is described for assaying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in intact animals following transfection of the RSV CAT plasmid into mouse bone marrow cells by electroporation. The reconstituted mice were injected with [ 14 C]chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extracts of 24-h urine samples were analyzed by TLC autoradiography for the excretion of 14 C-labeled metabolites. CAT expression in vivo can be detected by the presence of acetylated 14 C-labeled metabolites in the urine within 1 week after bone marrow transplantation and, under the conditions described, these metabolites can be detected for at least 3 months. CAT expression in intact mice as monitored by the urine assay correlates with the CAT expression in the hematopoietic tissues assayed in vitro. This method offers a quick mode of screening for introduced CAT gene expression in vivo without sacrificing the mice

  4. Histone acetyltransferase inhibitors antagonize AMP-activated protein kinase in postmortem glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation on protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle to better understand the mechanism by which AMPK regulates postmortem glycolysis and meat quality. Methods A total of 32 mice were randomly assigned to four groups and intraperitoneally injected with 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a specific activator of AMPK, AICAR and histone acetyltransferase inhibitor II, or AICAR, Trichostatin A (TSA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase I and II and Nicotinamide (NAM, an inhibitor of the Sirt family deacetylases. After mice were euthanized, the Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected at 0 h, 45 min, and 24 h postmortem. AMPK activity, protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle were measured. Results Activation of AMPK by AICAR significantly increased glycolysis in postmortem muscle. At the same time, it increased the total acetylated proteins in muscle 45 min postmortem. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase inhibitors reduced AMPK activation induced increase in the total acetylated proteins and glycolytic rate in muscle early postmortem, while histone deacetylase inhibitors further promoted protein acetylation and glycolysis. Several bands of proteins were detected to be differentially acetylated in muscle with different glycolytic rates. Conclusion Protein acetylation plays an important regulatory role in postmortem glycolysis. As AMPK mediates the effects of pre-slaughter stress on postmortem glycolysis, protein acetylation is likely a mechanism by which antemortem stress influenced postmortem metabolism and meat quality though the exact mechanism is to be elucidated.

  5. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Burkhard; Jurastow, Innokentij; Bader, Sandra; Ringer, Cornelia; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Diener, Martin; Kummer, Wolfgang; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Weihe, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFP (ChAT) ) and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFP (ChAT) cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFP (ChAT) cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFP (ChAT) cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1) was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFP (ChAT) cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). EGFP (ChAT) cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18), transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1) and 2 (COX2). The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFP (ChAT) cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFP (ChAT) brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  6. Variable Omission of "ne" in Real-Time French Chat: A Corpus-Driven Comparison of Educational and Non-Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the variable omission of the French negative particle "ne" (the first marker of verbal negation) in synchronous (i.e., real-time) electronic communication environments. Patterns of variation in a corpus of non-educational chat (i.e., free, public-access Internet chat) are analyzed and compared to data produced by first-,…

  7. Frequency and Content of Chat Questions by Time of Semester at the University of Central Florida: Implications for Training, Staffing and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Donna; Bishop, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    The more than 4,000 "chats" received by the University of Central Florida's (UCF) Ask-A-Librarian digital reference service are the subject of this practitioner-based, descriptive case study. Question content from chats received during four semesters between January 2005 and May 2006 are categorized and plotted, by semester, to show the…

  8. Accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in Detecting Autism and Other Developmental Disorders in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Tan, Vivian Wee-Yen; Lau, Peter Sie-Teck; Kiyu, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in detecting toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in community mother and child health clinics. We analysed 19,297 eligible toddlers (15-36 months) who had "M-CHAT" performed in…

  9. Occupational Therapy Intervention in a child with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Caseiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that can result in several damages including developmental delay and intellectual disability of the affected child. This case study describes the occupational therapy intervention in a child with Cri-du-chat syndrome that was followed from two to four years old, in weekly sessions, at a school hospital in the state of São Paulo. Data from medical records, family reports, and occupational therapy sessions were used for case description. The initial assessment showed that the child was hypotonic, stood up only with support, and explored objects by taking them to the mouth. Occupational Therapy assistance aimed to stimulate sensorimotor performance skills (perceptual, neuromuscleskeletal and motor processing and cognitive integration and components (attention spectrum, sequencing, and learning, through make-believe activities and participation in the activities of daily living (ADL. Moreover, it was also necessary to intervene directly in the school context and the child’s family, advising parents to avoid overprotection. Through the jointffort of the multidisciplinary team and the child’s family, it was possible to contribute to the improvement of bodily functions, allowing an increase in activities and participation, considering the child’s personal factors and environmental conditions, with consequent discharge from ambulatory attendance of occupational therapy.

  10. Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room: Global and Local Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Shun Eva Lam

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how global practices of English on the Internet intersect with local practices of English in the territorial or national sphere in constructing the language experiences of immigrant learners. Using a multi-contextual approach to language socialization, this paper examines the social and discursive practices in a Chinese/English bilingual chat room and how this Internet chat room provides an additional context of language socialization for two teenage Chinese immigrants in the US. Analysis of discourse, interview, and observational data reveals that a mixed-code variety of English is adopted and developed among the focal youth and their peers around the globe to construct their relationships as bilingual speakers of English and Cantonese. This language variety served to create a collective ethnic identity for these young people and allowed the girls to assume a new identity in speaking English that doesn't follow the social categories of English-speaking Americans versus Cantonese-speaking Chinese in their local American context. This paper makes the case for studying how people navigate across contexts of socialization in the locality of the nation-state and the virtual environments of the Internet to articulate new ways of using English.

  11. Conversational elements of online chatting: speaking practice for distance language learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Tudini

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in the delivery of language courses at a distance is to provide adequate scaffolding and monitoring1 of learners to assist them in the development of their interlanguage. As well as being one of the main reasons students enroll in language courses, oral interaction is considered beneficial to interlanguage development since it provides opportunities for negotiation of meaning. In the case of campus-based students, learners' progress in speaking the target language is supported and monitored mainly in the classroom. If non campus-based or online students do not attend face-to-face classes, how do they find opportunities for oral interaction? Using a Conversational Analysis and Second Language Acquisition perspective, the author considers elements which are common to both face-to-face oral interactions and chatting via a computer, with a view to assessing the potential of synchronous text-based communication tools to support the development of the speaking skills and interlanguage of distance language learners. This is done by reviewing findings of previous studies on synchronous text-based communication tools and identifying selected characteristics of oral interaction which are present in the chat sessions of two groups of campus-based intermediate level learners of Italian. In particular, the study focuses on repairs and incorporation of target forms, variety of speech acts, particularly questions and clarification requests, and the presence of discourse markers.

  12. Conceptualisation and development of the Conversational Health Literacy Assessment Tool (CHAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Jonathan; Hawkins, Melanie; Batterham, Roy; Dodson, Sarity; Osborne, Richard H; Beauchamp, Alison

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this study was to develop a tool to support health workers' ability to identify patients' multidimensional health literacy strengths and challenges. The tool was intended to be suitable for administration in healthcare settings where health workers must identify health literacy priorities as the basis for person-centred care. Development was based on a qualitative co-design process that used the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) as a framework to generate questions. Health workers were recruited to participate in an online consultation, a workshop, and two rounds of pilot testing. Participating health workers identified and refined ten questions that target five areas of assessment: supportive professional relationships, supportive personal relationships, health information access and comprehension, current health behaviours, and health promotion barriers and support. Preliminary evidence suggests that application of the Conversational Health Literacy Assessment Tool (CHAT) can support health workers to better understand the health literacy challenges and supportive resources of their patients. As an integrated clinical process, the CHAT can supplement existing intake and assessment procedures across healthcare settings to give insight into patients' circumstances so that decisions about care can be tailored to be more appropriate and effective.

  13. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad I. Hammoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  14. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-10-22

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.

  15. Analysis of chats on French internet forums about drugs and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosse-Cantaloube, Lucie; Lacroix, Isabelle; Rousseau, Vanessa; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Some pregnant women use the internet to search for medical information. However, online information is not controlled. The objectives were to describe French online chats about drugs and pregnancy and evaluate the quality and reliability of information shared by internet users. This French descriptive study was performed in November 2012. In order to identify drugs and pregnancy-related forum websites, we used three French key words: forum, pregnancy and drug. We explored the first 10 websites from the search result. Diseases were described using the International Classification of Diseases and drugs classified with the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes and the FDA risk classification. We selected 115 questions that were mainly posted by pregnant internet users in French forums. Drugs raising questions were mostly "nervous system," "anti-infective for systemic use" and "respiratory system" drugs. The risk during pregnancy for nearly half of these drugs had not been evaluated properly. Health professionals were only involved in 7% of the 214 answers. Internet users advised to take a drug in 21% of their answers. Thirty-four percent of those recommended drugs had not been well-evaluated or were potentially at risk during pregnancy. Finally, 12% of the answers could be at risk for pregnant woman. This study shows that information related to drugs and pregnancy in online chats could be at risk for pregnant women. Internet users must be aware that online forums are not reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Current Status and a New Approach for Chinese Doctors to Obtain Medical Knowledge Using Social Media: A Study of WeChat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. WeChat is the most widely and frequently used mobile social media in China and has profoundly integrated into the daily life of many Chinese people. A variety of medicine-related information may be found on WeChat. As users of WeChat, doctors often access health-related information and even provide a variety of medical services or participate in various types of mobile communication with patients. Objective. This study is the first attempt to quantitatively explore the approaches by doctors of acquiring medical knowledge using Internet resources especially social media such as WeChat to access knowledge. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was designed, distributed, collected, and analyzed utilizing the online survey tool Sojump. WeChat was adopted to randomly release the questionnaires using snowball sampling and collect the results after a certain amount of time. Results. 292 valid questionnaires out of 314 questionnaires by clinical doctors were analyzed. Regarding the current status of accessing medical knowledge among doctors, more than 60% of the doctors regularly used the Internet to search for medical knowledge, 19.86% used WeChat as a channel to acquire medical knowledge, and only 23.97% were satisfied with acquiring medical knowledge through the Internet. Regarding the frequency of WeChat usage, nearly 40% of the doctors accessed WeChat more than 20 times per day and over 70% used WeChat for over half an hour every day. Regarding the status of accessing medical knowledge through WeChat, nearly half (47.26% of the doctors stated that they often read professional medical articles on WeChat and the most common channel is friends’ moment sharing and public account subscriptions, with selection rates of 59.93% and 60.27%, respectively. The most desirable mode of acquiring medical knowledge through WeChat was the following: “professional medical knowledge from peers, with a reminder.” Conclusion. WeChat has become a

  17. Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type reaction ... Abstract. A three-component Mannich-type reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ketones, and amines was catalyzed by a novel ... Journal of Chemical Sciences | News.

  18. Bronsted acid-functionalized choline chloride-butane sultone for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P PADMA PRIYA

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... Choline chloride and 1,4-butane sultone were combined to obtain a sulphonic acid-functionalized ..... Knifton J F and Sanderson J R 1990 Method for produc- ... alkenes via the Knoevenagel condensation Tetrahedron. Lett.

  19. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  20. Lewis acidic (choline chloride.3ZnCl2) ionic liquid: A green and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline chloride; zinc chloride; ionic liquid; one-pot; triarylmethane. 1. Introduction ... applications such as zinc electroplating11 and batter- ies.12 It has also been used as ... as indicated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), the catalyst was ...

  1. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  2. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  3. Serial plasma choline measurements after cardiac arrest in patients undergoing mild therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective observational pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Storm

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Choline is related to phospholipid metabolism and is a marker for global ischaemia with a small reference range in healthy volunteers. The aim of our study was to characterize the early kinetics of plasma free choline in patients after cardiac arrest. Additionally, we investigated the potential of plasma free choline to predict neurological outcome. METHODS: Twenty patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit were included in this prospective, observational trial. All patients were enrolled between May 2010 and May 2011. They received post cardiac arrest treatment including mild therapeutic hypothermia which was initiated with a combination of cold fluid and a feedback surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Sixteen blood samples per patient were analysed for plasma free choline levels within the first week after resuscitation. Choline was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Most patients showed elevated choline levels on admission (median 14.8 µmol/L; interquartile range; IQR 9.9-20.1 which subsequently decreased. 48 hours after cardiac arrest choline levels in all patients reached subnormal levels at a median of 4.0 µmol/L (IQR 3-4.9; p = 0.001. Subsequently, choline levels normalized within seven days. There was no significant difference in choline levels when groups were analyzed in relation to neurological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate a choline deficiency in the early postresucitation phase. This could potentially result in impaired cell membrane recovery. The detailed characterization of the early choline time course may aid in planning of choline supplementation trials. In a limited number of patients, choline was not promising as a biomarker for outcome prediction.

  4. Optimizing Fracture Treatments in a Mississippian "Chat" Reservoir, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. David Newell; Saibal Bhattacharya; Alan Byrnes; W. Lynn Watney; Willard Guy

    2005-10-01

    This project is a collaboration of Woolsey Petroleum Corporation (a small independent operator) and the Kansas Geological Survey. The project will investigate geologic and engineering factors critical for designing hydraulic fracture treatments in Mississippian ''chat'' reservoirs. Mississippian reservoirs, including the chat, account for 159 million m3 (1 billion barrels) of the cumulative oil produced in Kansas. Mississippian reservoirs presently represent {approx}40% of the state's 5.6*106m3 (35 million barrels) annual production. Although geographically widespread, the ''chat'' is a heterogeneous reservoir composed of chert, cherty dolomite, and argillaceous limestone. Fractured chert with micro-moldic porosity is the best reservoir in this 18- to 30-m-thick (60- to 100-ft) unit. The chat will be cored in an infill well in the Medicine Lodge North field (417,638 m3 [2,626,858 bbls] oil; 217,811,000 m3 [7,692,010 mcf] gas cumulative production; discovered 1954). The core and modern wireline logs will provide geological and petrophysical data for designing a fracture treatment. Optimum hydraulic fracturing design is poorly defined in the chat, with poor correlation of treatment size to production increase. To establish new geologic and petrophysical guidelines for these treatments, data from core petrophysics, wireline logs, and oil-field maps will be input to a fracture-treatment simulation program. Parameters will be established for optimal size of the treatment and geologic characteristics of the predicted fracturing. The fracturing will be performed and subsequent wellsite tests will ascertain the results for comparison to predictions. A reservoir simulation program will then predict the rate and volumetric increase in production. Comparison of the predicted increase in production with that of reality, and the hypothetical fracturing behavior of the reservoir with that of its actual behavior, will serve as tests of

  5. Differences in Brand Image of Online Chat Application of Blackberry Messenger, Whatsapp, and Line for Bina Nusantara University’s Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuspuji C. B. Wicaksono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was written to find out whether there were any differences on brand image for each online chat Application such as Blackberry Messenger, Whatsapp, and LINE based on six factors of the brand image which are: benefits, attributes, cultures, values, personality, and user. Data for the research were collected from questionnaires given to respondents who had used each mention online chat application. Then each respondent was asked to give scores based on the six factors of brand image for each online chat Application. Using the ANOVA method for testing the differences between brand images for each online chat application. The result reveales that there are differences in the brand image between BlackBerry Messenger, Whatsapp, and LINE for benefits, cultures, and values. There is no difference in attributes, and personality cannot be tested. The company that creates online chat application are expected to improve their brand image to distinguish one another differently.

  6. Analysis of innovation diffusion theory under “micro” environment - Survey analysis of application and promotion of WeChat among the youth group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since WeChat has been launched in 2011, as of the first quarter of 2015, the active users have reached 549 million per month1. WeChat has become the largest mobile instant messaging software among the user groups in Asia. Therefore, WeChat is no longer “micro”, and grabs the attention of more youth groups by virtue of the “micro” advantages in the Internet era in a way of low-priced new media. Through sorting 192 effective questionnaires recovered, this paper summarizes some transmitting tendency and suggestions of “micro” innovation diffusion from the research view of the concept of innovation diffusion theory, and development stage of WeChat in the youth group, based on the survey data and by the use of the statistics of informatics, qualitative and quantitative analysis method, so as to provide a certain theoretical basis for the future research of WeChat.

  7. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  8. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Tognoni, Christina M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2011-09-21

    Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the neuropathological response to seizures in the adult hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Uptake of [N-Me-3H]-choline by synaptosomes from the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of 3H-choline by isolated synaptosomes from the central nervous system of locust was studied at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 40 microM. Kinetic analysis of the saturable process revealed a high-affinity and a low-affinity system. The high-affinity uptake was competitively inhibited by hemicholinium-3 and was absolutely dependent on external sodium. Elevated potassium concentrations inhibited choline uptake. The choline uptake by insect synaptosomes was found to be remarkably resistant to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. The reduced choline uptake under depolarizing conditions (high potassium concentration or veratridine) in the absence of calcium implies that electrochemical gradients are important for high-affinity choline uptake. Depolarization of preloaded synaptosomes under appropriate conditions resulted in a significant release of newly accumulated choline radioactivity

  11. A Novel 6'-N-Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase, AAC(6')-Ial, from a Clinical Isolate of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Tatsuya; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Shimada, Kayo; Dahal, Rajan K; Mishra, Shyam K; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kirikae, Teruo; Pokhrel, Bharat M

    2016-03-01

    Serratia marcescens IOMTU115 has a novel 6'-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase-encoding gene, aac(6')-Ial. The encoded protein AAC(6')-Ial has 146 amino acids, with 91.8% identity to the amino acid sequence of AAC(6')-Ic in S. marcescens SM16 and 97.3% identity to the amino acid sequence of AAC(6')-Iap in S. marcescens WW4. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of aminoglycosides for Escherichia coli expressing AAC(6')-Ial were similar to those for E. coli expressing AAC(6')-Ic or AAC(6')-Iap. Thin-layer chromatography showed that AAC(6')-Ial, AAC(6')-Ic, or AAC(6')-Iap acetylated all the aminoglycosides tested, except for apramycin, gentamicin, and lividomycin. Kinetics assays revealed that AAC(6')-Ial is a functional acetyltransferase against aminoglycosides. The aac(6')-Ial gene was located on chromosomal DNA.

  12. Attitudes of Jordanian University Students towards Using Online Chat Discourse with Native Speakers of English for Improving Their Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Safi M.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Jordanian university students' attitudes towards using video and text chat discourse with anonymous native speakers of English to improve their English proficiency. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire was designed. The study sample consisted of 320 university students enrolled in two Jordanian universities. Results…

  13. Psychological Well-Being in Parents of Children with Angelman, Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Oliver, C.; Howlin, P.; Moss, J.; Petty, J.; Tunnicliffe, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current study focuses on mothers and fathers of children with three rare genetic syndromes that are relatively unexplored in terms of family experience: Angelman syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Cri du Chat syndrome. Method: Parents of children with Angelman syndrome (n = 15), Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 16) and Cri du…

  14. Social Behavior and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Howlin, Patricia; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Beaumont, Sarah; Griffith, Gemma M.; Petty, Jane; Tunnicliffe, Penny; Yates, Rachel; Villa, Darrelle; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) characteristics and social behavior in Angelman (AS; "n" ?=? 19; mean age ?=?10.35 years), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; "n" ?=? 15; mean age ?=?12.40 years), and Cri du Chat (CdCS, also known as 5 p-syndrome; "n" ?=? 19; mean age ?=? 8.80 years) syndromes. The proportion of…

  15. Internet Communication Disorder and the structure of the human brain: initial insights on WeChat addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Zhao, Zhiying; Sindermann, Cornelia; Xu, Lei; Fu, Meina; Li, Jialin; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Li, Keshuang; Kendrick, Keith M; Dai, Jing; Becker, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    WeChat represents one of the most popular smartphone-based applications for communication. Although the application provides several useful features that simplify daily life, a growing number of users spend excessive amounts of time on the application. This may lead to interferences with everyday life and even to addictive patterns of use. In the context of the ongoing discussion on Internet Communication Disorder (ICD), the present study aimed to better characterize the addictive potential of communication applications, using WeChat as an example, by examining associations between individual variations in tendencies towards WeChat addiction and brain structural variations in fronto-striatal-limbic brain regions. To this end levels of addictive tendencies, frequency of use and structural MRI data were assessed in n = 61 healthy participants. Higher tendencies towards WeChat addiction were associated with smaller gray matter volumes of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a key region for monitoring and regulatory control in neural networks underlying addictive behaviors. Moreover, a higher frequency of the paying function was associated with smaller nucleus accumbens volumes. Findings were robust after controlling for levels of anxiety and depression. The present results are in line with previous findings in substance and behavioral addictions, and suggest a similar neurobiological basis in ICD.

  16. The Usability of WeChat as a Mobile and Interactive Medium in Student-Centered Medical Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Gao, Furong; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Jieping; Li, Siguang; Xu, Guo-tong; Xu, Lei; Chen, Jianjun; Lu, Lixia

    2017-01-01

    Biochemistry and cellular biology courses for medical students at Tongji University include the assessment that provides students with feedback to enhance their learning, which is a type of formative assessment. However, frequent instant feedback and guidance for students is often absent or inconsistently included in the teaching process. WeChat,…

  17. WeChat Public Account Use Improves Clinical Control of Cough-Variant Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Lin, Shi-Hua; Zhu, Ding; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao; Li, Wen

    2018-03-14

    BACKGROUND WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application. Questionnaires on asthma and chronic cough, data on pulmonary function, blood-related items, follow-up adherence, and Emergency Department (ED) visits were collected at the initial visit and at 3 months. RESULTS A total of 67 participants completed the trial for analysis. FEV1/predicted and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased in WG (pWeChat as part of treatment and management of CVA can help patients learn about their disease and medications, as well as improve disease control and therapy outcomes.

  18. Deutsch, Doyc or Doitsch? Chatters as Languagers--The Case of a German-Turkish Chat Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnenkamp, Volker

    2008-01-01

    The paper looks at the process of online-languaging of adolescents with a migratory and ethnic Turkish background in a diasporic chat room. The multiple resources and voices used are analysed. One particular example is looked at more thoroughly to illustrate the process of languaging and how it is legitimised by the chatters themselves. Finally,…

  19. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  20. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia eTavares; Silvia eTavares; Markus eWirtz; Marcel Pascal Beier; Jochen eBogs; Jochen eBogs; Jochen eBogs; Ruediger eHell; Sara eAmâncio

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT protein fam...

  1. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family...

  2. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-...

  3. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  4. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profi...

  5. The histone acetyltransferase PsGcn5 mediates oxidative stress responses and is required for full virulence of Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Shusen; Chen, Qingqing; Qi, Rende

    2015-10-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histone acetyltransferase complexes are coactivators that are important for transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin. In this study, a gene (PsGcn5) from Phytophthora sojae encoding a histone acetyltransferase was identified as a homolog of one component of the histone acetyltransferase complex from yeasts to mammals. PsGcn5 was constitutively expressed in each stage tested, but had a slightly higher expression in sporulating hyphae and 3 h after infection. PsGcn5-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation. These mutants had normal development, but compared to wild type strains they had higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and significantly reduced virulence in soybean. Diaminobenzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H2O2 around the infection sites of PsGcn5-silenced mutants but not for wild type strains. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase by diphenyleneiodonium prevented host-derived H2O2 accumulation in soybean cells and restored infectious hyphal growth of the mutants. Thus, we concluded that PsGcn5 is important for growth under conditions of oxidative stress and contributes to the full virulence of P. sojae by suppressing the host-derived reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification and characterization of an N alpha-acetyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F J; Lin, L W; Smith, J A

    1988-10-15

    N alpha-Acetyltransferase, which catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the alpha-NH2 group of proteins and peptides, was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrated by protein sequence analysis to be NH2-terminally blocked. The enzyme was purified 4,600-fold to apparent homogeneity by successive purification steps using DEAE-Sepharose, hydroxylapatite, DE52 cellulose, and Affi-Gel blue. The Mr of the native enzyme was estimated to be 180,000 +/- 10,000 by gel filtration chromatography, and the Mr of each subunit was estimated to be 95,000 +/- 2,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has a pH optimum near 9.0, and its pI is 4.3 as determined by chromatofocusing on Mono-P. The enzyme catalyzed the transfer of an acetyl group to various synthetic peptides, including human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (1-24) and its [Phe2] analogue, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I (1-24), yeast alcohol dehydrogenase II (1-24), and human superoxide dismutase (1-24). These peptides contain either Ser or Ala as NH2-terminal residues which together with Met are the most commonly acetylated NH2-terminal residues (Persson, B., Flinta, C., von Heijne, G., and Jornvall, H. (1985) Eur. J. Biochem. 152, 523-527). Yeast enolase, containing a free NH2-terminal Ala residue, is known not to be N alpha-acetylated in vivo (Chin, C. C. Q., Brewer, J. M., and Wold, F. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1377-1384), and enolase (1-24), a synthetic peptide mimicking the protein's NH2 terminus, was not acetylated in vitro by yeast acetyltransferase. The enzyme did not catalyze the N alpha-acetylation of other synthetic peptides including ACTH(11-24), ACTH(7-38), ACTH(18-39), human beta-endorphin, yeast superoxide dismutase (1-24). Each of these peptides has an NH2-terminal residue which is rarely acetylated in proteins (Lys, Phe, Arg, Tyr, Val, respectively). Among a series of divalent cations, Cu2+ and Zn2+ were demonstrated to be

  7. Risks on N-acetyltransferase 2 and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Z

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zongheng Zhu,1 Jinshan Zhang,2 Wei Jiang,3 Xianjue Zhang,4 Youkong Li,4 Xiaoming Xu51Department of General Surgery, Huangshi Love & Health Hospital, Huangshi, 2Department of Tumor surgery, Huangshi Central Hospital, Huangshi, 3Department of Urinary Surgery, Huangshi No 5 Hospital, Huangshi, 4Department of Urinary Surgery Jingzhou Central Hospital, Jingzhou, 5Department of Bone Surgery, Jingzhou Central Hospital, Jingzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: It is known that bladder cancer disease is closely related to aromatic amine compounds, which could cause cancer by regulating of N-acetylation and N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2. The NAT2 slowed acetylation and would increase the risk of bladder cancer, with tobacco smoke being regarded as a risk factor for this increased risk. However, the relationship between NAT2 slow acetylation and bladder cancer is still debatable at present. This study aims to explore preliminarily correlation of NAT2 slow acetylation and the risk of bladder cancer.Methods: The articles were searched from PubMed, Cochran, McGrane English databases, CBM, CNKI, and other databases. The extraction of bladder cancer patients and a control group related with the NAT2 gene were detected by the state, and the referenced articles and publications were also used for data retrieval. Using a random effects model, the model assumes that the studies included in the analysis cases belong to the overall population in the study of random sampling, and considering the variables within and between studies. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 6.0 software, using the META module. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the literature study, 20 independent studies are included in this meta-analysis.Results: The results showed that the individual differences of bladder cancer susceptibility might be part of the metabolism of carcinogens. Slow acetylation status of bladder cancer associated with the pooled

  8. Identification of critical residues of the serotype modifying O-acetyltransferase of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanweer Farzaana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thirteen serotypes of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri have been recognised, all of which are capable of causing bacillary dysentery or shigellosis. With the emergence of the newer S. flexneri serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has only become more challenging. One of the factors responsible for the generation of serotype diversity is an LPS O-antigen modifying, integral membrane protein known as O-acetyltransferase or Oac. Oac functions by adding an acetyl group to a specific O-antigen sugar, thus changing the antigenic signature of the parent S. flexneri strain. Oac is a membrane protein, consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components. Oac bears homology to several known and predicted acetyltransferases with most homology existing in the N-terminal transmembrane (TM regions. Results In this study, the conserved motifs in the TM regions and in hydrophilic loops of S. flexneri Oac were targeted for mutagenesis with the aim of identifying the amino acid residues essential for the function of Oac. We previously identified three critical arginines–R73, R75 and R76 in the cytoplasmic loop 3 of Oac. Re-establishing that these arginines are critical, in this study we suggest a catalytic role for R73 and a structural role for R75 and R76 in O-acetylation. Serine-glycine motifs (SG 52–53, GS 138–139 and SYG 274–276, phenylalanine-proline motifs (FP 78–79 and FPV 282–84 and a tryptophan-threonine motif (WT141-142 found in TM segments and residues RK 110–111, GR 269–270 and D333 found in hydrophilic loops were also found to be critical to Oac function. Conclusions By studying the effect of the mutations on Oac’s function and assembly, an insight into the possible roles played by the chosen amino acids in Oac was gained. The transmembrane serine-glycine motifs and hydrophilic residues (RK 110–111, GR 269–270 and D333 were shown to have an affect on Oac assembly which suggests a structural role

  9. Pituitary adenoma in monozigotic twins with Cri du Chat syndome: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaz Gokhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are rare tumours of pediatric population. In etiology, genetic factors are more common than they are in adults. Because of the rarity of the cases, there are only a few large case studies in the literature. Pituitary tumours in children are often related with syndromes like MEN type 1, Carney Complex and Mc Cune Albright, but there is no case in the literature associated with Cri Du Chat syndrome. Statisticlly, it has been reported that, pediatric tumours occur more often in twins, in the pediatric population. Main treatment for prolactinomas is medical intervention with dopamine agonists, as in adults. Surgery is prefered when the tumour is resistant to medical treatment or shows mass effects around sellae. In that situation, as in adults, both transcranial and transsphenoidal approach is possible.

  10. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven; Gates, Bill; Podesta, John

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called Fireside Chat that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  11. Optimized Two-Party Video Chat with Restored Eye Contact Using Graphics Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Maarten; Rogmans, Sammy; Maesen, Steven; Bekaert, Philippe

    We present a practical system prototype to convincingly restore eye contact between two video chat participants, with a minimal amount of constraints. The proposed six-fold camera setup is easily integrated into the monitor frame, and is used to interpolate an image as if its virtual camera captured the image through a transparent screen. The peer user has a large freedom of movement, resulting in system specifications that enable genuine practical usage. Our software framework thereby harnesses the powerful computational resources inside graphics hardware, and maximizes arithmetic intensity to achieve over real-time performance up to 42 frames per second for 800 ×600 resolution images. Furthermore, an optimal set of fine tuned parameters are presented, that optimizes the end-to-end performance of the application to achieve high subjective visual quality, and still allows for further algorithmic advancement without loosing its real-time capabilities.

  12. Protein-energy malnutrition is frequent and precocious in children with cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, Violaine; de Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis

    2016-05-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is poorly reported in cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) (OMIM #123450), a genetic disease that causes developmental delay and global growth retardation. The objective was to determine the nutritional status at different ages in children with CDCS and factors associated with PEM. A questionnaire focused on growth and nutritional care was sent to 190 families. Among 36 analyzable questionnaires, growth and nutritional indices compatible with PEM occurred in 47% of patients: 19% before 6 months of age, 24% between 6-12 months and 34% after 12 months. Eight patients received enteral feeding. Speech therapy for swallowing education was performed more often in malnourished children (63% vs. 22%, P < 0.02). PEM is frequent and occurs early in this disease, requiring closed nutritional monitoring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. From pen pals to chat rooms: the impact of social media on Middle Eastern Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Elaine; Rapson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will discuss what is known about a surprisingly popular phenomenon in the Middle East-the use of social media to communicate. We will begin with a discussion of what "social media" sites are (sites such as Facebook, Your Middle East, YouTube, Flickr, Muslima.com, chat rooms, and instant messaging) and point out how common they are in the Middle East. Next, we will discuss the reasons why men and women are currently using Internet and social media. Finally, we will discuss what impact social media have had on politics, political dissent, education, and men's and women's relationships-and the impact they might be expected to have in future years. Finally, we will focus on the impact of such media on men's and women's relationships-including cross-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships.

  15. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Minsam; Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong; Lee, Uichin; Jang, Young Jae

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  16. Practice and Evaluation of Ability Grouping Lecture on Information Literacy Using a Chat Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaga, Kiyohisa

    A teaching methodology on information literacy that skilled and inexperienced students learn through different specific contents in a class is proposed. Skilled students collaboratively work using an e-Learning environment while a conventional projector-based lecture on how to use a computer is given for inexperienced students. The methodology had been put into practice for two years. Skilled students were divided into a few groups and members in a group collaboratively made a PowerPoint slide show using a chat tool as the communication media. The slide shows were evaluated by means of questionnaire to the inexperienced students. The results were nearly the same as those of teachers. The practice of the methodology resulted in that the concentration of the skilled students was promoted and the learning attitude of the inexperienced students was improved, compared with the case that the both skilled and inexperienced students learned through the same contents.

  17. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsam Ko

    Full Text Available Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  18. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers’ online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans’ interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568

  19. O uso de chats na aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ribeiro Fonseca

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, justifico o uso do chat por aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras ressaltando seus pontos positivos mas, também, apontando para problemas potenciais que esta prática pode acarretar.Palavras-chave: Lingüística aplicada; ensino e aprendizagem de língua estrangeira; tecnologia.Résumé: Dans cet article, je justifie la pratique des tchatches par les étudiants de langues étrangères. J’en rélève les points positifs mais, aussi, je signale les problèmes potentiels que cet exercice peut entraîner.Mots-clés: Linguistique apliquée; enseigment et apprentissage des langues étrangères; technologie.Keywords: Applied linguistics; foreign language teaching and learning; technology.

  20. Detection of choline transporter-like 1 protein CTL1 in neuroblastoma × glioma cells and in the CNS, and its role in choline uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; O´Regan, S.; Newcombe, J.; Meunier, F. M.; Prentice, J.; Dove, R.; Lisá, Věra; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2009), s. 1297-1309 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : CTL1 * choline * cell growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  1. Choline transporter mutations in severe congenital myasthenic syndrome disrupt transporter localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haicui; Salter, Claire G; Refai, Osama; Hardy, Holly; Barwick, Katy E S; Akpulat, Ugur; Kvarnung, Malin; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav; Taylan, Fulya; Sejersen, Thomas; Wright, Jane; Zimmerman, Holly H; Karakaya, Mert; Stüve, Burkhardt; Weis, Joachim; Schara, Ulrike; Russell, Mark A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Chilton, John; Blakely, Randy D; Baple, Emma L; Cirak, Sebahattin; Crosby, Andrew H

    2017-11-01

    The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  3. Andrographolide: A potent antituberculosis compound that targets Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Amudha; Hassan, Sameer; Prabuseenivasan; Shainaba, A S; Hanna, L E; Kumar, Vanaja

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a major challenging infectious disease. The increased rate of emergence of multi-drug resistant and extensively-drug resistant strains of the organism has further complicated the situation, resulting in an urgent need for new anti-TB drugs. Antimycobacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated using a rapid LRP assay and the probable targets were identified by docking analysis. The methanolic extract of A. paniculata showed maximum antimycobacterial activity at 250μg/ml against all the tested strains of M. tuberculosis (H37Rv, MDR, and drug sensitive). Based on bioassay guided fractionation, andrographolide was identified as the potent molecule. With the docking analysis, both ICDH (Isocitrate Dehydrogenase) and AAC (Aminoglycoside 2'-N-acetyltransferase) were predicted as targets of andrographolide in M. tuberculosis. Molecular simulation revealed that, ICDH showed low binding affinity to andrographolide. However, for AAC, the andrographolide was observed to be well within the active site after 10ns of molecular simulation. This suggests that ACC (PDB ID 1M4I) could be the probable target for andrographolide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  5. Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferase TIP60 Function by Histone Deacetylase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jingjie; Huang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yuxia; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Gu, Wei; Luo, Jianyuan

    2014-01-01

    The key member of the MOZ (monocyticleukaemia zinc finger protein), Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, and TIP60 acetyltransferases family, Tat-interactive protein, 60 kD (TIP60), tightly modulates a wide array of cellular processes, including chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, apoptosis, DNA repair, and cell cycle arrest. The function of TIP60 can be regulated by SIRT1 through deacetylation. Here we found that TIP60 can also be functionally regulated by HDAC3. We identified six lysine residues as its autoacetylation sites. Mutagenesis of these lysines to arginines completely abolishes the autoacetylation of TIP60. Overexpression of HDAC3 increases TIP60 ubiquitination levels. However, unlike SIRT1, HDAC3 increased the half-life of TIP60. Further study found that HDAC3 colocalized with TIP60 both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which could be the reason why HDAC3 can stabilize TIP60. The deacetylation of TIP60 by both SIRT1 and HDAC3 reduces apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Knockdown of HDAC3 in cells increased TIP60 acetylation levels and increased apoptosis after DNA damage. Together, our findings provide a better understanding of TIP60 regulation mechanisms, which is a significant basis for further studies of its cellular functions. PMID:25301942

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atf1p is an alcohol acetyltransferase and a thioesterase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancolas, Bethany; Bull, Ian D; Stenner, Richard; Dufour, Virginie; Curnow, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The alcohol-O-acyltransferases are bisubstrate enzymes that catalyse the transfer of acyl chains from an acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) donor to an acceptor alcohol. In the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae this reaction produces acyl esters that are an important influence on the flavour of fermented beverages and foods. There is also a growing interest in using acyltransferases to produce bulk quantities of acyl esters in engineered microbial cell factories. However, the structure and function of the alcohol-O-acyltransferases remain only partly understood. Here, we recombinantly express, purify and characterize Atf1p, the major alcohol acetyltransferase from S. cerevisiae. We find that Atf1p is promiscuous with regard to the alcohol cosubstrate but that the acyltransfer activity is specific for acetyl-CoA. Additionally, we find that Atf1p is an efficient thioesterase in vitro with specificity towards medium-chain-length acyl-CoAs. Unexpectedly, we also find that mutating the supposed catalytic histidine (H191) within the conserved HXXXDG active site motif only moderately reduces the thioesterase activity of Atf1p. Our results imply a role for Atf1p in CoA homeostasis and suggest that engineering Atf1p to reduce the thioesterase activity could improve product yields of acetate esters from cellular factories. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Disposition, Metabolism and Histone Deacetylase and Acetyltransferase Inhibition Activity of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Other Curcuminoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia T. Novaes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC, curcumin and calebin-A are curcuminoids found in turmeric (Curcuma longa. Curcuminoids have been established to have a variety of pharmacological activities and are used as natural health supplements. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolism, excretion, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of these curcuminoids and to determine disposition of THC in rats after oral administration. We developed a UHPLC–MS/MS assay for THC in rat serum and urine. THC shows multiple redistribution phases with corresponding increases in urinary excretion rate. In-vitro antioxidant activity, histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity and anti-inflammatory inhibitory activity were examined using commercial assay kits. Anticancer activity was determined in Sup-T1 lymphoma cells. Our results indicate THC was poorly absorbed after oral administration and primarily excreted via non-renal routes. All curcuminoids exhibited multiple pharmacological effects in vitro, including potent antioxidant activity as well as inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and lipoxygenase activity without affecting the release of TNF-α. Unlike curcumin and calebin-A, THC did not inhibit HDAC1 and PCAF and displayed a weaker growth inhibition activity against Sup-T1 cells. We show evidence for the first time that curcumin and calebin-A inhibit HAT and PCAF, possibly through a Michael-addition mechanism.

  8. Metabolic Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferases by Endogenous Acyl-CoA Cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David C; Sorum, Alexander W; Guasch, Laura; Nicklaus, Marc C; Meier, Jordan L

    2015-08-20

    The finding that chromatin modifications are sensitive to changes in cellular cofactor levels potentially links altered tumor cell metabolism and gene expression. However, the specific enzymes and metabolites that connect these two processes remain obscure. Characterizing these metabolic-epigenetic axes is critical to understanding how metabolism supports signaling in cancer, and developing therapeutic strategies to disrupt this process. Here, we describe a chemical approach to define the metabolic regulation of lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) enzymes. Using a novel chemoproteomic probe, we identify a previously unreported interaction between palmitoyl coenzyme A (palmitoyl-CoA) and KAT enzymes. Further analysis reveals that palmitoyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of KAT activity and that fatty acyl-CoA precursors reduce cellular histone acetylation levels. These studies implicate fatty acyl-CoAs as endogenous regulators of histone acetylation, and suggest novel strategies for the investigation and metabolic modulation of epigenetic signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Evolution of Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase in Fish: A Genomic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms synchronize biological functions with environmental changes; melatonin plays a vital role in regulating daily and seasonal variations. Due to rhythmic activity of the timezyme aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT, the blood level of melatonin increases at night and decreases during daytime. Whereas other vertebrates have a single form of AANAT, bony fishes possess various isoforms of aanat genes, though the reasons are still unclear. Here, we have taken advantage of multiple unpublished teleost aanat sequences to explore and expand our understanding of the molecular evolution of aanat in fish. Our results confirm that two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD led to the existence of three fish isoforms of aanat, i.e., aanat1a, aanat1b, and aanat2; in addition, gene loss led to the absence of some forms from certain special fish species. Furthermore, we suggest the different roles of two aanat1s in amphibious mudskippers, and speculate that the loss of aanat1a, may be related to terrestrial vision change. Several important sites of AANAT proteins and regulatory elements of aanat genes were analyzed for structural comparison and functional forecasting, respectively, which provides insights into the molecular evolution of the differences between AANAT1 and AANAT2.

  10. Crystal Structures of Murine Carnitine Acetyltransferase in Ternary Complexes with Its Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible exchange of acyl groups between coenzyme A (CoA) and carnitine. They have important roles in many cellular processes, especially the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria for energy production, and are attractive targets for drug discovery against diabetes and obesity. To help define in molecular detail the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, we report here the high resolution crystal structure of wild-type murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in a ternary complex with its substrates acetyl-CoA and carnitine, and the structure of the S554A/M564G double mutant in a ternary complex with the substrates CoA and hexanoylcarnitine. Detailed analyses suggest that these structures may be good mimics for the Michaelis complexes for the forward and reverse reactions of the enzyme, representing the first time that such complexes of CrAT have been studied in molecular detail. The structural information provides significant new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrAT and possibly carnitine acyltransferases in general.

  11. Inference of Functionally-Relevant N-acetyltransferase Residues Based on Statistical Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwald, Andrew F; Altschul, Stephen F

    2016-12-01

    Over evolutionary time, members of a superfamily of homologous proteins sharing a common structural core diverge into subgroups filling various functional niches. At the sequence level, such divergence appears as correlations that arise from residue patterns distinct to each subgroup. Such a superfamily may be viewed as a population of sequences corresponding to a complex, high-dimensional probability distribution. Here we model this distribution as hierarchical interrelated hidden Markov models (hiHMMs), which describe these sequence correlations implicitly. By characterizing such correlations one may hope to obtain information regarding functionally-relevant properties that have thus far evaded detection. To do so, we infer a hiHMM distribution from sequence data using Bayes' theorem and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, which is widely recognized as the most effective approach for characterizing a complex, high dimensional distribution. Other routines then map correlated residue patterns to available structures with a view to hypothesis generation. When applied to N-acetyltransferases, this reveals sequence and structural features indicative of functionally important, yet generally unknown biochemical properties. Even for sets of proteins for which nothing is known beyond unannotated sequences and structures, this can lead to helpful insights. We describe, for example, a putative coenzyme-A-induced-fit substrate binding mechanism mediated by arginine residue switching between salt bridge and π-π stacking interactions. A suite of programs implementing this approach is available (psed.igs.umaryland.edu).

  12. Inference of Functionally-Relevant N-acetyltransferase Residues Based on Statistical Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Neuwald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over evolutionary time, members of a superfamily of homologous proteins sharing a common structural core diverge into subgroups filling various functional niches. At the sequence level, such divergence appears as correlations that arise from residue patterns distinct to each subgroup. Such a superfamily may be viewed as a population of sequences corresponding to a complex, high-dimensional probability distribution. Here we model this distribution as hierarchical interrelated hidden Markov models (hiHMMs, which describe these sequence correlations implicitly. By characterizing such correlations one may hope to obtain information regarding functionally-relevant properties that have thus far evaded detection. To do so, we infer a hiHMM distribution from sequence data using Bayes' theorem and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling, which is widely recognized as the most effective approach for characterizing a complex, high dimensional distribution. Other routines then map correlated residue patterns to available structures with a view to hypothesis generation. When applied to N-acetyltransferases, this reveals sequence and structural features indicative of functionally important, yet generally unknown biochemical properties. Even for sets of proteins for which nothing is known beyond unannotated sequences and structures, this can lead to helpful insights. We describe, for example, a putative coenzyme-A-induced-fit substrate binding mechanism mediated by arginine residue switching between salt bridge and π-π stacking interactions. A suite of programs implementing this approach is available (psed.igs.umaryland.edu.

  13. N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 confers ethanol tolerance on Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiaoyi [Fukui Prefectural Univ., Fukui (Japan). Dept. of Bioscience; Takagi, Hiroshi [Nara Inst. of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara (Japan). Graduate School of Biological Sciences

    2007-07-15

    N-Acetyltransferase Mpr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can reduce intracellular oxidation levels and protect yeast cells under oxidative stress, including H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, heat-shock, or freeze-thaw treatment. Unlike many antioxidant enzyme genes induced in response to oxidative stress, the MPR1 gene seems to be constitutively expressed in yeast cells. Based on a recent report that ethanol toxicity is correlated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we examined here the role of Mpr1 under ethanol stress conditions. The null mutant of the MPR1 and MPR2 genes showed hypersensitivity to ethanol stress, and the expression of the MPR1 gene conferred stress tolerance. We also found that yeast cells exhibited increased ROS levels during exposure to ethanol stress, and that Mpr1 protects yeast cells from ethanol stress by reducing intracellular ROS levels. When the MPR1 gene was overexpressed in antioxidant enzyme-deficient mutants, increased resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or heat shock was observed in cells lacking the CTA1, CTT1, or GPX1 gene encoding catalase A, catalase T, or glutathione peroxidase, respectively. These results suggest that Mpr1 might compensate the function of enzymes that detoxify H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Hence, Mpr1 has promising potential for the breeding of novel ethanol-tolerant yeast strains. (orig.)

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 & susceptibility to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 gene encodes an enzyme which both activates and deactivates arylamine and other drugs and carcinogens. This study was aimed to investigate the role of NAT2 gene polymorphism in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH. Methods: In this prospective study, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism results for NAT2 gene were compared between 185 tuberculosis patients who did not develop DIH and 105 tuberculosis patients who developed DIH while on anti-tuberculosis drugs. Results: Frequency of slow-acetylator genotype was commonly encountered and was not significantly different between DIH (82.8% and non-DIH (77.2% patients. However, the genotypic distribution of variant NAT2FNx015/FNx017 amongst slow-acetylator genotypes was significantly higher in DIH (56% group as compared to non-DIH (39% group (odds ratio 2.02; P=0.006. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study demonstrated no association between NAT2 genotype and DIH in the north Indian patients with tuberculosis.

  15. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in bronchial epithelial cells and its inhibition by cellular oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairou, Julien; Petit, Emile; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells express xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that are involved in the biotransformation of inhaled toxic compounds. The activities of these XMEs in the lung may modulate respiratory toxicity and have been linked to several diseases of the airways. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are conjugating XMEs that play a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine pollutants such as the tobacco-smoke carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and β-naphthylamine (β-NA). We show here that functional human NAT1 or its murine counterpart Nat2 are present in different lung epithelial cells i.e. Clara cells, type II alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells, thus indicating that inhaled aromatic amines may undergo NAT-dependent biotransformation in lung epithelium. Exposure of these cells to pathophysiologically relevant amounts of oxidants known to contribute to lung dysfunction, such as H 2 O 2 or peroxynitrite, was found to impair the NAT1/Nat2-dependent cellular biotransformation of aromatic amines. Genetic and non genetic impairment of intracellular NAT enzyme activities has been suggested to compromise the important detoxification pathway of aromatic amine N-acetylation and subsequently to contribute to an exacerbation of untoward effects of these pollutants on health. Our study suggests that oxidative/nitroxidative stress in lung epithelial cells, due to air pollution and/or inflammation, could contribute to local and/or systemic dysfunctions through the alteration of the functions of pulmonary NAT enzymes.

  16. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  17. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  18. Structure of choline oxidase in complex with the reaction product glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Weber, Irene T; Gadda, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, which is involved in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine from choline, has been extensively characterized in its mechanistic and structural properties. Despite the knowledge gained on the enzyme, the details of substrate access to the active site are not fully understood. The `loop-and-lid' mechanism described for the glucose-methanol-choline enzyme superfamily has not been confirmed for choline oxidase. Instead, a hydrophobic cluster on the solvent-accessible surface of the enzyme has been proposed by molecular dynamics to control substrate access to the active site. Here, the crystal structure of the enzyme was solved in complex with glycine betaine at pH 6.0 at 1.95 Å resolution, allowing a structural description of the ligand-enzyme interactions in the active site. This structure is the first of choline oxidase in complex with a physiologically relevant ligand. The protein structures with and without ligand are virtually identical, with the exception of a loop at the dimer interface, which assumes two distinct conformations. The different conformations of loop 250-255 define different accessibilities of the proposed active-site entrance delimited by the hydrophobic cluster on the other subunit of the dimer, suggesting a role in regulating substrate access to the active site.

  19. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  20. Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present paper, we test the suitability of Choline-Cl/urea (DES-U) and Choline-Cl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures at 1:2 molar ratios for the production of agar biodegradable films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and s...

  1. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  2. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-02-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled (/sup 14/C)glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-(1,2-/sup 14/C)choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis.

  3. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled [ 14 C]glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-[1,2- 14 C]choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis

  4. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  5. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  6. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural… from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose… or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement.

  7. Synthesis and study of thiocarbonate derivatives of choline as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, N A; Talesa, V; Giovannini, E; Rosi, G; Norton, S J

    1997-09-12

    Fourteen alkyl and aryl thiocarbonate derivatives of choline were synthesized and studied as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Twelve of the compounds inhibited AChEs derived from calf forebrain, human red blood cells, and octopus brain ranging from low to moderately high inhibition potency. The concentration of each inhibitory compound giving 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50 values, which ranged from 1 x 10(-2) to 8 x 10(-7) M) was determined and is reported; inhibitor constants (Ki values) for the most inhibitory compounds, (1-pentylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride and (1-heptylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride, were calculated from kinetic data and are also reported. The inhibitors are competitive with substrate, and they are not hydrolyzed by the AChE activities. Certain of these new compounds may provide direction for the development of new drugs that have anticholinesterase activity and may be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  9. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A

    2016-10-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d 9 , with d 9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J

  10. Choline and its metabolites are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, cardiovascular history and MRI documented cerebrovascular disease in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism. Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovas...

  11. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  13. Role of carbon-11 choline PET/CT in the management of uterine carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sawada, Morio; Arai, Yasuaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Inoue, Tomio; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Terauchi, Takashi; Kano, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the role of carbon-11 choline ( 11 C-choline) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the management of uterine carcinoma. Twenty-two patients who underwent 11 C-choline PET/CT and pelvic MRI were evaluated retrospectively. The images were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and a nuclear medicine specialist who were unaware of any clinical information, and a consensus was reached. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was evaluated for staging. The reference standard consisted of histological examination (n=17) and follow-up conventional CT (n=5). In five patients with cervical carcinoma, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before and after treatment that consisted of cisplatin infusion and subsequent radiotherapy. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was compared with unidimensional and volumetric measurements that were made on magnetic resonance images (MRI) before and after treatment. Based on PET/CT interpretations, the reviewers correctly classified tumor (T) stage in 8 patients (47%), nodes (N) stage in 21 patients (96%), metastasis (M) stage in 20 patients (91%), and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage in 15 patients (88%). Tumor size, volume, and SUV decreased after treatment in five patients with cervical carcinoma. Using the Pearson correlation test, a significant correlation was found between the reduction rate of SUV and reduction rate of tumor volume. 11 C-choline PET/CT is an accurate means for the management of patients with uterine carcinoma. The combination of 11 C-choline PET/CT and MRI increases the accuracy of staging in patients with uterine carcinoma. (author)

  14. Prostate cancer: concordance between "1"8F-choline PET and CT in biochemical relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herández Pinzón, J.; Ferrarotti, C.; Ferrari, L.; Larrañaga, N.; Gallo, J.C.; Mena, D.; Bastianello, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the concordance between 18-fluor choline positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) for re-staging patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer according to the TNM system. Materials and methods: The medical records of the Molecular Imaging Section were retrospectively reviewed. The TNM classification was established by us for each method, and the Kappa concordance statistic was used to classify the results according to the Landis and Koch proposal. Results: The PET-choline reported 19 (59.4%) patients N0 and 13 (40.6%) N1, while CT reported 28 (87.5%) N0 and 4 (12.5%) N1. In metastasis classification PET-choline established M0 in 17 (53.1%) patients, M1a in 1 (3.1%), M1b in 5 (15.6%), M1c in 1 (3.1%), M1a + M1b in 7 (21.9%), and M1b + M1c in 1 (3.1%). On the other hand, CT was M0 in 23 (71.9%) patients, M1a in 2 (6.25%), M1a + M1b in 2 (6.25%), and M1b + M1c in 5 (15.6%). The correlation between PET-choline and CT in the TNM lymph node and metastasis classifications was 71.88%, with a Kappa of 0.3455 (standard error 0.1336; P=.0049) and 62.5% with Kappa 0.3725 (standard error 0.0847; P=.0001), respectively. Discussion: Several studies have shown a high diagnostic accuracy of PET-choline detecting the spread of the disease compared to conventional methods. Conclusion: There is poor concordance for metastatic and lymph node classifications according to the TNM system between choline-PET and CT. (authors) [es

  15. Use of lidar point cloud data to support estimation of residual trace metals stored in mine chat piles in the Old Lead Belt of southeastern, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2016-01-01

    Historic lead and zinc (Pb-Zn) mining in southeast Missouri’s ―Old Lead Belt‖ has left large chat piles dominating the landscape where prior to 1972 mining was the major industry of the region. As a result of variable beneficiation methods over the history of mining activity, these piles remain with large quantities of unrecovered Pb and Zn and to a lesser extent cadmium (Cd). Quantifying the residual content of trace metals in chat piles is problematic because of the extensive field effort that must go into collecting elevation points for volumetric analysis. This investigation demonstrates that publicly available lidar point data from the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) can be used to effectively calculate chat pile volumes as a method of more accurately estimating the total residual trace metal content in these mining wastes. Five chat piles located in St. Francois County, Missouri, were quantified for residual trace metal content. Utilizing lidar point cloud data collected in 2011 and existing trace metal concentration data obtained during remedial investigations, residual content of these chat piles ranged from 9247 to 88,579 metric tons Pb, 1925 to 52,306 metric tons Zn, and 51 to 1107 metric tons Cd. Development of new beneficiation methods for recovering these constituents from chat piles would need to achieve current Federal soil screening standards. To achieve this for the five chat piles investigated, 42 to 72% of residual Pb would require mitigation to the 1200 mg/kg Federal non-playground standard, 88 to 98% of residual Zn would require mitigation to the Ecological Soil Screening level (ESSL) for plant life, and 70% to 98% of Cd would require mitigation to achieve the ESSL. Achieving these goals through an existing or future beneficiation method(s) would remediate chat to a trace metal concentration level that would support its use as a safe agricultural soil amendment.

  16. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: Against the background of a number of published papers on the rocks accompanying lignite seams there is a lack of the "Bełchatów" mineralogical-petrographic studies of the transitional sediments in the Mesozoic-Neogene contact zone in the "Bełchatów" lignite deposit taking into account the aspect of raw materials. This paper has been produced to fill the void in this area.

  17. Differences in Brand Image of Online Chat Application of Blackberry Messenger, Whatsapp, and Line for Bina Nusantara University’s Student

    OpenAIRE

    Kuspuji C. B. Wicaksono

    2016-01-01

    This article was written to find out whether there were any differences on brand image for each online chat Application such as Blackberry Messenger, Whatsapp, and LINE based on six factors of the brand image which are: benefits, attributes, cultures, values, personality, and user. Data for the research were collected from questionnaires given to respondents who had used each mention online chat application. Then each respondent was asked to give scores based on the six factors of brand image...

  18. Chat Transcript Analysis Reveals that Undergraduate Students are Open to Instruction, While Instructors and Librarians Care About Supporting Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Jacoby, J., Ward, D., Avery, S., & Marcyk, E. (2016. The value of chat reference services: A pilot study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(1, 109-129. https://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2016.0013 Objective – To investigate student, instructor, and librarian perspectives of chat reference service in the context of first-year undergraduate students conducting research for an introductory composition course. Design – Focus groups, individual interviews, and surveys. Setting – A large, public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 57 library reference providers, 36 instructors of an introductory composition course, and approximately 936 undergraduate students in certain sections of the introductory composition course who were assigned a specific research project. Methods – In spring of 2014, all participants were invited via email to respond to an anonymous chat transcript of a librarian interacting with a student working on his or her research project. Study participants could participate via a brief survey or by taking part in a focus group or individual interview. The invited instructors were asked to forward the invitation to the students in their sections, and reminder emails were sent two weeks after the initial email. Main Results – Nine instructors, 24 students, and 25 library reference providers participated in the study, representing a response rate of 25%, 3% (estimated, and 44%, respectively. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis of key themes that were derived from both the focus groups or individual interviews and the survey questions. The themes were: students as novice researchers, question negotiation, open and closed questions, instruction, speed and convenience, customer service, and referrals. The theme of “students as novice researchers” is based on student comments related to their frustrations of being inexperienced researchers, as well as librarian comments on strategies for

  19. Implementación de un servicio de referencia virtual por chat en una biblioteca universitaria argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrell, Marina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article will comment the experience of the library Joaquín V. González of the Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina in the implementation of a virtual reference service by chat, to answer requests in real time, directed to the university community

    En el presente trabajo se comentará la experiencia de la biblioteca Joaquín V. González de la facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina en la implementación y puesta en marcha de un servicio de referencia virtual vía chat, para responder consultas en tiempo real, destinado a la comunidad universitaria.

  20. Effect of quinolinic acid in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on cortical high-affinity choline uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.H.; Boegman, R.J.; Quirion, R.; Riopelle, R.J.; Ludwin, S.K.

    1987-08-01

    A transient 45% increase in cortical high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was observed after an injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) of the rat. This was followed by a steady decline in choline uptake, which resulted in a 46% decrease by day 7. Specific (/sup 3/H)hemicholinium-3 binding to coronal brain sections showed a similar pattern following injections of QUIN into the nbM. The increase in cortical HACU elicited by QUIN appeared to be dose dependent.

  1. A mechanism for suppression of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Craig C.; Aitchison, Adam J.; Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis restricts the availability of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) for assembly of membranes and synthesis of signaling factors. The N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT)α is removed during apoptosis but the caspase(s) involved and the contribution to suppression of the CDP-choline pathway is unresolved. In this study we utilized siRNA silencing of caspases in HEK293 cells and caspase 3-defi...

  2. Attitudes and emotions through written text: the case of textual deformation in internet chat rooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Yus Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Los chats españoles de Internet son visitados por muchos jóvenes que usan el lenguaje de una forma muy creativa (ej. repetición de letras y signos de puntuación. En este artículo se evalúan varias hipótesis sobre el uso de la deformación textual respecto a su eficacia comunicativa. Se trata de comprobar si estas deformaciones favorecen una identificación y evaluación más adecuada de las actitudes (proposicionales o afectivas y emociones de sus autores. Las respuestas a un cuestionario revelan que a pesar de la información adicional que la deformación textual aporta, los lectores no suelen coincidir en la cualidad exacta de estas actitudes y emociones, ni establecen grados de intensidad relacionados con la cantidad de texto tecleada. Sin embargo, y a pesar de estos resultados, la deformación textual parece jugar un papel en la interpretación que finalmente se elige de estos mensajes enviados a los chats.

  3. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 genetic diversity and traditional subsistence: a worldwide population survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sabbagh

    Full Text Available Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4% and herding (48.2% as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4% (P = 0.0007. This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25% as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research

  4. Acetyl coenzyme A: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase. Evidence for a transmembrane acetylation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Rome, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The lysosomal membrane enzyme acetyl-CoA: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to terminal alpha-linked glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate. The reaction mechanism was examined using highly purified lysosomal membranes from rat liver. The reaction was followed by measuring the acetylation of a monosaccharide acetyl acceptor, glucosamine. The enzyme reaction was optimal above pH 5.5, and a 2-3-fold stimulation of activity was observed when the membranes were assayed in the presence of 0.1% taurodeoxycholate. Double reciprocal analysis and product inhibition studies indicated that the enzyme works by a Di-Iso Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism. Further evidence to support this mechanism was provided by characterization of the enzyme half-reactions. Membranes incubated with acetyl-CoA and [ 3 H]CoA were found to produce acetyl-[ 3 H]CoA. This exchange was optimal at pH values above 7.0. Treating membranes with [ 3 H] acetyl-CoA resulted in the formation of an acetyl-enzyme intermediate. The acetyl group could then be transferred to glucosamine, forming [ 3 H]N-acetylglucosamine. The transfer of the acetyl group from the enzyme to glucosamine was optimal between pH 4 and 5. The results suggest that acetyl-CoA does not cross the lysosomal membrane. Instead, the enzyme is acetylated on the cytoplasmic side of the lysosome and the acetyl group is then transferred to the inside where it is used to acetylate heparan sulfate

  5. The Fusarium graminearum Histone Acetyltransferases Are Important for Morphogenesis, DON Biosynthesis, and Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjiu Kong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications of chromatin structure by histone acetyltransferase (HATs play a central role in the regulation of gene expression and various biological processes in eukaryotes. Although HAT genes have been studied in many fungi, few of them have been functionally characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized four putative HATs (FgGCN5, FgRTT109, FgSAS2, FgSAS3 in the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. We replaced the genes and all mutant strains showed reduced growth of F. graminearum. The ΔFgSAS3 and ΔFgGCN5 mutant increased sensitivity to oxidative and osmotic stresses. Additionally, ΔFgSAS3 showed reduced conidia sporulation and perithecium formation. Mutant ΔFgGCN5 was unable to generate any conidia and lost its ability to form perithecia. Our data showed also that FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 are pathogenicity factors required for infecting wheat heads as well as tomato fruits. Importantly, almost no Deoxynivalenol (DON was produced either in ΔFgSAS3 or ΔFgGCN5 mutants, which was consistent with a significant downregulation of TRI genes expression. Furthermore, we discovered for the first time that FgSAS3 is indispensable for the acetylation of histone site H3K4, while FgGCN5 is essential for the acetylation of H3K9, H3K18, and H3K27. H3K14 can be completely acetylated when FgSAS3 and FgGCN5 were both present. The RNA-seq analyses of the two mutant strains provide insight into their functions in development and metabolism. Results from this study clarify the functional divergence of HATs in F. graminearum, and may provide novel targeted strategies to control secondary metabolite expression and infections of F. graminearum.

  6. Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew, E.; Parfitt, A.G.; Sugden, D.; Engelhardt, D.L.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Klein, D.C.

    1984-02-01

    Studies of (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to intact rat pineal cells were carried out in tissue culture preparations. The binding was saturable, reversible and proportional to the number of cells used. Scatchard analysis resulted in a linear plot (Kd . 23 nM, maximum binding sites (Bmax) . 1.56 pmol/mg of protein for cells in monolayer culture; Kd . 7 nM, Bmax . 1.3 pmol/mg of protein for cells in suspension culture). Inhibition constants (Ki) for clonazepam (500 nM), flunitrazepam (38 nM) and Ro-5-4864 (5 nM) indicated that the binding sites were probably of the ''peripheral'' type. In addition, the effects of diazepam on norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were studied in organ culture and dissociated cell culture. Diazepam (10-50 microM) both prolonged and increased the magnitude of the norepinephrine-induced increase in NAT activity but did not affect the initial rate of rise of enzyme activity. The effect was dose-dependent and was also seen with clonazepam, flunitrazepam and Ro-5-4864, but not with Ro-15-1788. Diazepam, by itself, at these concentrations, had no effect on NAT, but enzyme activity was increased by higher concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Although a relationship between the (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding sites described here and the effect of benzodiazepines on NAT cannot be established from these studies, the data suggest that the benzodiazepines may alter melatonin levels through their action on NAT.

  7. Selective production of deacetylated mannosylerythritol lipid, MEL-D, by acetyltransferase disruption mutant of Pseudozyma hubeiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Makino, Motoki

    2018-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced by several smut fungi of the Ustilaginaceae family; they are promising microbial biosurfactants and have excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. Pseudozyma hubeiensis is a candidate for abundant MEL production and produces large amounts of 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-β-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-C). An acetyltransferase disruption mutant of P. hubeiensis, SY62-MM36, was obtained to selectively produce deacetylated 4-O-[(2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-β-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-D), and the structures of the products were determined. Lower mobility of major spots of the mutant on silica gel thin-layer chromatography verified its more hydrophilic nature than that of wild-type MEL-A, B, and C. Structural analyses confirmed the product to be MEL-D, which comprises acyl chains of caproic acid (C6:0), capric acid (C10:0), and lauric acid (C12:0). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension (γCMC) of the MEL-D were 2.0 × 10 -5  M and 29.7 mN/m, respectively. SY62-MM36 also produced a minor product that was estimated as triacylated MEL-D. The triacylated MEL-D had a CMC of 3.5 × 10 -5  M and a γCMC of 29.6 mN/m. In water, MEL-D formed a lamella liquid crystal phase over a broad range of concentrations. By fed-batch cultivation, the mutant produced 91.6 ± 6.3 g/L of MEL-D for 7 days. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Georgakopoulos

    Full Text Available A mutation screen in Aspergillus nidulans uncovered mutations in the acdX gene that led to altered repression by acetate, but not by glucose. AcdX of A. nidulans is highly conserved with Spt8p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and since Spt8p is a component of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex, the SAGA complex may have a role in acetate repression in A. nidulans. We used a bioinformatic approach to identify genes encoding most members of the SAGA complex in A. nidulans, and a proteomic analysis to confirm that most protein components identified indeed exist as a complex in A. nidulans. No apparent compositional differences were detected in mycelia cultured in acetate compared to glucose medium. The methods used revealed apparent differences between Yeast and A. nidulans in the deubiquitination (DUB module of the complex, which in S. cerevisiae consists of Sgf11p, Sus1p, and Ubp8p. Although a convincing homologue of S. cerevisiae Ubp8p was identified in the A. nidulans genome, there were no apparent homologues for Sus1p and Sgf11p. In addition, when the SAGA complex was purified from A. nidulans, members of the DUB module were not co-purified with the complex, indicating that functional homologues of Sus1p and Sgf11p were not part of the complex. Thus, deubiquitination of H2B-Ub in stress conditions is likely to be regulated differently in A. nidulans compared to S. cerevisiae.

  9. Garcinol, a Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor, Radiosensitizes Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Non-Homologous End Joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oike, Takahiro [Division of Multistep Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Division of Genome Biology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ogiwara, Hideaki [Division of Genome Biology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Torikai, Kohta [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Yokota, Jun [Division of Multistep Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Takashi, E-mail: tkkohno@ncc.go.jp [Division of Genome Biology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a major pathway used to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by ionizing radiation (IR), requires chromatin remodeling at DSB sites through the acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs). However, the effect of compounds with HAT inhibitory activities on the DNA damage response (DDR), including the NHEJ and cell cycle checkpoint, as well as on the radiosensitivity of cancer cells, remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated whether garcinol, a HAT inhibitor found in the rinds of Garcinia indica fruit (called mangosteens), has effects on DDR, and whether it can be used for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: The following assays were used to examine the effect of garcinol on the inhibition of DSB repair, including the following: a conventional neutral comet assay; a cell-based assay recently developed by us, in which NHEJ repair of DSBs on chromosomal DNA was evaluated; the micrococcal nuclease sensitivity assay; and immunoblotting for autophosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). We assessed the effect of garcinol on the cell cycle checkpoint after IR treatment by analyzing the phosphorylation levels of checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 and histone H3, and by cell cycle profile analysis using flow cytometry. The radiosensitizing effect of garcinol was assessed by a clonogenic survival assay, whereas its effects on apoptosis and senescence were examined by annexin V and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-Gal) staining, respectively. Results: We found that garcinol inhibits DSB repair, including NHEJ, without affecting cell cycle checkpoint. Garcinol radiosensitized A549 lung and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells with dose enhancement ratios (at 10% surviving fraction) of 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. Cellular senescence induced by IR was enhanced by garcinol. Conclusion: These results suggest that garcinol is a radiosensitizer that

  10. Special Digital Monies: The Design of Alipay and WeChat Wallet for Mobile Payment Practices in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kow , Yong ,; Gui , Xinning; Cheng , Waikuen

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Social Media and Design Innovation; International audience; While research studies of digital and mobile payment systems in HCI have pointed out design opportunities situated within informal and nuanced mobile contexts, we have not yet understood how we can design digital monies to allow users to use monies more easily in these contexts. In this study, we examined the design of Alipay and WeChat Wallet, two successful mobile payment apps in China, which have been used by Chinese users...

  11. The exploitation of "sicko-chatting" by the pharmaceutical industry : a strategy for the normalization of drug use

    OpenAIRE

    Niquette , Manon

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Exploitation of 'sicko-chatting' by the Pharmaceutical industry: a strategy for the Normalization of drug use Pharmaceutical drugs are consumer goods. As such, they inscribe the transition from normality to pathology within the ambit of health marketing (Duclos, 2008, p. 109). It is now widely acknowledged that this pathology is not just a mere quantitative modification of the normal state, but that it also implies the patient's qualitative assessment of his or her...

  12. A distinct DGAT with sn-3 acetyltransferase activity that synthesizes unusual, reduced-viscosity oils in Euonymus and transgenic seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; McClosky, Daniel D; Tumaney, Ajay W; Elzinga, Dezi A; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Mike

    2010-05-18

    Endosperm and embryo tissues from the seeds of Euonymus alatus (Burning Bush) accumulate high levels of 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acTAGs) as their major storage lipids. In contrast, the aril tissue surrounding the seed produces long-chain triacylglycerols (lcTAGs) typical of most other organisms. The presence of the sn-3 acetyl group imparts acTAGs with different physical and chemical properties, such as a 30% reduction in viscosity, compared to lcTAGs. Comparative transcriptome analysis of developing endosperm and aril tissues using pyrosequencing technology was performed to isolate the enzyme necessary for the synthesis of acTAGs. An uncharacterized membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family member was the most abundant acyltransferase in the endosperm but was absent from the aril. Expression of this MBOAT in yeast resulted in the accumulation of acTAGs but not lcTAG; hence, the enzyme was named EaDAcT (Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase). Yeast microsomes expressing EaDAcT possessed acetyl-CoA diacylglycerol acetyltransferase activity but lacked long-chain acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of EaDAcT under the control of a strong, seed-specific promoter in Arabidopsis resulted in the accumulation of acTAGs, up to 40 mol % of total TAG in the seed oil. These results demonstrate the utility of deep transcriptional profiling with multiple tissues as a gene discovery strategy for low-abundance proteins. They also show that EaDAcT is the acetyltransferase necessary and sufficient for the production of acTAGs in Euonymus seeds, and that this activity can be introduced into the seeds of other plants, allowing the evaluation of these unusual TAGs for biofuel and other applications.

  13. End-to-End Privacy Protection for Facebook Mobile Chat based on AES with Multi-Layered MD5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Sukmo Wardhono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As social media environments become more interactive and amount of users grown tremendously, privacy is a matter of increasing concern. When personal data become a commodity, social media company can share users data to another party such as government. Facebook, inc is one of the social media company that frequently asked for user’s data. Although this private data request mechanism through a formal and valid legal process, it still undermine the fundamental right to information privacy. In This Case, social media users need protection against privacy violation from social media platform provider itself.  Private chat is the most favorite feature of a social media. Inside a chat room, user can share their private information contents. Cryptography is one of data protection methods that can be used to hides private communication data from unauthorized parties. In our study, we proposed a system that can encrypt chatting content based on AES and multi-layered MD5 to ensure social media users have privacy protection against social media company that use user informations as a commodity. In addition, this system can make users convenience to share their private information through social media platform.

  14. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors potentiate the beta-adrenergic stimulation of pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, D C; Sugden, D; Weller, J L

    1983-01-01

    The role played by postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the stimulation of pineal N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5) and [3H]melatonin production was investigated in the rat. In vivo studies indicated that phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, potentiated and prolonged the effects of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist. Similar observations were made in organ culture with glands devoid of functional nerve endings. In addition, a combination of 1 microM prazosin, an alpha 1-adre...

  15. Transfection of cultured cells of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, with a heat-shock-promoter-chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, B; Heilmann, J; Sparks, R B; Santoso, A; Leopold, R A

    1992-01-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) in the BRL-AG-3C cell line from the cotton boll weevil was examined. It was determined that the maximal expression of endogenous hsp occurred at 41 degrees C. Various transfection methods were then compared using this cell line in conjunction with a transiently expressed bacterial gene marker (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) which was under the control of the Drosophila hsp 70 gene promoter. The cationic lipid preparation Lipofectin was found to be very efficient at transfecting the boll weevil cells. Polylysine and 20-hydroxyecdysone-conjugated polylysine were moderately effective, whereas polybrene and electroporation, under the conditions reported herein, were ineffective at transfecting this cell line.

  16. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of the Novel Acetyltransferase Retrogene Ard1b in the Mouse1

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Peacock, Stephanie; Johnson, Warren; Bear, Deborah H.; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2009-01-01

    N-alpha-terminal acetylation is a modification process that occurs cotranslationally on most eukaryotic proteins. The major enzyme responsible for this process, N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase, is composed of the catalytic subunit ARD1A and the auxiliary subunit NAT1. We cloned, characterized, and studied the expression pattern of Ard1b (also known as Ard2), a novel homolog of the mouse Ard1a. Comparison of the genomic structures suggests that the autosomal Ard1b is a retroposed copy of th...

  17. Substrate-Induced Allosteric Change in the Quaternary Structure of the Spermidine N-Acetyltransferase SpeG

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Weigand, Steven; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Kiryukhina, Olga; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    The spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG is a dodecameric enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A to polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. SpeG has an allosteric polyamine-binding site and acetylating polyamines regulates their intracellular concentrations. The structures of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae in complexes with polyamines and cofactor have been characterized earlier. Here, we present the dodecameric structure of SpeG from V. cholerae in a ligan...

  18. Valproic acid exposure decreases Cbp/p300 protein expression and histone acetyltransferase activity in P19 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparter, Christina L. [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Winn, Louise M., E-mail: winnl@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Graduate Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    The teratogenicity of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is well established and its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) is proposed as an initiating factor. Recently, VPA-mediated HDAC inhibition was demonstrated to involve transcriptional downregulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which was proposed to compensate for the increased acetylation resulting from HDAC inhibition. Cbp and p300 are HATs required for embryonic development and deficiencies in either are associated with congenital malformations and embryolethality. The objective of the present study was to characterize Cbp/p300 following VPA exposure in P19 cells. Consistent with previous studies, exposure to 5 mM VPA over 24 h induced a moderate decrease in Cbp/p300 mRNA, which preceded a strong decrease in total cellular protein mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Nuclear Cbp/p300 protein was also decreased following VPA exposure, although to a lesser extent. Total cellular and nuclear p300 HAT activity was reduced proportionately to p300 protein levels, however while total cellular HAT activity also decreased, nuclear HAT activity was unaffected. Using the Cbp/p300 HAT inhibitor C646, we demonstrated that HAT inhibition similarly affected many of the same endpoints as VPA, including increased reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 cleavage, the latter of which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with the antioxidant catalase. C646 exposure also decreased NF-κB/p65 protein, which was not due to reduced mRNA and was not attenuated with catalase pre-treatment. This study provides support for an adaptive HAT response following VPA exposure and suggests that reduced Cbp/p300 HAT activity could contribute to VPA-mediated alterations. - Highlights: • VPA exposure in vitro downregulates Cbp/p300 mRNA and induces protein degradation. • Cbp/p300 histone acetyltransferase activity is similarly reduced with VPA exposure. • Inhibition of Cbp/p300 acetyltransferase activity

  19. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yuan; Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain

  20. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuan [Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J., E-mail: gideon.davies@york.ac.uk [The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  1. Hubungan antara, Self Esteem dengan Self Disclosure pada Saat Chatting di Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Nitya Santi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facebook is an internet based social media that were populer at the moment. The use of sosial media is very populer no exception student. Students communicatem confide and seek information through facebook. Of the activities, appears a phenomenon experienced by students of the symptoms of self esteem and self disclosure. This research aims to determine the relationship between self esteem and self disclosure. The relationship between the level of self esteem with self disclosure while chatting on facebook worth 0,766. Meaning that the reletionship between the level of self esteem with self disclosure is very strong and direct. Where a person who has high self esteem will be able to able to demonstrate self-disclosure are effective in communicating that is: be open, able to empathize, to be positive in the communication process and feel similar to the communication partner. Conversely a low self esteem are less able to express himself well, fear of failure in social relations

  2. A Case Study of Foreigner’s Intercultural Identity in China via WeChat Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of communication and culture are interrelated with each other and with semiotics. This study attempts to explore the intercultural identity of foreigners via their use of social media in China. As the most popular social media used in China, a foreign teacher from America (named as Liz’s posts via WeChat Moments from 2013 to 2015 were coded based upon photos and texts to indicate her identity in China. As a result of semiotic analyses, five main themes were identified in her posts, ranging from personal interests and needs, occupation, family, Chinese traits to American traits. Based upon these identified themes, Liz’s intercultural identity as Chinese culture experiencer and promoter is reflected by her description of Chinese traditions, showing contrasts between American and Chinese culture, and using Chinese characters in writing. Overall, not much anxiety and stress during Liz’s acculturation process are shown while most cultural posts reflect her active and ongoing adaption to Chinese culture.

  3. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states. (paper)

  4. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-10-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states.

  6. A Text-Based Chat System Embodied with an Expressive Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Alam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-like characters are playing vital role in social computing by making human-computer interaction more easy and spontaneous. Nowadays, use of these characters to interact in online virtual environment has gained immense popularity. In this paper, we proposed a framework for a text-based chat system embodied with a life-like virtual agent that aims at natural communication between the users. To achieve this kind of system, we developed an agent that performs some nonverbal communications such as generating facial expression and motions by analyzing the text messages of the users. More specifically, this agent is capable of generating facial expressions for six basic emotions such as happy, sad, fear, angry, surprise, and disgust along with two additional emotions, irony and determined. Then to make the interaction between the users more realistic and lively, we added motions such as eye blink and head movements. We measured our proposed system from different aspects and found the results satisfactory, which make us believe that this kind of system can play a significant role in making an interaction episode more natural, effective, and interesting. Experimental evaluation reveals that the proposed agent can display emotive expressions correctly 93% of the time by analyzing the users’ text input.

  7. Effective Packet Number for 5G IM WeChat Application at Early Stage Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate network traffic classification at early stage is very important for 5G network applications. During the last few years, researchers endeavored hard to propose effective machine learning model for classification of Internet traffic applications at early stage with few packets. Nevertheless, this essential problem still needs to be studied profoundly to find out effective packet number as well as effective machine learning (ML model. In this paper, we tried to solve the above-mentioned problem. For this purpose, five Internet traffic datasets are utilized. Initially, we extract packet size of 20 packets and then mutual information analysis is carried out to find out the mutual information of each packet on n flow type. Thereafter, we execute 10 well-known machine learning algorithms using crossover classification method. Two statistical analysis tests, Friedman and Wilcoxon pairwise tests, are applied for the experimental results. Moreover, we also apply the statistical tests for classifiers to find out effective ML classifier. Our experimental results show that 13–19 packets are the effective packet numbers for 5G IM WeChat application at early stage network traffic classification. We also find out effective ML classifier, where Random Forest ML classifier is effective classifier at early stage Internet traffic classification.

  8. Characterization and detection of a widely distributed gene cluster that predicts anaerobic choline utilization by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A; Marks, Jonathan A; Haiser, Henry J; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-04-14

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota's effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. Anaerobic choline utilization is a bacterial metabolic activity that occurs in the human gut and is linked to multiple diseases. While bacterial genes responsible for

  9. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  10. Comparable stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs in ionic liquid choline dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-08

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson-Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson-Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo.

  11. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson–Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo. PMID:24399194

  12. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  13. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  14. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  15. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... oral doses of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) (0 and 1.5 g/day) and ... and stimulating glucose and cholesterol synthesis. .... The in vitro gas production indicates that half of herbal choline is fermented at 18 hours (Table 2),.

  16. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  17. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asermely, K.E.; O'Neill, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37 0 C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 μM 0.124 μC/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10 -5 M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10 -4 M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K + -ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue 3 H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period

  18. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asermely, K.E.; O' Neill, J.J.

    1986-03-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37/sup 0/C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 ..mu..M 0.124 ..mu..C/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10/sup -5/ M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10/sup -4/ M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K/sup +/-ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue /sup 3/H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period.

  19. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  20. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-15

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  1. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... body functions including the maintenance of osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity, and... nervous system and memory. Choline is necessary to promote proper development in the fetus and infant and...

  2. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  3. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Galvanostatic bottom-up filling of TSV-like trenches: Choline-based leveler containing two quaternary ammoniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Jun; Seo, Youngran; Kim, Hoe Chul; Lee, Yoonjae; Choe, Seunghoe; Kim, Young Gyu; Cho, Sung Ki; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The choline-based leveler having two quaternary ammoniums was synthesized. • The adsorption of this leveler with suppressor and accelerator was examined. • Galvanostatic Cu bottom-up filling was achieved with three-additive system. • The mechanism of gap-filling was elucidated based on the additive adsorption. - Abstract: Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology is essential to accomplish 3-dimensional packaging of electronics. Hence, more reliable and faster TSV filling by Cu electrodeposition is required. Our approach to improve Cu gap-filling in TSV is based on the development of new organic additives for feature filling. Here, we introduce our achievements from the synthesis of choline-based leveler to the feature filling using a synthesized leveler. The choline-based leveler, which includes two quaternary ammoniums at both ends of the molecule, is synthesized from glutaric acid. The characteristics of the choline-based additive are examined by the electrochemical analyses, and it is confirmed that the choline-based leveler shows a convection dependent adsorption behavior, which is essential for leveling. The interactions between the polymeric suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler are also investigated by changing the convection condition. Using the combination of suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler, the extreme bottom-up filling of Cu at trenches with dimensions similar to TSV are fulfilled. The mechanism of Cu gap-filling is demonstrated based on the results of electrochemical analyses and feature filling

  5. Effect of dimethylaminoethanol, an inhibitor of betaine production, on the disposition of choline in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Acara, M.

    1990-01-01

    The choline metabolite betaine has been shown to be an important organic osmoregulatory solute in the kidney. The isolated perfused rat kidney and kidney slice incubations were used to investigate the effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), a choline oxidase inhibitor, on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. In the isolated perfused kidney, [ 14 C]choline, at an initial perfusate concentration of 300 microM, was effectively removed from the perfusate over 25 min, with nearly all the 14 C in the perfusate accounted for by betaine during the remainder of the 90-min perfusion. DMAE at concentrations of 3.0 or 5.0 mM significantly decreased the rate of removal of [ 14 C]choline from the perfusate and the rate of addition of [ 14 C]betaine to the perfusate, yet [14C]betaine remained the only metabolite of choline in perfusate and urine. In kidney tissue slice experiments, conversion of [ 14 C]choline to [ 14 C]betaine was found in cortical, outer medullary and inner medullary regions of rat kidney. DMAE at 5.0 mM significantly inhibited [ 14 C]betaine production in each of the three regions studied. These data show that DMAE is an effective inhibitor of betaine production by the kidney and, as such, may be an important agent for the study of osmoregulation by the kidney

  6. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Media-Promoted Weight Loss Among an Occupational Population: Cohort Study Using a WeChat Mobile Phone App-Based Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Wu, Shiyan; Zhao, Yingying; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yanyan; Le, Jia; Wang, Lei; Wan, Siyang; Li, Changqing; Li, Yindong; Sun, Xinying

    2017-10-23

    Being overweight and obese are major risk factors for noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high throughout the world and these issues are very serious in the Shunyi District in China. As mobile technologies have rapidly developed, mobile apps such as WeChat are well accepted and have the potential to improve health behaviors. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile app (WeChat) as an intervention on weight loss behavior. This study was conducted among an occupational population from August 2015 to February 2016 in the Shunyi District of Beijing. Before the intervention, the Shunyi District Government released an official document for weight loss to all 134 government agencies and enterprises in Shunyi District. Participants willing to use our official WeChat account were enrolled in a WeChat group and received 6 months of interventions for weight loss; those who were not willing to use the account were in a control group given routine publicity on weight loss. In total, 15,310 occupational participants including 3467 participants (22.65%) in the control group and 11,843 participants (77.35%) in the WeChat group were enrolled. Participants in the WeChat group lost more weight (mean 2.09, SD 3.43 kg) than people in the control group (mean 1.78, SD 2.96 kg), and the difference in mean weight loss between the two groups for males was significant based on the stratification of age and educational level. To control for confounding factors and to explore the effects of WeChat on weight loss, the propensity score method with a multinominal logistic regression was utilized. For males, this showed that the WeChat group (with both active and inactive subgroups) had a higher probability of maintaining weight, weight loss from 1 to 2 kg, or weight loss more than 2 kg than the control group. However, the control group had higher probability of weight loss from 0 to 1 kg. Being active in WeChat was

  8. Social Media–Promoted Weight Loss Among an Occupational Population: Cohort Study Using a WeChat Mobile Phone App-Based Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingying; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yanyan; Le, Jia; Wang, Lei; Wan, Siyang; Li, Changqing; Li, Yindong

    2017-01-01

    Background Being overweight and obese are major risk factors for noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high throughout the world and these issues are very serious in the Shunyi District in China. As mobile technologies have rapidly developed, mobile apps such as WeChat are well accepted and have the potential to improve health behaviors. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile app (WeChat) as an intervention on weight loss behavior. Methods This study was conducted among an occupational population from August 2015 to February 2016 in the Shunyi District of Beijing. Before the intervention, the Shunyi District Government released an official document for weight loss to all 134 government agencies and enterprises in Shunyi District. Participants willing to use our official WeChat account were enrolled in a WeChat group and received 6 months of interventions for weight loss; those who were not willing to use the account were in a control group given routine publicity on weight loss. Results In total, 15,310 occupational participants including 3467 participants (22.65%) in the control group and 11,843 participants (77.35%) in the WeChat group were enrolled. Participants in the WeChat group lost more weight (mean 2.09, SD 3.43 kg) than people in the control group (mean 1.78, SD 2.96 kg), and the difference in mean weight loss between the two groups for males was significant based on the stratification of age and educational level. To control for confounding factors and to explore the effects of WeChat on weight loss, the propensity score method with a multinominal logistic regression was utilized. For males, this showed that the WeChat group (with both active and inactive subgroups) had a higher probability of maintaining weight, weight loss from 1 to 2 kg, or weight loss more than 2 kg than the control group. However, the control group had higher probability of weight loss from

  9. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of the Novel Acetyltransferase Retrogene Ard1b in the Mouse1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Peacock, Stephanie; Johnson, Warren; Bear, Deborah H.; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2009-01-01

    N-alpha-terminal acetylation is a modification process that occurs cotranslationally on most eukaryotic proteins. The major enzyme responsible for this process, N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase, is composed of the catalytic subunit ARD1A and the auxiliary subunit NAT1. We cloned, characterized, and studied the expression pattern of Ard1b (also known as Ard2), a novel homolog of the mouse Ard1a. Comparison of the genomic structures suggests that the autosomal Ard1b is a retroposed copy of the X-linked Ard1a. Expression analyses demonstrated a testis predominance of Ard1b. A reciprocal expression pattern between Ard1a and Ard1b is also observed during spermatogenesis, suggesting that Ard1b is expressed to compensate for the loss of Ard1a starting from meiosis. Both ARD1A and ARD1B can interact with NAT1 to constitute a functional N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase in vitro. The expression of ARD1B protein can be detected in mouse testes but is delayed until the first appearance of round spermatids. In a cell culture model, the inclusion of the long 3′ untranslated region of Ard1b leads to reduction of luciferase reporter activity, which implicates its role in translational repression of Ard1b during spermatogenesis. Our results suggest that ARD1B may have an important role in the later course of the spermatogenic process. PMID:19246321

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the aminoglycoside-6′-acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Im

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Marta; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2012-01-01

    AAC(6′)-Im is an N-acetyltransferase enzyme responsible for aminoglycoside resistance in E. faecium and E. coli isolates. Crystals of the kanamycin complex of this enzyme have been prepared and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments have been undertaken. Bacterial resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of enzymatic deactivation of the drugs. The aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferases (AACs) are a large family of bacterial enzymes that are responsible for coenzyme-A-facilitated acetylation of aminoglycosides. The gene encoding one of these enzymes, AAC(6′)-Im, has been cloned and the protein (comprising 178 amino-acid residues) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized as the kanamycin complex. Synchrotron diffraction data to approximately 2.0 Å resolution were collected from a crystal of this complex on beamline BL12-2 at SSRL (Stanford, California, USA). The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 5 , with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 107.75, c = 37.33 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Structure determination is under way using molecular replacement

  11. Biochemical and Structural Analysis of an Eis Family Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Keith D.; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K.; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance.

  12. The MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex regulates stress resistance and longevity through transcriptional control of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takako; Uno, Masaharu; Honjoh, Sakiko; Nishida, Eisuke

    2017-08-09

    The well-known link between longevity and the Sir2 histone deacetylase family suggests that histone deacetylation, a modification associated with repressed chromatin, is beneficial to longevity. However, the molecular links between histone acetylation and longevity remain unclear. Here, we report an unexpected finding that the MYST family histone acetyltransferase complex (MYS-1/TRR-1 complex) promotes rather than inhibits stress resistance and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans Our results show that these beneficial effects are largely mediated through transcriptional up-regulation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. MYS-1 and TRR-1 are recruited to the promoter regions of the daf-16 gene, where they play a role in histone acetylation, including H4K16 acetylation. Remarkably, we also find that the human MYST family Tip60/TRRAP complex promotes oxidative stress resistance by up-regulating the expression of FOXO transcription factors in human cells. Tip60 is recruited to the promoter regions of the foxo1 gene, where it increases H4K16 acetylation levels. Our results thus identify the evolutionarily conserved role of the MYST family acetyltransferase as a key epigenetic regulator of DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in memory, motor function, and hippocampal plasticity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Chelsea A; Brown, Alexandra L; Yu, Waylin; Chun, Yoona; Glenn, Melissa J

    2017-10-11

    Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or supplemented choline diet prenatally. Using the novelty preference test of object recognition, we found that only prenatal standard-fed rats displayed memory consolidation deficits induced by low-dose MK-801 administered immediately following study of sample objects; all other groups, including prenatal choline supplemented rats given MK-801, showed intact memory. Following high-dose MK-801, prenatal choline supplementation significantly alleviated rats' motor response to MK-801, particularly ataxia. Using doublecortin and Ki67 to mark neurogenesis and cell division, respectively, in the hippocampus, we found that prenatal choline supplementation, in the face of MK-801 toxicity, protected against reduced hippocampal plasticity. Taken together, the current findings suggest that prenatal choline supplementation protects against a variety of behavioral and neural pathologies induced by the neurotoxin, MK-801. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting the robust neuroprotective capacity of choline. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Editor's Highlight: Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Choline Ion Pair Formation: A Potential Mechanism Modulating Hepatic Steatosis and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Krishnan, Prasad; Ehresman, David J; Smith, Philip B; Dutta, Mainak; Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Patterson, Andrew D; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induced steatosis remain unclear. The hypothesis that PFOS causes steatosis and other hepatic effects by forming an ion pair with choline was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a marginal methionine/choline-deficient (mMCD) diet, with and without 0.003, 0.006, or 0.012% potassium PFOS. Dietary PFOS caused a dose-dependent decrease in body weight, and increases in the relative liver weight, hepatic triglyceride concentration and serum markers of liver toxicity and oxidative stress. Some of these effects were exacerbated in mice fed the mMCD diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS compared with those fed the control diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS. Surprisingly, serum PFOS concentrations were higher while liver PFOS concentrations were lower in mMCD-fed mice compared with corresponding control-fed mice. To determine if supplemental dietary choline could prevent PFOS-induced hepatic effects, C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, or a choline supplemental diet (1.2%) with or without 0.003% PFOS. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that PFOS caused alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the PFOS-fed mice compared with controls, and supplemental dietary choline prevented these PFOS-induced changes. Interestingly, dietary choline supplementation also prevented PFOS-induced oxidative damage. These studies are the first to suggest that PFOS may cause hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress by effectively reducing the choline required for hepatic VLDL production and export by forming an ion pair with choline, and suggest that choline supplementation may prevent and/or treat PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Horizontal gene transfer of acetyltransferases, invertases and chorismate mutases from different bacteria to diverse recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Jason B; Baum, Thomas J

    2016-04-12

    Hoplolaimina plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are a lineage of animals with many documented cases of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In a recent study, we reported on three likely HGT candidate genes in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, all of which encode secreted candidate effectors with putative functions in the host plant. Hg-GLAND1 is a putative GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), Hg-GLAND13 is a putative invertase (INV), and Hg-GLAND16 is a putative chorismate mutase (CM), and blastp searches of the non-redundant database resulted in highest similarity to bacterial sequences. Here, we searched nematode and non-nematode sequence databases to identify all the nematodes possible that contain these three genes, and to formulate hypotheses about when they most likely appeared in the phylum Nematoda. We then performed phylogenetic analyses combined with model selection tests of alternative models of sequence evolution to determine whether these genes were horizontally acquired from bacteria. Mining of nematode sequence databases determined that GNATs appeared in Hoplolaimina PPN late in evolution, while both INVs and CMs appeared before the radiation of the Hoplolaimina suborder. Also, Hoplolaimina GNATs, INVs and CMs formed well-supported clusters with different rhizosphere bacteria in the phylogenetic trees, and the model selection tests greatly supported models of HGT over descent via common ancestry. Surprisingly, the phylogenetic trees also revealed additional, well-supported clusters of bacterial GNATs, INVs and CMs with diverse eukaryotes and archaea. There were at least eleven and eight well-supported clusters of GNATs and INVs, respectively, from different bacteria with diverse eukaryotes and archaea. Though less frequent, CMs from different bacteria formed supported clusters with multiple different eukaryotes. Moreover, almost all individual clusters containing bacteria and eukaryotes or archaea contained species that inhabit very similar

  16. Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Elida Yazmín; Uresti-Rivera, Edith Elena; Patrón-Soberano, Olga Araceli; Islas-Osuna, María Auxiliadora; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Riego-Ruiz, Lina; Rosales-Saavedra, María Teresa; Casas-Flores, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1), a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes histone acetylation, slightly affected T. atroviride and R. solani growth, but not the growth of the mycoparasite over R. solani. Application of TSA to the liquid medium induced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Expression analysis of the mycoparasitism-related genes ech-42 and prb-1, which encode an endochitinase and a proteinase, as well as the secondary metabolism-related genes pbs-1 and tps-1, which encode a peptaibol synthetase and a terpene synthase, respectively, showed that they were regulated by TSA. A T. atroviride strain harboring a deletion of tgf-1 gene showed slow growth, thinner and less branched hyphae than the wild-type strain, whereas its ability to coil around the R. solani hyphae was not affected. Δtgf-1 presented a diminished capacity to grow over R. solani, but the ability of its mycelium -free culture filtrates (MFCF) to inhibit the phytopathogen growth was enhanced. Intriguingly, addition of TSA to the culture medium reverted the enhanced inhibition growth of Δtgf-1 MFCF on R. solani at levels compared to the wild-type MFCF grown in medium amended with TSA. The presence of R. solani mycelium in the culture medium induced similar proteinase activity in a Δtgf-1 compared to the wild-type, whereas the chitinolytic activity was higher in a Δtgf-1 mutant in the absence of R. solani, compared to the parental strain. Expression of mycoparasitism

  17. Histone acetyltransferase TGF-1 regulates Trichoderma atroviride secondary metabolism and mycoparasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Yazmín Gómez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1, a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes histone acetylation, slightly affected T. atroviride and R. solani growth, but not the growth of the mycoparasite over R. solani. Application of TSA to the liquid medium induced synthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Expression analysis of the mycoparasitism-related genes ech-42 and prb-1, which encode an endochitinase and a proteinase, as well as the secondary metabolism-related genes pbs-1 and tps-1, which encode a peptaibol synthetase and a terpene synthase, respectively, showed that they were regulated by TSA. A T. atroviride strain harboring a deletion of tgf-1 gene showed slow growth, thinner and less branched hyphae than the wild-type strain, whereas its ability to coil around the R. solani hyphae was not affected. Δtgf-1 presented a diminished capacity to grow over R. solani, but the ability of its mycelium -free culture filtrates (MFCF to inhibit the phytopathogen growth was enhanced. Intriguingly, addition of TSA to the culture medium reverted the enhanced inhibition growth of Δtgf-1 MFCF on R. solani at levels compared to the wild-type MFCF grown in medium amended with TSA. The presence of R. solani mycelium in the culture medium induced similar proteinase activity in a Δtgf-1 compared to the wild-type, whereas the chitinolytic activity was higher in a Δtgf-1 mutant in the absence of R. solani, compared to the parental strain. Expression

  18. Breast cancer, heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat and N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, R J; Sinha, R; Smith, C; West, J; White, E; Lin, H J; Liao, S Y; Gim, J S; Ma, H L; Butler, J; Anton-Culver, H

    2000-04-01

    Breast cancer risk has been hypothesized to increase with exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed from cooking meat at high temperature. HAAs require enzymatic activation to bind to DNA and initiate carcinogenesis. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme activity may play a role, its rate determined by a polymorphic gene. We examined the effect of NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk from exposure to meat by cooking method, doneness and estimated HAA [2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazole[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx)] intake. Women were recruited with suspicious breast masses and questionnaire data were collected prior to biopsy to blind subjects and interviewers to diagnoses. For 114 cases with breast cancer and 280 controls with benign breast disease, NAT2 genotype was determined using allele-specific PCR amplification to detect slow acetylator mutations. HAAs were estimated from interview data on meat type, cooking method and doneness, combined with a quantitative HAA database. Logistic regression models controlled for known risk factors, first including all controls, then 108 with no or low risk (normal breast or no hyperplasia) and finally 149 with high risk (hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, complex fibroadenomas). Meat effects were examined within NAT2 strata to assess interactions. We found no association between NAT2 and breast cancer. These Californian women ate more white than red meat (control median 46 versus 8 g/day). There were no significant associations of breast cancer with red meat for any doneness. White meat was significantly protective (>67 versus chicken, including well done, pan fried and barbecued chicken. MeIQx and DiMeIQx were not associated with breast cancer. A protective effect of PhIP was confounded after controlling for well done chicken. Results were unchanged using low or high risk controls or dropping

  19. Metabolism of choline in brain of the aged CBF-1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Kindel, G.; Karczmar, A.G.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the changes that occur in the cholinergic central nervous system with aging, we have compared acetylcholine (Ach) formation in brain cortex slice preparations from 2-year-old aged CBF-1 mouse brains and compared the findings with those in 2-4-month-old young adult mouse brain slices. Incorporation of exogenous radioactively labelled choline (31 nM [ 3 H] choline) into acetyl choline in incubated brain slices was linear with time for 90 min. Percentage of total choline label distributed into Ach remained constant from 5 min after starting the incubation to 90 min. In contrast, distribution of label into intracellular free choline (Ch) and phosphorylcholine (Pch) changed continuously over this period suggesting that the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in brain cortex is different from that for Pch synthesis. Incorporation of radioactivity into Ach was not influenced by administration of 10 microM eserine, showing that the increment of radioactivity in Ach reflects rate of Ach formation, independently from degradation by acetylcholine esterases. Under our experimental conditions, slices from cortices of aged 24-month-old mouse brain showed a significantly greater (27%) incorporation of radioactivity into intracellular Ach than those from young, 2-4-month-old, brain cortices. Inhibitors of Ach release, 1 mM ATP or GABA, had no effect. Since concentration of radioactive precursor in the incubation medium was very low (31 nM), the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in slices was labelled without measurably changing the size of the endogenous pool. These data suggest a compensatory acceleration of Ach synthesis or else a smaller precursor pool specific for Ach synthesis into which labelled Ch migrated in aged brain

  20. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Spencer, Melanie D.; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Galanko, Joseph A.; Sha, Wei; Suzuki, Ayako; Guy, Cynthia D.; Cardona, Diana M.; Torquati, Alfonso; Diehl, Anna Mae; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Choline metabolism is important for very low-density lipoprotein secretion, making this nutritional pathway an important contributor to hepatic lipid balance. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the cumulative effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism and functionally related pathways increase susceptibility to developing hepatic steatosis. In biopsy-characterized cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and controls, we assessed 260 SNPs across 21 genes in choline/1-carbon metabolism. When SNPs were examined individually, using logistic regression, we only identified a single SNP (PNPLA3 rs738409) that was significantly associated with severity of hepatic steatosis after adjusting for confounders and multiple comparisons (P=0.02). However, when groupings of SNPs in similar metabolic pathways were defined using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified groups of subjects with shared SNP signatures that were significantly correlated with steatosis burden (P=0.0002). The lowest and highest steatosis clusters could also be differentiated by ethnicity. However, unique SNP patterns defined steatosis burden irrespective of ethnicity. Our results suggest that analysis of SNP patterns in genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism may be useful for prediction of severity of steatosis in specific subsets of people, and the metabolic inefficiencies caused by these SNPs should be examined further.—Corbin, K. D., Abdelmalek, M. F., Spencer, M. D., da Costa, K.-A., Galanko, J. A., Sha, W., Suzuki, A., Guy, C. D., Cardona, D. M., Torquati, A., Diehl, A. M., Zeisel, S. H. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292069