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Sample records for cholesterol lowering effect

  1. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-12-01

    Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  2. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allicin was discussed as an active compound with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering properties of allicin. In order to examine its effects on hypercholesterolemia in male ICR mice, this compound with doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight was given orally daily for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Final contents of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol storage were determined. Following a 12-week experimental period, the body weights of allicin-fed mice were less than those of control mice on a high-cholesterol diet by 38.24±7.94% (P<0.0001 with 5 mg/kg allicin, 39.28±5.03% (P<0.0001 with 10 mg/kg allicin, and 41.18±5.00% (P<0.0001 with 20 mg/kg allicin, respectively. A decrease in daily food consumption was also noted in most of the treated animals. Meanwhile, allicin showed a favorable effect in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and caused a significant decrease in lowering the hepatic cholesterol storage. Accordingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated a potential value of allicin as a pronounced cholesterol-lowering candidate, providing protection against the onset of atherosclerosis.

  3. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; He, Zhuojin; Shen, Xiuying; Xu, Xiaolu; Fan, Jie; Wu, Shaohua; Zhang, Deyong

    2012-01-01

    Allicin was discussed as an active compound with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering properties of allicin. In order to examine its effects on hypercholesterolemia in male ICR mice, this compound with doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight was given orally daily for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Final contents of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol storage were determined. Following a 12-week experimental period, the body weights of allicin-fed mice were less than those of control mice on a high-cholesterol diet by 38.24 ± 7.94% (P allicin, 39.28 ± 5.03% (P allicin, and 41.18 ± 5.00% (P allicin, respectively. A decrease in daily food consumption was also noted in most of the treated animals. Meanwhile, allicin showed a favorable effect in reducing blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels and caused a significant decrease in lowering the hepatic cholesterol storage. Accordingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated a potential value of allicin as a pronounced cholesterol-lowering candidate, providing protection against the onset of atherosclerosis. PMID:22928080

  4. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Calcium Alginate in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idota, Yoko; Kogure, Yumi; Kato, Takako; Ogawa, Mana; Kobayashi, Shoko; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Yano, Kentaro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Chihiro; Kasahara, Fumiyoshi; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether calcium alginate (Ca-Alg) reduces blood cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. First, we examined taurocholate adsorption in vitro by various types of sodium alginate (Na-Alg). High molecular-weight, guluronic acid-rich Na-Alg showed the greatest adsorption of taurocholate, and therefore the corresponding Ca-Alg was chosen for the in vivo study. Rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet or a Ca-Alg-containing diet for 2 weeks. Body weight and diet intake were measured, and the general condition of the animals was monitored during this period. After 14 d, the plasma concentration of cholesterol, portal plasma concentration of bile acid, and bile acid in feces were measured. The plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly reduced in rats fed a 2% Ca-Alg-containing diet. Furthermore, the portal concentration of bile acid was significantly lowered in the 2% Ca-Alg group. A tendency for a Ca-Alg concentration-dependent increase in fecal excretion of bile acid was also seen, although it was not statistically significant. While several changes in biochemical parameters and histopathological findings were observed, all the values remained within the physiological range. These results indicate that Ca-Alg is effective in reducing plasma cholesterol. A possible mechanism would be enhanced fecal excretion of bile acid due to reduced intestinal reabsorption, which in turn might stimulate bile acid synthesis from cholesterol in the liver, leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol.

  5. Effects of Lowering LDL Cholesterol on Progression of Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haynes, Richard; Lewis, David; Emberson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic events in CKD, but the effects of such treatment on progression of kidney disease remain uncertain. Here, 6245 participants with CKD (not on dialysis) were randomly assigned to simvastatin (20 mg) plus ezetimibe (10 mg) daily...... or matching placebo. The main prespecified renal outcome was ESRD (defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis or kidney transplantation). During 4.8 years of follow-up, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in an average LDL cholesterol difference (SEM) of 0.96 (0.02) mmol/L compared...... with placebo; rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.01; P=0.09). Exploratory analyses also showed no significant effect on the rate of change in eGFR. Lowering LDL cholesterol by 1 mmol/L did not slow kidney disease progression within 5 years in a wide range of patients with CKD....

  6. Nutritional value and cholesterol-lowering effect of wild lettuce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value and cholesterol-lowering effect of wild lettuce (Launaea taxaracifolia) leaf when fed as a source of protein was assessed by using male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) as an index of evaluation. The rats were fed on both methionine supplemented and unsupplemented wild lettuce leaf diets and elicited ...

  7. Effect of combining psyllium fiber with simvastatin in lowering cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Abel E; Wilson, Alan C; Koraym, Ashraf

    2005-05-23

    Soluble fiber supplements are recommended to reduce levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We evaluated the LDL-C-lowering effect of psyllium husk added to low-dose simvastatin therapy. In a 12-week blinded placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized to receive 20 mg of simvastatin plus placebo, 10 mg of simvastatin plus placebo, or 10 mg of simvastatin plus 15 g of psyllium (Metamucil) daily. Levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B were determined after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The study group comprised 68 patients. All treatments were well tolerated, and after 8 weeks the mean LDL-C levels in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin plus placebo fell by 55 mg/dL (1.42 mmol/L) from baseline, compared with 63 mg/dL (1.63 mmol/L) in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin plus psyllium (P = .03). The mean lowering of LDL-C in the group receiving 20 mg of simvastatin plus placebo was the same as that in the group receiving 10 mg of simvastatin plus psyllium. Similar results were seen for apolipoprotein B and total cholesterol. No significant changes from baseline triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels occurred. Dietary psyllium supplementation in patients taking 10 mg of simvastatin is as effective in lowering cholesterol as 20 mg of simvastatin alone. Psyllium soluble fiber should be considered as a safe and well-tolerated dietary supplement option to enhance LDL-C and apolipoprotein B lowering.

  8. Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Allicin on Hypercholesterolemic ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Lu; Zhuojin He; Xiuying Shen; Xiaolu Xu; Jie Fan; Shaohua Wu; Deyong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Allicin was discussed as an active compound with regard to the beneficial effects of garlic in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering properties of allicin. In order to examine its effects on hypercholesterolemia in male ICR mice, this compound with doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight was given orally daily for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. Final contents of serum c...

  9. The effect of lowering LDL cholesterol on vascular access patency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrington, William; Emberson, Jonathan; Staplin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS......, & MEASUREMENTS: The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized patients with CKD to 20 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe daily versus matching placebo. This study aimed to explore the effects of treatment on vascular access occlusive events, defined as any access revision procedure, access...... thrombosis, removal of an old dialysis access, or formation of new permanent dialysis access. RESULTS: Among 2353 SHARP participants who had functioning vascular access at randomization, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in a 13% proportional reduction in vascular access occlusive events (355...

  10. Selection of Cholesterol-Lowering Lactic Acid Bacteria and its Effects on Rats Fed with High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufang; Zhao, Fengchun; Liu, Jiye; Wang, Huimin; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Yongxin; Yang, Zhengyou

    2017-05-01

    High cholesterol level in serum is a major factor of influence for coronary heart disease. The cholesterol-lowering ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) without side effects makes them more and more attractive. Seventy-nine strains of LAB isolated from fermented food were screened in vitro for their ability to assimilate cholesterol. Then, ten strains which exhibited higher ability of cholesterol assimilation were investigated with the characteristics of acidic resistance, bile salt tolerance, and cell adhesion. According to the results, the best strain LP96 was picked out, and used to evaluate its effects on the high-cholesterol diet-fed rats. The results demonstrated that the levels of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver TC and TG were reduced significantly in the groups that received the strain LP96 solution compared with the model group, and that the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased without any significant difference. Furthermore, LP96 also showed good antioxidative activity and improvement of intestinal microbial balance in the rats. Thus, LP96 may be a promising probiotics with potential cholesterol-lowering ability.

  11. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary pomegranate extract and inulin in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Zhang, Song; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-10-16

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that both polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) and the polysaccharide inulin, ameliorate metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet, but little is known about the specific mechanisms. This study evaluated the effect of PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets supplemented with PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination for 4 weeks. At the end of intervention, serum and hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride levels, hepatic gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism as well as fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion were determined. Dietary supplementation of the HF/HS diet with PomX and inulin decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol. Supplementation with PomX and inulin together resulted in lower hepatic and serum total cholesterol compared to individual treatments. Compared to HF/HS control, PomX increased gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1, key regulators of bile acid synthesis pathways. Inulin decreased gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol de novo synthesis Srebf2 and Hmgcr and significantly increased fecal elimination of total bile acids and neutral sterols. Only PomX in combination with inulin reduced liver and lipid weight significantly compared to the HF/HS control group. PomX showed a trend to decrease liver triglyceride (TG) levels, while inulin or PomX-inulin combination had no effect on either serum or liver TG levels. Dietary PomX and inulin supplementation decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol by different mechanisms and the combination leading to a significant enhancement of the cholesterol-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Salo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p<0.01 and 8.1% (p<0.01 with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p<0.01 and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p<0.01 reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990.

  13. Cholesterol lowering effect of a commercial margarine in hypercholesterolemic adults: a review of the scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bernácer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the hypercholesterolemia is a growing problem, responsible of one fifth of coronary events in Spain. It is considered that plant sterols (PS could play an important role in their treatment.Objective: we review the role of a range of functional foods with added PS (including specific studies using Flora pro•activ in adults with hypercholesterolemia.Methods: we performed a review of the literature in the PubMed database to locate human studies that have evaluated the role of Flora pro•activ or PS fortified foods with a similar composition. We also have been consulted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA database.Results: Flora pro•activ demonstrated in rigorous scientific studies to lower cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Two servings of Flora pro•activ (1.5 g PS are needed to observe this effect. Lowering cholesterol with Flora pro•activ (2 servings / day oscillate as EFSA notes, between 7 and 10%. This effect is observed after 2-3 weeks. Its composition allows to make health claims about lowering cholesterol as is described for the European Union. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of PS enriched foods that are not margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings or dairy products is under-researched. With few exceptions, the use of fortified foods with PS is safe.Conclusions: the current scientific evidence justify the promotion of the use of PS to lower LDL cholesterol in adults with hypercholesterolemia.

  14. RHOA is a modulator of the cholesterol-lowering effects of statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marisa W; Theusch, Elizabeth; Naidoo, Devesh; Bauzon, Frederick; Stevens, Kristen; Mangravite, Lara M; Kuang, Yu-Lin; Krauss, Ronald M

    2012-01-01

    Although statin drugs are generally efficacious for lowering plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, there is considerable variability in response. To identify candidate genes that may contribute to this variation, we used an unbiased genome-wide filter approach that was applied to 10,149 genes expressed in immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 480 participants of the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenomics (CAP) clinical trial of simvastatin. The criteria for identification of candidates included genes whose statin-induced changes in expression were correlated with change in expression of HMGCR, a key regulator of cellular cholesterol metabolism and the target of statin inhibition. This analysis yielded 45 genes, from which RHOA was selected for follow-up because it has been found to participate in mediating the pleiotropic but not the lipid-lowering effects of statin treatment. RHOA knock-down in hepatoma cell lines reduced HMGCR, LDLR, and SREBF2 mRNA expression and increased intracellular cholesterol ester content as well as apolipoprotein B (APOB) concentrations in the conditioned media. Furthermore, inter-individual variation in statin-induced RHOA mRNA expression measured in vitro in CAP LCLs was correlated with the changes in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and APOB induced by simvastatin treatment (40 mg/d for 6 wk) of the individuals from whom these cell lines were derived. Moreover, the minor allele of rs11716445, a SNP located in a novel cryptic RHOA exon, dramatically increased inclusion of the exon in RHOA transcripts during splicing and was associated with a smaller LDL-cholesterol reduction in response to statin treatment in 1,886 participants from the CAP and Pravastatin Inflamation and CRP Evaluation (PRINCE; pravastatin 40 mg/d) statin clinical trials. Thus, an unbiased filter approach based on transcriptome-wide profiling identified RHOA as a gene contributing to variation in LDL-cholesterol response to statin, illustrating the

  15. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor avasimibe reduces atherosclerosis in addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect in ApoE*3-Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, D. J.; Offerman, E. H.; van Duyvenvoorde, W.; van der Boom, H.; de Wit, E. C.; Gijbels, M. J.; van der Laarse, A.; Jukema, J. W.; Havekes, L. M.; Princen, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe can reduce atherogenesis independently of its cholesterol-lowering effect in ApoE*3-Leiden mice. Two groups of 15 female ApoE*3-Leiden mice were put on a high-cholesterol (HC) diet; 1 group received 0.01% (wt/wt) avasimibe mixed

  16. Dose-dependent LDL-cholesterol lowering effect by plant stanol ester consumption: clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitinen Kirsi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elevated serum lipids are linked to cardiovascular diseases calling for effective therapeutic means to reduce particularly LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Plant stanols reduce levels of LDL-C by partly blocking cholesterol absorption. Accordingly the consumption of foods with added plant stanols, typically esterified with vegetable oil fatty acids in commercial food products, are recommended for lowering serum cholesterol levels. A daily intake of 1.5 to 2.4 g of plant stanols has been scientifically evaluated to lower LDL-C by 7 to 10% in different populations, ages and with different diseases. Based on earlier studies, a general understanding is that no further reduction may be achieved in intakes in excess of approximately 2.5 g/day. Recent studies however suggest that plant stanols show a continuous dose–response effect in serum LDL-C lowering. This review discusses the evidence for a dose-effect relationship between plant stanol ester consumption and reduction of LDL-C concentrations with daily intakes of plant stanols of 4 g/day or more. We identified five such studies and the overall data demonstrate a linear dose-effect relationship with the most pertinent LDL-Cholesterol lowering outcome, 18%, achieved by a daily intake of 9 to 10 g of plant stanols. Along with reduction in LDL-C, the studies demonstrated a decrease in cholesterol absorption markers, the serum plant sterol to cholesterol ratios, by increasing the dose of plant stanol intake. None of the studies with daily intakes up to 10 g of plant stanols reported adverse clinical or biochemical effects from plant stanols. In a like manner, the magnitude of decrease in serum antioxidant vitamins was not related to the dose of plant stanols consumed and the differences between plant stanol ester consumers and controls were minor and insignificant or nonexisting. Consumption of plant stanols in high doses is feasible as a range of food products are commercially available for

  17. RHOA is a modulator of the cholesterol-lowering effects of statin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa W Medina

    Full Text Available Although statin drugs are generally efficacious for lowering plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, there is considerable variability in response. To identify candidate genes that may contribute to this variation, we used an unbiased genome-wide filter approach that was applied to 10,149 genes expressed in immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs derived from 480 participants of the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenomics (CAP clinical trial of simvastatin. The criteria for identification of candidates included genes whose statin-induced changes in expression were correlated with change in expression of HMGCR, a key regulator of cellular cholesterol metabolism and the target of statin inhibition. This analysis yielded 45 genes, from which RHOA was selected for follow-up because it has been found to participate in mediating the pleiotropic but not the lipid-lowering effects of statin treatment. RHOA knock-down in hepatoma cell lines reduced HMGCR, LDLR, and SREBF2 mRNA expression and increased intracellular cholesterol ester content as well as apolipoprotein B (APOB concentrations in the conditioned media. Furthermore, inter-individual variation in statin-induced RHOA mRNA expression measured in vitro in CAP LCLs was correlated with the changes in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and APOB induced by simvastatin treatment (40 mg/d for 6 wk of the individuals from whom these cell lines were derived. Moreover, the minor allele of rs11716445, a SNP located in a novel cryptic RHOA exon, dramatically increased inclusion of the exon in RHOA transcripts during splicing and was associated with a smaller LDL-cholesterol reduction in response to statin treatment in 1,886 participants from the CAP and Pravastatin Inflamation and CRP Evaluation (PRINCE; pravastatin 40 mg/d statin clinical trials. Thus, an unbiased filter approach based on transcriptome-wide profiling identified RHOA as a gene contributing to variation in LDL-cholesterol response to statin

  18. Association between cholesterol synthesis/absorption markers and effects of cholesterol lowering by atorvastatin among patients with high risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Liu, Jing; Ma, Changsheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Miao; Lv, Qiang; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Zhao, Dong

    2013-11-01

    No indices are currently available to facilitate clinicians to identify patients who need either statin monotherapy or statin-ezetimibe combined treatment. We aimed to investigate whether cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers can predict the cholesterol-lowering response to statin. Total 306 statin-naïve patients with high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg/day for 1 month. Cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured before and after treatment. Atorvastatin decreased LDL-C by 36.8% (range: decrease of 74.5% to increase of 31.9%). Baseline cholesterol synthesis marker lathosterol and cholesterol absorption marker campesterol codetermined the effect of atorvastatin treatment. The effect of cholesterol lowering by atorvastatin was significantly associated with baseline lathosterol levels but modified bidirectionally by baseline campesterol levels. In patients with the highest baseline campesterol levels, atorvastatin treatment decreased cholesterol absorption by 46.1%, which enhanced the effect of LDL-C lowering. Atorvastatin treatment increased cholesterol absorption by 52.3% in those with the lowest baseline campesterol levels, which attenuated the effect of LDL-C reduction. Especially those with the highest lathosterol but the lowest campesterol levels at baseline had significantly less LDL-C reduction than those with the same baseline lathosterol levels but the highest campesterol levels (27.3% versus 42.4%, P = 0.002). These results suggest that combined patterns of cholesterol synthesis/absorption markers, rather than each single marker, are potential predictors of the LDL-C-lowering effects of atorvastatin in high-risk CHD patients.

  19. Association between cholesterol synthesis/absorption markers and effects of cholesterol lowering by atorvastatin among patients with high risk of coronary heart disease[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Liu, Jing; Ma, Changsheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Miao; Lv, Qiang; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Zhao, Dong

    2013-01-01

    No indices are currently available to facilitate clinicians to identify patients who need either statin monotherapy or statin-ezetimibe combined treatment. We aimed to investigate whether cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers can predict the cholesterol-lowering response to statin. Total 306 statin-naïve patients with high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg/day for 1 month. Cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured before and after treatment. Atorvastatin decreased LDL-C by 36.8% (range: decrease of 74.5% to increase of 31.9%). Baseline cholesterol synthesis marker lathosterol and cholesterol absorption marker campesterol codetermined the effect of atorvastatin treatment. The effect of cholesterol lowering by atorvastatin was significantly associated with baseline lathosterol levels but modified bidirectionally by baseline campesterol levels. In patients with the highest baseline campesterol levels, atorvastatin treatment decreased cholesterol absorption by 46.1%, which enhanced the effect of LDL-C lowering. Atorvastatin treatment increased cholesterol absorption by 52.3% in those with the lowest baseline campesterol levels, which attenuated the effect of LDL-C reduction. Especially those with the highest lathosterol but the lowest campesterol levels at baseline had significantly less LDL-C reduction than those with the same baseline lathosterol levels but the highest campesterol levels (27.3% versus 42.4%, P = 0.002). These results suggest that combined patterns of cholesterol synthesis/absorption markers, rather than each single marker, are potential predictors of the LDL-C-lowering effects of atorvastatin in high-risk CHD patients. PMID:23964121

  20. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of Cholesterol-Lowering Treatment on Coronary Heart-Disease Morbidity and Mortality - the Evidence from Trials, and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Evidence from controlled clinical trials shows convincingly that reducing serum cholesterol levels by diet or drug treatment reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. On a population basis, the most important effect of cholesterol lowering might be postponement of the first symptoms of

  2. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, Anne; Beck, Eleanor J; Tosh, Susan; Wolever, Thomas M S

    2014-01-01

    Health claims regarding the cholesterol-lowering effect of soluble fiber from oat products, approved by food standards agencies worldwide, are based on a diet containing ≥3 g/d of oat β-glucan (OBG...

  3. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary lupin (Lupinus albus var multolupa) in chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different concentrations of lupin seeds (0, 200, and 400 g/kg), with and without cholesterol added (10 g/kg), in chicken diets on performance, relative liver weight, liver fat, intestinal pH and viscosity, and different blood serum parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total biliary salts, amylase, total protein and albumin, and globulin fractions). Increasing the lupin content in the diet reduced weight gain and feed consumption and increased feed-to-gain ratio. A decrease in liver fat, cecal pH, serum glucose, cholesterol, total biliary salts, and total protein and an increase in jejunum viscosity were observed with increasing concentration of lupins. Serum albumin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and albumin:globulin ratio were reduced by the addition of lupin in the diet. Cholesterol supplementation of diets had no effect on the performance, cecal pH, and serum triglycerides. Relative liver weight, liver fat, jejunum viscosity, serum cholesterol, total biliary salts, and total protein were increased, and serum glucose was reduced by addition of cholesterol. Cholesterol increased serum albumin, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin, and beta-globulin and reduced albumin:globulin ratio and amylase. These results indicate that inclusion of lupin seed in chicken diets causes a growth depression and a reduction of serum cholesterol and glucose and modifies other physiological parameters.

  4. Cholesterol-lowering effects of modified animal fats in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, J B; Martini, M C; Carr, T P; Elhard, B M; Olson, B A; Bergmann, S D; Slavin, J L; Hayes, K C; Hassel, C A

    1997-12-01

    In an attempt to improve the nutritional value of animal fats (including milkfat and lard), two technological approaches (i.e., cholesterol removal by steam distillation and linoleic acid enrichment by addition of safflower oil) were tested for cholesterolemic effects in a cohort of 29 older women (age 68 +/- 7 years). Test fat sources were incorporated into crackers, cookies, cheese, ice cream, whipped topping, sour cream, baking shortening, and table spreads. Subjects were permanent residents of a convent where meals were prepared in a centralized kitchen, allowing test fats to be provided in daily food menu items. The foods containing test fats were introduced into three sequential dietary treatment periods, each lasting 4 weeks, in the following order: cholesterol-reduced animal fat (CRAF): fatty-acid modified, cholesterol-reduced animal fat (FAMCRAF); and-unaltered animal fat (AF). Subjects were offered menu items cafeteria style and encouraged to make food selections consistent with their habitual diets, which were recorded daily. Fasted blood lipid profiles determined at the end of each treatment period showed that FAMCRAF reduced mean plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B concentrations relative to AF (p < 0.05). Mean HDL cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by diet. Relative to native products, animal fats modified by cholesterol removal and linoleic acid enrichment reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in a predictable manner similar to that based on studies of men.

  5. Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 isolated from Tibetan kefir grains: a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Fei; Wang, Xiaojun; Sui, Yujie; Yang, Longfei; Wang, Jinfeng

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. The Lp27 isolate survived a 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and grew normally in 0.3% oxgall. In addition, the Lp27 isolate exhibited an adhesion ratio of 9.5 ± 2.5% with Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the Lp27 isolate was sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol, and was resistant to vancomycin with a minimum inhibitory value of 23µg/mL. The Lp27 isolate inhibited cholesterol absorption through downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression in Caco-2 cells. The Lp27 isolate was fed to hypercholesterolemic rats at a dose of 10(9) cfu/d for 4wk. The Lp27 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations, but no change was observed in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased in the Lp27-fed group. The expression of NPC1L1 in the duodenum and jejunum was significantly decreased following Lp27 feeding. These results indicate that Lp27 might be an effective cholesterol-lowering probiotic and a possible mechanism for the cholesterol-reducing effects of probiotics. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergetic cholesterol-lowering effects of main alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis in HepG2 cells and hypercholesterolemia hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shuming; Han, Bing; Wang, Yue; Huang, Tao; He, Kai; Han, Yulong; Zhou, Xia; Ye, Xiaoli; Li, Xuegang

    2016-04-15

    Hyperlipidemia contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Main alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis including berberine (BBR), coptisine (COP), palmatine (PAL), epiberberine (EPI) and jatrorrhizine (JAT), improved dyslipidemia in hypercholesterolemic hamsters to a different degree. In this study, HepG2 cells and hypercholesterolemic hamsters were used to investigate the synergetic cholesterol-lowering efficacy of these five main alkaloids. The cellular lipid and cholesterol accumulation and in HepG2 cells were evaluated by Oil Red O staining and HPLC analysis. LDL receptor, 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) that involving cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The serum profiles including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), as well as TC and total bile acids (TBA) of feces in hypercholesterolemic hamsters were also measured. As compared to single alkaloids, the combination of five main alkaloids (COM) reduced the lipid and cholesterol accumulation in HepG2 cells more effectively and performed an advantageous effect on controlling TC, TG, LDL-c and HDL-c in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. More effective reduction of TBA and TC levels in feces of hamsters were achieved after the administration of COM. These effects were derived from the up-regulation of LDL receptor and CYP7A1, as well as HMGCR downregulation. Our results demonstrated that COM showed a synergetic cholesterol-lowering efficacy, which was better than single alkaloids and it might be considered as a potential therapy for hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholesterol-lowering effect of whole lupin (Lupinus albus) seed and its protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Gustavo Guadagnucci; Batistuti, José Paschoal; Cruz, Robison José da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2012-06-01

    This study describes the hypocholesterolaemic effect of whole lupin and its protein in hamsters. The diets were: casein (control group HC), lupin protein isolate (group HPI) and whole lupin seed (group HWS). Diets from HPI and HWS promoted a significant reduction of total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol in the hamsters' plasma as compared with HC. The true digestibility of HPI and HC groups were similar and differed significantly from the HWS one, which in turn showed a significant difference in total sterol excretion as compared to the former groups. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that animals fed on HPI and HWS diets presented a low level of steatosis (level 1) as compared to the ones fed on HC diet (level 4). Our findings demonstrate that protein isolate from Lupinus albus from Brazil has a metabolic effect on endogenous cholesterol metabolism and a protector effect on development of hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of cholesterol lowering on carotid and femoral artery wall stiffness and thickness in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, T J; van den Berkmortel, F W; Wollersheim, H; van Langen, H; Kastelein, J J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2000-06-01

    Early in the process of atherosclerosis, changes in vessel wall stiffness and thickness may occur. The present study evaluates the effect of cholesterol reduction on artery wall stiffness and intima media thickness in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Forty-five patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (mean age 46+/-10 years) with untreated LDL cholesterol concentration > 9 mmol L(-1), were studied before and after one year of cholesterol lowering therapy with statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin 40-80 mg day(-1). The distensibility (DC in 10-3 kPa(-1) and compliance (CC in mm2. kPa(-1) of the common carotid artery (CCA) (right and left side) and common femoral artery (CFA) (right side) were determined by a wall track system (Pie Medical). The intima media thickness (IMT) (both right and left) of the CCA, bulb (BUL), internal carotid artery (ICA) and CFA were measured in mm by high-resolution ultrasound (Biosound). The mean concentration of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were reduced significantly by 43%, 51% and 25%, respectively, whereas HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) increased by 13% (P<0.001). In the CFA, the DC and CC increased significantly (DC from 7.9+/-3.0 to 9.1+/-3.7 in 10(-3) kPa(-1); CC 0.5+/-0.2-0.6+/-0.3 in mm2. kPa(-1), whereas the DC and CC did not change in the CCA. In contrast, the IMT of the CCA decreased significantly in both men and women whereas an IMT decrease was also seen in the BUL and ICA in premenopausal women. A LDL-cholesterol reduction of 44.8% and 45.4% was necessary to induce significant decreases in IMT and increases in DC and CC. One year of cholesterol lowering therapy in FH decreases the wall stiffness in the CFA and the arterial wall thickness in the CCA.

  9. Cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in view of bile acid pathway of resveratrol and resveratrol-glucuronides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resveratrol (Res) was previously reported to be capable of lowering plasma TC and LDL-C. The mechanism behind Res is not clearly understood, although it is presumed to have an effect on bile acid metabolism in the liver: a significant way in eliminating cholesterol from the body. As one of the major...

  10. The cholesterol-lowering effects of oat varieties based on their difference in the composition of proteins and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Tong, Li-Tao; Liu, Liya; Zhong, Kui; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2014-12-05

    The aim of present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of the oat components other than the β-glucan in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Four-week-old male Wister rats were divided into 6 groups of 7 rats each with similar mean body weights and serum cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed with the experimental diets containing 10% oats flour for 30 days. Food intake was recorded and monitored everyday to ensure the similar contents of protein, starch, lipid and cellulose in all groups. The lipids levels in serum, liver, and faeces were determined. The plasma total cholesterol concentrations in different oat groups were significantly reduced compared with the control group, and the effects were different among oat groups. The decrease extent of plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations increased with the increase of the proteins and lipids contents. Moreover, liver total cholesterol and cholesterol ester contents were markedly decreased. The fecal bile acids concentrations in the oat groups were significantly increased. Oat proteins had lower Lysine/Arginin (0.59 ~ 0.66) and Methionin/Glycine (0.27 ~ 0.35) ratio than casein (Lysine/Arginin, 2.33; Methionin/Glycine, 1.51). Oat lipids contained higher contents of total Vitamin E and plant sterols than that in soybean oil. These results indicated that dietary oat improved hypercholesterolemia by increasing the excretions of fecal bile acids, and this improvement was not only related to β-glucan, but also attributed to the lipids and proteins. Oat proteins decreased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol contents due to their low Lysine/Arginin and Methionin/Glycine ratio. The co-existence of oleic acid, linoleic, vitamin E, or plant sterols accounted for the hypocholesterolemic properties of oat lipids.

  11. Manufacture of Cheddar cheese using probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K25 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in a mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Chunhong; Li, Changying; Li, Shengyu; Li, Tiezhu; Li, Da; Zhao, Yujuan; Yang, Zhennai

    2013-01-01

    The probiotic adjunct Lactobacillus plantarum K25 was inoculated into milk to produce probiotic cheese. The effect of Lb. plantarum K25 on cheese composition, microbiological growth and survival during the manufacturing and ripening period, primary and secondary proteolysis during cheese ripening, and the in vivo cholesterol-lowering ability of the probiotic cheese were investigated. The results showed that the use of adjunct Lb. plantarum K25 in Cheddar cheese did not affect the cheese components including moisture, protein, fat, salt content and the pH value of cheese. During the whole ripening period, the probiotic adjunct maintained its viability, suggesting the effectiveness of Cheddar cheese as a vehicle for delivery of probiotic bacteria. No significant differences were observed in water-soluble nitrogen, 70 % ethanol-soluble nitrogen, 5 % phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, free amino acids and urea-PAGE patterns between the control and probiotic cheeses. Assessment of the in vivo cholesterol-lowering property of cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 showed that the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly, and the level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in mice fed with the probiotic cheese. The results indicated the potential function as a dietary item of the probiotic cheese with Lb. plantarum K25 to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Lay-Gaik; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-06-17

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probiotic-mediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.

  13. Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics: A Review of in Vivo and in Vitro Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay-Gaik Ooi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits upon consumption, while prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be used as alternative supplements to exert health benefits, including cholesterol-lowering effects on humans. Past in vivo studies showed that the administration of probiotics and/or prebiotics are effective in improving lipid profiles, including the reduction of serum/plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides or increment of HDL-cholesterol. However, other past studies have also shown that probiotics and prebiotics had insignificant effects on lipid profiles, disputing the hypocholesterolemic claim. Additionally, little information is available on the effective dosage of probiotics and prebiotics needed to exert hypocholesterolemic effects. Probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested to reduce cholesterol via various mechanisms. However, more clinical evidence is needed to strengthen these proposals. Safety issues regarding probiotics and/or prebiotics have also been raised despite their long history of safe use. Although probioticmediated infections are rare, several cases of systemic infections caused by probiotics have been reported and the issue of antibiotic resistance has sparked much debate. Prebiotics, classified as food ingredients, are generally considered safe, but overconsumption could cause intestinal discomfort. Conscientious prescription of probiotics and/or prebiotics is crucial, especially when administering to specific high risk groups such as infants, the elderly and the immuno-compromised.

  14. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cholesterol-lowering effect of the regulatory peptide Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miasoedov, N F; Shubina, T A; Obergan, T Iu; Grigor'eva, M E; Andreeva, L A; Liapina, L A

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper anticoagulant-fibrinolytic effects of the peptide Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu in rats (370-500 g body weight) who consumed fatty foods with excess of saturated fatty acids (wheat flour and bread--35%, sugar--10%, margarine hydrogenated fats, mayonnaise, cheese--35% and offals--10%, cholesterol--1%, dry food--9%) has been established. The duration of the animals on the diet was 15 days. The experimental animals intranasally obtained peptide (200 microg/kg body weight per volume of 0.02 ml per 200 g body weight) 11 times (daily except weekends). Animals from the control group intranasally received instead of peptide its vehicle (0.85% solution of NaCl) at the same time and in the same amount. It has been shown that daily nasal administration of the regulatory tetrapeptide under fatty food intake for the entire period of the experiment has a positive effect on lipid metabolism. It warned the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia, an increase in body weight, normalized disturbed lipid profile, blood cholesterol level. In addition, its administration also restored functional status of anticoagulation system and decreased elevated degree of blood coagulation to normal values. Possible mechanism of hypocholesterolemic activity of peptide can be explained by its ability to interact with receptors of blood or brain cells, and through a series of reactions mediated to reduce blood cholesterol levels. Thanks to the anti-platelet activity glyprolines effectively improves endothelial function and reduces the risk of blood clots in the blood vessels, providing improved rheological properties of blood and preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial wall.

  16. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p Flax drink consumption compared to control (p Flax bread compared to control (p Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  17. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  18. Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements: Lower Your Numbers without Prescription Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat protein sources May reduce LDL None Whey protein May reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides May cause nausea, constipation, diarrhea or gas Another popular cholesterol-lowering supplement is red yeast rice. There is some evidence that red yeast rice ...

  19. The Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Alisol Acetates Based on HMG-CoA Reductase and Its Molecular Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the impact of alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A 24-acetate, the main active ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicine Alismatis rhizoma, on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C levels of hyperlipidemic mice. The binding of alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A 24-acetate to the key enzyme involved in the metabolism of TC, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, was studied using the reagent kit method and the western blotting technique combined with a molecular simulation technique. According to the results, alisol acetates significantly lower the TC, TG, and LDL-C concentrations of hyperlipidemic mice, while raising HDL-C concentrations. Alisol acetates lower HMG-CoA reductase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, both in vivo and in vitro. Neither of these alisol acetates significantly lower the protein expression of HMG-CoA. This suggests that alisol acetates lower the TC level via inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase by its prototype drug, which may exhibit an inhibition effect via directly and competitively binding to HMG-CoA. The side chain of the alisol acetate was the steering group via molecular simulation.

  20. Cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Larijani, Bagher; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Tahbaz, Farideh

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we compared the effect of consuming probiotic yogurt with that of ordinary yogurt on serum cholesterol level in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. This randomized and crossover trial included 14 healthy subjects with serum total cholesterol 5.17-7.76 mmol/l. They did not consume yogurt for a 2-week prestudy period and added 300 g/day of milk to their diet. After this period, they were randomly allocated to 2 groups to receive either 300 g of ordinary yogurt or probiotic yogurt (fermented with a starter composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in addition to bacteria in ordinary yogurt) for 6 weeks as a substitution for milk. After a 4-week washout period, the crossover was made and the study lasted for another 6 weeks. Blood lipid tests were done at the beginning and at the end of each period. Consumption of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt caused a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol (p Yogurt containing two probiotic bacteria strains, L. acidophilus and B. lactis, had a cholesterol-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  1. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Aarestrup, Julie; Petersen, Kristina En; Søndergaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Mette S; Astrup, Arne

    2012-02-03

    Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004.

  2. Effect of low dose atorvastatin versus diet-induced cholesterol lowering on atherosclerotic lesion progression and inflammation in apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, L.; Kleemann, R.; Offerman, E.H.; Szalai, A.J.; Emeis, S.J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective - To evaluate whether low-dose atorvastatin suppresses atherosclerotic lesion progression and inflammation in apolipoprotein E*3 (apoE*3)-Leiden mice beyond its cholesterol-lowering effect. Methods and Results - ApoE*3-Leiden mice were fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet until mild

  3. The molecular mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of dill and kale: The influence of the food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Francesca; Govoni, Marco; D'Antuono, Luigi Filippo; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Foods are complex matrices containing many different compounds, all of which contribute to the overall effect of the food itself, although they have different mechanisms of action. While evaluating the effect of bioactive compounds, it is important to consider that the use of a single compound can hide the effects of the other molecules that can act synergistically or antagonistically in the same food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of food matrix components by comparing two edible plants (dill and kale) with cholesterol-lowering potential and similar contents of their most representative bioactive, quercetin. The molecular effects of the extracts were evaluated in HepG2 cells by measuring the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA and protein level. The results reported here show that both extracts reduced the cellular cholesterol level with a similar trend and magnitude. It is conceivable that the slightly different results are due to the diverse composition of minor bioactive compounds, indicating that only by considering food as a whole is it possible to understand the complex relationship between food, nutrition, and health in a foodomics vision. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Alun L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of the use of psyllium, largely in hypercholesterolemic men, have suggested that it lowers serum cholesterol as a result of the binding of bile acids in the intestinal lumen. Widespread advertisements have claimed an association between the use of soluble fibre from psyllium seed husk and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Given the purported mechanism of cholesterol-lowering by psyllium, we hypothesized that there would be a greater effect when psyllium is taken with breakfast than when taken at bedtime. Secondarily, we expected to confirm a cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium in subjects with "average" cholesterol levels. Methods Sixteen men and 47 women ranging in age from 18 to 77 years [mean 53 +/- 13] with LDL cholesterol levels that were normal or slightly elevated but acceptable for subjects at low risk of coronary artery disease were recruited from general gastroenterology and low risk lipid clinics. Following a one month dietary stabilization period, they received an average daily dose of 12.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, in randomized order, for 8 weeks in the morning and 8 weeks in the evening. Change from baseline was determined for serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Results Total cholesterol for the "AM first" group at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks was 5.76, 5.77 and 5.80 mmol/L and for the "PM first" group the corresponding values were 5.47, 5.61 and 5.57 mmol/L. No effect on any lipid parameter was demonstrated for the group as a whole or in any sub-group analysis. Conclusion The timing of psyllium administration had no effect on cholesterol-lowering and, in fact, no cholesterol-lowering was observed. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of psyllium for the prevention of heart disease in the population at large may be premature.

  5. The perspective on cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimwe, Nestor; Daliri, Eric B; Lee, Byong H; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng

    2015-01-01

    The use of probiotics as food components combats not only cardiovascular diseases but also many gastrointestinal tract disorders. Their health benefits along with their increased global market have interested scientists for better formulation and appropriate administration to the consumers. However, the lack of clear elucidation of their cholesterol-lowering mechanisms has complicated their proper dosage and administration to the beneficiaries. In this review, proposed mechanisms of cholesterol reduction such as deconjugation of bile via bile salt hydrolase activity, binding of cholesterol to probiotic cellular surface and incorporation into their cell membrane, production of SCFAs from oligosaccharides, coprecipitation of cholesterol with deconjugated bile, and cholesterol conversion to coprostanol have been discussed. Also, hypocholesterolemic effects on human- and animal-trial results, commonly used probiotics and synbiotics with effect on serum cholesterol regulation, types of bile salt hydrolase genes, and substrate specificities have been discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  7. Cholesterol: Top Five Foods to Lower Your Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... store-bought cookies, crackers and cakes, are particularly bad for your cholesterol levels. Trans fats raise LDL cholesterol, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol. Food labels report the content of trans ...

  8. Cholesterol lowering effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols in a French population with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bard Jean-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant sterols are an established non-pharmacological means to reduce total and LDL blood cholesterol concentrations and are therefore recommended for cholesterol management by worldwide-renown health care institutions. Their efficacy has been proven in many types of foods with the majority of trials conducted in spreads or dairy products. As an alternative to dairy products, soy based foods are common throughout the world. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of plant sterols in soy-based foods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy drink enriched with plant sterols on blood lipid profiles in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind mono-centric study, 50 subjects were assigned to 200 ml of soy drink either enriched with 2.6 g plant sterol esters (1.6 g/d free plant sterol equivalents or without plant sterols (control for 8 weeks. Subjects were instructed to maintain stable diet pattern and physical activity. Plasma concentrations of lipids were measured at initial visit, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks. The primary measurement was the change in LDL cholesterol (LDL-C. Secondary measurements were changes in total cholesterol (TC, non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides. Results Regular consumption of the soy drink enriched with plant sterols for 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL- C by 0.29 mmol/l or 7% compared to baseline (p 96%, and products were well tolerated. Conclusion Daily consumption of a plant sterol-enriched soy drink significantly decreased total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol and is therefore an interesting and convenient aid in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

  9. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) : a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J.; Reith, Christina; Emberson, Jonathan; Wheeler, David C.; Tomson, Charles; Wanner, Christoph; Krane, Vera; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Lixin; Hooi, Lai Seong; Levin, Adeera; Agodoa, Lawrence; Gaziano, Mike; Kasiske, Bertram; Walker, Robert; Massy, Ziad A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Krairittichai, Udom; Ophascharoensuk, Vuddidhej; Fellstrom, Bengt; Holdaas, Hallvard; Tesar, Vladimir; Wiecek, Andrzej; Grobbee, Diederick; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gronhagen-Riska, Carola; Dasgupta, Tanaji; Lewis, David; Herrington, William; Mafham, Marion; Majoni, William; Wallendszus, Karl; Grimm, Richard; Pedersen, Terje; Tobert, Jonathan; Armitage, Jane; Baxter, Alex; Bray, Christopher; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Zhengming; Hill, Michael; Knott, Carol; Parish, Sarah; Simpson, David; Sleight, Peter; Young, Alan; Collins, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Background Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to

  10. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Reith, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess ...... the efficacy and safety of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in such patients....

  11. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Reith, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess...

  12. Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, D.A.J.M.; Hornstra, G.; Mensink, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies. Kerckhoffs DA, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND:

  13. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  14. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, R.; Verma, Vinod; Kumar, Ashok; Chakraborty, Chaitali; Singh, Birbal; Marotta, Francesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface, incorporation of

  15. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface

  16. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG and apolipoprotein B (apo B secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. ACAT inhibitor pactimibe sulfate (CS-505) reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions by cholesterol-lowering and direct effects in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, Naoki; Miyazaki, Atsuhiro; Kasanuki, Naomi; Ito, Kayoko; Ubukata, Naoko; Koieyama, Tadashi; Kitayama, Ken; Tanimoto, Tatsuo; Maeda, Naoyuki; Inaba, Toshimori

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, pactimibe sulfate (CS-505), could reduce atherosclerotic lesions beyond and independent of the reduction achieved by cholesterol lowering alone from two different types of lesions. (1) Early lesion model. Twelve-week-old apolipoprotein E (apoE)(-/-) mice were treated with 0.03 or 0.1% (w/w) CS-505, 0.1 or 0.3% avasimibe (CI-1011), or 3% cholestyramine for 12 weeks. Each treatment significantly reduced plasma cholesterol by a similar degree (43-48%). The antiatherosclerotic activity of 0.1% CS-505, however, was more efficacious than the effects of the other treatments (90% versus 40-50%). (2) Advanced lesion model. Twenty-four-week-old apoE(-/-) mice were treated with 0.03 or 0.1% CS-505 or 0.1% CI-1011 for 12 weeks. CS-505 at 0.1% revealed enhanced lesion reduction compared with 0.1% CI-1011 (77% versus 54%), whereas the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of 0.1% CS-505 was almost the same as that of 0.1% CI-1011. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CS-505 significantly reduced the number of macrophages and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13. These data indicate that CS-505 can reduce and stabilize atherosclerotic lesions. This antiatherosclerotic activity is exerted via both cholesterol lowering and direct ACAT inhibition in plaque macrophages.

  18. Beneficial effects of probiotic cholesterol-lowering strain of Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 from infants on diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fen; Qiu, Liang; Xu, Xiongpeng; Liu, Zhengqi; Zhan, Hui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to select probiotic Enterococcus strains that have the potential to improve metabolic syndrome (MS). Ten Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy infants were evaluated for their probiotic properties in vitro, and Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 was selected due to its cholesterol removal ability (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/10(10) cfu), highest glycodeoxycholic acid-hydrolase activity (1.86 ± 0.01 U/mg), and strong adhesion capacity to Caco-2 cells (17.90 ± 0.19%). The safety of E. faecium WEFA23 was verified by acute oral administration in mice, and it was found to have no adverse effects on general health status, bacterial translocation, and gut mucosal histology. Moreover, the beneficial effects of E. faecium WEFA23 on high-fat diet-induced MS in rats were investigated, and we found WEFA23 significantly decreased body weight, serum lipid levels (total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), blood glucose level, and insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat diet. This indicated that administration of E. faecium WEFA23 improved almost all key markers of MS, including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Our results supported E. faecium WEFA23 as a candidate for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and improvement of MS. Our research provided novel insights on Enterococcus as a strategy to combat MS. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose-dependent cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterol/phytostanol-enriched margarine in statin users and statin non-users under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; de Jong, Nynke; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Garssen, Johan; Verschuren, W M Monique; Klungel, Olaf H

    2011-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness (extent to which an intervention works in daily medical practice) of the use of phytosterol/phytostanol-enriched margarines to lower total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in users and non-users of statins. Retrospective cohort study. Data were obtained from questionnaires on health and food intake from a population-based longitudinal cohort linked to pharmacy-dispensing records. The analysis included 3829 men and women (aged 31-71 years) who were examined during 1998-2002 and re-examined at 5-year follow-up during 2003-2007. Recommended doses of margarines were consumed by only 9 % of the subjects. Serum total cholesterol decreased by respectively -0·16 (95 % CI -0·26, -0·05) mmol/l, -1·40 (95 % CI -1·51, -1·30) mmol/l and -1·64 (95 % CI -1·91, -1·37) mmol/l in subjects who started to use phytosterols/phytostanols only, statins only or a combination of both compounds at some point in time between examination and re-examination, compared with subjects who did not start using phytosterols/phytostanols or statins. Cholesterol-lowering effects of the phytosterols/phytostanols were similar in statin users and statin non-users and increased with increasing intake of enriched margarine (no intake, 0; low intake, -0·017 (95 % CI -0·16, 0·13) mmol/l; medium intake, -0·089 (95 % CI -0·22, 0·038) mmol/l; high intake, -0·32 (95 % CI -0·50, -0·14) mmol/l). Although recommended intake levels of the enriched margarines were not reached by all persons, these data show that under customary conditions of use phytosterols/phytostanols are effective in lowering cholesterol levels in both statin users and non-users.

  20. Beyond the Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Soy Protein: A Review of the Effects of Dietary Soy and Its Constituents on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dan Ramdath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering. Overall, the available evidence suggests non-protein soy constituents improve markers of cardiovascular health; however, additional carefully designed studies are required to independently elucidate these effects. Further, work is also needed to clarify the role of isoflavone-metabolizing phenotype and gut microbiota composition on biological effect.

  1. Beyond the Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Soy Protein: A Review of the Effects of Dietary Soy and Its Constituents on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdath, D Dan; Padhi, Emily M T; Sarfaraz, Sidra; Renwick, Simone; Duncan, Alison M

    2017-03-24

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of soy is well-documented and this has led to the regulatory approval of a health claim relating soy protein to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, soybeans contain additional components, such as isoflavones, lecithins, saponins and fiber that may improve cardiovascular health through independent mechanisms. This review summarizes the evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of non-protein soy components in relation to known CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, inflammation, and obesity beyond cholesterol lowering. Overall, the available evidence suggests non-protein soy constituents improve markers of cardiovascular health; however, additional carefully designed studies are required to independently elucidate these effects. Further, work is also needed to clarify the role of isoflavone-metabolizing phenotype and gut microbiota composition on biological effect.

  2. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylova, B; Emberson, J; Blackwell, L; Keech, A; Simes, J; Barnes, E H; Voysey, M; Gray, A; Collins, R; Baigent, C

    2012-08-11

    Statins reduce LDL cholesterol and prevent vascular events, but their net effects in people at low risk of vascular events remain uncertain. This meta-analysis included individual participant data from 22 trials of statin versus control (n=134,537; mean LDL cholesterol difference 1·08 mmol/L; median follow-up 4·8 years) and five trials of more versus less statin (n=39,612; difference 0·51 mmol/L; 5·1 years). Major vascular events were major coronary events (ie, non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death), strokes, or coronary revascularisations. Participants were separated into five categories of baseline 5-year major vascular event risk on control therapy (no statin or low-intensity statin) (cholesterol reduction was estimated. Reduction of LDL cholesterol with a statin reduced the risk of major vascular events (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·77-0·81, per 1·0 mmol/L reduction), largely irrespective of age, sex, baseline LDL cholesterol or previous vascular disease, and of vascular and all-cause mortality. The proportional reduction in major vascular events was at least as big in the two lowest risk categories as in the higher risk categories (RR per 1·0 mmol/L reduction from lowest to highest risk: 0·62 [99% CI 0·47-0·81], 0·69 [99% CI 0·60-0·79], 0·79 [99% CI 0·74-0·85], 0·81 [99% CI 0·77-0·86], and 0·79 [99% CI 0·74-0·84]; trend p=0·04), which reflected significant reductions in these two lowest risk categories in major coronary events (RR 0·57, 99% CI 0·36-0·89, p=0·0012, and 0·61, 99% CI 0·50-0·74, pyear risk of major vascular events lower than 10% (RR per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction 0·76, 99% CI 0·61-0·95, p=0·0012) was also similar to that seen in higher risk categories (trend p=0·3). In participants without a history of vascular disease, statins reduced the risks of vascular (RR per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction 0·85, 95% CI 0·77-0·95) and all-cause mortality (RR 0·91, 95% CI 0·85-0·97), and the

  3. Effect of lower targets for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol on atherosclerosis in diabetes: the SANDS randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V; Roman, Mary J; Devereux, Richard B; Fleg, Jerome L; Galloway, James M; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Howard, Wm James; Lee, Elisa T; Mete, Mihriye; Poolaw, Bryce; Ratner, Robert E; Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Stylianou, Mario; Umans, Jason G; Wang, Wenyu; Weir, Matthew R; Weissman, Neil J; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Zhu, Jianhui

    2008-04-09

    Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more aggressive targets for risk factor control have not been tested. To compare progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in adults with type 2 diabetes treated to reach aggressive targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 70 mg/dL or lower and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 115 mm Hg or lower vs standard targets of LDL-C of 100 mg/dL or lower and SBP of 130 mm Hg or lower. A randomized, open-label, blinded-to-end point, 3-year trial from April 2003-July 2007 at 4 clinical centers in Oklahoma, Arizona, and South Dakota. Participants were 499 American Indian men and women aged 40 years or older with type 2 diabetes and no prior CVD events. Participants were randomized to aggressive (n=252) vs standard (n=247) treatment groups with stepped treatment algorithms defined for both. Primary end point was progression of atherosclerosis measured by common carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). Secondary end points were other carotid and cardiac ultrasonographic measures and clinical events. Mean target LDL-C and SBP levels for both groups were reached and maintained. Mean (95% confidence interval) levels for LDL-C in the last 12 months were 72 (69-75) and 104 (101-106) mg/dL and SBP levels were 117 (115-118) and 129 (128-130) mm Hg in the aggressive vs standard groups, respectively. Compared with baseline, IMT regressed in the aggressive group and progressed in the standard group (-0.012 mm vs 0.038 mm; P < .001); carotid arterial cross-sectional area also regressed (-0.02 mm(2) vs 1.05 mm(2); P < .001); and there was greater decrease in left ventricular mass index (-2.4 g/m(2.7) vs -1.2 g/m(2.7); P = .03) in the aggressive group. Rates of adverse events (38.5% and 26.7%; P = .005) and serious adverse events (n = 4 vs 1; P = .18) related to blood pressure medications were higher in the aggressive group. Clinical CVD events (1.6/100 and 1.5/100 person-years; P

  4. Cholesterol lowering effects of mono-lactose-appended β-cyclodextrin in Niemann–Pick type C disease-like HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Motoyama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Niemann–Pick type C disease (NPC is one of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, emerges the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Currently, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD has been applied for the treatment of NPC. HP-β-CyD improved hepatosplenomegaly in NPC patients, however, a high dose of HP-β-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by actively targeted-β-CyD to hepatocytes is expected. In the present study, to deliver β-CyD selectively to hepatocytes, we newly fabricated mono-lactose-appended β-CyD (Lac-β-CyD and evaluated its cholesterol lowering effects in NPC-like HepG2 cells, cholesterol accumulated HepG2 cells induced by treatment with U18666A. Lac-β-CyD (degree of substitution of lactose (DSL 1 significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol content in a concentration-dependent manner. TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was associated with NPC-like HepG2 cells higher than TRITC-β-CyD. In addition, TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was partially localized with endolysosomes after endocytosis. Thus, Lac-β-CyD entered NPC-like HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR-mediated endocytosis and decreased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in NPC-like HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Lac-β-CyD may have the potential as a drug for the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease.

  5. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  6. A randomized crossover study to evaluate LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of a generic product of simvastatin (Unison Company) compared to simvastatin (Zocor) in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawawitoontip, Surin; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2002-06-01

    It is agreed that people with a high blood LDL-cholesterol level will have a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CAD) than those with low blood LDL-cholesterol level. Because of the present National Drug Strategy of Thailand, the promotion of "in-country production" of a generic drug has been established. Simvastatin is one of the drugs in this strategy. In this, the primary report of a randomized crossover study with washout period for a cholesterol lowering effect in a generic product of simvastatin (Unison company) which was compared to the original simvastatin (Zocor) hypercholesterolemic to the subjects were presented. Simvastatin used in this study were derived from two sources. The first group was the original product (Zocor), dosage 10 mg, Lot No IC4/36(N) from Merck Sharp & Dohme Company and the second group was a generic product, dosage 10 mg, Lot No T05/080 and T06/109 from Unison Company. All simvastatin tablets from the first and second sources were inserted into closed capsule of the same shape and called drug A and drug B, respectively. Both the physician in-charge and the subjects in this study were blinded for the content inside the capsule (Double blind). Thirty drug capsules were put into a sachet and distributed to the subject at each visit. The interval between each visit was 4 weeks. All subjects were asked to bring back the residual capsule within the sachet to the researcher at each visit in order to evaluate the subject's compliance. All subjects had physical examination and blood tests at each visit. Furthermore, all subjects were advised to practice diet control and regular in-take of the drug capsule daily after their evening meal. All 48 subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups. This study was run as a randomized crossover study. After taking the drugs for the first 8 weeks, no statistically significant difference of blood LDL-cholesterol between the first and second group was detected. After a 4 week washout period, crossover

  7. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengnan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Yimin; Zhu, Hanyue; He, Zouyan; Liu, Jianhui; Hao, Wangjun; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2017-03-08

    Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg -1 cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg -1 cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10-13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary

  8. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisciotta Livia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although statins (STs are drugs of first choice in hypercholesterolemic patients, especially in those at high cardiovascular risk, some of them are intolerant to STs or refuse treatment with these drugs. In view of this, we have evaluated the lipid-lowering effect of a nutraceutical pill containing berberine (BBR and of ezetimibe, as alternative treatments, in monotherapy or in combination, in 228 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (HCH, with history of STs intolerance or refusing STs treatment. In addition, since PCSK9 was found up-regulated by STs dampening their effect through an LDL receptors (LDLRs degradation, and BBR suppressed PCSK9 expression in cellular studies, we supplemented the stable lipid-lowering therapy of 30 genotype-confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes (HeFH with BBR, searching for a further plasma cholesterol reduction. Plasma lipid pattern was evaluated at baseline and during treatments. Results In HCH subjects the nutraceutical pill resulted more effective than EZE in lowering LDL cholesterol (−31.7% vs −25.4%, P > G silent polymorphism of NPC1L1 gene showed a higher response to EZE than homozygous for the common allele (GG + CG: LDL-C −29.4±5.0%, CC −23.6±6.5%, P Conclusions The alternative treatments tested in our HCH subjects were rather effective and safe. The findings in HeFH patients suggest that BBR might act in vivo increasing expression and stability of LDLRs and/or suppressing PCSK9 expression.

  9. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A.; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols. PMID:19228775

  10. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  11. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  12. Meta-analysis of comparison of effectiveness of lowering apolipoprotein B versus low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol for cardiovascular risk reduction in randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Wang, Songfeng; Jacobson, Terry A

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the relation between apolipoprotein B (apoB) decrease and coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease risk. Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis was used to evaluate the association of mean absolute apoB decrease (milligrams per deciliter) with relative risk of coronary heart disease (nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease death), stroke (nonfatal stroke and fatal stroke), or cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, and coronary revascularization). Analysis included 25 trials (n = 131,134): 12 on statin, 4 on fibrate, 5 on niacin, 2 on simvastatin-ezetimibe, 1 on ileal bypass surgery, and 1 on aggressive versus standard low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and blood pressure targets. Combining the 25 trials, each 10-mg/dl decrease in apoB was associated with a 9% decrease in coronary heart disease, no decrease in stroke, and a 6% decrease in major cardiovascular disease risk. Non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol decrease modestly outperformed apoB decrease for prediction of coronary heart disease (Bayes factor [BF] 1.45) and cardiovascular disease (BF 2.07) risk decrease; apoB decrease added to non-HDL cholesterol plus LDL cholesterol decrease slightly improved cardiovascular disease risk prediction (1.13) but did not improve coronary heart disease risk prediction (BF 1.03) and worsened stroke risk prediction (BF 0.83). In the 12 statin trials, apoB and non-HDL cholesterol decreases similarly predicted cardiovascular disease risk; apoB improved coronary heart disease prediction when added to non-HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol decrease (BF 3.33) but did not improve stroke risk prediction when added to non-HDL cholesterol/LDL cholesterol decrease (BF 1.06). In conclusion, across all drug classes, apoB decreases did not consistently improve risk prediction over LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol decreases. For statins, apoB decreases added information to LDL cholesterol and

  13. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoit; Kendall, Cyril W C; Faulkner, Dorothea; Cermakova, Luba; Gigleux, Iris; Ramprasath, Vanu; de Souza, Russell; Ireland, Chris; Patel, Darshna; Srichaikul, Korbua; Abdulnour, Shahad; Bashyam, Balachandran; Collier, Cheryl; Hoshizaki, Sandy; Josse, Robert G; Leiter, Lawrence A; Connelly, Philip W; Frohlich, Jiri

    2011-08-24

    Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets. A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months. Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. Percentage change in serum LDL-C. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). Among participants randomized to one of the dietary portfolio interventions, percentage reduction in LDL-C on the dietary portfolio was associated

  14. Capsaicinoids lower plasma cholesterol and improve endothelial function in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin Tong; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Jing Nan; Peng, Cheng; Ma, Ka Ying; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Jiao, Rui; Lu, Ye; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-02-01

    Capsaicinoids are the active compounds in chili pepper. The present study investigated the effect of capsaicinoids on plasma lipids, functionality of aorta including atherosclerotic plaque development, cholesterol absorption biomarker, fecal sterol excretion, and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into five groups and fed a high-cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CON), 0.010 % (LD), 0.015 % (MD), 0.020 % (HD), and 0.030 % (VD) capsaicinoids, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in aorta. Capsaicinoids reduced plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol being unaffected. All four experimental groups had a decrease in the atherosclerotic plaque compared with CON. Dietary capsaicinoids increased the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols possibly mediated by up-regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and down-regulation of liver X receptor alpha. Plasma sterol analysis demonstrated that capsaicinoids decreased the ratio of plasma campesterol/cholesterol, suggesting they decreased cholesterol absorption. Capsaicinoids could improve the endothelium-dependent relaxations and reduce the endothelium-dependent contractions by inhibiting the gene expression of COX-2. However, no dose-dependent effect of capsaicinoids on these parameters was seen. Capsaicinoids were beneficial in improving lipoprotein profile and aortic function in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet.

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative activities of EO extracted from OS leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol (HC) diet. EO was extracted by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical constituents were then identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The experiment was performed in Male Wistar rats fed with 2.5 g%(w/w) of cholesterol diet for seven weeks. During the last 3 weeks, rats were daily fed with EO. The results showed that phenyl propanoid compounds including eugenol and methyl eugenol were the major constituents of EO. EO suppressed the high serum lipid profile and atherogenic index as well as serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB subunit without significant effect on high serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rats fed with HC diet. In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT. Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue. It can be concluded that EO extracted from OS leaves has lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects that protect the heart against hypercholesterolemia. Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects. PMID:20104265

  16. Effects of long term cholesterol lowering on coronary atherosclerosis in patient risk factor subgroups: the Simvastatin/enalapril Coronary Atherosclerosis Trial (SCAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jeffrey R; Teo, Koon K; Buller, Christopher E; Plante, Sylvain; Catellier, Diane; Tymchak, Wayne; Taylor, Dylan; Dzavik, Vladimir; Montague, Terrence J

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the effects of long term cholesterol lowering therapy with simvastatin on progression and regression of coronary atherosclerosis, as determined by quantitative angiographic end points, in subgroups of patients with known coronary risk factors. In this randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial, the effect of simvastatin on coronary atherosclerosis was compared with that of placebo in 394 patients who had paired coronary angiograms taken an average of four years apart. The effects of treatment on the following prespecified subgroups were examined: sex, age (less than 65 years versus at least 65 years), smoking status (current or previous/never), history of diabetes mellitus or hypertension, and severity of coronary artery lesions (diameter at least 50% versus less than 50%). There were significantly smaller decreases in the average minimum diameters, between closeout and baseline angiograms, in all simvastatin-treated subgroups, compared with placebo. Trends toward or significantly smaller decreases in the average of the mean diameters, and similar smaller increases in percentage diameter stenosis were also seen in all subgroups. The slowing of angiographically demonstrable coronary atherosclerotic narrowing supports the contention that this treatment effect is causally related to the reduction of coronary events repeatedly seen in large outcome clinical trials of lipid lowering therapy. Also, this treatment effect occurs in the presence or absence of the traditional coronary risk factors.

  17. Effect of long-term exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol beginning early in life on the risk of coronary heart disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ference, Brian A; Yoo, Wonsuk; Alesh, Issa; Mahajan, Nitin; Mirowska, Karolina K; Mewada, Abhishek; Kahn, Joel; Afonso, Luis; Williams, Kim Allan; Flack, John M

    2012-12-25

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). LDL-C is causally related to the risk of CHD. However, the association between long-term exposure to lower LDL-C beginning early in life and the risk of CHD has not been reliably quantified. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to estimate the effect of long-term exposure to lower LDL-C on the risk of CHD mediated by 9 polymorphisms in 6 different genes. We then combined these Mendelian randomization studies in a meta-analysis to obtain a more precise estimate of the effect of long-term exposure to lower LDL-C and compared it with the clinical benefit associated with the same magnitude of LDL-C reduction during treatment with a statin. All 9 polymorphisms were associated with a highly consistent reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C, with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect (I(2) = 0.0%). In a meta-analysis combining nonoverlapping data from 312,321 participants, naturally random allocation to long-term exposure to lower LDL-C was associated with a 54.5% (95% confidence interval: 48.8% to 59.5%) reduction in the risk of CHD for each mmol/l (38.7 mg/dl) lower LDL-C. This represents a 3-fold greater reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C than that observed during treatment with a statin started later in life (p = 8.43 × 10(-19)). Prolonged exposure to lower LDL-C beginning early in life is associated with a substantially greater reduction in the risk of CHD than the current practice of lowering LDL-C beginning later in life. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LDL-cholesterol lowering and renal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular events. Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in a broad spectrum of patients. This article summarizes the evidence that statins reduce risk in CKD patients, and that statins have a small but favorable effect on renal function. Current guidelines for lipid management in patients with CKD are also reviewed. Two well conducted randomized trials showed no significant benefit for statins among patients receiving dialysis. One large trial demonstrated that simvastatin/ezetimibe reduced cardiovascular events in a broad spectrum of CKD patients. A recent meta-analysis concluded that CKD patients benefit from statins, and that the relative benefit decreases as the severity of CKD worsens. In large trials, statin-treated patients have slightly less worsening of renal function overtime, and there are data to suggest that statins actually do not only preserve, but also increase renal function. Recent guidelines recommend a statin for CKD patients aged 50 years or older, for younger patients with known vascular disease, diabetes, or a 10-year risk greater than 10%, and for adult renal transplant recipients. Statins should be prescribed to older patients with CKD, and to younger patients with CKD who are at high CVD risk.

  19. Effects of psyllium on plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA with high cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Lin, Mei-Huei

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether psyllium is known to alter cholesterol metabolism modulate the hypercholesterolemic effect of a high cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) diet in hamsters. Concentrations of plasma, hepatic total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in male hamsters fed an n-3 PUFA plus psyllium (8%, wt/wt) diet combined with variable levels of cholesterol (0, 0.05, 0.1%, wt/wt) or a cholesterol-enriched (0.2%, wt/wt) n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA diet that contained either 8% methyl cellulose or psyllium for 4 weeks. In the n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters, we have found that psyllium was able to reduce plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol significantly when 0.1% cholesterol was added to the diet. In contrast, the effects of psyllium were not seen in the n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters without dietary cholesterol or with 0.05% dietary cholesterol. However, no matter in the presence of psyllium or not, the increase of plasma total cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels was depend on the content of dietary cholesterol. Although the cholesterol diet increased the liver total cholesterol level, 80 g psyllium/kg diet resulted in a significantly lower concentration of liver total cholesterol in the cholesterol-fed hamsters. In the second experiment, we have also found that psyllium feeding lowered significantly plasma total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA but not in those fed n-6 PUFA. However, the levels of plasma total cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels of the (n-6) PUFA-fed hamsters were significantly lower than those in the (n-3) PUFA-fed hamsters in the absence or presence of dietary psyllium. Our data also showed that hamsters fed both high-cholesterol n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA diets had a significant decrease in hepatic cholesterol with intake of

  20. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  1. Cholesterol Lowering in Intermediate-Risk Persons without Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yusuf, Salim; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles; Zhu, Jun; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng; Pais, Prem; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Dans, Antonio; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Keltai, Katalin; Keltai, Matyas; Sliwa, Karen; Peters, Ron J. G.; Held, Claes; Chazova, Irina; Yusoff, Khalid; Lewis, Basil S.; Jansky, Petr; Khunti, Kamlesh; Toff, William D.; Reid, Christopher M.; Varigos, John; Sanchez-Vallejo, Gregorio; McKelvie, Robert; Pogue, Janice; Jung, Hyejung; Gao, Peggy; Diaz, Rafael; Lonn, Eva; Alzogaray, M.; Aparici, M.; Berli, M.; Bevacqua, M.; Bustamante Labarta, M.; Bustos, B.; Caccavo, A.; Candiello, A.; Carignano, M.; Carrillo, N.; Carro, N.; Cartasegna, L.; Casali, W.; Cassettari, A.; Centeno, M.; Cuello, J.; Cusimano, S.; Cuneo, C.; Duran, R. Garcia; Damonte, C.; de Landaluc, M.; de Martino, E.; Diez, R.; Duran, R.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrari, A.; Forti, L.; Galello, M.; Garcia, C.; Giachello, F.; Garrido, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Guerlloy, F.; Guerrero, R.; Hrabar, A.; Imposti, H.; Hominal, M.; Liniado, G.; Lanchiotti, P.; Laugle, C.; Litvak, M. R.; Longhi, A.; Luciardi, H.; Mackinnon, I.; Marino, J.; Manzano, R.; Merlo, B.; Milesi, R.; Molina de Salazar, D. I.; Mulazzi, C.; Nemi, S.; Orio, S.; Pelaggage, M.; Raimondi, S.; Rodino, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Sago, L.; Sala, J.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, R.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Sernia, V.; Smith, T.; Sokn, F.; Soso, L.; Trivi, M.; Vico, M.; Vilamajo, O. Gomez; Villamil, A.; Vogel, D.; Zaidman, C.; Abhayaratna, W.; Canalese, J.; Krum, H.; Patel, A.; Alves, A. R.; Alves, C. B.; Ayoub, J. C. A.; Bergoli, L. C. C.; Blacher, M. G.; Bodanese, L. C.; Braga, J. C. F.; Brasil, C. K. O. L.; Costa, M. K. M.; Costa, O. M. C.; de Faria, D. G.; del Monaco, M. I.; Fabian Restelatto, L.; Filho, F.; Franco, R. J. S.; Furtado, M. V.; Leaes, P. E.; Maia, L. N.; MarinNeto, J. A.; Martins, A. P. D.; Mattar, E. T. B.; Melo, C. M.; Mothe, F. S.; Oliveira, G. B. F.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Pelloso, E.; Polanczyk, C. A.; Rosa, P. R.; Sales, S. O. C.; Saraiva, J. F. K.; Schmidt, A.; Silva, V. S.; Sousa, A. C. S.; Valle, A. P.; Wiehe, M.; Abramson, B.; Anand, S.; Aw, J.; Baxter, W.; Berlingieri, J.; Cha, J.; Chaulk, R.; Chetty, T.; Dagenais, G.; Dattani, D.; Delage, F.; Dion, D.; Dominguez, M.; Gallo, R.; Glendinning, K.; Goldman, H.; Gosselin, G.; Greenspoon, A.; Hungly, Q.; Juneau, M.; Keegan, P.; Kelly, A.; Kilby, D.; Lavoie, M.; Leiter, L. A.; Lonn, E.; Magloire, P.; Mehta, P.; Mercante, N.; Miscescu, H.; Moran, G.; Nawaz, S.; Nigam, A.; Pang, P.; Papp, E.; Petrella, R.; Poirier, C.; Rabasa-Lhoret, R.; Rizvi, Q.; Saulnier, D.; Sharma, M.; Sohal, P.; Stern, S.; Tobe, S.; Walsh, P.; Ward, R.; Weeks, A.; Woo, V.; Yellin, J.; Zuliani, P.; Bai, X. J.; Dong, L. G.; Feng, J. Z.; Fu, P.; Gao, P.; Gao, M. M.; Ge, H.; Hu, S. P.; Hua, Q.; Li, D. J.; Liu, Z. D.; Liu, Y. J.; Liu, X. L.; Liu, L. H.; Liu, F. Y.; Lu, F. H.; Lv, T.; Ma, H.; Ma, S. P.; Man, R. H.; Shen, Y.; Shi, J. F.; Sun, X. D.; Wang, B.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wei, Y. J.; Yang, H. S.; Yang, X. C.; Yu, J. H.; Yu, K.; Yu, L. T.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, J. G.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, B. X.; Accini, J.; Aroca, G.; Arcos, E.; Accini-Valencia, M.; Casanova, M.; Celemin, C.; Coronel, B. J.; Cotes, C.; Cure, C.; Duarte, A.; Escobar, D.; Figueredo, M.; Garcia, H.; Garcia, L.; Grisales, M.; Hernandez, Z.; Martinez, K.; Nino Castellanos, B.; Diego-Olite, M.; Ospina Rendon, N.; Posada, I.; Quintero, A.; Quiros, F.; Sanchez, G.; Sotomayor, A.; Suarez, M.; Urina, M.; Adamkova, V.; Cifkova, R.; Ferkl, R.; Galovcova, M.; Hartman, J.; Jozifova, M.; Linhart, K.; Linhart, T.; Moravcikova, D.; Nussbaumerova, B.; Plachy, M.; Rosolova, H.; Seifert, B.; Soucek, M.; Duarte Vera, Y.; Espinel, M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, M.; McDermont, J.; Penaherrera, E.; Plascencia, F.; Pow-Chon-Long, F.; Tettamanti, D.; Bajnok, L.; Baranyi, E.; Bartfai, E.; Bod, E.; Bodis, B.; Czuriga, I.; Huber, E.; Mezosi, E.; Poor, F.; Somos, E.; Tarjanyi, Z.; Tatrai, T.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Vertes, A.; Zsary, A.; Aggarwal, D. K.; Alexander, K. G.; Aman, S. D.; Arun, N. N.; Ayyar, V.; Balaji, Y.; Balasubramanian, E.; Bantwal, G.; Bhalvishiya, Y.; Bosco, B.; Chidambaram, N.; Dabra, A.; Daniel, S.; Deshpande, N.; Devendra, H. R.; Ghoshroy, D.; Gnanasekaran, S.; Gupta, R.; Gutti, M. Z.; Jayakumar, P.; Joshi, G. S.; Joshi, S.; Kalantri, S. P.; Kapoor, A.; Khan, A.; Khedar, R. S.; Kishore, J.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, S.; Kumaravel, N. N.; Manjunath, A. R.; Mehta, K.; Mohan, V.; Murthy, S.; Nambiar, A.; Narendra, J.; Paul, S. K.; Qureshi, M. A.; Rajasekaran, S.; Ramu, M.; Ranka, R. L.; Rangadham, K.; Roy, S.; Sathyanarayan, M. R.; Selvam, K.; Sethuraman, J. P.; Shabhasane, D.; Shivaraj, K.; Shunmugvavelu, M.; Sidhu, G.; Singh, B.; Singh, R.; Srinivas, A.; Srinivas, J.; Srinivasulu, B.; Thomas, N.; Umarani, R.; Varghese, K.; Varma, S.; Yelvatkar, S.; Biton, A.; Goldhaber, A.; Ivri, S.; Shapiro, I.; Shveydel, E.; Shveydel, N.; Tsalihin, D.; Vinker, S.; Yosefy, H.; Kim, S. Kil; Choe, K. H.; Ambigga, D.; Aris, M. A.; Ghapar, K. A.; Krishnan, C.; Mahadasa, P.; Maizatullifah, M.; Mazapuspavina, Y.; Ramanathan, L.; Shah, A. Shah Mohd; Yusoff, K.; Bonarius, J. H.; de Jong, A.; DeRuiter, Z.; DeVos, R.; Dirkse, H. A.; Drenth, E.; Ferguson, H.; Jansen, R.; Mevissen, H.; Rol, H.; Schilder, A.; Spelt, I.; VanLeeuwen, P.; Abola, M.; Co, H.; Loyola, A.; Mercado, J.; Morales, D.; Padua, L.; Palileo, L.; Patanao, A.; Rogelio, G.; Roxas, A.; Sulit, D.; Tang-Manga, A.; Tumanan-Mendoza, B.; Boytsov, S.; Chukaeva, I.; Karpov, Y.; Kisliak, O.; Kobalava, Z.; Ledyacva, A.; Lopatin, Y.; Nedogoda, S.; Solovieva, M.; Tsoma, V.; Tyurina, T.; Hranai, M.; Badat, A.; Gerntholtz, T.; Sliwa, K.; Al-Khalili, F.; Carlberg, B.; Dotevall, A.; Nilsson, P.; Olsson, A.; Rosengren, A.; Soderberg, S.; Khunti, K.; Loke, I.; Toff, W. D.; Artomov, D.; Babanina, T.; Bagriy, A.; Chobotko, G.; Danyliuk, S.; Doretska, N.; Dorovska, O.; Dovgan, N.; Dzyak, G.; Glushko, L.; Gorbas, I.; Ilashchuk, T.; Karapetyan, K.; Karavanska, I.; Khimion, L.; Khorsun, A.; Kononenko, L.; Kuryata, O.; Kvasha, O.; Lazareva, S.; Loktyev, D.; Lysenko, G.; Martynyuk, V.; Miroshnchenko, N.; Onyschenko, O.; Petryk, N.; Pivovarova, S.; Rakytskay, I.; Sapozhnychenko, L.; Smymova, I.; Soya, O.; Tashchuk, V.; Turubarova-Leunova, N.; Vasilyeva, L.; Velichko, N.; Yagensky, A.; Zborovskyy, S.; Zhurba, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous trials have shown that the use of statins to lower cholesterol reduces the risk of cardiovascular events among persons without cardiovascular disease. Those trials have involved persons with elevated lipid levels or inflammatory markers and involved mainly white persons. It is

  2. The treatment of cholesterol: issues, effects and targets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: The treatment of cholesterol: issues, effects and targets. 523. Vol 52 No 6. SA Fam Pract 2010. Statins: what are they? Statins are the most powerful cholesterol lowering drugs currently available. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl- glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, which leads to reduced cholesterol ...

  3. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Reith, Christina; Emberson, Jonathan; Wheeler, David C; Tomson, Charles; Wanner, Christoph; Krane, Vera; Cass, Alan; Craig, Jonathan; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Lixin; Hooi, Lai Seong; Levin, Adeera; Agodoa, Lawrence; Gaziano, Mike; Kasiske, Bertram; Walker, Robert; Massy, Ziad A; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Krairittichai, Udom; Ophascharoensuk, Vuddidhej; Fellström, Bengt; Holdaas, Hallvard; Tesar, Vladimir; Wiecek, Andrzej; Grobbee, Diederick; de Zeeuw, Dick; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Dasgupta, Tanaji; Lewis, David; Herrington, William; Mafham, Marion; Majoni, William; Wallendszus, Karl; Grimm, Richard; Pedersen, Terje; Tobert, Jonathan; Armitage, Jane; Baxter, Alex; Bray, Christopher; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Zhengming; Hill, Michael; Knott, Carol; Parish, Sarah; Simpson, David; Sleight, Peter; Young, Alan; Collins, Rory

    2011-06-25

    Lowering LDL cholesterol with statin regimens reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and the need for coronary revascularisation in people without kidney disease, but its effects in people with moderate-to-severe kidney disease are uncertain. The SHARP trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the combination of simvastatin plus ezetimibe in such patients. This randomised double-blind trial included 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease (3023 on dialysis and 6247 not) with no known history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation. Patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg daily versus matching placebo. The key prespecified outcome was first major atherosclerotic event (non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death, non-haemorrhagic stroke, or any arterial revascularisation procedure). All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00125593, and ISRCTN54137607. 4650 patients were assigned to receive simvastatin plus ezetimibe and 4620 to placebo. Allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe yielded an average LDL cholesterol difference of 0·85 mmol/L (SE 0·02; with about two-thirds compliance) during a median follow-up of 4·9 years and produced a 17% proportional reduction in major atherosclerotic events (526 [11·3%] simvastatin plus ezetimibe vs 619 [13·4%] placebo; rate ratio [RR] 0·83, 95% CI 0·74-0·94; log-rank p=0·0021). Non-significantly fewer patients allocated to simvastatin plus ezetimibe had a non-fatal myocardial infarction or died from coronary heart disease (213 [4·6%] vs 230 [5·0%]; RR 0·92, 95% CI 0·76-1·11; p=0·37) and there were significant reductions in non-haemorrhagic stroke (131 [2·8%] vs 174 [3·8%]; RR 0·75, 95% CI 0·60-0·94; p=0·01) and arterial revascularisation procedures (284 [6·1%] vs 352 [7·6%]; RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·68-0·93; p=0·0036). After weighting for subgroup-specific reductions in LDL

  4. Effect of intensive statin therapy on regression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (a prospective, randomized trial: PEACE (Pitavastatin Evaluation of Atherosclerosis Regression by Intensive Cholesterol-lowering Therapy) study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Kiyoaki; Sawada, Takahisa; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    Atherosclerosis often advances before symptoms appear. It remains uncertain whether intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy with statin is beneficial when compared with moderate cholesterol-lowering therapy in patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. The PEACE study was a prospective, randomized, open-labeled, blinded end points, two-arm parallel treatment group comparison study conducted at 15 centers in Japan. A total of 303 patients with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) thickening (>1.1 mm) whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was more than 100 mg/dl were enrolled, in which 223 patients completed the 12 months' follow-up study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either moderate (target LDL-C; 100 mg/dl) or intensive (target LDL-C; 80 mg/dl) cholesterol-lowering therapy with pitavastatin. The primary end point was the change in mean far wall common CIMT. LDL-C level declined to 89.4 ± 20 mg/dl in the intensive group, while it declined to 95.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl in the moderate group at 12 months' follow-up (p confidence interval -0.046 to -0.0014) mm/year (p confidence interval -0.028 to 0.012) mm/year (p = 0.4406 vs. baseline) in the moderate group. However, there was no significant difference in the change in mean far wall common CIMT between the groups (p = 0.29). Intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy did not show superior effects on the progression of CIMT to moderate cholesterol-lowering therapy, whereas only intensive cholesterol-lowering therapy regressed the carotid atherosclerosis over one year.

  5. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF LOWER TARGETS FOR BLOOD PRESSURE AND LDL CHOLESTEROL IN DIABETES: THE STOP ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN NATIVE DIABETICS STUDY (SANDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charlton; Huang, Chun-Chih; Shara, Nawar; Howard, Barbara V.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Howard, Wm. James; Huentelman, Heather; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Russell, Marie; Galloway, James M.; Silverman, Angela; Stylianou, Mario; Umans, Jason; Weir, Matthew R.; Yeh, Fawn; Ratner, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) reported cardiovascular benefit of aggressive versus standard treatment targets for both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) in diabetic individuals. Objective In this analysis, we examined within trial cost-effectiveness of aggressive targets of LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL and systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤115 mmHg vs. standard targets of LDL-C ≤100 mg/dL and SBP ≤130 mmHg. Design Randomized, open label blinded-to-endpoint 3-year trial. Data Sources SANDS clinical trial database, Quality of Wellbeing (QWB) survey, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Wholesale Drug Prices. Target Population American Indians ≥ age 40 years with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular events. Time Horizon April 2003-July 2007. Perspective Health payer. Interventions Participants were randomized to aggressive vs. standard groups with treatment algorithms defined for both. Outcome Measures Incremental cost-effectiveness. Results of Base-Case Analysis Compared with the standard group, the aggressive group had slightly lower costs of medical services ($-116), but a 54% higher cost for BP medication ($1,242) and a 116% higher cost for lipid-lowering medication ($2,863), resulting in an increased cost of $3,988 over 3 years. Those in the aggressively treated group gained 0.0480 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) over the standard group. Using a 3% discount rate for costs and outcomes, the resulting cost per QALY was $82,589. Results of Sensitivity Analysis Using a 25%, 50%, and 75% reduction in drug costs resulted in a cost per QALY of $61,329, $40,070, and $18,810, respectively. Limitations This study was limited by use of a single ethnic group and by its 3-year duration. Conclusions Within this 3-year study, treatment to lower BP and LDL-C below standard targets was not cost-effective due to the cost of the additional medications required to meet the lower targets. With the

  6. Evidence for Feedback Regulation Following Cholesterol Lowering Therapy in a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Elizabeth M; Alfaqih, Mahmoud A; Solomon, Keith R; Barry, William T; Newgard, Christopher B; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Valilis, Nikolaos A; Phillips, Tameika E; Poulton, Susan H; Freedland, Alexis R; Sun, Stephanie; Dambal, Shweta K; Sanders, Sergio E; Macias, Everardo; Freeman, Michael R; Dewhirst, Mark W; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiologic data suggest cholesterol-lowering drugs may prevent the progression of prostate cancer, but not the incidence of the disease. However, the association of combination therapy in cholesterol reduction on prostate or any cancer is unclear. In this study, we compared the effects of the cholesterol lowering drugs simvastatin and ezetimibe alone or in combination on the growth of LAPC-4 prostate cancer in vivo xenografts. Proliferation assays were conducted by MTS solution and assessed by Student's t-test. 90 male nude mice were placed on a high-cholesterol Western-diet for 7 days then injected subcutaneously with 1 × 10 5 LAPC-4 cells. Two weeks post-injection, mice were randomized to control, 11 mg/kg/day simvastatin, 30 mg/kg ezetimibe, or the combination and sacrificed 42 days post-randomization. We used a generalized linear model with the predictor variables of treatment, time, and treatment by time (i.e., interaction term) with tumor volume as the outcome variable. Total serum and tumor cholesterol were measured. Tumoral RNA was extracted and cDNA synthesized from 1 ug of total RNA for quantitative real-time PCR. Simvastatin directly reduced in vitro prostate cell proliferation in a dose-dependent, cell line-specific manner, but ezetimibe had no effect. In vivo, low continuous dosing of ezetimibe, delivered by food, or simvastatin, delivered via an osmotic pump had no effect on tumor growth compared to control mice. In contrast, dual treatment of simvastatin and ezetimibe accelerated tumor growth. Ezetimibe significantly lowered serum cholesterol by 15%, while simvastatin had no effect. Ezetimibe treatment resulted in higher tumor cholesterol. A sixfold induction of low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was observed in ezetimibe and the combination with simvastatin versus control tumors. Systemic cholesterol lowering by ezetimibe did not slow tumor growth, nor did the cholesterol independent effects of simvastatin and the combined treatment

  7. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaj H

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl, a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5% had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

  8. No additional cholesterol-lowering effect observed in the combined treatment of red yeast rice and Lactobacillus casei in hyperlipidemic patients: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yu, Min-Chien; Perng, Wu-Tsun; Lin, Chun-Che; Lee, Ming-Yung; Chang, Ya-Lan; Lai, Ya-Yun; Lee, Yi-Ching; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Shih, Hung-Che

    2017-08-01

    To observe the effect of combining red yeast rice and Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) in lowering cholesterol in patients with primary hyperlipidemia, the later has also been shown to remove cholesterol in in vitro studies. A double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effect of the combination of red yeast rice and L. casei. Sixty patients with primary hyperlipidemia were recruited and randomized equally to either the treatment group (red yeast rice + L. casei) or the control group (red yeast rice + placebo). One red yeast rice capsule and two L. casei capsules were taken twice a day. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks, with an extended follow-up period of 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was a difference of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level at week 8. At week 8, the LDL-C serum level in both groups was lower than that at baseline, with a decrease of 33.85±26.66 mg/dL in the treatment group and 38.11±30.90 mg/dL in the control group; however, there was no statistical difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The total cholesterol was also lower than the baseline in both groups, yet without a statistical difference between the two groups. The only statistically signifificant difference between the two groups was the average diastolic pressure at week 12, which dropped by 2.67 mm Hg in the treatment group and increased by 4.43 mm Hg in the placebo group (Pcasei. Red yeast rice can signifificantly reduce LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The combination of red yeast rice and L. casei did not have an additional effect on lipid profifiles.

  9. ACAT inhibitors: the search for novel cholesterol lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Palash; Gandhi, Hardik; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2013-06-01

    Increased level of serum cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) is the most significant risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol levels are affected by factors such as rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, biliary cholesterol excretion and dietary cholesterol absorption. Acyl CoA: Cholesterol O-acyl transferases (ACAT) are a small family of enzymes that catalyze cholesterol esterification and cholesterol absorption in intestinal mucosal cells and maintain the cholesterol homeostasis in the blood. Inhibition of the ACAT enzymes is one of the attractive targets to treat hyperlipidemia. Literature survey shows that structurally diverse compounds possess ACAT inhibitory properties. In this review, a comprehensive presentation of the literature on diverse ACAT inhibitors has been given.

  10. Red yeast rice lowers cholesterol in physicians - a double blind, placebo controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Veronique; Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Remmen, Roy; Wens, Johan; Apers, Sandra; Van Royen, Paul

    2013-07-18

    In recent years, red yeast rice (RYR) supplements have been marketed aggressively as a natural way to lower cholesterol; however, the large majority of commercially available products have not been studied according to current research standards. In a double blind placebo controlled randomized trial, 52 physicians and their spouses with a total cholesterol level of > 200 mg/dL were randomly allocated to receive a RYR extract or placebo for 8 weeks. As a primary outcome measure, we compared the before-after difference in lipid levels between both groups. As secondary outcome measures we looked at side-effects, CK elevation and a change in cardiovascular risk. LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol was lowered with 36 mg/dL (22%) and total cholesterol with 37 mg/dL (15%) in the intervention group. This result was statistically significant as compared to the control group, in which no reduction in total cholesterol and LDL was observed (p < 0.001). There was no marked difference in CK (creatine kinase)-elevation or reported side-effects between study groups. In 5/31 participants in the intervention group, the lipid lowering effect resulted in lower cardiovascular risk as measured with SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation). The RYR formulation under study was effective in lowering cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in this study population. RYR therapy may be an attractive and relatively well studied alternative in patients who are intolerant for statins or who have objections against pharmacological lipid lowering. However, consumers need to be warned that the actual content of commercially available preparations is not assured by governmental regulations, which raises effectiveness and safety issues. Clinicaltrials.gov, nr: NCT01558050.

  11. Powdered red yeast rice and plant stanols and sterols to lower cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Joseph Stefon; Bjerke, Wendy Sue

    2012-06-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that 42% of females and 34% of males in the USA have elevated total cholesterol. The current mainstay of lipid-lowering therapy utilizes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (i.e., statin) medications that lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by an average of 20% and 28%, respectively. However, due to the significant side effects of statin medications, many patients seek alternative therapies to help manage their hypercholesterolemia. Red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) has been used as a food and as an herbal medication in China for centuries. Phytosterols are foods that are similar in structure and function to animal cholesterol. Both of these compounds have been shown in clinical studies to significantly lower LDL cholesterol. We report on a case series of 18 patients with hypercholesterolemia despite therapeutic lifestyle change through diet and exercise who took a proprietary product combining red yeast rice and phytosterols as a powdered shake in an effort to improve their cholesterol indices. Statistically significant reduction (p < .05) in the following mean variables was seen: total cholesterol 19% (46 mg/dL) and LDL 33% (53 mg/dL) after 6 weeks using the blend. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure over the same period. This magnitude of reduction in LDL cholesterol is significantly greater than the 28% reduction observed in the 1999 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) meta-analysis on the average effectiveness of statin medications in lowering cholesterol levels. None of the participants in our study reported any muscle pains, and no abnormal liver function tests were seen while taking the product. Though this case series is limited by small sample size

  12. Synthetic LXR Agonist Suppresses Endogenous Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Efficiently Lowers Plasma Cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Buchebner, Marlene; Chandak, Prakash G.; Patankar, Jay; Kratzer, Adelheid; Obrowsky, Sascha; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Kadam, Rajendra S.; Kompella, Uday B.; Kostner, Gerhard M.; Kratky, Dagmar; Levak-Frank, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    The liver X receptors (LXRs) are key regulators of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Natural ligands and activators of LXRs are oxysterols. Numerous steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic LXR ligands are under development as potential drugs for individuals suffering from lipid disorders. N,N-dimethyl-3ß-hydroxycholenamide (DMHCA) is a steroidal ligand of LXRs that exerts anti-atherogenic effects in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice without causing negative side effects such as liver ste...

  13. Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy Interventions: A Pharmacoeconomic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Kortt; Armstrong, Edward P.

    1998-01-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Treatment strategies promoting the associated health benefits from a reduction in elevated cholesterol levels have been outlined in guidelines published by the National Cholesterol Education Program. Clinicians and researchers have also examined the economic benefits associated with reducing elevated cholesterol levels. Most of these studies have employed traditional pharmacoeconomic techniques like ...

  14. HypoCol (red yeast rice) lowers plasma cholesterol - a randomized placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogsrud, Martin Prøven; Ose, Leiv; Langslet, Gisle; Ottestad, Inger; Strøm, Ellen Charlotte; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2010-08-01

    The primary endpoint in our study was to investigate the effect of a red yeast rice (RYR) product on plasma lipids. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was performed. Patients were randomized to either RYR (HypoCol, 4 capsules/day) (n=22) or placebo (n=20) for 16 weeks. Inclusion criteria were male or female, 18-75 years, LDL-cholesterol between 3.0 and 6.0 mmol/L, fasting triglyceride level less than 4.5 mmol/L. Patients receiving RYR experienced a significant reduction in LDL-cholesterol (23.0%) and total cholesterol (15.5%) compared to placebo after 16 weeks of treatment (pred yeast rice product demonstrated a significant cholesterol lowering effect compared to placebo, and was well tolerated in this Caucasian population.

  15. Lower Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Are Associated with Severe Dengue Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Hope H.; Gordon, Aubree; Nuñez, Andrea; Perez, Maria Angeles; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI) in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO) 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of dengue

  16. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  17. An immunomodulating fatty acid analogue targeting mitochondria exerts anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond plasma cholesterol-lowering activity in apoe(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    Full Text Available Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo-E(-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function.

  18. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on peripheral vascular and other major vascular outcomes in 20,536 people with peripheral arterial disease and other high-risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The Heart Protection Study (HPS) provides an opportunity to assess directly the effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on major vascular events (defined as myocardial infarction, coronary death, stroke, or revascularization) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In addition, the effects on peripheral vascular events (ie, non-coronary revascularization, aneurysm repairs, major amputations or PAD deaths) can be assessed. 6748 UK adults with PAD and 13,788 other high-risk participants were randomly allocated to receive 40 mg simvastatin daily or matching placebo, yielding an average LDL cholesterol difference of 1.0 mmol/L (39 mg/dL) during a mean of 5 years. For participants with PAD, allocation to simvastatin was associated with a highly significant 22% (95% CI 15-29) relative reduction in the rate of first major vascular event following randomisation (895 [26.4%] simvastatin-allocated vs 1101 [32.7%] placebo-allocated; P 50 (SE 7) per 1000 without pre-existing PAD. Overall, among all participants, there was a 16% (5-25) relative reduction in the rate of first peripheral vascular event following randomisation (479 [4.7%] simvastatin vs 561 [5.5%] placebo), largely irrespective of baseline LDL cholesterol and other factors. This effect chiefly reflects a 20% (8-31) relative reduction in non-coronary revascularization procedures (334 [3.3%] vs 415 [4.0%]; P = .002). HPS demonstrates the benefits of cholesterol-lowering statin therapy in patients with PAD, regardless of their presenting cholesterol levels and other presenting features. Allocation to 40 mg simvastatin daily reduces the rate of first major vascular events by about one-quarter, and that of peripheral vascular events by about one-sixth, with large absolute benefits seen in participants with PAD because of their high vascular risk. Consequently, statin therapy should be considered routinely for all patients with PAD.

  19. Anti-PCSK9 antibody effectively lowers cholesterol in patients with statin intolerance: the GAUSS-2 randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical trial of evolocumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroes, Erik; Colquhoun, David; Sullivan, David; Civeira, Fernando; Rosenson, Robert S; Watts, Gerald F; Bruckert, Eric; Cho, Leslie; Dent, Ricardo; Knusel, Beat; Xue, Allen; Scott, Rob; Wasserman, Scott M; Rocco, Michael

    2014-06-17

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous evolocumab compared with oral ezetimibe in hypercholesterolemic patients who are unable to tolerate effective statin doses. Statin intolerance, which is predominantly due to muscle-related side effects, is reported in up to 10% to 20% of patients. Evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), demonstrated marked reductions in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a phase 2 study in statin-intolerant patients. The GAUSS-2 (Goal Achievement after Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin Intolerant Subjects) trial was a 12-week, double-blind study of randomized patients (2:2:1:1) to evolocumab 140 mg every two weeks (Q2W) or evolocumab 420 mg once monthly (QM) both with daily oral placebo or subcutaneous placebo Q2W or QM both with daily oral ezetimibe 10 mg. Co-primary endpoints were percent change from baseline in LDL-C at the mean of weeks 10 and 12, and at week 12. Three hundred seven patients (age 62 ± 10 years; LDL-C 193 ± 59 mg/dl) were randomized. Evolocumab reduced LDL-C from baseline by 53% to 56%, corresponding to treatment differences versus ezetimibe of 37% to 39% (p <0.001). Muscle adverse events occurred in 12% of evolocumab-treated patients and 23% of ezetimibe-treated patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were comparable across treatment groups. Robust efficacy combined with favorable tolerability makes evolocumab a promising therapy for addressing the largely unmet clinical need in high-risk patients with elevated cholesterol who are statin intolerant. (Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin Intolerant Subjects-2; NCT01763905). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of lowering LDL cholesterol substantially below currently recommended levels in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes: the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepherd, James; Barter, Philip; Carmena, Rafael; Deedwania, Prakash; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Haffner, Steven; Hsia, Judith; Breazna, Andrei; LaRosa, John; Grundy, Scott; Waters, David

    2006-01-01

    .... A total of 1,501 patients with diabetes and CHD, with LDL cholesterol levels of <130 mg/dl, were randomized to double-blind therapy with either atorvastatin 10 (n = 753) or 80 (n = 748) mg/day...

  1. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the parasite synthesizesergosterol instead of cholesterol, using the same biochemical pathway and enzymes, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase ... Lovastatin, being an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase, inhibitsinfection by cholesterol depletion, while chromium chloride complexes, at their higher concentrations, are ...

  2. Cholesterol-lowering activity of lactic acid bacteria probiotic strains in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starovoitova, S A; Babenko, L P; Timoshok, N A; Shynkarenko, L N; Lazarenko, L N; Spivak, N Y

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol-lowering activity of probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the in vivo experiments on the model of experimental hypercholesterolemia in mice was studied. It is established that the prophylactic scheme of introduction of probiotic cultures is more effective than therapeutic one for the manifestation of cholesteraze activity of probiotic cultures. The most effective were the cultures: L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, as well as the composition B. bifidum + B. longum. Cholesterol-lowering activity of the studied strains and their compositions in this experiment ranged between 40-78%. It is noted that cholesteraze activity of other studied strains was not lower and in some cases, higher than that of most of the drugs currently used in cholesterinozis.

  3. Effect of dietary Maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on plasma cholesterol and hepatic gene expression in cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mayumi; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Yoneyama, Shozo; Fujii-Akiyama, Kyoko; Kinoshita, Mikio; Chiji, Hideyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary Grifola frondosa on cholesterol, normal mice were fed a diet containing 1% cholesterol (HC group) or 1% cholesterol and 10% freeze-dried G. frondosa powder (HC+G group) for 4 weeks and hepatic and plasma lipid levels were compared with those of a cholesterol-free diet-fed mice (N group). Hepatic total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol contents were considerably increased and plasma TC / phospholipid (PL) was also increased significantly in the HC group compared with the N group. However, plasma TC content decreased in the HC+G group compared with the HC group. To characterize the mechanisms responsible for lowered plasma cholesterol in G. frondosa-supplemented mice, hepatic gene expression was profiled using DNA microarray and gene ontology. Genome analyses revealed that de novo cholesterol synthesis genes were suppressed following cholesterol intake. However, expression of bile acid biosynthesis and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes showed little change. Scarb1, Abcg5, and Abcg8, involved in cholesterol transport and excretion, were slightly upregulated in the HC+G group compared with the HC group. These data indicate the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of G. frondosa. Moreover, fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation was promoted via adipocytokine signaling pathways, and Saa, encodes serum amyloid A related to arteriosclerosis, was suppressed in the HC+G group.

  4. Lowering LDL cholesterol reduces cardiovascular risk independently of presence of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Benjamin C; Staplin, Natalie; Haynes, Richard; Reith, Christina; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William G; Wheeler, David C; Walker, Robert; Fellström, Bengt; Wanner, Christoph; Landray, Martin J; Baigent, Colin

    2017-11-14

    Markers of inflammation, including plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and it has been suggested that this association is causal. However, the relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease has not been extensively studied in patients with chronic kidney disease. To evaluate this, we used data from the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) to assess associations between circulating CRP and LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of vascular and non-vascular outcomes. Major vascular events were defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction, cardiac death, stroke or arterial revascularization, with an expanded outcome of vascular events of any type. Higher baseline CRP was associated with an increased risk of major vascular events (hazard ratio per 3x increase 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.19-1.38). Higher baseline LDL cholesterol was also associated with an increased risk of major vascular events (hazard ratio per 0.6 mmol/L higher LDL cholesterol; 1.14, 1.06-1.22). Higher baseline CRP was associated with an increased risk of a range of non-vascular events (1.16, 1.12-1.21), but there was a weak inverse association between baseline LDL cholesterol and non-vascular events (0.96, 0.92-0.99). The efficacy of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin/ezetimibe on major vascular events, in the randomized comparison, was similar irrespective of CRP concentration at baseline. Thus, decisions to offer statin-based therapy to patients with chronic kidney disease should continue to be guided by their absolute risk of atherosclerotic events. Estimation of such risk may include plasma biomarkers of inflammation, but there is no evidence that the relative beneficial effects of reducing LDL cholesterol depends on plasma CRP concentration. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects on cholesterol balance and LDL cholesterol in the rat of a soft-ripened cheese containing vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, A; Combe, N; Mazette, S; Entressangles, B

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a modified soft-ripened cheese containing vegetable oils on cholesterol status, using the rat as the experimental model and the traditional soft-ripened cheese as the control. Adult male Wistar rats (approximately 370 g) were divided into two dietary groups (20 rats/group) and fed either the standard diet (STD, containing traditional cheeses made from whole milk) or the experimental diet (EXP, containing modified cheeses made from the combination of skim milk with the following fat mixture: milk fat/oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil/soybean oil mixture). Lipids of the diets came solely from cheeses (14 g/100 g diet); the EXP diet contained (3-fold) less saturated fat, (2-fold) less cholesterol, and (15-fold) more phytosterols than the STD diet. Although serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations were not affected by the type of diet, the EXP diet resulted in a significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol (31%, p cholesterol (11%, p cholesterol ratio was observed in the EXP group (p cholesterol and total neutral sterols (for which phytosterols were excluded) were significantly higher by 183% and 174%, respectively for the EXP group, compared to the STD group (p cholesterol than they ingested dietary cholesterol (cholesterol balance > 1), indicating that those animals eliminated some endogenous cholesterol in their feces, while the opposite was true for rats fed the STD diet (cholesterol balance cheese resulted in a decreased blood LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and an increased fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol and neutral sterols and, thus, markedly improved its nutritional qualities. Therefore, the consumption of the described modified cheese may meet the demand of subjects who wish to lower their risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various compounds in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary T Wehrmann

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 cholesterol transport proteins. NPC's hallmark symptoms include an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments, causing progressive neurodegeneration and death. Although the age of onset may vary in those affected, NPC most often manifests in juveniles, and is usually fatal before adolescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of various drugs, many of which modify the epigenetic control of NPC1/NPC2 gene expression, in lowering the otherwise harmful elevated intracellular cholesterol levels in NPC cells. Our studies utilized a previously described image analysis technique, which allowed us to make quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of these drugs in lowering cholesterol levels in a common NPC1 mutant model. Of the drugs analyzed, several that have been previously studied (vorinostat, panobinostat, and β-cyclodextrin significantly lowered the relative amount of unesterified cellular cholesterol, consistent with earlier observations. In addition, a novel potential treatment, rapamycin, likewise alleviated the NPC phenotype. We also studied combinations of effective compounds with β-cyclodextrin; the addition of β-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cholesterol-lowering activity of vorinostat and panobinostat, but had mixed effects with rapamycin. Collectively, these results may provide a basis for the eventual development of improved NPC therapies.

  7. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity.

  8. Effect of naturally random allocation to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risk of coronary heart disease mediated by polymorphisms in NPC1L1, HMGCR, or both: a 2 × 2 factorial Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ference, Brian A; Majeed, Faisal; Penumetcha, Raju; Flack, John M; Brook, Robert D

    2015-04-21

    Considerable uncertainty exists as to whether lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) receptor with ezetimibe, either alone or in combination with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor (statin), will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study evaluated the effect of naturally random allocation to lower LDL-C mediated by polymorphisms in the NPC1L1 gene (target of ezetimibe), the HMGCR gene (target of statins), or both (target of combination therapy) on the risk of CHD. We constructed NPC1L1 and HMGCR genetic LDL-C scores to naturally randomize participants into 4 groups: reference, lower LDL-C mediated by NPC1L1 polymorphisms, lower LDL-C mediated by HMGCR polymorphisms, or lower LDL-C mediated by polymorphisms in both NPC1L1 and HMGCR. We compared the risk of CHD (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction) among each group using a 2 × 2 factorial mendelian randomization study design. A total of 108,376 persons (10,464 CHD events) from 14 studies were included. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics among the 4 groups, thus confirming that allocation was random. Compared to the reference group, the NPC1L1 group had 2.4 mg/dl lower LDL-C and 4.8% lower risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.952, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.920 to 0.985); whereas the HMGCR group had 2.9 mg/dl lower LDL-C and a similar 5.3% lower risk of CHD (OR: 0.947, 95% CI: 0.909 to 0.986). The group with lower LDL-C mediated by both NPC1L1 and HMGCR polymorphisms had 5.8 mg/dl additively lower LDL-C and a 10.8% log-linearly additive lower risk of CHD (OR: 0.892, 95% CI: 0.854 to 0.932). The effect of lower LDL-C on the risk of CHD mediated by polymorphisms in NPC1L1, HMGCR, or both is approximately the same per unit lower LDL-C and log-linearly proportional to the absolute exposure to lower LDL-C. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  9. In vitro steatosis hepatic cell model to compare the lipid-lowering effects of pomegranate peel polyphenols with several other plant polyphenols as well as its related cholesterol efflux mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to compare the relative activities of the purified pomegranate peels polyphenols (PPPs with some other plant polyphenols including punicalagin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, phlorizin, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on the lipid metabolism regulation, and the cholesterol efflux mechanisms of PPPs and punicalagin were also investigated. In this paper, a convenient and accurate in vitro HL7702 steatosis hepatic cell model was applied to evaluate the lipid-lowering effects of the tested polyphenols. The results showed that PPPs possessed the strongest lipid-lowering effects. Prevention group (treated with polyphenols when establishing of steatosis model was more effective than treatment group (treated with polyphenols after establishment of steatosis model. Punicalagin displayed the strongest lipid-lowering effects among all the tested components of pomegranate peel polyphenols. Moreover, PPPs and punicalagin (10, 20, 40 μg/mL significantly increased the mRNA expression of LXRα (Liver X receptor alpha and its target genes-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in a dose-dependent manner in HL7702 steatosis hepatic cells. The high mRNA expression of LXRα and ABCA1, next to lovastatin, was observed in cells treated with 40 μg/mL of PPPs. These in vitro findings suggested that PPPs might have great potential in the clinic treatment of hyperlipemia.

  10. Rosuvastatin 5 and 10 mg/d: a pilot study of the effects in hypercholesterolemic adults unable to tolerate other statins and reach LDL cholesterol goals with nonstatin lipid-lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Aregawi, Dawit; Agloria, Mahlia; Khalil, Qasim; Winiarska, Magdalena; Munjal, Jitender; Gogineni, Srikanth; Wang, Ping

    2006-06-01

    Patients with high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) might not tolerate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins") because of adverse effects (AEs) and might not respond well enough to nonstatin lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) to meet LDL-C goals. The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety profile of rosuvastatin 5 and 10 mg/d in consecutively referred patients with primary high LDL-C who were unable to tolerate other statins because of myalgia and, subsequently in some cases, unable to reach LDL-C goals with nonstatin LLT. This prospective, open-label pilot study was conducted in consecutively referred male and female patients aged 38 to 80 years with primary high LDL-C (mean, 177 mg/dL) at The Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio. Patients were instructed in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) therapeutic lifestyle changes diet. Rosuvastatin 5 mg/d was administered to patients categorized by NCEP ATP III risk stratification as moderately high risk, and rosuvastatin 10 mg/d was administered to patients categorized as high or very high risk. End points included acceptability (assessed using patient-initiated discontinuation of rosuvastatin), effectiveness (absolute and percentage reductions in LDL-C and triglycerides), and safety profile (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases [AST and ALT, respectively] >3 times the laboratory upper limit of normal [xULN] or elevations in creatine kinase [CK]>10xULN). A total of 61 patients were enrolled (41 women, 20 men; mean [SD] age, 60 [10] years; 5-mg/d dose, 25 patients; 10-mg/d dose, 36 patients). Myalgia, a predominant AE, had caused 50 patients to previously discontinue treatment with atorvastatin; 30, simvastatin; 19, pravastatin; 5, fluvastatin; 2, ezetimibe/simvastatin; and 1, lovastatin. Eighteen patients subsequently failed to reach LDL-C goals with nonstatin LLT

  11. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Hjerpsted

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved.

  12. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  13. Cholesterol, Cholesterol-Lowering Medication Use, and Breast Cancer Outcome in the BIG 1-98 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgquist, Signe; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Ahern, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    on cholesterol levels and hypercholesterolemia per se may counteract the intended effect of aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods The Breast International Group (BIG) conducted a randomized, phase III, double-blind trial, BIG 1-98, which enrolled 8,010 postmenopausal women with early-stage, hormone receptor...

  14. Association between LDL-cholesterol lowering genetic variants and risk of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotta, Luca A.; Sharp, Stephen. J; Burgess, Stephen; Perry, John R. B.; Stewart, Isobel. D; Willems, Sara M.; Luan, Jian’an; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Deloukas, Panos; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, Jose-Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salamanca, Elena C; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; McCarthy, Mark I.; Barroso, Inês; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Savage, David. B; Sattar, Naveed; Langenberg, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    disease risk (I-squared for heterogeneity in genetic associations=0.0%; p=0.93). However, associations with type 2 diabetes were heterogeneous (I-squared=77.2%; p=0.002), indicating gene-specific associations with metabolic risk for LDL-lowering alleles. Conclusions and Relevance In this meta-analysis, exposure to LDL-cholesterol lowering genetic variants in or near NPC1L1 and other genes was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. These data provide insights into potential adverse effects of LDL cholesterol-lowering therapy. PMID:27701660

  15. comparison of various cholesterol lowering diets in young healthy volunteers : effects on serum lipoproteins and on other risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effect of type and amount of dietary fat on the concentration and composition of serum lipoproteins, colonic function, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels and blood pressure in healthy human volunteers.

    Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment

  16. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...... with cheese intake. Conclusion We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved....

  17. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat lowers plasma cholesterol concentration in participants consuming dairy fat-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M; Williscroft, K; Mann, J; Chisholm, A

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effects on plasma cholesterol concentration of replacing cows' dairy fat with sheep's dairy fat. Randomised crossover dietary intervention. General community, Dunedin, New Zealand. Volunteer sample of 41 healthy adults with initial plasma cholesterol concentration between 4.8 and 7.8 mmol/l. Participants were asked to follow a self-selected low-fat background diet throughout the study to which, during each of the 2, 3-week dairy diets, they were asked to add sheep's or cows' dairy products. Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol. Energy and nutrient intakes on the sheep-dairy and cow-dairy diets were very similar, with total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat contributing 34, 18-19, 9, and 3% of total energy intake, respectively. Participants consumed approximately 50 g/day of dairy fat on each diet. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat led to a 0.33 (0.11-0.56, 95% CI) mmol/l decrease (6%) in plasma total cholesterol concentration, from 5.53 (0.90, s.d.) to 5.20 (0.90) mmol/l. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was 0.18 (0.02-0.33) mmol/l lower on the sheep-dairy diet as was the concentration of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 0.11 (0.02-0.20) mmol/l. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio at the end of the sheep-dairy diet, 2.91 (1.10), was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the cow-dairy diet, 2.73 (0.83). Within the context of a diet high in dairy fat (50 g/day), replacing cows' milk fat with sheep's milk fat leads to a small reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration, but no change in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Park

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (% attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal. Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION:A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Kumar Verma

    The effect of Pentamidine treatment on the SAG-resistant visceral Leishmaniasis has serious and deleterious toxic side effects (Moore and. Lockwood 2010). Treatment with Amphotericin B through intravenous infusion results in detrimental infusion reac- tions, thus removing a cost-effective treatment procedure. (Khoo et al.

  20. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  1. Effects of krill oil intake on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Chi, Ya-Li; Sun, Li-Ming; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Qin, Lei; Qiao, Wei-Zhou; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-08-30

    In this study, whole krill oil (WKO) and phospholipid-type krill oil (PKO) with different lipid composition were prepared. The effects of KO intake on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels in Wistar rats fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) were investigated. WKO contained 37.63% triglycerides, 48.37% phospholipids, 13.54% free fatty acids and 0.66% cholesterol, whereas the corresponding values for PKO were 0.59, 69.80, 28.53 and 1.09% respectively. Meanwhile, PKO contained much more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 37.76%) than WKO (28.36%). After 4 weeks of HCD consumption, plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose increased significantly, but that of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly. The intake of PKO and WKO for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in body weight gain and plasma levels of TC and LDL-C in HCD-fed rats. Compared with WKO, PKO was more effective in decreasing plasma TC and LDL-C levels. PKO showed better overall cholesterol-lowering effects than WKO, which may be due to its higher n-3 PUFA levels. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Cookies enriched with psyllium or oat bran lower plasma LDL cholesterol in normal and hypercholesterolemic men from Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A L; Romero, J E; Galaviz, S; Fernandez, M L

    1998-12-01

    Psyllium and oat bran have been shown to lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels in different populations. Hypercholesterolemia is prevalent in the Northern part of Mexico and might be associated to dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary normal (cholesterol220 mg/dL) (n=30) men from the Northern part of Mexico aged 20 to 45 years of age participated in an 8-week study to determine the effects of dietary soluble fiber, either psyllium or oat bran, in lowering plasma LDL cholesterol in this population. Fiber was administered by feeding the subjects an amount of cookies (100 g) equivalent to 1.3 or 2.6 g/day of soluble fiber from psyllium or oat bran, respectively. Subjects were randomly allocated to three groups: a control group consuming cookies with wheat bran, a known source of fiber with no cholesterol lowering effects, psyllium, or oat bran. Food frequency questionnaires indicated that subjects from the three groups had similar intakes of foods classified as hypercholesterolemic (p>0.05). Plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by an average of 22.6 and 26% in the psyllium and oat bran groups (p<0.001) while a non-significant reduction of 8.4% was observed in the hypercholesterolemic individuals from the control group. No effects on plasma HDL or triglycerides levels were observed among the three dietary treatments except for hypercholesterolemic individuals supplemented with oat bran where a 28% reduction in plasma triglycerides was observed after 8 weeks (p<0.01). These results indicate that psyllium and oat bran are efficacious in lowering plasma LDL cholesterol in both normal and hypercholesterolemic individuals from this population.

  3. 16-Dehydropregnenolone lowers serum cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Kumar, Durgesh; Bhateria, Manisha; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP) has been developed and patented as a promising antihyperlipidemic agent by CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), India. Although DHP is implicated in controlling cholesterol homeostasis, the mechanism underlying its pharmacological effect in hyperlipidemic disease models is poorly understood. In the present study, we postulated that DHP lowers serum lipids through regulating the key hepatic genes accountable for cholesterol metabolism. The hypothesis was tested on golden Syrian hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD) following oral administration of DHP at a dose of 72mg/kg body weight for a period of one week. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total bile acids (TBA) in feces were measured. Real time comparative gene expression studies were performed for CYP7A1, LXRα and PPARα level in liver tissue of hamsters. The results revealed that the DHP profoundly decreased the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), whilst elevated the HDL-C/TC ratio. Besides, DHP exhibited an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the HFD induced hyperlipidemic hamsters by means of: (1) up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 encoded cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, that promotes the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid; (2) inducing the gene expression of transcription factors LXRα and PPARα; (3) increasing the TBA excretion through feces. Collectively, the findings presented confer the hypolipidemic activity of DHP via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 pathway that promotes cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and bile acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation of an extract and fractions of Azadirachta indica flower on cholesterol lowering property and intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Nuengchamnong, Nitra; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Saokaew, Surasak; Suphrom, Nungruthai

    2017-12-19

    Azadirachta indica has long been used in traditional medicine. This study focused on isolation and characterisation of active ingredients in the extract, its fractions (NF-EA, NF-AQ, NF-G) and its effect on the cholesterol absorption activity. The NF-EA fraction was identified by marker compounds by LC-ESI-QTOF/MS. Cholesterol absorption activity was performed by measuring the solubility and size of cholesterol micelles. The intestinal motility was also examined by isolated rat's ileum to test the contraction. The extract and its fractions consist of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, like quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin. We found that A. indica extract and NF-EA increase cholesterol micelles size, while the extract, NF-AQ, myricetin and quercetin, reduced the solubility of cholesterol in micelles. The extract and quercetin inhibited the contraction induced by KCl up to 29 and 18%, respectively, and also decreased CaCl2-induced contraction. This finding is in support to traditional uses of A. indica as cholesterol-lowering agents and regulator of gastrointestinal motility.

  5. Effects of early cholesterol intake on cholesterol biosynthesis and plasma lipids among infants until 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmers, Théa A; Jones, Peter J H; Wang, Yanwen; Krug, Susan; Creutzinger, Vivian; Heubi, James E

    2005-06-01

    The endogenous cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) is related inversely to infant dietary cholesterol at 4 months of age; however, it remains to be established whether this effect is permanent, possibly contributing to later hypercholesterolemia. To determine whether levels of dietary cholesterol in infancy induced changes in FSR and plasma lipid levels that persisted at 18 months. A prospective clinical trial was conducted with 47 infants, from their first week of life until 18 months of age, who received human milk (HM) until weaned (n = 15) or were randomized to receive modified cow's milk formula (MCF) with added cholesterol (n = 15) or cow's milk formula (CF) (n = 17) for 12 months. Cholesterol contents of HM, MCF, and CF were 120, 80, and 40 mg/L, respectively. FSR and plasma lipid levels were measured at 4 and 18 months. At 4 months, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher for infants fed HM and MCF, compared with CF. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in the MCF group than in the HM and CF groups. FSR in the HM group (0.034 +/- 0.005 pools per day) was lower than that in the CF group (0.052 +/- 0.005 pools per day). There was no difference between the HM and MCF (0.047 +/- 0.005 pools per day) groups or between the MCF and CF groups. At 18 months, there were no differences in FSRs or plasma lipid profiles between the groups. Although cholesterol intake before weaning affects FSRs and plasma lipid profiles at 4 months, these differences do not persist after weaning to an unrestricted diet at 18 months. This provides additional evidence that there is no imprinting of FSR in infancy with differing dietary levels of cholesterol.

  6. Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol. Lack of physical activity, with lots of ...

  7. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  8. Polysaccharide gel coating of the leaves of Brasenia schreberi lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsook Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brasenia schreberi (蓴菜 chún cài is an invasive aquatic weed found in the USA, but the plant has economic value in Asia where it is cultivated for food. The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose, and other monosaccharides. Because some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated their cholesterol-lowering properties in male hamsters fed hypercholesterolemic diets containing 2% gel coat from B. schreberi (GEL, or 1% cholestyramine (CA, or 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, and compared them to 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control for 3 weeks. We found that very-low-density lipoprotein-, low-density lipoprotein-, and total-cholesterol concentrations in plasma were significantly lowered by GEL, CA, and HPMC compared to control. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration was lowered by CA and HPMC. Body weights and abdominal adipose tissue weight of GEL and control group animals were greater than those of the CA and HPMC groups. Fecal lipid excretion was greater in the CA and HPMC groups than in the control group. Expression of hepatic CYP51 and CYP7A1 mRNA was upregulated by CA, HPMC, and GEL, indicating increased hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. Expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA was upregulated by all treatments. These results suggest that modulation of hepatic expression of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism-regulated genes contributes to the cholesterol-lowering effects of GEL.

  9. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  10. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sericin-derived oligopeptides in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapphanichayakool, Phakhamon; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering proteins and/or peptides derived from various dietary sources is continuously reported. A non-dietary protein from silk cocoon, sericin, has also demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity. A sericin hydrolysate prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was also expected to posses this effect. The present study was aimed at investigating the cholesterol-lowering effect of sericin peptides, so called "sericin-derived oligopeptides" (SDO) both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that SDO at all three doses tested (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) suppressed serum total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed among all groups. The fecal contents of bile acids and cholesterol did not differ among high-cholesterol fed rats. SDO dose-dependently reduced cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles, and inhibited cholesterol uptake in monolayer Caco-2 cells. SDO also effectively bound to all three types of bile salts including taurocholate, deoxytaurocholate, and glycodeoxycholate. Direct interaction with bile acids of SDO may disrupt micellar cholesterol solubility, and subsequently reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol in intestines. Taking all data together, SDO or sericin peptides exhibit a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels and could be potentially used as a health-promoting dietary supplement or nutraceutical product.

  12. Lathosterol to cholesterol ratio in serum predicts cholesterol lowering response to plant sterol consumption in a dual center, randomized, single-blind placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are compromised by large variability in efficacy across individuals. High fractional cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation has been associated with non-response to PS consumption; however, prospective studies showing this as...

  13. Does lowering cholesterol have an impact on the progression of aortic stenosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, A.M.; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms of calcific AS, reviews current clinical trials of statin use in aortic stenosis and reports on on-going trials, evaluating whether cholesterol lowering therapy can slow disease progression in different populations. Finally, we review if computerized tomography...

  14. Gel coating of edible Brasenia schreberi leaves lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. Since some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated the cholesterol lowering properties in male h...

  15. A Report of Six Clinical Cases of Lowered Blood Cholesterol Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some patients, these parameters were elevated prior to supplementation. Conclusion: These results suggest that supplementation of Diabegard® will improve patients' cholesterol profile by reduction of LDL and TC. Patients also expressed lower CRP and homocysteine indicating reduced inflammation and reduction of ...

  16. Blood-Pressure and Cholesterol Lowering in Persons without Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yusuf, Salim; Lonn, Eva; Pais, Prem; Bosch, Jackie; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Zhu, Jun; Xavier, Denis; Avezum, Alvaro; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Keltai, Matyas; Keltai, Katalin; Sliwa, Karen; Chazova, Irina; Peters, Ron J. G.; Held, Claes; Yusoff, Khalid; Lewis, Basil S.; Jansky, Petr; Khunti, Kamlesh; Toff, William D.; Reid, Christopher M.; Varigos, John; Accini, Jose L.; McKelvie, Robert; Pogue, Janice; Jung, Hyejung; Liu, Lisheng; Diaz, Rafael; Dans, Antonio; Dagenais, Gilles; Alzogaray, M.; Aparici, M.; Berli, M.; Bevacqua, M.; Bustamante Labarta, M.; Bustos, B.; Caccavo, A.; Candiello, A.; Carignano, M.; Carrillo, N.; Carro, N.; Cartasegna, L.; Casali, W.; Cassettari, A.; Centeno, M.; Cuello, J.; Cusimano, S.; Cuneo, C.; Duran, R. Garcia; Damonte, C.; de Landaluc, M.; de Martino, E.; Diez, R.; Duran, R.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrari, A.; Forti, L.; Galello, M.; Garcia, C.; Giachello, F.; Garrido, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Guerlloy, F.; Guerrero, R.; Hrabar, A.; Imposti, H.; Hominal, M.; Liniado, G.; Lanchiotti, P.; Laugle, C.; Litvak, M. R.; Longhi, A.; Luciardi, H.; Mackinnon, I.; Marino, J.; Manzano, R.; Merlo, B.; Milesi, R.; Molina de Salazar, D. I.; Mulazzi, C.; Nemi, S.; Orio, S.; Pelaggage, M.; Raimondi, S.; Rodino, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Sago, L.; Sala, J.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez, R.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Sernia, V.; Smith, T.; Sokn, F.; Soso, L.; Trivi, M.; Vico, M.; Vilamajo, O. Gomez; Villamil, A.; Vogel, D.; Zaidman, C.; Abhayaratna, W.; Canalese, J.; Krum, H.; Patel, A.; Alves, A. R.; Alves, C. B.; Ayoub, J. C. A.; Bergoli, L. C. C.; Blacher, M. G.; Bodanese, L. C.; Braga, J. C. F.; Brasil, C. K. O. L.; Costa, M. K. M.; Costa, O. M. C.; de Faria, D. G.; del Monaco, M. I.; Fabian Restelatto, L.; Filho, F.; Franco, R. J. S.; Furtado, M. V.; Leaes, P. E.; Maia, L. N.; MarinNeto, J. A.; Martins, A. P. D.; Mattar, E. T. B.; Melo, C. M.; Mothe, F. S.; Oliveira, G. B. F.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Pelloso, E.; Polanczyk, C. A.; Rosa, P. R.; Sales, S. O. C.; Saraiva, J. F. K.; Schmidt, A.; Silva, V. S.; Sousa, A. C. S.; Valle, A. P.; Wiehe, M.; Abramson, B.; Anand, S.; Aw, J.; Baxter, W.; Berlingieri, J.; Cha, J.; Chaulk, R.; Chetty, T.; Dagenais, G.; Dattani, D.; Delage, F.; Dion, D.; Dominguez, M.; Gallo, R.; Glendinning, K.; Goldman, H.; Gosselin, G.; Greenspoon, A.; Hungly, Q.; Juneau, M.; Keegan, P.; Kelly, A.; Kilby, D.; Lavoie, M.; Leiter, L. A.; Lonn, E.; Magloire, P.; Mehta, P.; Mercante, N.; Miscescu, H.; Moran, G.; Nawaz, S.; Nigam, A.; Pang, P.; Papp, E.; Petrella, R.; Poirier, C.; Rabasa-Lhoret, R.; Rizvi, Q.; Saulnier, D.; Sharma, M.; Sohal, P.; Stern, S.; Tobe, S.; Walsh, P.; Ward, R.; Weeks, A.; Woo, V.; Yellin, J.; Zuliani, P.; Bai, X. J.; Dong, L. G.; Feng, J. Z.; Fu, P.; Gao, P.; Gao, M. M.; Ge, H.; Hu, S. P.; Hua, Q.; Li, D. J.; Liu, Z. D.; Liu, Y. J.; Liu, X. L.; Liu, L. H.; Liu, F. Y.; Lu, F. H.; Lv, T.; Ma, H.; Ma, S. P.; Man, R. H.; Shen, Y.; Shi, J. F.; Sun, X. D.; Wang, B.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wei, Y. J.; Yang, H. S.; Yang, X. C.; Yu, J. H.; Yu, K.; Yu, L. T.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, J. G.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, B. X.; Accini, J.; Aroca, G.; Arcos, E.; Accini-Valencia, M.; Casanova, M.; Celemin, C.; Coronel, B. J.; Cotes, C.; Cure, C.; Duarte, A.; Escobar, D.; Figueredo, M.; Garcia, H.; Garcia, L.; Grisales, M.; Hernandez, Z.; Martinez, K.; Nino Castellanos, B.; Diego-Olite, M.; Ospina Rendon, N.; Posada, I.; Quintero, A.; Quiros, F.; Sanchez, G.; Sotomayor, A.; Suarez, M.; Urina, M.; Adamkova, V.; Cifkova, R.; Ferkl, R.; Galovcova, M.; Hartman, J.; Jozifova, M.; Linhart, K.; Linhart, T.; Moravcikova, D.; Nussbaumerova, B.; Plachy, M.; Rosolova, H.; Seifert, B.; Soucek, M.; Duarte Vera, Y.; Espinel, M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, M.; McDermont, J.; Penaherrera, E.; Plascencia, F.; Pow-Chon-Long, F.; Tettamanti, D.; Bajnok, L.; Baranyi, E.; Bartfai, E.; Bod, E.; Bodis, B.; Czuriga, I.; Huber, E.; Mezosi, E.; Poor, F.; Somos, E.; Tarjanyi, Z.; Tatrai, T.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Vertes, A.; Zsary, A.; Aggarwal, D. K.; Alexander, K. G.; Aman, S. D.; Arun, N. N.; Ayyar, V.; Balaji, Y.; Balasubramanian, E.; Bantwal, G.; Bhalvishiya, Y.; Bosco, B.; Chidambaram, N.; Dabra, A.; Daniel, S.; Deshpande, N.; Devendra, H. R.; Ghoshroy, D.; Gnanasekaran, S.; Gupta, R.; Gutti, M. Z.; Jayakumar, P.; Joshi, G. S.; Joshi, S.; Kalantri, S. P.; Kapoor, A.; Khan, A.; Khedar, R. S.; Kishore, J.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, S.; Kumaravel, N. N.; Manjunath, A. R.; Mehta, K.; Mohan, V.; Murthy, S.; Nambiar, A.; Narendra, J.; Paul, S. K.; Qureshi, M. A.; Rajasekaran, S.; Ramu, M.; Ranka, R. L.; Rangadham, K.; Roy, S.; Sathyanarayan, M. R.; Selvam, K.; Sethuraman, J. P.; Shabhasane, D.; Shivaraj, K.; Shunmugvavelu, M.; Sidhu, G.; Singh, B.; Singh, R.; Srinivas, A.; Srinivas, J.; Srinivasulu, B.; Thomas, N.; Umarani, R.; Varghese, K.; Varma, S.; Yelvatkar, S.; Biton, A.; Goldhaber, A.; Ivri, S.; Shapiro, I.; Shveydel, E.; Shveydel, N.; Tsalihin, D.; Vinker, S.; Yosefy, H.; Kim, S. Kil; Choe, K. H.; Ambigga, D.; Aris, M. A.; Ghapar, K. A.; Krishnan, C.; Mahadasa, P.; Maizatullifah, M.; Mazapuspavina, Y.; Ramanathan, L.; Shah, A. Shah Mohd; Yusoff, K.; Bonarius, J. H.; de Jong, A.; DeRuiter, Z.; DeVos, R.; Dirkse, H. A.; Drenth, E.; Ferguson, H.; Jansen, R.; Mevissen, H.; Rol, H.; Schilder, A.; Spelt, I.; VanLeeuwen, P.; Abola, M.; Co, H.; Loyola, A.; Mercado, J.; Morales, D.; Padua, L.; Palileo, L.; Patanao, A.; Rogelio, G.; Roxas, A.; Sulit, D.; Tang-Manga, A.; Tumanan-Mendoza, B.; Boytsov, S.; Chukaeva, I.; Karpov, Y.; Kisliak, O.; Kobalava, Z.; Ledyacva, A.; Lopatin, Y.; Nedogoda, S.; Solovieva, M.; Tsoma, V.; Tyurina, T.; Hranai, M.; Badat, A.; Gerntholtz, T.; Sliwa, K.; Al-Khalili, F.; Carlberg, B.; Dotevall, A.; Nilsson, P.; Olsson, A.; Rosengren, A.; Soderberg, S.; Khunti, K.; Loke, I.; Toff, W. D.; Artomov, D.; Babanina, T.; Bagriy, A.; Chobotko, G.; Danyliuk, S.; Doretska, N.; Dorovska, O.; Dovgan, N.; Dzyak, G.; Glushko, L.; Gorbas, I.; Ilashchuk, T.; Karapetyan, K.; Karavanska, I.; Khimion, L.; Khorsun, A.; Kononenko, L.; Kuryata, O.; Kvasha, O.; Lazareva, S.; Loktyev, D.; Lysenko, G.; Martynyuk, V.; Miroshnchenko, N.; Onyschenko, O.; Petryk, N.; Pivovarova, S.; Rakytskay, I.; Sapozhnychenko, L.; Smymova, I.; Soya, O.; Tashchuk, V.; Turubarova-Leunova, N.; Vasilyeva, L.; Velichko, N.; Yagensky, A.; Zborovskyy, S.; Zhurba, S.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Lowering both should reduce the risk of cardiovascular events substantially. In a trial with 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 12,705 participants at intermediate

  17. Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulcher R Gary

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat β-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Methods Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP. To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the β-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Results Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03. Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Conclusion Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other

  18. Do soy isoflavones lower cholesterol, inhibit atherosclerosis, and play a role in cancer prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliss, Rebecca M; Biermann, Carol A

    2002-10-01

    This article is designed to help nursing professionals advise patients about the role of soy in the prevention and treatment of heart disease, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Soy protein lowers total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in humans and inhibits atherosclerosis in animals. In cell culture studies and animal research, the soy isoflavone genistein offers protection from breast cancer and prostate cancer because it prevents cancer initiation, slows promotion, and impedes cancer progression. This article synthesizes the current research concerning soy phytoestrogens and the prevention and treatment of heart disease, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Nursing professionals may use this information when counseling patients.

  19. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Leedo, Eva; Tholstrup, Tine

    2011-12-01

    Despite its high content of saturated fatty acids, cheese does not seem to increase plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations when compared with an equivalent intake of fat from butter. This effect may be due to the high calcium content of cheese, which results in a higher excretion of fecal fat. The objective was to compare the effects of diets of equal fat content rich in either hard cheese or butter or a habitual diet on blood pressure and fasting serum blood lipids, C-reactive protein, glucose, and insulin. We also examined whether fecal fat excretion differs with the consumption of cheese or butter. The study was a randomized dietary intervention consisting of two 6-wk crossover periods and a 14-d run-in period during which the subjects consumed their habitual diet. The study included 49 men and women who replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 13% of energy from cheese or butter. After 6 wk, the cheese intervention resulted in lower serum total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and higher glucose concentrations than did the butter intervention. Cheese intake did not increase serum total or LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the run-in period, during which total fat and saturated fat intakes were lower. Fecal fat excretion did not differ between the cheese and butter periods. Cheese lowers LDL cholesterol when compared with butter intake of equal fat content and does not increase LDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01140165.

  20. Effectiveness of rosuvastatin in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guideline III LDL-C goal attainment compared to other statins among diabetes mellitus patients: a retrospective study using an electronic medical records dataset in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen M; Gandhi, Sanjay K; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Blasetto, James W; Bays, Harold E

    2007-09-01

    To compare effectiveness of rosuvastatin (RSV) with other statins on lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C goal attainment among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study using US General Electric Medical Systems (GEMS) database of patients with diabetes mellitus (ICD9 code = 250, prescription for anti-diabetic medication or fasting blood glucose level > or = 126 mg/dL in the 12 months preceding statin therapy) treated across clinical practices in the US, who were newly prescribed statin therapy during August 2003-March 2006, was conducted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used for analyzing prescription data with baseline LDL-C, age, gender, smoking, very high CHD risk, systolic blood pressure, and statin duration as covariates. Of 4754 diabetes mellitus patients, 5% were prescribed RSV, 59% atorvastatin (ATV), 21% simvastatin (SMV), 5% pravastatin (PRV), 2% fluvastatin (FLV), and 7% lovastatin (LOV). RSV patients had significantly higher (p treatment goals in the diabetes mellitus population as compared to other statins in real-world clinical practice setting. Validating study results in a different diabetes population with dispensed statin prescriptions will help increase generalizability of study findings.

  1. Comparison of hesperetin and its metabolites for cholesterol-lowering and antioxidative efficacy in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the hypolipidemic and antioxidant efficacy of hesperetin and its metabolites in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The hamsters were fed a high-fat (10% coconut oil and 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with hesperetin (0.02%) or hesperetin metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (DHPP) (0.012%) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid) (0.013%), for 12 weeks. Dietary DHPP and ferulic acid were found to have significantly decreased the levels of the plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, hepatic lipids, and cholesterol-regulating enzymes compared to the control group. In particular, ferulic acid was more potent with respect to raising HDL-C/total cholesterol ratio and paraoxonase levels while decreasing atherogenic index values. Hesperetin and its metabolites seemed to enhance antioxidant capacity by lowering the hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates) levels. Among the hesperetin metabolites tested, the relative potency of ferulic acid for reducing the risks of atherosclerosis in hamsters was found to be greater.

  2. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Seon-Min; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Jeong, Tae-Sook; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial...

  3. Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sperm membrane cholesterol influences cryodamage during cryopreservation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying cholesterol levels in Tris based extenders on the freezability of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 ejaculates from two adults healthy sexually healthy Malabari bucks were utilized for the study. The collected and pooled ejaculates were divided into four groups with Group I serving as Control - I, Group II and III were treated with 1 mg and 2 mg of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, and Group IV treated with 1 mg methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD served as Control - II. Manual freezing was carried out to cryopreserve the treated and control spermatozoa. Results: Treatment of semen samples with CLC resulted in improved maintenance of sperm motility at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation without affecting hypo-osmotic swelling response. Treatment of semen with 1 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa was observed to be better than treatment with 2 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. In general, MβCD treatment was found to result in significantly lower sperm characteristics than those of Control - I and CLC treatment at pre-feeze and post-thaw stages and when incubated up to 4 h. Conclusion: Cholesterol treatment of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen was found to hold promise for improving cryopreser-vability of spermatozoa.

  4. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  5. Effect of Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption on the Prevention of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial hepatobiliary disease. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors play a critical role in biliary cholesterol homeostasis and its imbalance enhances cholelithogenesis. In patients developing symptoms or complications of gallstone disease, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is recommended for treatment of gallstones. In a subgroup of patients with small, radiolucent pure cholesterol gallstones, the hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is still considered the only pharmacological therapy able to induce oral litholysis. Identifying novel and effective pharmacological therapies is being investigated. We propose that the specific intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein inhibitor ezetimibe is a potential agent for preventing gallstone formation by reducing bioavailability of intestine- derived cholesterol to the liver for biliary secretion and desaturating bile through the inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.

  7. Ability of Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice in lowering Cholesterol in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjar Sumarno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently public’s attention to the importance of healthy food increases rapidly. Probiotic based food exploiting lactic acid bacteria is among the healthy food. Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolate from Morinda citrifolia fruit was assessed for its probiotic in-vivo by using Wistar  Rat. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 in lowering serum LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein of Wistar Rat. Twenty Rats were grouped into 4, each group consisted of 5 Rats. First Group was a negative control  given standard normal diet of 20 gr/day plus aquadest. Second Grup was a positive control given cholesterol normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU 60 mg/kg body weight/day. Third Group was supplemented with normal diet 20 gr /day plus Propil Tio Urasil (PTU 60 mg  kg body weight /day and  1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum JR64. Fourth Group was the same as third Group unless the probiotic using commercial probiotic Lactobacillus bulgariccus at 1012 CFU. Blood samples were withdrawn for measurement of total cholesterol, triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol every week and measured by using spectrophotometer with 546 nanometers wavelength. The results show that probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum JR64 isolated from noni juice significantly (p < 0,01 reduce Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Triglyceride in vivo  and tend to reduce High Density Lipoprotein (HDL and total cholesterol.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish......:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population....

  9. BCG lowers plasma cholesterol levels and delays atherosclerotic lesion progression in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Andrea D.; Bekkering, Siroon; Crasborn, Malou; van Beek, Lianne; van den Berg, Susan M.; Vrieling, Frank; Joosten, Simone A.; van Harmelen, Vanessa; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Lutgens, Esther; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Riksen, Niels P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG), prepared from attenuated live Mycobacterium bovis, modulates atherosclerosis development as currently explained by immunomodulatory mechanisms. However, whether BCG is pro- or anti-atherogenic remains inconclusive as the effect of BCG on cholesterol metabolism, the

  10. BCG lowers plasma cholesterol levels and delays atherosclerotic lesion progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Andrea D; Bekkering, Siroon; Crasborn, Malou; van Beek, Lianne; van den Berg, Susan M; Vrieling, Frank; Joosten, Simone A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; de Winther, Menno P J; Lütjohann, Dieter; Lutgens, Esther; Boon, Mariëtte R; Riksen, Niels P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-08-01

    Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG), prepared from attenuated live Mycobacterium bovis, modulates atherosclerosis development as currently explained by immunomodulatory mechanisms. However, whether BCG is pro- or anti-atherogenic remains inconclusive as the effect of BCG on cholesterol metabolism, the main driver of atherosclerosis development, has remained underexposed in previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effect of BCG on cholesterol metabolism in addition to inflammation and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model of human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice were fed a Western-type diet containing 0.1% cholesterol and were terminated 6 weeks after a single intravenous injection with BCG (0.75 mg; 5 × 10(6) CFU). BCG-treated mice exhibited hepatic mycobacterial infection and hepatomegaly. The enlarged liver (+53%, p = 0.001) coincided with severe immune cell infiltration and a higher cholesterol content (+31%, p = 0.03). Moreover, BCG reduced plasma total cholesterol levels (-34%, p = 0.003), which was confined to reduced nonHDL-cholesterol levels (-36%, p = 0.002). This was due to accelerated plasma clearance of cholesterol from intravenously injected [(14)C]cholesteryl oleate-labelled VLDL-like particles (t½ -41%, p = 0.002) as a result of elevated hepatic uptake (+25%, p = 0.05) as well as reduced intestinal cholestanol and plant sterol absorption (up to -37%, p = 0.003). Ultimately, BCG decreased foam cell formation of peritoneal macrophages (-18%, p = 0.02) and delayed atherosclerotic lesion progression in the aortic root of the heart. BCG tended to decrease atherosclerotic lesion area (-59%, p = 0.08) and reduced lesion severity. BCG reduces plasma nonHDL-cholesterol levels and delays atherosclerotic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic mice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale for adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Terhorst, Lauren; Choo, Jina; Burke, Lora E

    2014-01-01

    Outcome expectancy may play an important role in behavior change. Previous studies tested the validity and the reliability of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale (PTES), a scale that measures outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet. Further study was needed to examine its psychometric properties in a larger sample. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the 10-item PTES in a large sample. The PTES and the Connor Diet Habit Survey were administered to adults enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program. The final sample for the analysis (N = 224) was, on average, 69.35 years old and was predominantly men (66.50%) and white (92.40%); nearly all (96.00%) completed high school. The inter-item correlation matrix revealed that correlation coefficients were greater than 0.80 between 4 pairs of items, suggesting that the 4 items were redundant. After consulting with a content expert and an examination of item content, we removed the 4 redundant items (items 2, 3, 4, and 10) and reduced the scale to 6 items. Principal component analysis revealed a 1-factor scale with high loadings for the 6 items, each greater than 0.70. The reliability of the scale, measured by Cronbach's α, was 0.91. The total PTES score had a moderate correlation with self-reported behaviors of adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet, as measured by the Connor Diet Habit Survey subscale for cholesterol and fat intake (r = 0.36, P PTES scale is reliable and valid to measure outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.

  12. New features of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III lipid-lowering guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, H Bryan

    2003-04-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines for lipid-lowering therapy to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk contain a number of features that distinguish them from the previous ATP guidelines. These new features include modifications in lipid/lipoprotein levels considered optimal, abnormal, or reflective of risk; increased focus on primary prevention through use of Framingham risk scoring to define risk in persons with multiple lipid/nonlipid risk factors; and increased focus on the association of the metabolic syndrome with CHD risk. The introduction of the category of CHD risk equivalents-including persons with atherosclerotic disease, diabetes, or 10-year CHD risk > 20% based on Framingham scoring-results in an increase over previous guidelines in the proportion of patients categorized as being at high risk and therefore eligible for more intensive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy. Use of the new secondary therapeutic target of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol should improve management of lipid risk factors in patients who have elevated triglyceride levels after LDL-C goals have been met. These new features of the NCEP ATP III guidelines should improve identification and treatment of patients with dyslipidemias associated with CHD risk.

  13. A comparative study of the effects of cholesterol and desmosterol on zwitterionic DPPC model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunayar, Cisem; Sahin, Ipek; Kazanci, Nadide

    2015-05-01

    Desmosterol is a direct biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol in Bloch biochemical pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis and differs with cholesterol only by a double bond in carbon 24. In this study, we aimed to research for the first time comparative effects of cholesterol and its precursor desmosterol on dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) by utilizing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our DSC studies reveal that with the addition of increasing desmosterol and cholesterol concentrations into pure DPPC MLVs, the pretransition disappears, the main phase transition shifts to lower temperatures and then disappears. While the main phase transition is abolished at 25 mol% concentration of desmosterol, this disappearance of the main phase transition occurs at cholesterol concentration above 30 mol%. Our FTIR studies show that both desmosterol and cholesterol decrease the order in the gel phase, whereas they increase it in the liquid crystalline phase. Importantly, we found that the effect of desmosterol on membrane order is weaker than that of cholesterol in both phases. Moreover, desmosterol and cholesterol increase the dynamics of DPPC membranes in the gel phase, while they decrease it in the liquid crystalline phase. Both sterols also induce a decrease in the wavenumber values of the C=O stretching and PO2(-) antisymmetric double stretching bands of DPPC both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases, which points out hydrogen bonding in between the hydroxyl group of both sterols and the carbonyl and phosphate groups of DPPC membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of postprandial lipemia on plasma cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G R; Fielding, C J

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol net transport, esterification, and cholesteryl ester transfer have been determined in plasma during fasting, and postprandially, after a high fat-cholesterol meal. Significant rises in plasma triglyceride, phospholipid, and free cholesterol were associated with increases in cholesterol net transport, esterification, and transfer (all P less than 0.005), which were well correlated in individual subjects (r greater than 0.60). Essentially, the whole of free cholesterol required for such increased esterification was derived from cell membranes, when cultured fibroblasts were present, despite the increased level of free cholesterol in postprandial plasma; most of the additional cholesteryl ester generated was transferred to the low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) of plasma. Postprandial LDL (the major carrier of free and ester cholesterol and phospholipids among the acceptor lipoproteins) contained significantly decreased ratios of free cholesterol to phospholipid (P less than 0.001), which may modulate the increased transfer of cholesteryl ester to VLDL and LDL. These data suggest that the presence of postprandial acceptor lipoproteins in plasma may play an important role in stimulating the "reverse" transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells for hepatic degradation, which is effective even after the ingestion of dietary cholesterol. PMID:3856571

  15. Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Demonstrating Serum Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of a Smoothie Drink with Added Plant Stanol Esters in an Indonesian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Lestiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesians have a high intake of saturated fats, a key contributing dietary factor to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the cholesterol lowering efficacy of a smoothie drink with 2 grams of plant stanols as esters to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic Indonesian adults. The double-blind randomized placebo controlled parallel design study involved 99 subjects. Fifty subjects received control drink and dietary advice, and 49 subjects received intervention drink (Nutrive Benecol® and dietary advice. Baseline, midline (week 2, and endline (week 4 assessments were undertaken for clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables. Compared to control, the smoothie drink with plant stanols reduced serum LDL-cholesterol concentration by 7.6% (p<0.05 and 9.0% (p<0.05 in two and four weeks, respectively. Serum total cholesterol was reduced by 5.7% (p<0.05 compared to control in two weeks, and no further reduction was detected after four weeks (5.6%. Compared to baseline habitual diet, LDL-cholesterol was reduced by 9.3% (p<0.05 and 9.8% (p<0.05 in the plant stanol ester group in two and four weeks, respectively. We conclude that consumption of smoothie drink with added plant stanol esters effectively reduces serum total and LDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic Indonesian subjects already in two weeks. Trial is registered as NCT02316808.

  16. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  17. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  18. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  19. Co-Administration of Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics and Anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mei

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become a common liver disease in recent decades. No effective treatment is currently available. Probiotics and natural functional food may be promising therapeutic approaches to this disease. The present study aims to investigate the efficiency of the anthraquinone from Cassia obtusifolia L. (AC together with cholesterol-lowering probiotics (P to improve high-fat diet (HFD-induced NAFLD in rat models and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics were screened out by MRS-cholesterol broth with ammonium ferric sulfate method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HFD and subsequently administered with AC and/or P. Lipid metabolism parameters and fat synthesis related genes in rat liver, as well as the diversity of gut microbiota were evaluated. The results demonstrated that, compared with the NAFLD rat, the serum lipid levels of treated rats were reduced effectively. Besides, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R and farnesoid X receptor (FXR were up-regulated while the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR was reduced. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-α protein was significantly increased while the expression of PPAR-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c was down-regulated. In addition, compared with HFD group, in AC, P and AC+P group, the expression of intestinal tight-junction protein occludin and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1 were up-regulated. Furthermore, altered gut microbiota diversity after the treatment of probiotics and AC were analysed. The combination of cholesterol-lowering probiotics and AC possesses a therapeutic effect on NAFLD in rats by up-regulating CYP7A1, LDL-R, FXR mRNA and PPAR-α protein produced in the process of fat metabolism while down-regulating the expression of HMGCR, PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and through normalizing the

  20. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  1. Trans fat intake lowers total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels without changing insulin sensitivity index in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiliang; Wang, Baowu; Pace, Ralphenia D; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2009-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that trans fat intake increases the risk of some chronic diseases. We hypothesize that trans fat intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by changing the lipid profile in plasma, the secretion of adipokines in adipose tissue, and the insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, the major objective of present study was to investigate the effect of dietary intake of trans fat on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and adipokine levels in plasma. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 4.5% trans fat or a control diet containing no trans fat for 16 weeks. Fasting glucose level was monitored every 2 weeks. At the end of feeding experiment, blood, heart, kidney, liver, omental adipose tissue, and semitendinosus muscle were collected. The trans fat content in organs, lipid profile, adipokine, insulin, and glucose levels in plasma were analyzed. The trans fat content in adipose tissue, heart, kidney, liver, and muscle of rats fed trans fat were 169.9, 0.6, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.5 mg/g samples, respectively. The trans fat content in these organs contributed to 15.9%, 1.2%, 2.3%, 4.3%, and 6.1% of the total fat, respectively. The plasma glucose level, insulin level, and insulin sensitivity index were not significantly different between the trans fat and control groups. The results indicated that trans fat intake might not be related to insulin resistance. However, lipid profile and plasma adipokine levels were significantly changed after trans fat feeding. The trans fat fed group showed significantly lower total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the control group. The decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level may indicate the detrimental effect of trans fat intake on lipid profile. Adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly higher in the trans fat group than the control group. Leptin levels were significantly lower in the trans fat group than

  2. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Methods Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6?7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male ...

  3. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  4. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  5. Effect of long-term cholesterol-lowering treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (Simvastatin) of myocardial perfusion evaluated by thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Nohara, Ryuji; Linxue, Li; Sasayama, Shigetake [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Tamaki, Shunichi; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Masahiro; Miki, Shinji

    2000-03-01

    Fifteen patients with either angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction, who had positive {sup 201}Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and coronary sclerosis of more than 50%, were treated with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (simvastatin) for more than 1 year. They were compared with an untreated control group (n=25). Total cholesterol decreased 22% and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increased 9% with simvastatin; both changes were significantly different from those in controls. Long-term simvastatin induced improvement of myocardial perfusion on {sup 201}Tl SPECT images both during exercise and at rest, which was also significantly different from controls. In addition, the improvement of myocardial perfusion on {sup 201}Tl SPECT images was clearly related to the improvements in cholesterol values, especially nonHDL cholesterol. Thus, the greater the decrease in nonHDL cholesterol, the greater the improvement in myocardial perfusion at rest or during exercise with long-term treatment using an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. These findings indicate that the improvements in cholesterol values caused by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy are related to improvements of myocardial perfusion seen on {sup 201}Tl SPECT images. (author)

  6. HDL cholesterol is not associated with lower mortality in patients with kidney dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewinger, Stephen; Speer, Thimoteus; Kleber, Marcus E; Scharnagl, Hubert; Woitas, Rainer; Lepper, Philipp M; Pfahler, Karolin; Seiler, Sarah; Heine, Gunnar H; März, Winfried; Silbernagel, Günther; Fliser, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    In the general population, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with reduced cardiovascular events. However, recent experimental data suggest that the vascular effects of HDL can be heterogeneous. We examined the association of HDL-C with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study comprising 3307 patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients were followed for a median of 9.9 years. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration eGFR creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcreat-cys) equation. The effect of increasing HDL-C serum levels was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. In participants with normal kidney function (eGFR>90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), higher HDL-C was associated with reduced risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and coronary artery disease severity (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.26-0.92 [P=0.03]; HR, 0.30, 95% CI, 0.13-0.73 [P=0.01]). Conversely, in patients with mild (eGFR=60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and more advanced reduced kidney function (eGFR50-1.40 [P=0.50]; eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2): HR, 1.18, 95% CI, 0.60-1.81 [P=0.88]; HR, 0.82, 95% CI, 0.40-1.69 [P=0.60]). Moreover, Cox regression analyses revealed interaction between HDL-C and eGFR in predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively). We confirmed a lack of association between higher HDL-C and lower mortality in an independent cohort of patients with definite CKD (P=0.63). In summary, higher HDL-C levels did not associate with reduced mortality risk and coronary artery disease severity in patients with reduced kidney function. Indeed, abnormal HDL function might confound the outcome of HDL-targeted therapies in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. Keywords: dyslipidemia, statin, colesevelam

  8. Cholesterol-lowering Action of BNA-based Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting PCSK9 in Atherogenic Diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings in molecular biology implicate the involvement of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR protein regulation. The cholesterol-lowering potential of anti-PCSK9 antisense oligonucleotides (AONs modified with bridged nucleic acids (BNA-AONs including 2′,4′-BNA (also called as locked nucleic acid (LNA and 2′,4′-BNANC chemistries were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro transfection study revealed that all of the BNA-AONs induce dose-dependent reductions in PCSK9 messenger RNA (mRNA levels concomitantly with increases in LDLR protein levels. BNA-AONs were administered to atherogenic diet-fed C57BL/6J mice twice weekly for 6 weeks; 2′,4′-BNA-AON that targeted murine PCSK9 induced a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic PCSK9 mRNA and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C; the 43% reduction of serum LDL-C was achieved at a dose of 20 mg/kg/injection with only moderate increases in toxicological indicators. In addition, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels increased. These results support antisense inhibition of PCSK9 as a potential therapeutic approach. When compared with 2′,4′-BNA-AON, 2′,4′-BNANC-AON showed an earlier LDL-C–lowering effect and was more tolerable in mice. Our results validate the optimization of 2′,4′-BNANC-based anti-PCSK9 antisense molecules to produce a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  9. ['Red yeast rice' as a cholesterol-lowering substance?Caution is warranted].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, J R B J; Roeters van Lennep, J E; Maas, A H E M

    2016-01-01

    - In various non-medical publications, red yeast rice (red fermented rice, RYR) is recommended as a cholesterol-lowering substance. This supplement contains a naturally occurring statin, namely monacolin K.- Patients who wish to use RYR should be advised to only take products from reputable pharmaceutical companies. Pharmacists can provide advice on this.- Users of RYR should be alerted to the potential drug interactions and serious risks associated with its use during pregnancy.- RYR appears to be better tolerated than statins. This difference in tolerance can be traced back to the applied dosages. On average, the daily RYR dosage contains less statin than the standard dosage for statins.- The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority should urgently test the RYR supplements available in the Netherlands to gain more insight into the quality of said products.- Mandatory registration of RYR as an herbal medicine appears necessary to guarantee the quality of, and monacolin levels in, the products and to reduce health risks.

  10. [Update of planning tables of cholesterol-lowering therapy orientated to achieve LDL therapeutic targets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Luis; Plana, Núria

    2015-01-01

    This is the third update of a planning-table for use in cholesterol-lowering therapy, so as to obtain LDLc objectives. This is an easy to use laptop tool to help choose the best statin or combination therapy (statin plus ezetimibe) depending on the current LDL concentration of the patient, and the LDLc objective to achieve. It is based on a colour code that indicates the drugs that are efficient enough to help patients to achieve their LDL goal. Along with the table, recommendations are given for the best strategy in order to implement the optimal therapy in a maximum of two clinical encounters. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Cinnamon extract lowers glucose, insulin and cholesterol in people with elevated serum glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamon (肉桂 ròu guì has in vitro insulin potentiating activity, and proanthocyanidins from cinnamon prevent in vitro formation of advanced glycation end products. Some human studies were equivocal, but several have shown beneficial effects of cinnamon supplementation on circulating glucose, lipids, and/or insulin. This placebo-controlled double-blind trial tested the effects of a dried water extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia on circulating glucose, lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance. Men and women from Beijing and Dalian, China, were invited to participate if they had fasting serum glucose >6.1 mmol/L or 2-h glucose >7.8 mmol/L. Participants, (173 were enrolled and 137 completed the study were randomly assigned to receive either a spray-dried, water extract of cinnamon (CinSulin®, 250 mg/capsule, or a placebo, twice a day for two months. Mean ± SEM age of participants was 61.3 ± 0.8 years, BMI was 25.3 ± 0.3 and M/F ratio was 65/72. After 2 mo, fasting glucose decreased (p < 0.001 in the cinnamon extract-supplemented group (8.85 ± 0.36 to 8.19 ± 0.29 mmol/L compared with the placebo group (8.57 ± 0.32 to 8.44 ± 0.34 mmol/L, p = 0.45. Glucose 2 h after a 75 g carbohydrate load, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR also decreased with cinnamon extract compared with placebo. Total and LDL-cholesterol decreased with cinnamon extract and HDL-cholesterol decreased in both the cinnamon-extract and placebo groups. In conclusion, supplementation with 500 mg of water-extract of cinnamon for two months reduced fasting insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and enhanced insulin sensitivity of subjects with elevated blood glucose.

  12. Cinnamon extract lowers glucose, insulin and cholesterol in people with elevated serum glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard A; Zhan, Zhiwei; Luo, Rencai; Guo, Xiuhua; Guo, Qingqing; Zhou, Jin; Kong, Jiang; Davis, Paul A; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    Cinnamon ( ròu guì) has in vitro insulin potentiating activity, and proanthocyanidins from cinnamon prevent in vitro formation of advanced glycation end products. Some human studies were equivocal, but several have shown beneficial effects of cinnamon supplementation on circulating glucose, lipids, and/or insulin. This placebo-controlled double-blind trial tested the effects of a dried water extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) on circulating glucose, lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance. Men and women from Beijing and Dalian, China, were invited to participate if they had fasting serum glucose >6.1 mmol/L or 2-h glucose >7.8 mmol/L. Participants, (173 were enrolled and 137 completed the study) were randomly assigned to receive either a spray-dried, water extract of cinnamon (CinSulin®), 250 mg/capsule, or a placebo, twice a day for two months. Mean ± SEM age of participants was 61.3 ± 0.8 years, BMI was 25.3 ± 0.3 and M/F ratio was 65/72. After 2 mo, fasting glucose decreased (p cinnamon extract-supplemented group (8.85 ± 0.36 to 8.19 ± 0.29 mmol/L) compared with the placebo group (8.57 ± 0.32 to 8.44 ± 0.34 mmol/L, p = 0.45). Glucose 2 h after a 75 g carbohydrate load, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR also decreased with cinnamon extract compared with placebo. Total and LDL-cholesterol decreased with cinnamon extract and HDL-cholesterol decreased in both the cinnamon-extract and placebo groups. In conclusion, supplementation with 500 mg of water-extract of cinnamon for two months reduced fasting insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol and enhanced insulin sensitivity of subjects with elevated blood glucose.

  13. Persisting thrombin activity in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation is decreased by anti-inflammatory therapy with intensive cholesterol-lowering treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilenburg, J. van; Lappegard, K.T.; Sexton, J.; Plesiewicz, I.; Lap, P.; Bouwels, L.; Sprong, T.; Mollnes, T.E.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Heerde, W.L. van; Pop, G.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the occurrence of ischemic stroke is more prevalent in AF patients, when increased levels of inflammatory markers are present. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive cholesterol lowering therapy on inflammatory markers and

  14. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  15. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Cholesterol-Lowering Activity from Digestive Tracts of Indonesian Native Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Julendra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the cholesterol-lowering activity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from the small intestine, cecum, and colon of Indonesian native chickens and evaluated for bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity in vitro by using MRS media added taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA and CaCl2. The quantitative measurement of cholesterol-lowering activity of LAB was investigated by using soluble cholesterol containing MRS broth (100 µg/mL of cholesterin and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. Cholesterol content in supernatant was analyzed using microplate reader. The highest percentage of cholesterol reduction found in isolates from colon of native chicken with the value of 17.43% and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, this isolate was closely related to L. plantarum strain LGFCP4 (accession number KM199683.1 isolated from GIT of Guinea fowl from India. It could be concluded that L. plantarum AKK-30 had cholesterol-lowering activity.

  16. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially......Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  17. Blueberry anthocyanins at doses of 0.5 and 1 % lowered plasma cholesterol by increasing fecal excretion of acidic and neutral sterols in hamsters fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yintong; Chen, Jingnan; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Ka Ying; Jiang, Yue; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the underlying mechanism associated with the hypocholesterolemic activity of blueberry anthocyanins by examining its effect on fecal sterol excretion and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into three groups and fed a 0.1 % cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CTL), 0.5 % (BL), and 1.0 % (BH) blueberry anthocyanins, respectively, for six weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and non-high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. GC analysis was used to quantify hepatic cholesterol and fecal acidic and neutral sterols. Dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 % blueberry anthocyanins for 6 weeks decreased plasma TC concentration by 6-12 % in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increasing the excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols by 22-29 % and 41-74 %, respectively. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that incorporation of blueberry anthocyanins into diet down-regulated the genes of NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8. In addition, blueberry anthocyanins were also able to down-regulate the gene expression of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. The cholesterol-lowering activity of blueberry anthocyanins was most likely mediated by enhancing the excretion of sterols accompanied with down-regulation on gene expression of intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8.

  18. Effect of Dietary Cholesterol and Cholesterol Oxides on Blood Cholesterol, Lipids, and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Min, Byungrok; Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol (CHO) and cholesterol oxides (COPs) on the development of atherosclerosis and the changes in fatty acid and blood characteristics in rabbits. In the first study, forty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed commercial rabbit chow with no added CHO or COPs, 1 g CHO, 0.9 g CHO + 0.1 g COPs, 0.8 g CHO + 0.2 g COPs, or 0.5 g CHO + 0.5 g COPs per kg diet. In the second study, 24 male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 3 groups and fed a diet containing 2 g CHO, 1.6 g CHO + 0.4 g COPs, or 1.2 g CHO + 0.8 g COPs per kg diet. All diets induced atherosclerotic lesions in the rabbits’ ascending thoracic aorta. The serum CHO and triglyceride levels (p < 0.05) increased significantly with the increased levels of CHO in the diets. Dietary CHO or COPs did not influence high-density lipoprotein CHO levels. The ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid increased as the level of dietary CHO and COPs increased. PMID:23774834

  19. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  20. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients.MethodsIn 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis.ResultsSodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case.ConclusionDespite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  1. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suparna; Dasgupta, Anindya

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T₄) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T₄ levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  2. Functional Probiotic Characterization and In Vivo Cholesterol-Lowering Activity ofLactobacillus helveticusIsolated from Fermented Cow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodharan, Karthiyaini; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-10-28

    We characterized the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus helveticus strains KII13 and KHI1 isolated from fermented cow milk by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strains exhibited tolerance to simulated orogastrointestinal condition, adherence to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activity. Both L. helveticus strains produced bioactive tripeptides, isoleucylprolyl-proline and valyl-prolyl-proline, during fermentation of milk. KII13 showed higher in vitro cholesterol-lowering activity (47%) compared with KHI1 (28%) and L. helveticus ATCC 15009 (22%), and hence, it was selected for in vivo study of cholesterol-lowering activity in atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. For the study, mice were divided into four groups ( viz ., normal diet control group, atherogenic diet control group (HCD), KII13- atherogenic diet group (HCD-KII13), and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-atherogenic diet group (HCD- L.ac ) as positive control). The serum total cholesterol level was significantly decreased by 8.6% and 7.78% in the HCD-KII13 and HCD- L.ac groups ( p cholesterol levels in both HCD-KII13 and HCD- L.ac groups were decreased by 13% and 11%, respectively, compared with the HCD group (both, p cholesterol metabolism-related gene expression in mice liver showed increased expression of LDLR and SREBF2 genes in mice fed with KII13. By comparing all the results, we conclude that L. helveticus KII13 could be used as a potential probiotic strain to produce antihypertensive peptides and reduce serum cholesterol.

  3. Lipid-lowering activity of Cow urine ark in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Manubhai Chawda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cow urine ark (CUA, known as “Amrita” as mentioned in Ayurveda, contains‎ anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects. Therefore, we designed the present study to evaluate the lipid ‎lowering activity of CUA and its possible implication in metabolic syndrome.‎ Materials and Methods: Thirty guinea pigs of either sex were divided into five groups: Group 1 and 2 serving as a vehicle ‎and sham control, received normal and high fat diet for 60 days respectively; Group 3, 4 and 5 ‎received high fat diet for 60 days with CUA 0.8 ml/kg, 1.6 ml/kg and rosuvastatin (1.5 mg/kg on the‎last 30 days of study period, respectively. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-‎C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, total Cholesterol/HDL-C and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and CK-MB ‎were performed in each group at the beginning and end of the study. Histological study of liver and ‎kidney was done in each group. Results: CUA (0.8 ml/kg significantly decreased the serum triglycerides and VLDL-C, but CUA (1.6 ml/kg ‎decreased the total serum Cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C (p < 0.05. Higher dose (1.6 ml/kg of ‎CUA also increased HDL-C level, significantly (p < 0.05. CUA reduced serum AST, ALP and LDH ‎level, which was statistically significant as well, while it also decreased the accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes as ‎compared to sham control.‎ Conclusions: CUA reduced triglycerides, increased HDL-C and found to be hepatoprotective in ‎animals that are on a high fat diet.  

  4. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  5. Effect of 26-Oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and Their Activity as Cholesterol Synthesis Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaj, Hassan; Macé, Catherine; Roberts, Matthew; Niederberger, Peter; Fay, Laurent B.

    2005-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family which has long been known in Japan as Reishi and has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. We report the isolation and identification of the 26-oxygenosterols ganoderol A, ganoderol B, ganoderal A, and ganoderic acid Y and their biological effects on cholesterol synthesis in a human hepatic cell line in vitro. We also investigated the site of inhibition in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. We found that these oxygenated sterols from G. lucidum inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis via conversion of acetate or mevalonate as a precursor of cholesterol. By incorporation of 24,25-dihydro-[24,25-3H2]lanosterol and [3-3H]lathosterol in the presence of ganoderol A, we determined that the point of inhibition of cholesterol synthesis is between lanosterol and lathosterol. These results demonstrate that the lanosterol 14α-demethylase, which converts 24,25-dihydrolanosterol to cholesterol, can be inhibited by the 26-oxygenosterols from G. lucidum. These 26-oxygenosterols could lead to novel therapeutic agents that lower blood cholesterol. PMID:16000773

  6. 3-Deoxyschweinfurthin B Lowers Cholesterol Levels by Decreasing Synthesis and Increasing Export in Cultured Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuder, Craig H; Weivoda, Megan M; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Junjia; Neighbors, Jeffrey D; Wiemer, David F; Hohl, Raymond J

    2015-12-01

    The schweinfurthins have potent antiproliferative activity in multiple glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines; however, the mechanism by which growth is impeded is not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated that the schweinfurthins reduce the level of key isoprenoid intermediates in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Herein, we describe the effects of the schweinfurthins on cholesterol homeostasis. Intracellular cholesterol levels are greatly reduced in cells incubated with 3-deoxyschweinfurthin B (3dSB), an analog of the natural product schweinfurthin B. Decreased cholesterol levels are due to decreased cholesterol synthesis and increased cholesterol efflux; both of these cellular actions can be influenced by liver X-receptor (LXR) activation. The effects of 3dSB on ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 levels and other LXR targets are similar to that of 25-hydroxycholesterol, an LXR agonist. Unlike 25-hydroxycholesterol, 3dSB does not act as a direct agonist for LXR α or β. These data suggest that cholesterol homeostasis plays a significant role in the growth inhibitory activity of the schweinfurthins and may elucidate a mechanism that can be targeted in human cancers such as GBM.

  7. Persisting thrombin activity in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation is decreased by anti-inflammatory therapy with intensive cholesterol-lowering treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuilenburg, Janet; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Sexton, Joe; Plesiewicz, Izabela; Lap, Paul; Bouwels, Leon; Sprong, Tom; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Verheugt, Freek; van Heerde, Waander L; Pop, Gheorghe A

    2011-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the occurrence of ischemic stroke is more prevalent in AF patients, when increased levels of inflammatory markers are present. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive cholesterol lowering therapy on inflammatory markers and evidence of thrombotic in elderly AF patients treated with OAC. 34 elderly patients (69-85 yrs) were randomized to double blind treatment with atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (n = 17) or double placebo (n = 17) for one year. All were anticoagulated with warfarin (target INR 2.5-3.5). Every 3 months inflammatory markers and parameters for evaluation of haemostatic and fibrinolytic activity were measured. Anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment arm were reflected by a significant decrease from baseline in hs-CRP, FGF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17 and interferon-γ (P Intensive cholesterol lowering significantly reduced inflammation and was accompanied by reduced thrombin generation. Larger clinical studies should determine which inflammatory markers are most specific and sensitive for estimating the inflammatory burden in these patients and at which corresponding thrombin activity level it is beneficial and safe to add intensive cholesterol lowering therapy even if normal cholesterol levels are present. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated Conglutin γ from Lupin, but not Phytate, Lowers Serum Cholesterol Without Influencing Vascular Lesion Development in the ApoE-deficient Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Juliane; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Hasenkopf, Katrin; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2015-06-01

    Conglutin γ and phytate are considered as potential biofunctional compounds of lupin protein isolate, but their impact on vascular health is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of conglutin γ and phytate, respectively, on circulating levels of sterols, markers of cholesterol biosynthesis and minerals, and on the development and progression of aortic lesions in apoE-deficient mice. To this end, mice were fed a western diet with either casein (200 g/kg; served as a control), conglutin γ from L. angustifolius (200 g/kg) or casein (200 g/kg) supplemented with phytate (5 g/kg) for 16 weeks. Here we found that conglutin γ but not phytate was capable of reducing the circulating concentration of cholesterol. Plasma levels of desmosterol and lathosterol as markers of the cholesterol synthesis were not affected, and 7-dehydrocholesterol was even higher in mice fed conglutin γ than in mice fed casein or casein + phytate. All mice developed pronounced aortic lesions, but histological characterization of plaque area and composition showed no differences between the three groups of mice. Conclusively, conglutin γ exerts cholesterol-lowering effects but appears to have no anti-atherosclerotic properties in the apoE-deficient mice. Phytate neither affected plasma cholesterol nor aortic lesion development.

  9. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant sterols in low-fat yogurt consumed as a snack or with a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowska, Iwona; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Nicolle, Catherine; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-10-01

    Plant sterols (PS) consumed as a snack may not have the same cholesterol-lowering potential as when consumed with a meal due to poor solubilization. It was hypothesized that the consumption of a single dose, low-fat yogurt rich in PS (1.6 g/d) with a meal over an afternoon snack will lead to favourable changes in plasma lipids, plasma PS concentrations, and cholesterol synthesis without negatively affecting alpha-tocopherol or carotenoids levels. Twenty-six hyperlipidemic males and females completed the randomized trial of three phases (control, single PS dose consumed with a meal, or single PS dose as an afternoon snack) while consuming controlled, low-fat diets. Plasma lipids, cholesterol synthesis rates, plasma PS and serum fat-soluble antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. Endpoint total cholesterol (TC) levels after the PS snack phase were decreased (p = 0.04) (5.30 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) compared to the control phase (5.53 +/- 0.2 mmol/L). However, endpoints for TC (5.37 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) for PS dose with a meal were comparable to control phase. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol tended to be different (p = 0.06) at the end of the intervention phases (3.51 +/- 0.1, 3.43 +/- 0.1, and 3.33 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; control, meal and snack, respectively). Cholesterol fractional synthesis rates were higher (p = 0.007) by 25.8% and 19.5% at the end of the snack and meal phases, respectively, compared with the control phase. Plasma campesterol and beta-sitosterol concentrations, adjusted for TC, were higher (p yogurt, provided as a snack, lowers cholesterol levels but does not alter fat-soluble vitamin or carotenoid concentrations in hyperlipidemic participants.

  10. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on the bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.; Jelier, M.; Xiao, J.-Z.; Kondo, S.; Iwatsuki, K.; Kokubo, S.; Bos, M.; Dunnewind, B.; Havenaar, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG.

  11. Gel coating of leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi, lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters on high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An edible, gelatinous water-insoluble coating surrounds the young leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi. This mucilage is a polysaccharide of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. In order to determine if this edible gel has cholesterol lowering properties, we fed male hams...

  12. Nature's Cholesterol-Lowering Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Lovastatin from Red Yeast Rice-Containing Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Maisarah Mohd; Samat, Farah D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice, produced by fermenting the fungus, "Monascus purpureus", on rice ("Oryza sativa" L. gramineae), is commonly used as a dietary supplement. It contains lovastatin, a member of the statin family of compounds, and is licensed for use as a cholesterol-lowering agent. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of…

  13. Using genetics to explore whether the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe may cause an increased risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobberø Lauridsen, Bo; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have raised concern that the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe might increase the risk of cancer. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in NPC1L1, mimicking treatment with ezetimibe, was associated with an increased risk of ...

  14. The ultrasonic effect on the mechanism of cholesterol oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... The effects of ultrasonic radiation on cholesterol oxidase production by Brevibacterium sp. are studied in this paper. An ultrasonic wave with low intensity at 20 kHz, 200 W/ cm2 was employed to study the effects of irradiation at different lengths of time on the growth of Brevibacterium sp. cells. The result.

  15. Dietary macronutrients, cholesterol, and sodium and lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Giovannucci, Edward L; McKinlay, John B

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about dietary correlates of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). To examine associations between dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrates, protein, fats, cholesterol, and sodium and LUTS in men. Cross-sectional study of 1545 men aged 30-79 yr in the Boston Area Community Health survey (2002-2005), a random population-based sample. Dietary data were assessed by validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. LUTS and covariate data were collected during in-person interviews. Primary analyses used multivariate logistic regression. Outcomes were moderate to severe LUTS, storage symptoms, and voiding symptoms as measured by the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Greater total energy intake was associated with higher LUTS symptom score (p(trend)<0.01) and increased likelihood of storage symptoms. No associations were observed with total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat intake or carbohydrates. Men who consumed more protein were less likely to report LUTS, particularly voiding symptoms (quintile 5 vs quintile 1 OR=0.35; 95% CI, 0.17-0.74; p=0.006). Sodium intake had positive linear associations with LUTS (p(trend)=0.01) and storage symptom score (p(trend)=0.004); this finding should be confirmed by studies using biomarkers of sodium exposure. Storage symptoms increased slightly with greater polyunsaturated fat intake (p(trend)=0.006). Data on specific polyunsaturated fats were unavailable. This community-based study of men found that total energy and sodium intake were positively associated with LUTS, whereas greater protein intake was inversely associated with LUTS.

  16. Effect of rosuvastatin treatment on cholesterol efflux from human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralova Lesna, Ivana; Adamkova, Vera; Pagacova, Libuse

    2011-01-01

    One of the positive effects of rosuvastatin is an increase in HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). An increase in HDL-C is considered as one of the positive effects of this type of statin, although it does not necessarily correspond to the actual reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) rate. We analyzed the influence of statin induced changes in HDL-C on cholesterol efflux (CHE), the key step affecting the RCT. Fourteen subjects (7 men, age: 50.9 ± 8.4 years and 7 women, age: 59.7 ± 10.6 years) with mixed dyslipidemia received 20 mg of rosuvastatin daily for 3 months. Before the initiation of statin therapy and at the end of the study period, the CHE from 14C cholesterol-labeled macrophages was determined in addition to parameters related to lipid metabolism. CHE was calculated as the percentage of radioactivity released from the macrophages into the media containing 5% of the examined plasma. The rosuvastatin administration resulted in significant reductions of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and a significant increase in HDL-C (from 1.43 mmol/l to 1.52 mmol/l, p=0.05), while the levels of apolipoprotein A1 remained unchanged. There was no significant increase in CHE (from 16.1% to 17.6%, p for trend = 0.053). Individual changes in HDL-C correlated significantly (p<0.05) with individual changes of CHE (r=0.76). Administration of rosuvastatin increases HDL-C, and individual changes correlate with the individual increases of CHE from macrophages. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  17. Effect of herbicide (primextra) on tissue cholesterol level in Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (0.04, 0.06 and 0.10μg/L) of primextra for 21 days in a static renewal bioassay system. The changes in the tissue cholesterol concentrations were determined every seven days. The result showed that primextra had adverse effect on the tissue ...

  18. The effects of seasons on cholesterol content and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of seasonal variations on the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Materials and Methods: Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn ...

  19. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  20. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  1. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on the bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minekus, Mans; Jelier, Mark; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Kondo, Shizuki; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki; Bos, Martin; Dunnewind, Bertus; Havenaar, Robert

    2005-05-01

    The addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG. In the present study a yogurt drink with 3% sunflower oil and 4% egg yolk was tested with 3% and 6% PHGG, and compared to a control without PHGG. Experiments were performed in a multi-compartmental model of the gastrointestinal tract, equipped to study the digestion and availability for absorption (bioaccessibility) of lipids. The results show that PHGG decreases the bioaccessibility of both fat and cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The bioaccessibility of fat was 79.4+/-1.7%, 70.8+/-2.5% and 60.1+/-1.1% for the control experiments and the experiments with 3% and 6% PHGG respectively. The bioaccessibility of cholesterol was 82.2+/-2.0%, 75.4+/-1.2% and 64.0+/-4.3% for the control and the experiments with 3% and 6% PHGG respectively. Additional experiments indicated that PHGG reduces bioaccessibility through the depletion flocculation mechanism. Depletion flocculation antagonizes the emulsification by bile salts and thus decreases lipolytic activity, resulting in a lower bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol. Depletion flocculation with polymers might be an interesting mechanism, not described before, to reduce fat and cholesterol absorption.

  2. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, M; Nestel, P J; Clifton, P M

    1996-01-01

    Intake of milk and butter has been clearly associated with higher coronary heart disease rates in different countries and this is likely to be mediated by the hypercholesterolemic effect of dairy fat. Fat-modified dairy products are an innovation involving a technology in which protected unsaturated lipids are fed to ruminants resulting in milk and tissue lipids with reduced saturated fatty acids. We examined the impact of these novel dairy fats on plasma lipids in a human dietary trial. Thirty-three men and women participated in an 8-wk randomized crossover trial comparing fat-modified with conventional dairy products. The trial consisted of a 2-wk low-fat baseline period followed by two 3-wk intervention phases. During the test periods, the fat-modified products resulted in a significant 0.28-mmol/L (4.3%) lowering of total cholesterol (P dairy products, if applied to populations typical of developed Western countries, represents a potential strategy to lower the risk of coronary heart disease without any appreciable change in customary eating patterns.

  3. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Romijn, Johannes A.; Emeis, Jef J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem F.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed. Our goal was to

  4. Long-term safety and efficacy of a cholesterol-lowering diet in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol : Seven-year results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR

    Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8

  5. Relationship of oxidized phospholipids and biomarkers of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory biomarkers, and effect of statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction With Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Alexander E; Schwartz, Gregory G; Olsson, Anders G; Kinlay, Scott; Szarek, Michael; Rifai, Nader; Libby, Peter; Ganz, Peter; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2009-06-09

    This study sought to define the relationship between oxidative biomarkers, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and inflammatory and thrombosis biomarkers. Elevated levels of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) on apolipoprotein B particles (apoB) represent a novel biomarker of CVD. Previous studies suggest that an increase in OxPL/apoB reflects a positive response to statins and a low-fat diet. This study measured OxPL/apoB, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) biomarkers, consisting of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and IgG and IgM apoB-100 immune complexes (IC/apoB), at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg/day or placebo in 2,342 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) enrolled in the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction With Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering) trial. At baseline, potentially atheroprotective IgM autoantibodies and IgM IC/apoB were lower in male patients, diabetic patients, and patients >65 years of age. Patients with an LDL level greater than the median (122 mg/dl) had higher levels of OxPL/apoB, Lp(a), and OxLDL biomarkers compared with those who had an LDL level less than the median. Atorvastatin resulted in significantly larger changes in all biomarkers in female patients, patients age LDL cholesterol risk factors and were largely independent of inflammatory biomarkers. Atorvastatin uniformly increased OxPL/apoB levels in all subgroups studied. Future studies are warranted to assess whether the increase in OxPL/apoB levels reflects the benefit of effective therapeutic interventions and prediction of new CVD events.

  6. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-03-07

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male pigs fed an HFC diet (IM+HFC), castrated male pigs fed an HFC diet (CM+HFC), and castrated pigs with testosterone replacement fed an HFC diet (CM+HFC+T). Serum testosterone levels and lipid profiles were measured, and gene expression levels associated with hepatic cholesterol metabolism were determined. Furthermore, total hepatic cholesterol contents and the activities of enzymes mediating hepatic cholesterol metabolism were measured. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in CM+HFC pigs, and testosterone replacement attenuated castration-induced testosterone deficiency. Castration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as hepatic lipid contents in pigs fed an HFC diet. Compared with IM+HFC and CM+HFC+T pigs, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression and protein levels were significantly decreased in the livers of CM+HFC pigs. In contrast, we found that compared with IM+HFC pigs, hepatic proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels were significantly increased in CM+HFC pigs. Moreover, testosterone treatment reversed the increase in PCSK9 expression in CM+HFC pigs. However, neither castration nor testosterone replacement affected the expression of the other hepatic genes that were tested. This study demonstrated that castration-induced testosterone deficiency caused severe hypercholesterolemia in pigs fed an HFC diet; furthermore, these

  7. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  8. Cholesterol Absorption and Synthesis in Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütjohann, Dieter; Meyer, Sven; von Bergmann, Klaus; Stellaard, Frans

    2018-02-10

    Vegetarian diets are considered health-promoting; however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigate the link between vegetarian-diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. We study male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption, and fecal sterol excretion are measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and noncholesterol sterols. These serve as markers for cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and catabolism. The biliary cholesterol secretion rate is estimated. Flux data are related to body weight. Individual vegetarian diet groups are statistically compared to the omnivore group. Lacto vegetarians absorb 44% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 22% more cholesterol, and show no differences in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. Vegan subjects absorb 90% less dietary cholesterol, synthesized 35% more cholesterol, and have a similar plasma total cholesterol, but a 13% lower plasma LDL cholesterol. No diet-related differences in biliary cholesterol secretion and absorption are observed. Total cholesterol absorption is lower only in vegans. Total cholesterol input is similar under all vegetarian diets. Unaltered biliary cholesterol secretion and higher cholesterol synthesis blunt the lowered dietary cholesterol intake in vegetarians. LDL cholesterol is significantly lower only in vegans. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Implications of the obesity epidemic for lipid-lowering therapy: Non-HDL cholesterol should replace LDL cholesterol as the primary therapeutic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel R Hoenig

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Michel R HoenigRoyal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Herston, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are conditions with increasing prevalence around the world. Cardiovascular risk in diabetics is often so high as to overlap with event rates observed in those with established coronary disease and this has lead to diabetes being classified as a coronary risk equivalent. However, despite the elevated risk of cardiovascular events associated with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, these patients often have normal low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol despite frequent increases in apolipoprotein B, triglycerides and nonhigh density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. In contrast to LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol represents cardiovascular risk across all patient populations but is currently only recommended as a secondary target of therapy by the ATP III report for patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This article provides an overview of the studies that shown non-HDL cholesterol to be superior to LDL cholesterol in predicting cardiovascular events and presents the case for non-HDL cholesterol being the more appropriate primary target of therapy in the context of the obesity pandemic. Adopting non-HDL cholesterol as the primary therapeutic target for all patients will conceivably lead to an appropriate intensification of therapy for high risk patients with low LDL cholesterol.Keywords: obesity, coronary artery disease, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, diabetes

  10. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

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    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (poil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (pcholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (pcholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  11. The effects of L-carnitine on some hematological parameters in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

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    Uluisik, D; Keskin, E

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of L-carnitine on the hematological characteristics of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Healthy male Wistar Albino rats were assigned to four equal groups. During the 40 day experiment, group 1 was fed standard rat pellets, group 2 was fed standard rat pellets containing 7.5 % cholesterol powder, group 3 was fed standard rat pellets and water that contained 75 mg/l L-carnitine, and group 4 was fed standard rat pellets that contained 7.5% cholesterol and water that contained 75 mg/l L-carnitine. Blood samples were analyzed for red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) using an automated cell counter. The RBC count in the group that received the 7.5% cholesterol diet was decreased significantly compared to the other groups. The hematocrit of the cholesterol group was lower than for the L-carnitine + cholesterol and L-carnitine groups. The MCV in the cholesterol group was significantly higher than the control group. The MCH in the cholesterol group was higher than for the other groups. There was no significant difference among the groups with regard to hemoglobin, MCHC, WBCs and leukocyte types. L-carnitine appears to have beneficial effects on erythrocyte stability, erythropoiesis and hyperlipidemia.

  12. A multicenter study of nutraceutical drinks for cholesterol (evaluating effectiveness and tolerability).

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    Karl, Mitchell; Rubenstein, Mark; Rudnick, Chad; Brejda, John

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that a nutraceutical formulation containing small amounts of bioactive constituents that exert cholesterol-lowering effects by different mechanisms may exhibit synergistic efficacy with a clean tolerability profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutraceutical fruit-flavored drinks with and without red yeast rice (RYR) for effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol. In double-blinded fashion, 79 subjects were randomized to one of three fruit-flavored drinks, ie, a placebo, and two active drinks containing niacin, phytosterol esters, L-carnitine, vitamin C, and Co-Q-10, one with and without RYR, twice daily. Primary end points were LDL and total cholesterol percent reductions from baseline. Secondary end points were high-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein percent change from baseline. Physician contact and laboratory work were obtained at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks of subject participation. A total of 59 subjects completed the study. The placebo group and the group receiving the nutraceuticals without RYR showed no change in primary or secondary end points. The nutraceutical drink with RYR reduced total cholesterol at week 4 by 13% (-35 mg/dL) and week 8 by 14% (-46 mg/dL). LDL cholesterol decreased 17.1% at 4 weeks (-28 mg/dL) and 17.8% at week 8 (-30 mg/dL). In the effective drink arm containing nutraceuticals and RYR there were no biochemical or subjective intolerance, with the exception of one subject who experienced headache. A nutraceutical drink with RYR can be a safe and effective natural alternative to pharmacologic therapies for people intolerant to or refusing statins but still in need of achieving and maintaining a healthy and low cholesterol level. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, for lowering of LDL cholesterol concentrations in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Raal, Frederick J; Santos, Raul D; Blom, Dirk J; Marais, A David; Charng, Min-Ji; Cromwell, William C; Lachmann, Robin H; Gaudet, Daniel; Tan, Ju L; Chasan-Taber, Scott; Tribble, Diane L; Flaim, Joann D; Crooke, Stanley T

    2010-03-20

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare genetic disorder in which both LDL-receptor alleles are defective, resulting in very high concentrations of LDL cholesterol in plasma and premature coronary artery disease. This study investigated whether an antisense inhibitor of apolipoprotein B synthesis, mipomersen, is effective and safe as an adjunctive agent to lower LDL cholesterol concentrations in patients with this disease. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study was undertaken in nine lipid clinics in seven countries. Patients aged 12 years and older with clinical diagnosis or genetic confirmation of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, who were already receiving the maximum tolerated dose of a lipid-lowering drug, were randomly assigned to mipomersen 200 mg subcutaneously every week or placebo for 26 weeks. Randomisation was computer generated and stratified by weight (50 kg vs >/=50 kg) in a centralised blocked randomisation, implemented with a computerised interactive voice response system. All clinical, medical, and pharmacy personnel, and patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was percentage change in LDL cholesterol concentration from baseline. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00607373. 34 patients were assigned to mipomersen and 17 to placebo; data for all patients were analysed. 45 patients completed the 26-week treatment period (28 mipomersen, 17 placebo). Mean concentrations of LDL cholesterol at baseline were 11.4 mmol/L (SD 3.6) in the mipomersen group and 10.4 mmol/L (3.7) in the placebo group. The mean percentage change in LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly greater with mipomersen (-24.7%, 95% CI -31.6 to -17.7) than with placebo (-3.3%, -12.1 to 5.5; p=0.0003). The most common adverse events were injection-site reactions (26 [76%] patients in mipomersen group vs four [24%] in placebo group). Four (12

  14. High Cholesterol/Low Cholesterol: Effects in Biological Membranes: A Review.

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    Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija

    2017-12-01

    Lipid composition determines membrane properties, and cholesterol plays a major role in this determination as it regulates membrane fluidity and permeability, as well as induces the formation of coexisting phases and domains in the membrane. Biological membranes display a very diverse lipid composition, the lateral organization of which plays a crucial role in regulating a variety of membrane functions. We hypothesize that, during biological evolution, membranes with a particular cholesterol content were selected to perform certain functions in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the major membrane properties induced by cholesterol, and their relationship to certain membrane functions.

  15. The mechanism of dietary cholesterol effects on lipids metabolism in rats

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    Wang Jing-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol administration has been reported to influence hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. In the present study, the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic activity and mRNA expression of the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed 1% cholesterol or cholesterol free AIN76 diets for 4 weeks. Results The serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased but the total cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the cholesterol-fed rats compared with the control rats. And the concentrations of the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride increased about 4-fold and 20-fold separately by dietary cholesterol. The activities of hepatic malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, phosphatidate phophatase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were depressed by the cholesterol feeding (40%, 70%, 50%, 15% and 25% respectively. The results of mRNA expression showed that fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2, and HMG-CoA reductase were down-regulated (35%, 30%, 50% and 25% respectively and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase were up regulated (1.6 and 6.5 folds in liver by the cholesterol administration. Conclusions The dietary cholesterol increased the triglyceride accumulation in liver, but did not stimulate the activity and the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to triglyceride and fatty acid biosynthesis.

  16. Genetically Guided Statin Therapy on Statin Perceptions, Adherence, and Cholesterol Lowering: A Pilot Implementation Study in Primary Care Patients

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    Josephine H. Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Statin adherence is often limited by side effects. The SLCO1B1*5 variant is a risk factor for statin side effects and exhibits statin-specific effects: highest with simvastatin/atorvastatin and lowest with pravastatin/rosuvastatin. The effects of SLCO1B1*5 genotype guided statin therapy (GGST are unknown. Primary care patients (n = 58 who were nonadherent to statins and their providers received SLCO1B1*5 genotyping and guided recommendations via the electronic medical record (EMR. The primary outcome was the change in Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire, which measured patients’ perceived needs for statins and concerns about adverse effects, measured before and after SLCO1B1*5 results. Concurrent controls (n = 59 were identified through the EMR to compare secondary outcomes: new statin prescriptions, statin utilization, and change in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c. GGST patients had trends (p = 0.2 towards improved statin necessity and concerns. The largest changes were the “need for statin to prevent sickness” (p < 0.001 and “concern for statin to disrupt life” (p = 0.006. GGST patients had more statin prescriptions (p < 0.001, higher statin use (p < 0.001, and greater decrease in LDL-c (p = 0.059 during follow-up. EMR delivery of SLCO1B1*5 results and recommendations is feasible in the primary care setting. This novel intervention may improve patients’ perceptions of statins and physician behaviors that promote higher statin adherence and lower LDL-c.

  17. Eligibility for alirocumab or evolocumab treatment in 1090 hypercholesterolemic patients referred to a regional cholesterol treatment center with LDL cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL despite maximal-tolerated LDL-cholesterol-lowering therapy

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    Jetty V

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vybhav Jetty, Charles J Glueck, Kevin Lee, Naila Goldenberg, Marloe Prince, Ashwin Kumar, Michael Goldenberg, Ishan Anand, Ping Wang Department of Internal Medicine, Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, Praluent (alirocumab [ALI] and Repatha (evolocumab [EVO] have been approved as adjuncts to the standard-of-care maximal-tolerated dose (MTD of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC-lowering therapy (LLT, statin therapy, in heterozygous (HeFH (ALI or EVO or homozygous (EVO familial hypercholesterolemia, or clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD where LDLC lowering is insufficient (both. Since LDLC lowering has been revolutionized by ALI and EVO, specialty pharmaceutical pricing models will be applied to a mass market. Methods: We applied US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and insurance eligibility criteria for ALI and EVO to 1090 hypercholesterolemic patients serially referred over 3 years who then received ≥2 months maximal-tolerated dose of standard-of-care LDL cholesterol-lowering therapy (MTDLLT with follow-up LDLC ≥70 mg/dL. MTDLLT did not include ALI or EVO, which had not been commercially approved before completion of this study. Results: Of the 1090 patients, 140 (13% had HeFH by clinical diagnostic criteria and/or CVD with LDLC >100 mg/dL despite ≥2 months on MTDLLT, meeting FDA insurance criteria for ALI or EVO therapy. Another 51 (5% patients were statin intolerant, without HeFH or CVD. Conclusion: If 13% of patients with HeFH-CVD and LDLC >100 mg/dL despite MTDLLT are eligible for ALI or EVO, then specialty pharmaceutical pricing models (~$14,300/year might be used in an estimated 10 million HeFH-CVD patients. Whether the health care savings arising from the anticipated reduction of CVD events by ALI or EVO justify their costs in populations with HeFH-CVD and LDLC >100 mg/dL despite MTDLLT remains to

  18. The value of surrogate markers to monitor cholesterol absorption, synthesis and bioconversion to bile acids under lipid lowering therapies.

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    Stellaard, Frans; von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Regulation of cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis is controlled by three main fluxes, i.e. intestinal absorption, de novo synthesis (ChS) and catabolism, predominantly as bile acid synthesis (BAS). High serum total Chol and LDL-Chol concentrations in particular are considered risk factors and markers for the development of atherosclerosis. Pharmaceutical treatments to lower serum Chol have focused on reducing absorption or ChS and increasing BAS. Monitoring of these three parameters is complex involving isotope techniques, cholesterol balance experiments and advanced mass spectrometry based analysis methods. Surrogate markers were explored that require only one single fasting blood sample collection. These markers were validated in specific, mostly physiological conditions and during statin treatment to inhibit ChS. They were also applied under cholesterol absorption restriction, but were not validated in this condition. We retrospectively evaluated the use of serum campesterol (Camp), sitosterol (Sit) and cholestanol (Cholol) as markers for cholesterol absorption, lathosterol (Lath) as marker for ChS and 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OH-Ch) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-Ch) as markers for BAS under conditions of Chol absorption restriction. Additionally, their values were corrected for Chol concentration (R_sterol or oxysterols). Thirty-seven healthy male omnivore subjects were studied under treatments with placebo (PLAC), ezetimibe (EZE) to inhibit cholesterol absorption, simvastatin (SIMVA) to reduce cholesterol synthesis and a combination of both (EZE+SIMVA). Results were compared to those obtained in 18 pure vegetarian subjects (vegans) whose dietary Chol intake is extremely low. Relative or fractional Chol absorption (FrChA) was measured with the continuous feeding stable isotope procedure, ChS and BAS with the cholesterol balance method. The daily Chol intake (DICh) was inventoried and the daily Chol absorption (DACh) calculated. Monitoring cholesterol

  19. Breast Milk from Smokers Contains Less Cholesterol and Protein and Smaller Size of Apolipoprotein A-I Resulting in Lower Zebrafish Embryo Survivability.

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    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Suk-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    To determine the quality of breast milk (BM), we compared the functions of BM from ex-smokers and nonsmokers. We analyzed the contents of lipids, glucose, and protein in BM from ex-smokers (10 cigarettes/day for 13 ± 3 years) as well as infant formula. Nonsmokers' BM showed 2.4- and 1.4-fold higher cholesterol and protein contents, respectively, than BM from smokers. Infant formula contained almost no cholesterol, but did show remarkably higher glucose and triglyceride levels than BM. Microinjection of BM (50 nL) from nonsmokers and smokers into zebrafish embryos resulted in 59% and 44% survival, respectively, whereas formula injection resulted in 31% survival. The higher cholesterol and protein contents of BM were directly correlated with higher embryo survivability, suggesting that cholesterol content is directly and critically associated with growth of neonate infants. Smokers' BM contained smaller-sized apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) (24.4 ± 0.2 kDa) than BM from nonsmokers (26.7 ± 0.4 kDa), suggesting that putative modification and cleavage occurred in apoA-I. BM containing higher molecular weight apoA-I resulted in higher embryo survivability. Smoking before pregnancy can affect the composition and quality of BM, resulting in almost complete loss of cholesterol and protein, especially lactoferrin, lactalbumin, and apoA-I, accompanied by proteolytic degradation. These impairment effects of BM are associated with elevation of oxidative stress and lower embryo survivability.

  20. Hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in rats fed diets with or without cholesterol.

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    Zhang, Lei; Fang, Guoshan; Zheng, Longhui; Chen, Zongdao; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-08

    The potential mechanism of the hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched and cholesterol-free diets was determined. Capsaicinoids favorably modified the lipoprotein profile of rats. Capsaicinoids consumption down-regulated the mRNA levels of hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase by 0.55-fold and hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) by 0.53-fold in the cholesterol-free diet group (P Capsaicinoids reduced the amount of bile acids in feces by -15.97% and contents of the small intestine by -9.64% in the cholesterol-free diet group (P capsaicinoids in the cholesterol-free diet group was attributed to the inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, whereas that in the cholesterol-enriched diet group was attributed to the stimulation of the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and the increasing excretions of bile acids in feces.

  1. Effect of yogurt and bifidus yogurt fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey and lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

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    Beena, A; Prasad, V

    1997-08-01

    The possible hypocholesterolaemic properties of milk and fermented milk products have been investigated in groups of albino rats given a basal diet, basal diet plus cholesterol, and basal diet plus cholesterol together with whole milk or standard or bifidus yogurt. The yogurts were fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey or lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey. After 30 d, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured in serum. Whole milk and ordinary yogurt had no hypocholesterolaemic effect, but standard yogurt containing lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey and all bifidus yogurts lowered serum cholesterol. In general, yogurts changed HDL-cholesterol little, but tended to raise triacylglycerols. There was marked lowering of LDL-cholesterol in rats given either type of yogurt fortified with whey proteins. This study has demonstrated in a rat model that bifidus yogurts and yogurts fortified with whey proteins can reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, and suggests that if they have the same effect in human subjects they have potential value in cholesterol-lowering diets.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang Vi Thanh; Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Sievenpiper, John L; Au-Yeung, Fei; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Duvnjak, Lea; Leiter, Lawrence; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Background: Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggests the consumption of konjac glucomannan (KJM), a viscous soluble fiber, for improving LDL-cholesterol concentrations. It has also been suggested that the cholesterol-lowering potential of KJM may be greater than that of other fibers. However, trials have been relatively scarce and limited in sample size and duration, and the effect estimates have been inconsistent. The effect of KJM on new lipid targets of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is also unknown. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Design: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central databases were searched. We included RCTs with a follow-up of ≥3 wk that assessed the effect of KJM on LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or apolipoprotein B. Data were pooled by using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Results: Twelve studies ( n = 370), 8 in adults and 4 in children, met the inclusion criteria. KJM significantly lowered LDL cholesterol (MD: -0.35 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.25 mmol/L) and non-HDL cholesterol (MD: -0.32 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.19 mmol/L). Data from 6 trials suggested no impact of KJM on apolipoprotein B. Conclusions: Our findings support the intake of ∼3 g KJM/d for reductions in LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol of 10% and 7%, respectively. The information may be of interest to health agencies in crafting future dietary recommendations related to reduction in CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02068248. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials.

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    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and vascular dysfunction. Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, is an antioxidant with a protective effect on lipid peroxidation and anti-atherosclerotic capacity. This review summarises current evidence on the effect of lycopene on serum lipid concentrations and blood pressure. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane databases for intervention studies between 1955 and September 2010 investigating the effect of lycopene on blood lipids or blood pressure for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted meta-analyses using a random effect model of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria. Additionally, we conducted subgroup meta-analysis of serum lipid concentrations by lycopene dosage and subgroup meta-analysis by baseline blood pressure. Twelve studies (13 trial arms) meeting the inclusion criteria investigated the effect of lycopene on serum lipids, and four studies examined its effect on blood pressure. Meta-analysis on serum lipids revealed a significant cholesterol-lowering effect of lycopene for total serum cholesterol (mean change±SE: -7.55±6.15mg/dl; p=0.02) and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (mean change±SE: -10.35±5.64mg/dl, p=0.0003) in the subgroup of trials using lycopene dosages of ≥25mg daily, whereas subgroup meta-analysis of trials using lower lycopene dosages was not significant. Meta-analysis of the effect of lycopene on systolic blood pressure of all trials suggested a significant blood pressure reducing effect (mean systolic blood pressure change±SE: -5.60±5.26mm Hg, p=0.04). Our meta-analysis suggests that lycopene taken in doses ≥25mg daily is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol by about 10% which is comparable to the effect of low doses of statins in patient with slightly elevated cholesterol levels. More research is needed to confirm suggested beneficial effects on total serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2010

  4. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

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    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  5. Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Lard Functionalized with Mushroom Extracts Is Independent of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 Protein and ABC Sterol Transporter Gene Expression in Hypercholesterolemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caz, Víctor; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Santamaría, Mónica; Tabernero, María; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Largo, Carlota

    2016-03-02

    Interest in food matrices supplemented with mushrooms as hypocholesterolemic functional foods is increasing. This study was to (i) investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of lard functionalized with mushroom extracts (LF) including fungal β-glucans, water-soluble polysaccharides, or ergosterol and (ii) examine the LF influence on transcriptional mechanisms involved in cholesterol metabolism. mRNA levels of 17 cholesterol-related genes were evaluated in jejunum, cecum, and liver of high cholesterol-fed mice. The four tested LFs decreased plasma cholesterol by 22-42%, HDLc by 18-40%, and LDLc by 27-51%, and two of them increased mRNA levels of jejunal Npc1l1 and Abcg5 and hepatic Npc1l1. mRNA levels of other cholesterol-related genes were unchanged. These findings suggest that LF may have potential as a dietary supplement for counteracting diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and could be a source for the development of novel cholesterol-lowering functional foods. However, the cholesterol-lowering effect was unrelated to transcriptional changes, suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms could be involved.

  6. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials.

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    Baigent, C; Blackwell, L; Emberson, J; Holland, L E; Reith, C; Bhala, N; Peto, R; Barnes, E H; Keech, A; Simes, J; Collins, R

    2010-11-13

    Lowering of LDL cholesterol with standard statin regimens reduces the risk of occlusive vascular events in a wide range of individuals. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with statin therapy. We undertook meta-analyses of individual participant data from randomised trials involving at least 1000 participants and at least 2 years' treatment duration of more versus less intensive statin regimens (five trials; 39 612 individuals; median follow-up 5·1 years) and of statin versus control (21 trials; 129 526 individuals; median follow-up 4·8 years). For each type of trial, we calculated not only the average risk reduction, but also the average risk reduction per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction at 1 year after randomisation. In the trials of more versus less intensive statin therapy, the weighted mean further reduction in LDL cholesterol at 1 year was 0·51 mmol/L. Compared with less intensive regimens, more intensive regimens produced a highly significant 15% (95% CI 11-18; pcholesterol, these further reductions in risk were similar to the proportional reductions in the trials of statin versus control. When both types of trial were combined, similar proportional reductions in major vascular events per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction were found in all types of patient studied (rate ratio [RR] 0·78, 95% CI 0·76-0·80; pcholesterol lower than 2 mmol/L on the less intensive or control regimen. Across all 26 trials, all-cause mortality was reduced by 10% per 1·0 mmol/L LDL reduction (RR 0·90, 95% CI 0·87-0·93; peffect on deaths due to stroke (RR 0·96, 95% CI 0·84-1·09; p=0·5) or other vascular causes (RR 0·98, 99% CI 0·81-1·18; p=0·8). No significant effects were observed on deaths due to cancer or other non-vascular causes (RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·92-1·03; p=0·3) or on cancer incidence (RR 1·00, 95% CI 0·96-1·04; p=0·9), even at low LDL cholesterol concentrations. Further reductions in

  7. Investigation of cholesterol bias due to a matrix effect of external quality assurance samples: how true is your cholesterol method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Carel J; Klingberg, Sandra; Johnson, Leslie; Park, Rodney; Wilgen, Urs; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2012-11-01

    Comparability of cholesterol measurement is clinically required and external quality assurance (EQA) programmes are important to verify the trueness of routine methods. We developed a gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) total cholesterol assay to investigate the cause of a suspected matrix-related negative bias with the Beckman Coulter enzymatic method discovered in an EQA programme. The GC-IDMS method was calibrated with certified reference material and verified against a secondary reference method. Bias between the GC-IDMS and Beckman Coulter methods was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol EP9-A2 with 40 clinical samples. At clinically important decision levels, no significant bias was demonstrated on patients' samples (all results within a ±3% limit). A matrix effect confined to the EQA material that affected the Beckman Coulter total cholesterol method was confirmed. The GC-IDMS method is suitable as a higher order total cholesterol method in a routine clinical laboratory. Matrix effects defeat the objectives of EQA schemes by preventing the verification of trueness. Given the importance of obtaining a true cholesterol result without systematic error, we recommend that EQA material without matrix effects should be used.

  8. Red clover isoflavones enriched with formononetin lower serum LDL cholesterol-a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton-Bligh, P B; Nery, M-L; Clifton-Bligh, R J; Visvalingam, S; Fulcher, G R; Byth, K; Baber, R

    2015-01-01

    Although postmenopausal combined hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of hip fracture, long-term use may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and in women more than 10 years after menopause it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Isoflavones, because of preferential binding to estrogen receptor beta, may retain the beneficial effects on bone but lessen the adverse effects on the breast. The objective of this study was to study the effects of an isoflavone obtained from red clover (Rimostil) on bone mineral density, and on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 50 mg of Rimostil was given to women who were menopausal for at least 1 year. Bone mineral density of the spine, femoral neck and forearm and serum LDL cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 6-month intervals. The duration of follow-up was 2 years. There was no beneficial effect of Rimostil on bone density at any site. There was a 12% fall in serum LDL cholesterol in the Rimostil-treated arm, which was significantly greater than the 2% drop seen in the control arm (P=0.005).

  9. Bayesian inference for multivariate meta-analysis Box-Cox transformation models for individual patient data with applications to evaluation of cholesterol-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Shah, Arvind K; Lin, Jianxin

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of Box-Cox transformation regression models with multidimensional random effects for analyzing multivariate responses for individual patient data in meta-analysis. Our modeling formulation uses a multivariate normal response meta-analysis model with multivariate random effects, in which each response is allowed to have its own Box-Cox transformation. Prior distributions are specified for the Box-Cox transformation parameters as well as the regression coefficients in this complex model, and the deviance information criterion is used to select the best transformation model. Because the model is quite complex, we develop a novel Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling scheme to sample from the joint posterior of the parameters. This model is motivated by a very rich dataset comprising 26 clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering drugs where the goal is to jointly model the three-dimensional response consisting of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG). Because the joint distribution of (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) is not multivariate normal and in fact quite skewed, a Box-Cox transformation is needed to achieve normality. In the clinical literature, these three variables are usually analyzed univariately; however, a multivariate approach would be more appropriate because these variables are correlated with each other. We carry out a detailed analysis of these data by using the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs on circulating cholesterol and liver lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ronald G; Jackson, Christopher L; Griffiths, Keith; Doenhoff, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    It has previously been shown that experimental infections of the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the adult worms of which reside in the blood stream of the mammalian host, significantly reduced atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. These effects occurred in tandem with a lowering of serum total cholesterol levels in both apoE(-/-) and random-bred laboratory mice and a beneficial increase in the proportion of HDL to LDL cholesterol. To better understand how the parasitic infections induce these effects we have here investigated the involvement of adult worms and their eggs on lipids in the host. Our results indicate that the serum cholesterol-lowering effect is mediated by factors released from S. mansoni eggs, while the presence of adult worms seemed to have had little or no effect. It was also observed that high levels of lipids, particularly triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, present in the uninfected livers of both random-bred and apoE(-/-)mice fed a high-fat diet were not present in livers of the schistosome-infected mice.

  11. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on mobilization and excretion of cholesterol in baboons.

    OpenAIRE

    KARSENTY, C.; Baraona, E.; Savolainen, M J; Lieber, C S

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol administration on the mobilization and excretion of cholesterol, turnover and balance studies were carried out in baboons pair-fed cholesterol-free diets containing 50% of energy either as ethanol or as additional carbohydrate for several years. Ethanol feeding increased free cholesterol in all plasma lipoprotein fractions, and esterified cholesterol in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein (H...

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol; high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development, of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, following a request in accordance with Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol (high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of (coronary) heart disease), pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The applicant requested an extension of the conditions of use to powder...... and elevated blood LDL-cholesterol concentration is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The target population is subjects who need and want to lower their blood cholesterol. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that only one human intervention study showed a reduction in blood LDL...... such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations in a large number of studies, the effective dose of plant sterols (as powder diluted in water) needed to achieve a given magnitude of effect in a given timeframe...

  13. Effect of excess dietary cystine on the biodynamics of cholesterol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukaj, A; Sérougne, C

    1983-08-29

    Ingestion of an excess level of 5% of L-cystine produced in the rat the following effects: total cholesterol concentration was increased in the plasma (from 102 to 165 mg/100 ml) and body (from 133 to 184 mg/100 g) whereas esterified cholesterol level was decreased in the liver (from 151 to 59 mg/100 g). The absorption coefficient of dietary cholesterol and the external secretion (elimination in the feces of cholesterol biosynthesized in the intestine) were not changed. The urinary and fecal excretion, transformation into bile acids and input into the plasma of cholesterol biosynthesized in the organs (internal secretion) were enhanced. The elevation of cholesterol synthesis in the cystine-treated rats was explained by an increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Hence, addition of cholesterol, which inhibits hepatic cholesterol synthesis, to the cystine-enriched diet led to a significant decrease (by 50%) in cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, when the absorption coefficient of dietary cholesterol was decreased (replacement of lard by tristearin) cholesterol synthesis of the cystine-fed rats was increased. Thus, such a relationship, previously demonstrated for rats in which the intestine was the major source of biosynthesized cholesterol, exists also when the liver becomes more important in the synthetic process.

  14. Genetic variation at the SLCO1B1 gene locus and low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Hironobu; Polisecki, Eliana; Kajinami, Kouji; Trompet, Stella; Robertson, Michele; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; de Craen, Anton J M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Shepherd, James; Packard, Christopher; Buckley, Brendan M; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2012-02-01

    Our goal was to determine whether genetic variation at genes affecting statin metabolism or targets of statin therapy would influence low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with pravastatin, baseline heart disease, or cardiac endpoints on trial. We examined associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the liver X receptor alpha (LXRA, rs12221497), and the solute carrier organic anion transporter (SLCO1B1, rs4149056 and rs2306283) gene loci with these variables. We studied 5411 participants in PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) (mean age 75.3 years), who had been randomized to pravastatin 40 mg/day or placebo and were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. No relationships between genetic variation at the LXRA gene locus with statin induced LDL lowering response or other parameters were noted. Both the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (valine for alanine at 174) and the rs2306283 (asparagine for aspartic acid at 130) SNPs affect the amino acid sequence of the SLCO1B1 gene product. No effect of the rs2306283 SNP on any of the variables was noted. However the presence of the rs4149056 SNP was associated with significantly less LDL cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin (wildtype, 71.5% of the population, -37.0%; heterozygotes, 25.8% of the population, -36.0%; and homozygotes, 2.7% of the population, -31.8%, p=0.003 at 6 months, and p=0.022 at 12 months). Our data indicate that the presence of the rs4149056 non-synonymous SNP at the SLCO1B1 gene locus can significantly decrease the pravastatin induced LDL cholesterol lowering response. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Development and initial evaluation of a culturally sensitive cholesterol-lowering diet program for Mexican and African American patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Coyle, Y; Kavanaugh, A; Adams-Huet, B; Lipsky, P E

    2000-08-01

    To develop and evaluate acceptability of an intensive and ethnic-specific cholesterol-lowering diet program with a strong behavioral component in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A comprehensive program with a behavioral component and culturally sensitive menus was developed in an effort to alter dietary behavior in patients with SLE. Four SLE patients, 2 African American and 2 Mexican American, enrolled in this program. Data on food intake (3-day food record), acceptability of the program (subjective response), and physiologic variables were collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. The program was highly rated by all patients and found to be informative, easy to understand, ethnically sensitive, and to contain useful behavioral maintenance strategies. All 4 patients surpassed or were close to their diet goals at both 6 and 12 weeks. In this small group of patients, there was a statistically significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.04) and body weight (P = 0.001), as assessed by repeated measures analysis of variance. The culturally specific cholesterol-reducing diet program was highly rated and appeared to be effective in changing the diet of this small group of SLE patients, as determined by their food records and body weight. The impact of this program, including the individual components on cardiovascular disease risk factors, needs to be evaluated in a larger multiple-arm study with a lengthier intervention.

  16. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  17. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  18. A plant stanol yogurt drink alone or combined with a low-dose statin lowers serum triacylglycerol and non-HDL cholesterol in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, Jogchum; Brufau, Gemma; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Dasselaar, Margreet; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of 2 commonly available strategies (plant stanol ester drink and 10 mg simvastatin) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk variables in participants with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients are at increased risk to develop CHD, partly due to high triacylglycerol (TAG) and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and a low-grade inflammatory profile. Effects of plant stanol esters on TAG concentrations in these participants are unknown. After a 3-wk run-in period in which individuals consumed placebo yogurt drinks and placebo capsules, participants were randomly divided into 4 groups: placebo (n = 9), simvastatin + placebo drink (n = 10), placebo + stanol drink (n = 9), and simvastatin + stanol drink (n = 8). After 9 wk, we evaluated the effects on serum lipids, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction markers. In metabolic syndrome patients, stanol esters (2.0 g/d), simvastatin, or the combination lowered non-HDL-C by 12.8% (P = 0.011), 30.7% (P cholesterol ester transfer protein mass, FFA concentrations, and markers for low-grade inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. This study shows that in metabolic syndrome patients, plant stanol esters lower not only non-HDL-C, but also TAG. Effects on TAG were also present in combination with statin treatment, illustrating an additional benefit of stanol esters in this CHD risk population.

  19. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  20. Effect of vildagliptin and pravastatin combination on cholesterol efflux in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Nadia M; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-07-01

    Many reports suggested that some statins are almost ineffective in reducing triglycerides or enhancing HDL-C plasma levels, although statin treatment was still efficacious in reducing LDL-C. In diabetic dyslipidemic patients, it may therefore be necessary to use a combination therapy with other drugs to achieve either LDL-C- and triglyceride-lowering or HDL-C-enhancing goals. Such ineffectiveness of statins can be attributed to their effect on the liver X receptor (LXR) which regulates the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1. A decrease in the expression of these transporters eventually leads to decreased cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues leading to low levels of HDL-C. Although manipulating the LXR pathway may complement the effects of statins, LXR synthetic ligands as T091317 have shown significant hypertriglyceridemic action which limits their use. We recently found that the antidiabetic drug vildagliptin stimulates LXR expression leading to increased ABCB1/ABCG1 expression which improves cholesterol efflux from adipocytes. Therefore, a combination of vildagliptin and statin may provide a solution without the hypertriglyceridemic action observed with LXR agonist. We hypothesize that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin will improve cholesterol efflux in adipocytes. Statin-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with vildagliptin, and the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and the cholesterol efflux were then determined. Our data indicate that a combination of vildagliptin and pravastatin significantly induces the expression of LXR-ABCA1/ABCG1 cascade and improves cholesterol efflux (P > 0.05) in adipocytes. Our data may explain, at least in part, the improvement in HDL-C levels observed in patients receiving both medications. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):535-543, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rayman, Margaret P; Guallar, Eliseo; Nybo, Mads; Griffin, Bruce A; Stranges, Saverio; Cold, Søren

    2015-12-14

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium) pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01819649) was a 5-year randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with four groups (allocation ratio 1:1:1:1). Men and women aged 60-74 years (n 491) were randomised to 100 (n 124), 200 (n 122) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months and 5 years. Total cholesterol decreased significantly both in the intervention groups and in the placebo group after 6 months and 5 years, with small and nonsignificant differences in changes in plasma concentration of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio between intervention and placebo groups. The effect of long-term supplementation with Se on plasma cholesterol concentrations or its sub-fractions did not differ significantly from placebo in this elderly population.

  2. Effects of dietary oat proteins on cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolaemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Li-Tao; Guo, Lina; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Liu, Liya; Zhong, Kui; Zhou, Sumei

    2016-03-15

    The aim of present study was to investigate the hypocholesterolaemic effects of oat proteins (OP) in hamsters fed with a hypercholesterolaemic diet. The hamsters were divided into five groups and fed with the experimental diets containing oat, OP, oat β-glucan (OG), or OP+OG for 30 days. OP and the OG significantly lowered the concentrations of plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and liver total cholesterol (TC), and increased the excretion of faecal bile acid and TC. Plasma and liver TC in the OP+OG group were significantly lower than those in the OP or OG groups. Both OP and OG increased the activity of liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), while its activity in the OP+OG group was strongly increased compared with the OP or OG groups. These results indicated that dietary OP could improve hypercholesterolaemia, while dietary OP and OG together would have better hypocholesterolaemic effects. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Potential impact of policy regulation and generic competition on sales of cholesterol lowering medication, antidepressants and acid blocking agents in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, J; Van Hal, G; De Loof, H; Remmen, R; De Meyer, G R Y; Beutels, P

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures are increasing as a proportion of health expenditures in most rich countries. Antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication are major contributors to medicine sales around the globe. We aimed to document the possible impact of policy regulations and generic market penetration on the evolution of sales volume and average cost per unit (Defined Daily Doses and packages) of antidepressants, acid blocking agents and cholesterol lowering medication. We extracted data from the IMS health database regarding the public price and sales volume of the antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOl's) and tricyclic and remaining antidepressants (TCA's)), acid blocking agents (proton pump inhibitors (PPl's) and H2 receptor antagonists) and cholesterol lowering medication (statins and fibrates) in Belgium between 1995 and 2009. We describe these sales data in relation to various national policy measures which were systematically searched in official records. Our analysis suggests that particular policy regulations have had immediate impact on sales figures and expenditures on pharmaceuticals in Belgium: changes in reimbursement conditions, a public tender and entry of generic competitors in a reference pricing system. However, possible sustainable effects seem to be counteracted by other mechanisms such as marketing strategies, prescribing behaviour, brand loyalty and the entry of pseudogenerics. It is likely that demand-side measures have a more sustainable impact on expenditure. Compared with other European countries, generic penetration in Belgium remains low. Alternative policy regulations aimed at enlarging the generic market and influencing pharmaceutical expenditures deserve consideration. This should include policies aiming to influence physicians' prescribing and a shared responsibility of pharmacists, physicians and patients towards expenditures.

  4. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy may contribute to the health ben...

  5. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch.......Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  6. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double blind controlled cross-over intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichenametla, Sailendra N; Weidauer, Lee A; Wey, Howard E; Beare, Tianna M; Specker, Bonny L; Dey, Moul

    2014-06-01

    A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of RS4-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster cross-over intervention (n = 86, age≥18, 2-12 week interventions, 2-week washout) in the United States, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-criteria. RS4 consumption compared with CF resulted in 7.2% (p = 0.002) lower mean total cholesterol, 5.5% (p = 0.04) lower non-HDL, and a 12.8% (p < 0.001) lower HDL cholesterol in the With-MetS group. No-MetS individuals had a 2.6% (p = 0.02) smaller waist circumference and 1.5% (p = 0.03) lower percent body fat following RS4 intervention compared to CF. A small but significant 1% increase in fat-free mass was observed in all participants combined (p = 0.02). No significant effect of RS4 was observed for glycemic variables and blood pressures. RS4 consumption improved dyslipidemia and body composition. Incorporation of RS4 in routine diets could offer an effective strategy for public cardio-metabolic health promotion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat,

  8. Effects of Stretching Speed on Mechanical Rupture of Phospholipid/Cholesterol Bilayers: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Taiki; Koshiyama, Kenichiro; Wada, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of biological cell membrane under mechanical stresses is critical for cell viability. It is triggered by local rearrangements of membrane molecules. We investigated the effects of stretching speed on mechanical rupture of phospholipid/cholesterol bilayers using unsteady molecular dynamics simulations. We focused on pore formation, the trigger of rupture, in a 40 mol% cholesterol-including bilayer. The unsteady stretching was modeled by proportional and temporal scaling of atom positions at stretching speeds from 0.025 to 30 m/s. The effects of the stretching speed on the critical areal strain, where the pore forms, is composed of two regimes. At low speeds (stretching speeds, which qualitatively agrees with available experimental data. Transient recovery of the cholesterol and phospholipid molecular orientations was evident at lower speeds, suggesting the formation of a stretch-induced interdigitated gel-like phase. However, this recovery was not confirmed at higher speeds or for the pure bilayer. The different responses of the molecular orientations may help explain the two regimes for the effect of stretching speed on pore formation. PMID:26471872

  9. Joint effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Cui, Yadong; Jousilahti, Pekka; Sundvall, Jouko; Girman, Cynthia J; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the single and joint associations of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Study cohorts included 21,375 Finnish participants who were 25-74 years of age and free of CHD and stroke at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 10.8 years, 437 participants developed CHD. The sex- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD at different levels of HDL cholesterol [cholesterol [cholesterol level was consistent in people with any level of LDL cholesterol. Likewise, an increasing trend in incidence of CHD with an increase in the LDL cholesterol level was consistent in subjects with any level of HDL cholesterol. These results suggest an inverse association between HDL cholesterol and CHD risk and a direct association between LDL cholesterol and CHD risk, independent of other risk factors. The protective effect of HDL cholesterol on CHD risk is observed at all levels of LDL cholesterol.

  10. Effects of menopause, gender and age on lipids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Stevenson, John C; Crook, David; Johnston, Desmond G; Godsland, Ian F

    2015-05-01

    To distinguish the effects of menopause, gender and age on serum lipid risk markers for vascular disease, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfractions 2 and 3 (HDL2-C and HDL3-C). We undertook a cross-sectional database analysis of apparently healthy Caucasian pre- and postmenopausal women and men (n=515, 518 and 800, respectively) not taking drugs affecting lipid metabolism (including contraceptive or post-menopausal steroids). Measurements of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C and non-HDL-C concentrations and the TC/HDL-C concentration ratio were considered. Men had lower TC than postmenopausal women (p50 years), differences apparent in the non-standardized comparisons were generally sustained, although HDL3-C levels were lower at menopause, HDL2-C ceased to differ and LDL-C was lower in postmenopausal women than men. Male gender is associated with a more atherogenic profile than female gender, with appreciably lower levels of the HDL2-C subfraction. Among women, menopause is associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile, but has less effect than male gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Berberine on promoting the excretion of cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Huang, Min; Feng, Ru; He, Chi-Yu; Ma, Chao; Luo, Shi-Heng; Fu, Jie; Wen, Bao-Ying; Ren, Long; Shou, Jia-Wen; Guo, Fang; Chen, Yangchao; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2015-08-27

    Berberine (BBR), as a new medicine for hyperlipidemia, can reduce the blood lipids in patients. Mechanistic studies have shown that BBR activates the extracellular-signal regulated kinase pathway by stabilizing low-density-lipoprotein receptor mRNA. However, aside from inhibiting the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, the effects of BBR on other metabolic pathways of cholesterol have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the action of BBR on the excretion of cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia, followed by oral treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of BBR or 10 and 30 mg/kg/day of lovastatin for 10 days, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), transaminases, and total bile acid in the serum, liver, bile and feces were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cholesterol (as well as coprostanol) levels in the liver, bile and feces were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The HFD hamsters showed significantly hyperlipidemic characteristics compared with the normal hamsters. Treatment with BBR for 10 days reduced the serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels in HFD hamsters by 44-70, 34-51 and 47-71%, respectively, and this effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Initially, a large amount of cholesterol accumulated in the hyperlipidemic hamster livers. After BBR treatment, reductions in the liver cholesterol were observed by day 3 and became significant by day 7 at both doses (P hamsters but not in normal hamsters, and these results provide a link between the cholesterol-lowering effect of BBR with cholesterol excretion into the bile. We conclude that BBR significantly promoted the excretion of cholesterol from the liver to the bile in hyperlipidemic hamsters, which led to large decreases in the serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels. Additionally, compared

  12. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  13. Serum cholesterol and risk of lower urinary tract symptoms progression: Results from the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Howard, Lauren E; Vidal, Adriana C; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    To determine if cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of lower urinary tract symptoms in asymptomatic men. A post-hoc analysis of the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) study was carried out in 2323 men with baseline International Prostate Symptom Score urinary tract symptoms, defined as first report of medical treatment, surgery or two reports of an International Prostate Symptom Score >14. A total of 253 men (10.9%) developed incident lower urinary tract symptoms. On crude analysis, higher high-density lipoprotein was associated with a decreased lower urinary tract symptoms risk (hazard ratio 0.89, P = 0.024), whereas total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein showed no association. After multivariable adjustment, the association between high-density lipoprotein and incident lower urinary tract symptoms remained significant (hazard ratio 0.89, P = 0.044), whereas no association was observed for low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.611). There was a trend for higher cholesterol to be linked with higher lower urinary tract symptoms risk, though this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 1.04, P = 0.054). A higher cholesterol : high-density lipoprotein ratio was associated with increased lower urinary tract symptoms risk on crude (hazard ratio 1.11, P = 0.016) and adjusted models (hazard ratio 1.12, P = 0.012). Among asymptomatic men participating in the REDUCE study, higher cholesterol was associated with increased incident lower urinary tract symptoms risk, though the association was not significant. A higher cholesterol : high-density lipoprotein ratio was associated with increased incident lower urinary tract symptoms, whereas higher high-density lipoprotein was protective. These findings suggest dyslipidemia might play a role in lower urinary tract symptoms progression. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Spirogyra neglecta inhibits the absorption and synthesis of cholesterol in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharaporn Duangjai

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: These observations suggested that inhibitory cholesterol absorption effects of SN could be mediated through the modulation of size and solubility of cholesterol micelles, resulting in interference of cholesterol uptake. In addition, SN inhibited the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis. This study provides supporting evidence for the potential usage of SN as a cholesterol lowering agent.

  15. Hampering Effect of Cholesterol on the Permeation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Phospholipids Bilayer: Possible Explanation for Plasma Cancer Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Paal, Jonas; Verheyen, Claudia; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ability of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPS) to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells has been widely established. This selectivity has been assigned to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) created in CAPs. To provide new insights in the search for an explanation for the observed selectivity, we calculate the transfer free energy of multiple ROS across membranes containing a varying amount of cholesterol. The cholesterol fraction is investigated as a selectivity parameter because membranes of cancer cells are known to contain lower fractions of cholesterol compared to healthy cells. We find that cholesterol has a significant effect on the permeation of reactive species across a membrane. Indeed, depending on the specific reactive species, an increasing cholesterol fraction can lead to (i) an increase of the transfer free energy barrier height and width, (ii) the formation of a local free energy minimum in the center of the membrane and (iii) the creation of extra free energy barriers due to the bulky sterol rings. In the context of plasma oncology, these observations suggest that the increased ingress of RONS in cancer cells can be explained by the decreased cholesterol fraction of their cell membrane.

  16. BCG lowers plasma cholesterol levels and delays atherosclerotic lesion progression in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.D. van; Bekkering, S.; Crasborn, M.; Beek, L. van der; Berg, S.M. van den; Vrieling, F.; Joosten, S.A.; Harmelen, V. van; Winther, M.P. de; Lutjohann, D.; Lutgens, E.; Boon, M.R.; Riksen, N.P.; Rensen, P.C.; Berbee, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacille-Calmette-Guerin (BCG), prepared from attenuated live Mycobacterium bovis, modulates atherosclerosis development as currently explained by immunomodulatory mechanisms. However, whether BCG is pro- or anti-atherogenic remains inconclusive as the effect of BCG on

  17. A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Platform to Investigate the Impact of Alirocumab and Cholesterol-Lowering Therapies on Lipid Profiles and Plaque Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Ming

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. Alirocumab, an antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, significantly reduces LDL-C. Here, we report development of a quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP model integrating peripheral and liver cholesterol metabolism, as well as PCSK9 function, to examine the mechanisms of action of alirocumab and other lipid-lowering therapies, including statins. The model predicts changes in LDL-C and other lipids that are consistent with effects observed in clinical trials of single or combined treatments of alirocumab and other treatments. An exploratory model to examine the effects of lipid levels on plaque dynamics was also developed. The QSP platform, on further development and qualification, may support dose optimization and clinical trial design for PCSK9 inhibitors and lipid-modulating drugs. It may also improve our understanding of factors affecting therapeutic responses in different phenotypes of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Effect of chronic kidney disease on macrophage cholesterol efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sabine M; Wultsch, Anna; Hollaus, Marianne; Ammann, Markus; Pemberger, Elisabeth; Liebscher, Felix; Lambers, Brigitte; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schmidt, Alice; Springer, Alexander; Becker, Julia; Aufricht, Christoph; Handisurya, Ammon; Kapeller, Stefan; Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert; Strobl, Witta

    2015-09-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk to develop atherosclerosis. The capacity of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or serum to accept cholesterol from macrophages and the capacity of macrophages to export excess cholesterol are critical for the atheroprotective role of reverse cholesterol transport. HDL cholesterol acceptor capacity was reported to be decreased in middle aged hemodialysis patients, but the role of confounding factors remains unclear. We measured the cholesterol acceptor capacity (CAC) of HDL or serum in 12 pediatric and 17 young adult patients with CKD stages 3-5, 14 young adult hemodialysis patients and 15 adult renal transplant recipients without associated diseases and matched controls using THP-1 macrophages. Moreover we studied the cholesterol export capacity (CEC) of patients' monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) to control serum or HDL. In adults with CKD stages 3-5 serum CAC was slightly increased, whereas CEC of HMDMs was unaltered in both, adult and pediatric patients. In hemodialysis patients, however, serum CAC was markedly reduced to 85±11% of control (pcholesterol export from macrophages. Hemodialysis patients might benefit from therapies aiming to restore serum CAC by increasing apolipoprotein A-I. The enhanced export of cholesterol by HMDMs from dialysis patients may represent an adaptive response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cooking, storage, and reheating effect on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad I; Min, Joong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-11

    Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content.

  20. Intensity of lipid-lowering therapy and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment among the elderly before and after the 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Nag, Soma; Chan, Wiley

    2007-09-01

    In 2004, the Coordinating Committee of the National Cholesterol Education Program issued an update to the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines on cholesterol management (the Update). Our objectives were to compare the proportion of elderly patients receiving intensive or minimal-guideline lipid-lowering therapy and the proportions meeting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals before and after the update. We used dispense records from Kaiser Permanente Northwest (Portland, OR) to identify elderly patients who received statin therapy in 2003 (n = 14425) and 2005 (n = 19422) and laboratory records to assess LDL-C goal attainment. Among new statin initiators, 85.4% of very-high-risk patients received minimal-guideline therapy in 2005, compared with 65.3% (P treatment, a significantly greater proportion of patients in 2005 versus 2003 attained the optional goal of <70 mg/dL (45.5% vs 34.4% P = .014). However, there was no significant difference in the proportion attaining <100 mg/dL (77.8% vs 81.8%, P = .281). After the Update, more elderly patients were receiving intensive or minimal-guideline statin therapy. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment was isolated and appeared to occur by shifting already well-controlled patients to lower LDL-C levels. Although these findings may translate into less overall coronary heart disease risk, more aggressive lipid-lowering therapy would likely further reduce risk.

  1. Enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol: properties and functional effects of cholestenone in cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Neuvonen

    Full Text Available Bacterial cholesterol oxidase is commonly used as an experimental tool to reduce cellular cholesterol content. That the treatment also generates the poorly degradable metabolite 4-cholesten-3-one (cholestenone has received less attention. Here, we investigated the membrane partitioning of cholestenone using simulations and cell biological experiments and assessed the functional effects of cholestenone in human cells. Atomistic simulations predicted that cholestenone reduces membrane order, undergoes faster flip-flop and desorbs more readily from membranes than cholesterol. In primary human fibroblasts, cholestenone was released from membranes to physiological extracellular acceptors more avidly than cholesterol, but without acceptors it remained in cells over a day. To address the functional effects of cholestenone, we studied fibroblast migration during wound healing. When cells were either cholesterol oxidase treated or part of cellular cholesterol was exchanged for cholestenone with cyclodextrin, cell migration during 22 h was markedly inhibited. Instead, when a similar fraction of cholesterol was removed using cyclodextrin, cells replenished their cholesterol content in 3 h and migrated similarly to control cells. Thus, cholesterol oxidation produces long-term functional effects in cells and these are in part due to the generated membrane active cholestenone.

  2. Effect of cholesterol on the biophysical and physiological properties of a clinical pulmonary surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Eleonora; Rahman, Luna; Francis, James; Petersen, Anne; Possmayer, Fred; Veldhuizen, Ruud; Petersen, Nils O

    2007-08-15

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that forms a surface-active film at the air-water interface of alveoli capable of reducing surface tension to near 0 mN/m. The role of cholesterol, the major neutral lipid component of pulmonary surfactant, remains uncertain. We studied the physiological effect of cholesterol by monitoring blood oxygenation levels of surfactant-deficient rats treated or not treated with bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) containing zero or physiological amounts of cholesterol. Our results indicate no significant difference between BLES and BLES containing cholesterol immediately after treatment; however, during ventilation, BLES-treated animals maintained higher PaO2 values compared to BLES+cholesterol-treated animals. We used a captive bubble tensiometer to show that physiological amounts of cholesterol do not have a detrimental effect on the surface activity of BLES at 37 degrees C. The effect of cholesterol on topography and lateral organization of BLES Langmuir-Blodgett films was also investigated using atomic force microscopy. Our data indicate that cholesterol induces the formation of domains within liquid-ordered domains (Lo). We used time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and principal component analysis to show that cholesterol is concentrated in the Lo phase, where it induces structural changes.

  3. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  4. A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Potency of lipid-lowering therapy and Race-gender Differences in LDL cholesterol control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Mark

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for race and gender differences in controlling elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol may be related to variations in prescribed lipid-lowering therapy. We examined the effect of lipid-lowering drug treatment and potency on time until LDL control for black and white women and men with a baseline elevated LDL. Methods We studied 3,484 older hypertensive patients with dyslipidemia in 6 primary care practices over a 4-year timeframe. Potency of lipid-lowering drugs calculated for each treated day and summed to assess total potency for at least 6 and up to 24 months. Cox models of time to LDL control within two years and logistic regression models of control within 6 months by race-gender adjust for: demographics, clinical, health care delivery, primary/specialty care, LDL measurement, and drug potency. Results Time to LDL control decreased as lipid-lowering drug potency increased (P Conclusions Black women and, to a lesser extent, black men and white women were less likely to achieve LDL control than white men after accounting for lipid-lowering drug potency as well as diverse patient and provider factors. Future work should focus on the contributions of medication adherence and response to treatment to these clinically important differences.

  5. Efficacy and safety of lowering dietary intake of fat and cholesterol in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). The Writing Group for the DISC Collaborative Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-10

    To assess the efficacy and safety of lowering dietary intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in children. Six-center randomized controlled clinical trial. Prepubertal boys (n = 362) and girls (n = 301) aged 8 to 10 years with LDL-C levels greater than or equal to the 80th and less than the 98th percentiles for age and sex were randomized into an intervention group (n = 334) and a usual care group (n = 329). Behavioral intervention to promote adherence to a diet providing 28% of energy from total fat, less than 8% from saturated fat, up to 9% from polyunsaturated fat, and less than 75 mg/4200 kJ (1000 kcal) per day of cholesterol (not to exceed 150 mg/d). The primary efficacy measure was the mean LDL-C level at 3 years. Primary safety measures were mean height and serum ferritin levels at 3 years. Secondary efficacy outcomes were mean LDL-C levels at 1 year and mean total cholesterol levels at 1 and 3 years. Secondary safety outcomes included red blood cell folate values; serum zinc, retinol, and albumin levels; serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, LDL-C:HDL-C ratio, and total triglyceride levels; sexual maturation; and psychosocial health. At 3 years, dietary total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (all P .05) or other safety outcomes. The dietary intervention achieved modest lowering of LDL-C levels over 3 years while maintaining adequate growth, iron stores, nutritional adequacy, and psychological well-being during the critical growth period of adolescence.

  6. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat to be added. Make pancakes or waffles. Puree fruits and veggies for baking You can replace ... For many recipes, use the specified amount of puree instead of oil. Check the mix's package or ...

  7. Differential Effects of Cod Proteins and Tuna Proteins on Serum and Liver Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed Non-Cholesterol- and Cholesterol-Containing Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Maeda, Hayato; Ikeda, Yuki; Toda, Yuko; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    Fish muscles are classified into white and red muscles, and the chemical composition of the two fish muscles have many differences. Few reports have assessed the health-promoting functions of white fish muscle proteins (WFP) and red fish muscle proteins (RFP). We therefore evaluated the mechanisms underlying the alteration of lipid profiles and cholesterol metabolism following the intake of WFP prepared from cod and RFP prepared from light muscles of tuna. Male Wistar rats were divided into six dietary groups: casein (23%), WFP (23%), and RFP (23%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Compared to the WFP-containing diet, the RFP-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol and sodium cholate significantly increased serum and liver cholesterol contents. However, in the RFP groups, an alteration in cholesterol metabolism including an increased tendency to excrete fecal sterols and hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase was related to the reduction of hepatic cholesterol contents. This phenomenon might be related to the tendency of an increased food intake in RFP-containing diets. These results highlight the differential effects of WFP and RFP on serum and liver lipid profiles of Wistar rats fed non-cholesterol- or cholesterol-containing diets under no fasting condition.

  8. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  9. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, W R; Gadski, R A; Bean, J S; Beavers, L S; Schmidt, R J; Perry, D N; Murphy, A T; McClure, D B; Eacho, P I; Breau, A P; Archer, R A; Kauffman, R F

    1999-04-01

    The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia.

  11. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  12. Effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Li-Tao; Zhong, Kui; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary hull-less barley β-glucan (HBG) on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters which were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The hamsters were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental diets, containing 5‰ HBG or 5‰ oat β-glucan (OG), for 30days. The HBG, as well as OG, lowered the concentration of plasma LDL-cholesterol significantly. The excretion of total lipids and cholesterol in feces were increased in HBG and OG groups compared with the control group. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in liver was reduced significantly in the HBG group compared with the control and OG groups. The activity of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in the liver, in the HBG and OG groups, was significantly increased compared with the control group. The concentrations of acetate, propionate and total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were not significantly different between the HBG and control groups. These results indicate that dietary HBG reduces the concentration of plasma LDL cholesterol by promoting the excretion of fecal lipids, and regulating the activities of HMG-CoA reductase and CYP7A1 in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Cholesterol on Dry Bilayers: Interactions between Phosphatidylcholine Unsaturation and Glycolipid or Free Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Antoaneta V.; Hincha, Dirk K.

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol and other sterols are important components of biological membranes and are known to strongly influence the physical characteristics of lipid bilayers. Although this has been studied extensively in fully hydrated membranes, little is known about the effects of cholesterol on the stability of membranes in the dry state. Here, we present a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study on the effects of cholesterol on the phase behavior of dry liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholines with different degrees of fatty acid unsaturation or of mixtures of phosphatidylcholine with a plant galactolipid. In addition, we have analyzed the H-bonding of cholesterol, galactose, and a combination of the two additives to the P=O and C=O groups in dry phosphatidylcholine bilayers. The data indicate a complex balance of interactions between the different components in the dry state and a strong influence of fatty acid unsaturation on the interactions of the diacyl lipids with both cholesterol and galactose. PMID:17526577

  14. Genetic variation at the SLCO1B1 gene locus and low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to determine whether genetic variation at genes affecting statin metabolism or targets of statin therapy would influence low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with pravastatin, baseline heart disease, or cardiac endpoints on trial. We examined associations of single nucleot...

  15. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n=27 consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d with the control group (n=29 receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  16. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  17. Effect of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor on some biochemical parameters in normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cholesterol acts as a precursor of testosterone and other steroids hormones, this study was conducted to evaluate if there is a counterproductive effect associated with inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway specially in high doses and the degree of these effects in normal male rats. Forty eight adult Wistar rats divided into four groups, the first is control while the remaining three groups were treated with simvastatin (cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 respectively. Serum samples were observed at the baseline then every fifteen days while tissue samples were observed at day 30 and 60. Results of statistic refered to a significant decrease (p≤ 0.05 in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (by 24 and 49% ± 3 respectively, also serum testosterone was significantly decreased (by 71% ± 2 in all groups compared to control after thirty and sixty days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was increased (57% ± 3 versus to aspartate aminotransferase. Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased (by 72% ± 2 while testicular cholesterol was decreased except the group of 100 mg.kg-1 which in turns to elevate (61% ± 4, in addition also there was a decrease in body weight gain percentage neither the weights of liver nor testis was affected. In conclusion, the inhibition of denovo pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis negatively affects testosterone level in addition to cholesterol concentration in the tissues, body weight gain and alanine aminotransferase with no successful compensatory mechanism as related with testosterone level.

  18. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

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    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  19. High cholesterol diet effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Annunzio, Verónica; Donato, Martín; Buchholz, Bruno; Pérez, Virginia; Miksztowicz, Verónica; Berg, Gabriela; Gelpi, Ricardo J

    2012-09-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of morbi-mortality in developed countries. Both ischemia-reperfusion injury and mechanisms of cardioprotection have been studied for more than 50 years. It is known that the physiopathological mechanism of myocardial ischemia involves several factors that are closely related to its development, of which hypercholesterolemia is one of the main ones. Therefore, the objective of this review was to elucidate the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on normal ventricular function and ischemia-reperfusion injury associated phenomenon such as post-ischemic ventricular dysfunction (stunned myocardium). Although there exist many studies considering several aspects of this physiopathological entity, the majority were carried out on normal animals. Thus, experiments carried out on hypercholesterolemic models are controversial, in particular those evaluating different mechanisms of cardioprotection such as ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning, and cardioprotection granted by drugs such as statins, which apart from exerting a lipid-lowering effect, exert pleiotropic effects providing cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. These controversial results concerning the mechanisms of cardioprotection vary according to quality, composition, and time of administration of the high-cholesterol diet, as well as the species used in each experiment. Thus, to compare the results it is necessary to take all of these variables into account, since they can change the obtained results.

  20. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  1. [Total cholesterol mediates the effect of ABO blood group on coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Li, Sha; Hu, Liangyan; Luo, SongHui; Li, JianJun; Jiang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    To find a potential link among ABO blood group, lipid profiles and coronary artery disease (CAD) and to estimate the effect size of connection using mediation analysis model. A total of 898 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled, and divided into CAD group and non-CAD group according to angiographic findings. According to ABO blood group, patients were divided into O blood group and non-O blood group, as well as A blood group and non-A blood group. Baseline characteristics among various groups were compared and the association of ABO blood group, CAD and lipid profile was explored. Subjects of blood type A had higher concentration of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with that of non-A type (TC: (4.43 ± 1.12) mmol/L vs. (4.18 ± 1.09) mmol/L, LDL-C: (2.79 ± 0.99) mmo/L vs. (2.59 ± 1.01) mmol/L, all P cholesterol (HDL-C) and ApoA I levels were significantly lower in CAD group than in non-CAD group (TC: (4.36 ± 1.05) mmol/L vs. (4.13 ± 1.16) mmol/L, LDL-C: (2.61 ± 0.87) mmol/L vs. (2.47 ± 0.94) mmol/L; ApoA I: (1.38 ± 0.29) mmol/L vs. (1.45 ± 0.33) mmol/L; all P risk factors, blood group A and TC remained significantly associated with the risk of CAD (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.280-2.774, P risk of CAD. Around 10.5% of the effect of A blood group on CAD is mediated by TC levels.

  2. Original Research: The Effects of Red Yeast Rice Supplementation on Cholesterol Levels in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Diane; Fong, Amy; Pelt, Amanda van

    2017-08-01

    : Purpose: Red yeast rice (RYR) supplementation has become a popular alternative to statin therapy in treating hypercholesterolemia. This state-of-the-science review seeks to explore the most recent evidence on the effectiveness and safety of RYR supplementation in treating dyslipidemic adults. This review extends the time frame of a meta-analysis performed by Li and colleagues in 2014; specifically, we looked at the literature published between September 2013 and April 2016. We conducted a search of four electronic databases-PsycINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus-using the terms red yeast rice and cholesterol. We excluded studies that included berberine or lovastatin. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Eleven articles reported on randomized controlled trials, one reported on an open-label pilot study, and one reported on an open-label clinical trial. Two articles were meta-analyses. The 13 studies involved a total of 1,246 participants, with an additional 7,467 participants reported in the two meta-analyses. Significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol levels with RYR supplementation were observed in all trials. There were no significant changes in liver and kidney function, and 10 studies noted no significant changes in creatine kinase levels. Although RYR appears to be a safe and effective lipid-lowering agent, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of RYR supplementation to patients. Further research is needed, including long-term studies, studies that include participants with comorbidities and complex medical histories, and studies that take into account the variability of formulation and dosage of RYR in the marketplace.

  3. BENEFITS "SAJOJO" AS EFFORTS THROUGH THE PROMOTION OF HEALTH EFFECTS OF BLOOD CHOLESTEROL

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    Hasmiati Hasmiati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this research study is to identify the benefit of the effects of aerobic training and Sajojo gymnastics performed once a week and three times a week towards the levels of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of HDL/LDL blood cholesterol. Methods: This is an experimental research study using the randomized control group pre-test post-test design. The samples of this research were 45 participants which were divided into 3 groups namely the control group, the treatment group with the intensity of once a week, and the treatment group with the intensity of 3 times a week. The treatment was conducted in 8 weeks. Before and after the treatment, the blood sample of the participants  were taken to observe the level of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of HDL/LDL cholesterol using the CHOD-PAP test in Tamalanrea laboratorium Ujung Pandang (Tamalanrea Laboratory Training Center, Ujung Pandang. The data were analyzed using t-tests and ANAVA with the level of significance of 5%, continued with SLD tests with the level of significance of 5%. Results: the results of this research showed that Sajojo gymnastics training in three times a week increased the levels of HDL-cholesterol more than the training done once a week (p < 0 05. Sajojo gymnastics training in three times a week decreases the levels of LDL-cholesterol more than the training done once a week (p < 0.05. Sajojo gymnastics training in three times a week decreased the levels of total cholesterol more than the training done once a week (p < 0.05. And Sajojo gymnastics training in three times a week increased the ratio of HDL/LDL-cholesterol more than the training done once a week (p < 0.05. Conclusion: From the results of this research, it can be concluded that aerobic training of Sajojo gymnastics was effective to maintain the balance levels of HDULDL cholesterol. So that are more effective to promote

  4. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  5. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Swee Keong Yeap; Boon Kee Beh; Joan Kong; Wan Yong Ho; Hamidah Mohd Yusof; Nurul Elyani Mohamad; Aminuddin bin Hussin; Indu Bala Jaganath; Noorjahan Banu Alitheen; Anisah Jamaluddin; Kamariah Long

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities w...

  6. Comparative effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) pectin and pectin hydrolyzates on the cholesterol homeostasis of hamsters fed high-cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Li, Tuo-Ping; Chen, Gang; Peng, Xue; Duan, Wen-Bin; Zheng, Zheng-Zheng; Shi, Shu-Lei; Xu, Jing-Guo; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Yi

    2015-08-05

    This study aims to compare the effects of feeding haw pectin (HP), haw pectin hydrolyzates (HPH), and haw pectin pentasaccharide (HPPS) on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters induced by high-cholesterol diets. The animals were fed a standard diet (SD), high-cholesterol diet (HCD), or HCD plus HP, HPH, or HPPS at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for 4weeks. Results showed that HPPS was more effective than HP and HPH in decreasing the body weight gain (by 38.2%), liver weight (by 16.4%), and plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC; by 23.6% and 27.3%, respectively) of hamsters. In addition, the bile acid levels in the feces were significantly higher by 39.8% and 132.8% in the HPH and HPPS groups than in the HCD group. Such changes were not noted in the HP group. However, the HP group had higher cholesterol excretion capacities than the HPH and HPPS groups by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the diet, with a 21.7% increase in TC excretion and a 31.1% decrease in TC absorption. Thus, HPPS could be a promising anti-atherogenic dietary ingredient for the development of functional food to improve cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of rat mammary tumorigenesis by dietary cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sohemy, A; Bruce, W R; Archer, M C

    1996-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol on mammary tumor development were examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals were administered 50 mg/kg MNU at 50 days of age and fed either a control (AIN-76) diet or the control diet supplemented with 0.3% cholesterol or 0.3% oxidized cholesterol for up to 26 weeks. The oxidized cholesterol was prepared by heating cholesterol at 110 degrees C for 48 h. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oxidized cholesterol revealed a 2% yield of oxidation products in addition to a large amount of unchanged cholesterol (> 96%). Tumor incidence in the cholesterol group (67%) was significantly lower than in the control group (96%, P < 0.05), but the oxidized cholesterol group (79%) was not significantly different from the control or cholesterol groups. Average number of tumors per animal was lower in the cholesterol group (1.5) than in the control (2.8) or oxidized cholesterol groups (2.3, P < 0.005). Serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was greater in the cholesterol (185 +/- 38 mg/dl) and the oxidized cholesterol groups (160 +/- 34 mg/dl) than in the controls (55 +/- 4 mg/dl, P < 0.05), although there was no difference between the cholesterol and the oxidized cholesterol groups. These results show that dietary cholesterol inhibits mammary tumor development in this model. Elevated serum LDL cholesterol may inhibit de novo cholesterol synthesis in preneoplastic and/or tumor cells, thereby inhibiting their proliferation.

  8. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  9. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; P?rez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Dom?nguez, Mayrel; Souza, Ver?nica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; G?mez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Guti?rrez-Ruiz, Mar?a-Concepci?n

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde,...

  10. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  11. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  12. [Research on the Fluorescence Enhancement Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-jing; Wu, Ying; Liu, Ying; Cai, Tina-dong; Sun, Song

    2016-01-01

    Based on traditional fluorescence spectroscopy and metal nanoparticles-enhanced fluorescence technology, this research explores a method of improving the accuracy and resolution of cholesterol detected by fluorescence spectroscopy in human whole blood solution. In experiment, an adult blood with silver nanoparticles is radiated by a laser pulse with wavelength of 407 nm, the fluorescence enhancement effect of cholesterol in blood is studied. The results show that, colloidal silver nanoparticles can enhance the fluorescence intensity of cholesterol in human blood with low concentration significantly. With the increase of the amount of silver colloids, the enhanced efficiency of fluorescence peaks at different positions increases first, and then decreases. However, the strongest enhanced efficiency of fluorescence peaks is different corresponding to different amount of silver colloids. According to the experimental results and the distribution of cholesterol molecules and silver nanoparticles in solution, molecular spatial distribution model is established by theoretical analyses, and the optimal distance for efficient fluorescence enhancement between cholesterol molecules and silver nanoparticles is calculated, the range is 12.19-25 nm, and the result is in good agreement with the theoretical values in other literatures. In summary, the fluorescence intensity of cholesterol in human blood can be enhanced by colloidal silver nanoparticles, and the results also provide a valuable reference on improving the sensitivity and accuracy of cholesterol detection.

  13. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  14. Simvastatin versus ezetimibe: pleiotropic and lipid-lowering effects on endothelial function in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landmesser, Ulf; Bahlmann, Ferdinand; Mueller, Maja; Spiekermann, Stephan; Kirchhoff, Nina; Schulz, Svenja; Manes, Costantina; Fischer, Dieter; de Groot, Kirsten; Fliser, Danilo; Fauler, Günter; März, Winfried; Drexler, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    .... We therefore tested the hypothesis that similar reductions in LDL cholesterol with simvastatin and ezetimibe, a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, result in different effects on endothelial function...

  15. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  16. HDL cholesterol as a predictor for the incidence of lower extremity amputation and wound-related death in patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikura, Kazuki; Hanai, Ko; Shinjyo, Takamichi; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether HDL cholesterol levels are a predictor for an incidence of lower-extremity amputation (LEA) and wound-related death in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This was a single-center, observational, longitudinal historical cohort study of 163 Japanese ambulatory patients with DFUs, 45 woman and 118 men, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 62 (14) years. The primary composite endpoint was defined as the worst of the following outcomes for each individual; (1) minor amputation, defined as amputation below the ankle, (2) major amputation, defined as amputation above the ankle, and (3) wound-related death. During the median follow-up period of 5.1 months, 67 patients (41.1%) reached the endpoint (43 minor amputations, 16 major amputations, and 8 wound-related deaths). In the univariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis, lower HDL cholesterol levels (mmol/L) were significantly associated with the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (hazard ratio 0.16 [95% CI 0.08-0.32], p procedure, HDL cholesterol levels in addition to the presence of ankle brachial index <0.9 or ≥1.4 and serum albumin levels were selected as independent risk factors for the incidence of the endpoint (hazard ratio 0.30 [95% CI 0.14-0.63], p = 0.002). Similar results were obtained when HDL cholesterol levels were treated as a categorical variable (≥1.03 mmol/L or less). HDL cholesterol levels might be a novel clinical predictor for the incidence of LEA and wound-related death in patients with DFUs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol: a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The results of the studies that have investigated the effects of black tea on blood cholesterol are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the effects of black tea on cholesterol concentrations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library (through to July 2014 were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to investigate the effect of black tea on blood cholesterol concentrations. The study quality was assessed by the Jadad scoring criteria. Pooled effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol concentrations was evaluated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate dose effects of black tea polyphenols on concentrations of blood cholesterol. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. RESULTS: The consumption of black tea did not significantly lower TC concentrations either in healthy subjects or patients with coronary artery diseases based on both fixed-effects and random-effects analysis. No significant change was observed in HDL-C concentrations in healthy participants or in subjects with coronary artery disease supplemented with black tea when compared with control participants. The pooled net change of LDL-C in healthy participants was -5.57 mg/dL (95% CI, -9.49 to -1.66 mg/dL; P = 0.005 in fixed-effects analysis and -4.56 (95% CI, -10.30 to 1.17 mg/dL; P = 0.12 in random-effects analysis. No significant net change was observed in LDL-C concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease. Subgroup and sensitivity did not significantly influence the overall outcomes of this meta-analysis. No significant dose effects of black tea polyphenols on blood cholesterol concentrations were detected in meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis suggests that the consumption of black tea might not have beneficial effects on concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and

  18. Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Blood Cholesterol: A Meta-Analysis of 15 Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Jiaxing; Lin, Rongkai

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of the studies that have investigated the effects of black tea on blood cholesterol are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to quantitatively assess the effects of black tea on cholesterol concentrations. Methods PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library (through to July 2014) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to investigate the effect of black tea on blood cholesterol concentrations. The study quality was assessed by the Jadad scoring criteria. Pooled effect of black tea consumption on blood cholesterol concentrations was evaluated by fixed-effects or random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate dose effects of black tea polyphenols on concentrations of blood cholesterol. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the potential source of heterogeneity. Results The consumption of black tea did not significantly lower TC concentrations either in healthy subjects or patients with coronary artery diseases based on both fixed-effects and random-effects analysis. No significant change was observed in HDL-C concentrations in healthy participants or in subjects with coronary artery disease supplemented with black tea when compared with control participants. The pooled net change of LDL-C in healthy participants was −5.57 mg/dL (95% CI, −9.49 to −1.66 mg/dL; P = 0.005) in fixed-effects analysis and −4.56 (95% CI, −10.30 to 1.17 mg/dL; P = 0.12) in random-effects analysis. No significant net change was observed in LDL-C concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease. Subgroup and sensitivity did not significantly influence the overall outcomes of this meta-analysis. No significant dose effects of black tea polyphenols on blood cholesterol concentrations were detected in meta-regression analyses. Conclusion The meta-analysis suggests that the consumption of black tea might not have beneficial effects on concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and LDL

  19. Effects of a Stanol-Enriched Yogurt on Plasma Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Furuncuoğlu, Yavuz; Başar, Melih; Alıcı, Süleyman; Şengül, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Plant stanols have been recommended in combination with individualized dietary interventions to reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations. Even though yogurt is consumed in high quantities in Turkey, it is unclear whether yogurts with plant stanols will reduce high cholesterol levels in a Turkish population. We designed this study to settle this issue. We investigated the effect of plant stanols in yogurt, combined with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD), in subjects with high lipid leve...

  20. Preliminary probiotic and technological characterization of Pediococcus pentosaceus strain KID7 and in vivo assessment of its cholesterol-lowering activity

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    Karthiyaini eDamodharan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to characterize the probiotic properties of a Pediococcus pentosaceus strain, KID7, by in vitro and in vivo studies. The strain possessed tolerance to oro-gastrointestinal transit, adherence to the Caco-2 cell line, and antimicrobial activity. KID7 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity and cholesterol-lowering activity, in vitro. In vivo cholesterol-lowering activity of KID7 was studied using atherogenic diet-fed hypercholesterolemic mice. The experimental animals (C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups viz., normal diet-fed group (NCD, atherogenic diet-fed group (HCD, atherogenic diet- and KID7-fed group (HCD-KID7, and atherogenic diet- and Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121-fed group (HCD-L.ac as positive control. Serum total cholesterol (T-CHO level was significantly decreased by 19.8% in the HCD-KID7 group (P<0.05, but not in the HCD-L.ac group compared with the HCD group. LDL cholesterol levels in both HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups were decreased by 35.5% and 38.7%, respectively, compared with HCD group (both, P<0.05. Glutamyl pyruvic transaminase (GPT level was significantly lower in the HCD-KID7 and HCD-L.ac groups compared to HCD group and was equivalent to that of the NCD group. Liver T-CHO levels in the HCD-KID7 group were reduced significantly compared with the HCD group (P<0.05 but not in the HCD-L.ac group. Analysis of expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in liver showed that low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE mRNA expression was significantly increase in the HCD-KID7 group compared to the HCD group. Furthermore, KID7 exhibited desired viability under freeze-drying and subsequent storage conditions with a combination of skim milk and galactomannan. P. pentosaceus KID7 could be a potential probiotic strain, which can be used to develop cholesterol-lowering functional food after appropriate human clinical trials.

  1. Effect of dietary vitamin E content on the CLA, cholesterol and triglycerides composition of Italian Mediterranean buffalo meat

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    R. Sacchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids, CLA, triglycerides and cholesterol in intramuscular fat depots of buffalo meat was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography to investigate the influence of dietary vitamin E content. Three groups of Italian Mediterranean buffalo calves were fed on three diets with high (H, low (L and zero (Z vitamin E contents. The animal were slaughtered at 15 months and three muscles were dissected on the half-carcass: Longissimus dorsi (LD, Tricipitis brachii (TB and Semimembranosus (Sm. Lipid extracts from muscles (g/100g f.m.: 0.82 for LD, 0.66 for TB and 0.48 for Sm were used to quantify the amount (mg/100g of lipids of fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and cholesterol. The effects of dietary vitamin E content were significant (P<0.05 but marginal. Comparison of lipid extracts from muscles showed that C18:2 and total CLA were higher respectively in TB and Sm muscles when vitamin content was low. Also Cholesterol content variation was affected by low dietary vitamin E: LD muscle has a lower cholesterol concentration for diet L. The different vitamin content of two diets did not significantly influence the composition of triglycerides. Considering the low lipid concentrations (<1g/100 g of fresh muscle none of the meat muscles should be considered a significant source of CLA.

  2. Experimental support for the effects of a probiotic/digestive enzyme supplement on serum cholesterol concentrations and the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichim, Thomas E; Patel, Amit N; Shafer, Kim A

    2016-06-22

    Elevated levels of blood cholesterol are associated with cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current therapies for addressing elevated blood cholesterol can be inadequate, ineffective or associated with side effects; therefore, the search for additional therapies is ongoing. This study evaluated Daily Body Restore (DBR), a proprietary blend of 9 probiotic organisms of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and 10 digestive enzymes, for its effects on cholesterol metabolism using an in vitro system and a mouse model. We used a murine model of hypercholesterolemia induced by a high fat diet to evaluate the effects of DBR on blood cholesterol concentrations. Hypercholesterolemic mice were supplemented with DBR in their drinking water for 8 weeks and compared to control mice given low fat diets or unsupplemented high fat diets. To evaluate the effects of DBR on the activity of gut microbiota in vitro, the Shime(®) system consisting of sequential colon reactors was supplemented with DBR for analysis of short chain fatty acid production. Analysis of hypercholesterolemic mice after 4 and 8 weeks of DBR supplementation revealed significant decreases in blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) while triglyceride concentrations were unaltered. Specifically, after 4 weeks of DBR supplementation, there was a 47 % decrease in LDL and a 32 % increase in HDL in peripheral blood compared to unsupplemented, high fat diet-fed mice. After 8 weeks of DBR treatment, LDL concentrations were dramatically reduced by 78 % and HDL was increased by 52 % relative to control mice. Addition of DBR to the Shime(®) system led to significantly increased production of propionate in colon reactors, indicative of microbial production of short chain fatty acids known to inhibit cholesterol synthesis. DBR, a probiotic and digestive enzyme supplement, lowered harmful LDL and increased

  3. Cholesterol reduction using psyllium husks - do gastrointestinal adverse effects limit compliance? Results of a specific observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehleke, B; Ortiz, M; Stange, R

    2008-03-01

    Despite known cholesterol lowering effects the use of psyllium husk (Plantaginis ovatae testa) in Germany for hypercholesterolemia is limited compared to their use as a laxative. To investigate whether use in hypercholesterolemia is limited due to adverse effects on the gastrointestinal system, a prospective observational study was conducted. Sixty-two outpatients with documented hypercholesterolemia and complaints of constipation were identified from an academic clinical center. Treatment with 3.5g psyllium husk preparation administered three times daily was initiated and patients were monitored at weekly intervals. Gastrointestinal symptoms were quantified using a validated Nepean Dyspepsia Index modified to identify both upper and lower abdominal symptoms. Diaries and study medication records were used to evaluate compliance. Fifty-four of 62 patients enrolled in the study completed the study protocol with 4 subjects discontinuing due to adverse reactions associated with psyllium husks. Total cholesterol was significantly decreased from 252+/-39mg/dl before treatment to 239+/-37mg/dl after 3 weeks of treatment. Similarly, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased from 174+/-34 to 162+/-31mg/dl during the study. Triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were unchanged. Gastrointestinal symptoms were rated lower at the end than at the beginning of the study. In week 1 most of the patients reported gastrointestinal symptoms and also gastrointestinal adverse reactions, which however, showed a decrease from week 1 to weeks 2 and 3 in the diaries. Patient response to study medication was positive for patients completing the study. Psyllium husk preparations may be a therapeutic option for patients with mild to moderately elevated cholesterol levels. Adverse gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the preparation appear to be transient in some of the patients. Compliance may be optimized with adequate patient counseling.

  4. The effects of apolipoprotein F deficiency on high density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in mice.

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    William R Lagor

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein F (apoF is 29 kilodalton secreted sialoglycoprotein that resides on the HDL and LDL fractions of human plasma. Human ApoF is also known as Lipid Transfer Inhibitor protein (LTIP based on its ability to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-mediated transfer events between lipoproteins. In contrast to other apolipoproteins, ApoF is predicted to lack strong amphipathic alpha helices and its true physiological function remains unknown. We previously showed that overexpression of Apolipoprotein F in mice reduced HDL cholesterol levels by 20-25% by accelerating clearance from the circulation. In order to investigate the effect of physiological levels of ApoF expression on HDL cholesterol metabolism, we generated ApoF deficient mice. Unexpectedly, deletion of ApoF had no substantial impact on plasma lipid concentrations, HDL size, lipid or protein composition. Sex-specific differences were observed in hepatic cholesterol content as well as serum cholesterol efflux capacity. Female ApoF KO mice had increased liver cholesteryl ester content relative to wild type controls on a chow diet (KO: 3.4+/-0.9 mg/dl vs. WT: 1.2+/-0.3 mg/dl, p<0.05. No differences were observed in ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in either sex. Interestingly, ApoB-depleted serum from male KO mice was less effective at promoting ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages relative to WT controls.

  5. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 Whether you’ve just ... Quiz This content was last reviewed April 2017. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  6. The cholesterol-lowering agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin promotes glucose uptake via GLUT4 in adult muscle fibers and reduces insulin resistance in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Georgiev, Tihomir; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hidalgo, Jorge; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2015-02-15

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adult skeletal muscle by promoting the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the transverse tubule (T-tubule) membranes, which have particularly high cholesterol levels. We investigated whether T-tubule cholesterol content affects insulin-induced glucose transport. Feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk increased by 30% the T-tubule cholesterol content of triad-enriched vesicular fractions from muscle tissue compared with triads from control mice. Additionally, isolated muscle fibers (flexor digitorum brevis) from HFD-fed mice showed a 40% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rates compared with fibers from control mice. In HFD-fed mice, four subcutaneous injections of MβCD, an agent reported to extract membrane cholesterol, improved their defective glucose tolerance test and normalized their high fasting glucose levels. The preincubation of isolated muscle fibers with relatively low concentrations of MβCD increased both basal and insulin-induced glucose uptake in fibers from controls or HFD-fed mice and decreased Akt phosphorylation without altering AMPK-mediated signaling. In fibers from HFD-fed mice, MβCD improved insulin sensitivity even after Akt or CaMK II inhibition and increased membrane GLUT4 content. Indinavir, a GLUT4 antagonist, prevented the stimulatory effects of MβCD on glucose uptake. Addition of MβCD elicited ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium signals in isolated fibers, which were essential for glucose uptake. Our findings suggest that T-tubule cholesterol content exerts a critical regulatory role on insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport and that partial cholesterol removal from muscle fibers may represent a useful strategy to counteract insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in ovariectomized rats fed with a cholesterol-free diet was mediated by inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Fang, Guoshan; Zheng, Longhui; Chen, Zhongdao; Liu, Xiong

    2013-04-30

    Previous studies showed that capsaicinoid supplementation favorably modifies the plasma lipoprotein profile. The present study investigated the effect of capsaicinoids on plasma lipids and gene expressions of key receptors and enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were fed with a cholesterol-free diet and orally administered 0 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-CON), 5 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-LD), 10 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-MD), and 15 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-HD) capsaicinoids daily for 28 days. As the capsaicinoids dose increased, body weight gain and concentrations of plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as total lipid accumulation were significantly decreased. In addition, the mRNA levels of hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase were down-regulated, whereas those of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1, ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, and intestinal bile acid binding protein were up-regulated. The excretion of small intestinal bile acid contents and fecal bile acid also decreased. These results suggest that capsaicinoids can prevent ovarian hormone deficiency-induced hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  8. The effects of amoxicillin and vancomycin on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; Reijnders, D; Konings, M C J M; Groen, A K; Lütjohann, D; Goossens, G H; Blaak, E E; Plat, J

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in which 55 obese, pre-diabetic men received oral amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (antibiotic directed against Gram-positive bacteria) or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) capsules for 7days (1500mg/day). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein, non-cholesterol sterol, bile acid and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations were determined at baseline and after 1-week intervention. Plasma secondary bile acids correlated negatively with cholestanol (marker for cholesterol absorption, r=-0.367; Pcholesterol synthesis, r=0.430; Pcholesterol metabolism, plasma TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C concentrations as compared to placebo. In addition, both antibiotic treatments did not affect individual isoforms or total plasma oxyphytosterol or oxycholesterol concentrations. Despite strong correlations between plasma bile acid concentrations and cholesterol metabolism (synthesis and absorption), amoxicillin and vancomycin treatment for 7days did not affect plasma lipid and lipoprotein, plasma non-cholesterol sterol and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations in obese, pre-diabetic men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

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    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  10. Effects of cholesterol depletion on membrane nanostructure in MCF-7 cells by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhua; Jiang, Ningcheng; Shi, Aisi; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen

    2017-02-01

    The cell membrane is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins that are dynamic and heterogeneous distributed in the bilayer structure and many researches have showed that the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells contains microdomains termed "lipid raft" in which cholesterol, sphingolipids and specific membrane proteins are enriched. Cholesterol extraction induced lipid raft disruption is one of the most widely used methods for lipid raft research and MβCD is a type of solvent to extract the cholesterol from cell membranes. In this study, the effect of MβCD treatment on the membrane nanostructure in MCF-7 living cells was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Different concentrations of MβCD were selected to deplete cholesterol for 30 min and the viability of cells was tested by MTT assay to obtain the optimal concentration. Then the nanostructure of the cell membrane was detected. The results show that an appropriate concentration of MβCD can induce the alteration of cell membranes nanostructure and the roughness of membrane surface decreases significantly. This may indicate that microdomains of the cell membrane disappear and the cell membrane appears more smoothly. Cholesterol can affect nanostructure and inhomogeneity of the plasma membrane in living cells.

  11. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

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    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  12. Effect of phytosterols and their oxidation products on lipoprotein profiles and vascular function in hamster fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin Tong; Wong, Wing Tak; Guan, Lei; Tian, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Human diets contain phytosterols and their oxidation products. We investigated effect of β-sitosterol (Si), stigmasterol (St), β-sitosterol oxidation products (SiOP) and stigmasterol oxidation products (StOP) on plasma total cholesterol and their interaction with the gene expression of enzymes, proteins and transporters involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism. Sixty male hamsters were fed the control diet or one of four experimental diets containing 0.1% Si, 0.1% SiOP, 0.1% St and 0.1% StOP, respectively, for six weeks. SiOP and StOP groups had the relative liver weights greater than their corresponding non-oxidized forms, indicating they were possibly toxic. Results showed both Si and St groups reduced while SiOP and StOP hamsters lost the capacity of lowering plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG) compared with the control group. Si and St but not SiOP and StOP were anti-atherosclerotic. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated Si and St but not SiOP and StOP down-regulated mRNA levels of intestinal acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2) and microsomal triglyceride protein (MTP). Aortas from Si and St hamsters relaxed better than those from the control and their corresponding SiOP and StOP-treated hamsters. It was concluded that Si and St not SiOP and StOP were beneficial in improving lipoprotein profile and aortic function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECTS OF Citrus hystryx AS FAT PROTECTOR ON UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS, CHOLESTEROL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LAMB MEAT

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    N.C. Tiven

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of Citrus hystrix as fat protector on unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and chemical composition of lamb meat. The research design applied was completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replications. Fifteen local male lambs aged 9-12 months weighing 14-17 kg, were divided into 3 groups of different diet treatments (P0 : sheeps were only given a basal diet; P1 : sheeps are given basal diet and 3% cooking oil; P2 : sheeps are given basal diet, 3% cooking oil and protected by 3% Citrus hystrix powder. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, the differences among treatments were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. The results showed meat from sheeps that consume P2 diet has a total fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids content were higher (P<0.01, with lower cholesterol content (P<0.01 than of P0, and has a protein and fat content were higher (P <0.01, but a lower water content (P<0.01 than that of PO. It can be concluded that the use of Citrus hystrix powder as fat protector can increase content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein and fat, but decrease cholesterol content.

  14. Effects of plasma membrane cholesterol level and cytoskeleton F-actin on cell protrusion mechanics.

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    Nima Khatibzadeh

    Full Text Available Protrusions are deformations that form at the surface of living cells during biological activities such as cell migration. Using combined optical tweezers and fluorescent microscopy, we quantified the mechanical properties of protrusions in adherent human embryonic kidney cells in response to application of an external force at the cell surface. The mechanical properties of protrusions were analyzed by obtaining the associated force-length plots during protrusion formation, and force relaxation at constant length. Protrusion mechanics were interpretable by a standard linear solid (Kelvin model, consisting of two stiffness parameters, k0 and k1 (with k0>k1, and a viscous coefficient. While both stiffness parameters contribute to the time-dependant mechanical behavior of the protrusions, k0 and k1 in particular dominated the early and late stages of the protrusion formation and elongation process, respectively. Lowering the membrane cholesterol content by 25% increased the k0 stiffness by 74%, and shortened the protrusion length by almost half. Enhancement of membrane cholesterol content by nearly two-fold increased the protrusion length by 30%, and decreased the k0 stiffness by nearly two-and-half-fold as compared with control cells. Cytoskeleton integrity was found to make a major contribution to protrusion mechanics as evidenced by the effects of F-actin disruption on the resulting mechanical parameters. Viscoelastic behavior of protrusions was further characterized by hysteresis and force relaxation after formation. The results of this study elucidate the coordination of plasma membrane composition and cytoskeleton during protrusion formation.

  15. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma

  16. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

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    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  17. Effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle of the toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    2001-07-01

    1. Single mechanically skinned fibres and intact bundles of fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the effects of membrane cholesterol manipulation on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The cholesterol content of membranes was manipulated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD). 2. In mechanically skinned fibres, depletion of membrane cholesterol with MbetaCD caused a dose- and time-dependent decrease in transverse tubular (t)-system depolarization-induced force responses (TSDIFRs). TSDIFRs were completely abolished within 2 min in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD but were not affected after 2 min in the presence of a 10 mM MbetaCD-1 mM cholesterol complex. There was a very steep dependence between the change in TSDIFRs and the MbetaCD : cholesterol ratio at 10 mM MbetaCD, indicating that the inhibitory effect of MbetaCD was due to membrane cholesterol depletion and not to a pharmacological effect of the agent. Tetanic responses in bundles of intact fibres were abolished after 3-4 h in the presence of 10 mM MbetaCD. 3. The duration of TSDIFRs increased markedly soon (laser scanning microscopy revealed that the integrity of the t-system was not compromised by either intra- or extracellular application of 10 mM MbetaCD and that a large [Ca(2+)] gradient was maintained across the t-system. 5. Membrane cholesterol depletion caused rapid depolarization of the polarized t-system as shown independently by spontaneous TSDIFRs induced by MbetaCD and by changes in the fluorescence intensity of an anionic potentiometric dye (DiBAC(4)(3)) in the presence of MbetaCD. This rapid depolarization of the t-system by cholesterol depletion was not prevented by blocking the Na(+) channels with TTX (10 microM) or the L-type Ca(2+) channels with Co(2+) (5 mM). 6. The results demonstrate that cholesterol is important for maintaining the functional integrity of the t-system and sarcoplasmic reticulum, probably by having specific

  18. The effects of cholesterol on the viability and fertility of bull spermatozoa

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    Polmer Situmorang

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cholesterol on the viability and fertility of chilled and deep-frozen bull spermatozoa. Semen was collected by means of artificial vagina, diluted in Tris-Citrat diluent and cooled to 50C for 60 minutes. Following an equiliberation for 4 hours, semen was frozen at 5 cm above surface of liquid nitrogen for 10 minutes. The experiment was 2 x 3 factorial designed with two level of egg yolk (10 and 20% v/v and 3 level of cholesterol (0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml. The viability of spermatozoa was evaluated after the temperature reduced to 50C, stored at 50C for 1, 3 and 7 days and after thawing. For fertility test, cows were artificially inseminated (AI using chilled and frozen semen on the onset or 6 hours of oestrus. Rectal palpation was conducted 3 months after AI to determine the pregnancy. The percentages motile of chilled semen was higher in 0.5 mg/ml than those of 0.0 or 1.0 mg/ml cholesterol but this difference was not significant. After thawing, the effects of cholesterol on the percentage motile was significant (P<0.05. The mean percentage motile was 47.5; 51,5 and 56.0 for 0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml cholesterol respectively. The percentage of live sperm and intact apical ridge was higher in cholesterol however this effects was not significant. The effects level of egg yolk and its interaction with cholesterol on the viability was not significant. The percentage of pregnant was higher in 1.0 mg/ml and the mean percentage of pregnant was 45.8; 48.2 and 55.7 for 0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml cholesterol respectively. Percentage of pregnant was higher for chilled semen than those of frozen semen (54.3 vs 45.5. In conclusion the addition of 1 mg/ml cholesterol increase the percentage of motile after thawing and pregnancy of cows inseminated with chilled and frozen semen.

  19. Extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in 92,348 Danes without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes in 2004-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We estimated the extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in individuals in the Danish general population without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes. METHODS: We examined 92,348 such individuals ag...... without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes are not treated to LDL cholesterol goals according to European guidelines. Conversely, ∼1600 per million received cholesterol-lowering therapy without endorsement in European guidelines.......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We estimated the extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in individuals in the Danish general population without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes. METHODS: We examined 92,348 such individuals aged...... guidelines recommend cholesterol-lowering therapy definitely at ≥10% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥1.8 mmol/L, definitely at 5-9% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥2.5 mmol/L, possibly at 1-4% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L, but not at

  20. Population Effect of Differences in Cholesterol Guidelines in Eastern Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jerry C; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Pencina, Michael J; Wyszomirski, Adam; Lachacz, Mateusz; Opolski, Grzegorz; Bandosz, Piotr; Rutkowski, Marcin; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan; Navar, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for the management of blood cholesterol and the current European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines differ in how they identify adults in need of statin therapy; furthermore, it is unclear how this difference translates into numbers and characteristics of patients recommended for treatment. To determine the effect of the ACC/AHA and ESC/EAS cholesterol guidelines when applied to a population-based sample. We used nationally representative data for 3055 adults aged 40 to 65 years from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for the United States and for 1060 adults aged 40 to 65 years from the 2011 Nadciśnięnie Tętnicze w Polsce survey for Poland. Data analysis was conducted from May 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. The number and characteristics of adults recommended for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA and ESC/EAS guidelines were evaluated, and characteristics were compared between adults with discordant recommendations. The 3136 US adults in NHANES (2007-2012) aged 40 to 65 years represented 100.1 million adults; after excluding the 81 patients with missing data, these population estimates translate to 97.9 million adults. Similarly, the 1060 Polish adults in NATPOL (2011) aged 40 to 65 years represent 13.5 million adults. Using weighted data, in the United States, 43.8% (95% CI, 40.9%-46.7%) of adults would be recommended for statin therapy according to ACC/AHA guidelines and 39.1% (95% CI, 36.4%-41.8%) according to ESC/EAS guidelines. In Poland, 49.9% (95% CI, 46.9%-52.9%) of adults would be recommended for statin therapy under ACC/AHA guidelines compared with 47.6% (95% CI, 44.6%-50.7%) under ESC/EAS guidelines. Among individuals without cardiovascular disease and not currently taking statins, 11.0% of US and 10.5% of Polish adults had discordant guideline recommendations. Compared with individuals

  1. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelrich, B; Dewell, A; Gardner, C D

    2013-04-01

    The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. This was a secondary analysis from a double-blind, parallel design, placebo controlled trial with 42 adults that experienced significant TG lowering and modest increases in total LDL-C concentrations after 12 weeks of 4 g/d EPA + DHA. Reduction in serum TG concentrations (mean ± SEM) was -26 ± 4% (-0.81 ± 10.12 mmol/L), p adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of Dietary Flavonoids on Reverse Cholesterol Transport, HDL Metabolism, and HDL Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Courtney L; Duclos, Quinn; Blesso, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Strong experimental evidence confirms that HDL directly alleviates atherosclerosis. HDL particles display diverse atheroprotective functions in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic processes. In certain inflammatory disease states, however, HDL particles may become dysfunctional and proatherogenic. Flavonoids show the potential to improve HDL function through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the basic science and clinical research examining the effects of dietary flavonoids on RCT and HDL function. Based on preclinical studies that used cell culture and rodent models, it appears that many flavonoids (e.g., anthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavone subclasses) influence RCT and HDL function beyond simple HDL cholesterol concentration by regulating cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages and hepatic paraoxonase 1 expression and activity. In clinical studies, dietary anthocyanin intake is associated with beneficial changes in serum biomarkers related to HDL function in a variety of human populations (e.g., in those who are hyperlipidemic, hypertensive, or diabetic), including increased HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as HDL antioxidant and cholesterol efflux capacities. However, clinical research on HDL functionality is lacking for some flavonoid subclasses (e.g., flavanols, flavones, flavanones, and isoflavones). Although there has been a tremendous effort to develop HDL-targeted drug therapies, more research is warranted on how the intake of foods or specific nutrients affects HDL function. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Inhibitory effect of PCSK9 on Abca1 protein expression and cholesterol efflux in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorni, Maria Pia; Cipollari, Eleonora; Favari, Elda; Zanotti, Ilaria; Zimetti, Francesca; Corsini, Alberto; Ricci, Chiara; Bernini, Franco; Ferri, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) may have extra-hepatic effects on cholesterol homeostasis of vascular macrophages. In this study, we aimed to investigate PCSK9 role on the anti-atherogenic process of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (Abca1)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Abca1-mediated cholesterol efflux was evaluated by a radioisotopic technique in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from wild-type (WT) or LDL receptor knock-out (Ldlr(-/-)) mice exposed to human recombinant PCSK9, in the presence of liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) ligands or acetylated LDL (AcLDL) to stimulate Abca1 expression. Protein and gene expression was evaluated by Western blot and quantitative real time PCR, respectively. PCSK9 inhibited Abca1-mediated cholesterol efflux induced by LXR/RXR agonists in WT MPM (-55%, p cholesterol efflux through a downregulation of Abca1 gene and Abca1 protein expression. This extrahepatic effect may influence relevant steps in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, such as foam cell formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Il Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosislinked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index.

  5. Dual Effects of Lactobacilli as a Cholesterol Assimilator and an Inhibitor ofGastrointestinal Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Emami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microbial supplements which can improve the healthy intestinal microbial balance. Lactobacilli are a group of lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB that are known as natural probiotics found in the dairy products. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to detect the most potent Lactobacillus isolates of the Fars province local dairy products in cholesterol removal and investigate their antibacterial properties against some gastrointestinal pathogens. Materials and Methods: Fifteen locally produced yogurt samples of the Fars province were collected and characterized with routine microbiology methods. Cholesterol removal ability of the Lactobacilli isolates were determined, and their growth inhibitory effect on some standard pathogenic strains pathogen was evaluated using the well-diffusion method. Results: In this study, five common strains of Lactobacilli including L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. lactis, and L. bulgaricus were identified in the samples obtained from the locally produced yogurt in the Fars province. L. lactis and L. acidophilus were determined as the two most active strains with the maximum rate of cholesterol assimilation (5.6 and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively in the process of cholesterol removal. In the antibacterial activity assay, the two mentioned strains had significant inhibitory effect on all of the tested bacteria except for B. subtilis. Conclusions: Cholesterol removal ability had a direct relation with bacterial growth, so it is suggested to use the probiotic bacteria in the growth phase to achieve better results.

  6. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yim, Joo Hyuk; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lim, Seong-Il; Kim, Young-Chan

    2010-01-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis-linked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index. PMID:20162002

  7. Effects of defibrotide on aorta and brain malondialdehyde and antioxidants in cholesterol-induced atherosclerotic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, E O; Duman, C; Celik, H A; Turgan, N; Uysal, A; Mutaf, I; Habif, S; Ozmen, D; Nişli, N; Bayindir, O

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a high-cholesterol diet in the presence and absence of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide compound, on the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, endogenous antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the antioxidant thiol compound GSH were investigated. Forty male New Zeland white rabbits were divided into four groups each consisting of 10 rabbits. Group I received a regular rabbit chow diet and group II 1% cholesterol plus regular chow, group III was given defibrotide (60 mg/kg per day p.o. in water) and was fed with regular chow, and group IV received defibrotide plus 1% cholesterol for 9 weeks. Blood cholesterol and malondialdehyde, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and GSH were determined before starting the experimental diet regimen (basal). After 9 weeks, the same parameters were determined in blood, aorta, and brain tissues (end -experiment). Aortic tissue was examined under a light microscope for morphological alterations indicative of atherosclerosis. The increase in serum total cholesterol was greater in group II than group IV. Plasma malondialdehyde in group II was higher than in group III. Brain malondialdehyde in group II was higher than all other groups, and aortic malondialdehyde in this group was higher than group I and III. Serum catalase activity decreased in group II and increased in group III, compared with basal values. Brain catalase activity in group I was higher than group II, and aorta catalase in group IV was higher than in group I and III. Blood glutathione peroxidase activity in group III and IV was higher than basal. GSH concentrations decreased significantly in the cholesterol-fed groups (group II and IV). Histological alterations in the cholesterol-fed groups were more pronounced in group II. The increased levels of malondialdehyde in plasma, aorta, and brain tissue of group II suggest a role of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The

  8. Effects of age at menopause on serum cholesterol, body mass index, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, M; Soda, M; Nakashima, E; Tsuruta, M; Ichimaru, S; Seto, S; Yano, K

    2001-05-01

    Pre- and postmenopausal cholesterol (mg/dl), body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), and systolic blood pressure (SBP; mmHg) levels were compared in three age-at-time-of-menopause (ATM) groups to examine the relationship between the three risk factors and age ATM. Cholesterol, BMI, and SBP levels recorded 4 years prior to and 8 years after menopause were examined and increases in these risk factors between the two measurements were noted. The three age groups were: group A (n=49; age ATM [44+/-1]50), and group C (n=578; age ATM [52+/-2]> or =50). Cholesterol levels in premenopausal groups A (169+/-31 mg/dl, 40 years) and B (174+/-31, 44 years) were lower than those in group C (179+/-30, 48 years) (0.05cholesterol were greater in group A (41+/-28 mg/dl) than in groups B (32+/-28) and C (29+/-28) (0.05cholesterol levels were identical among groups despite age differences upon reaching the postmenopause phase: group A (210+/-34, 51 years), group B (206+/-35, 56 years) and group C (208+/-35, 60 years). BMI and SBP increases were not different in groups A, B, and C. Differences in BMI and SBP levels among groups in order of premenopausal age were still observed after menopause. These data suggest that the greater increase in cholesterol associated with early menopause may be related to a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in younger menopausal women.

  9. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  10. Effects of different cooking methods of oatmeal on preventing the diet-induced increase of cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yandong; Qiu, Ju; Ren, Changzhong; Li, Zaigui

    2015-10-24

    The aim of present study is to investigate the influences of brewing and boiling on hypocholesterolemic effect of oatmeal in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each with similar mean body weights and serum cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed with the experimental diets containing 10% of oatmeal from two Chinese oat varieties which were brewed or boiled for 30 days. The lipids levels in serum, liver, and faeces were determined. The effects of feeding boiled oatmeal on lowering lipid concentrations in plasma and liver were more significant than that of brewed oatmeal (P oatmeal was also more efficient in increasing fecal total lipids, cholesterol and bile acids as compared to feeding brewed oatmeal (P oatmeal had higher apparent viscosity and soluble β-glucan content than the brewed oatmeal did (P oatmeal in improving cholesterol metabolism is better than that of brewed oatmeal, which is mainly attributed to its higher soluble β-glucan content and apparent viscosity.

  11. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  12. Effect of Melatonin and Cholesterol on the Structure of DOPC and DPPC Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolle, E [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Hoopes, M I [University of Waterloo, Canada; Choi, Y [University of Waterloo, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Karttunen, M [University of Waterloo, Canada; Leonenko, Z [University of Waterloo, Canada

    2013-01-01

    The cell membrane plays an important role in the molecular mechanism of amyloid toxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. The membrane's chemical composition and the incorporation of small molecules, such as melatonin and cholesterol, can alter its structure and physical properties, thereby affecting its interaction with amyloid peptides. Both melatonin and cholesterol have been recently linked to amyloid toxicity. Melatonin has been shown to have a protective role against amyloid toxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this protection is still not well understood, and cholesterol's role remains controversial. We used small-angle neutron diffraction (SAND) from oriented lipid multi-layers, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from unilamellar vesicles experiments andMolecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to elucidate non-specific interactions of melatonin and cholesterol with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-snglycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) model membranes. We conclude that melatonin decreases the thickness of both model membranes by disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains, thus increasing membrane fluidity. This result is in stark contrast to the much accepted ordering effect induced by cholesterol, which causes membranes to thicken.

  13. Cholesterol Effect on Survival and Development of Larval Mud Crab Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD AGUS SUPRAYUDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on the survival and development of larval mud crab Scylla serrata were examined by feeding larvae with Artemia enriched with different level of cholesterol. Artemia enriched with four stated levels of cholesterol i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 20 ul/l (Chol 0, 5, 10, and 20. All treatments were mixed with DHA70G at 25 ul/l. All the oil was adjusted to 100 ul/l by adding the oleic acid. Survival rate, intermolt period, and carapace width at the fisrt crab stage of mud crab larvae fed Chol 0, 5, and 10 were higher compared to that of Chol 20 (P < 0.05. We suggest that free sterol contained in Artemia at 1.37% was harmful to the growth performance of mud crab larvae. This study suggests that mud crab larvae required at least 0.61% cholesterol for maintaining good survival and development and therefore no need to enrich Artemia by cholesterol for the practical purpose.

  14. Effect of distal enterectomy on cholesterol and bile salt levels in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C M; Bolufer, J; Murillo, M L

    1986-09-01

    The effect of 50% or 80% distal enteroctomy on cholesterol and bile salt levels in male Wistar rats have been investigated. Short time measurements showed that serum cholesterol levels were maximal after 20 days from 50% intestinal resection and after 10 days from 80% intestinal resection. This increase was maintained in 50% resected rats 1 and 5 months after operation, whilts in 80% resected group the values became normal. Portal blood and bile cholesterol levels remain almost normal except 5 months after 50% intestinal resection. Bile salt concentration and bile salt output in the bile decrease after 1 and 5 months from 50% intestinal resection and after 1 month from 80% intestinal resection. These results together with data of fecal loss of bile salts indicate that in 50% resected rats new steady states have been reached, with low levels of bile salts in the bile. One month after 80% resection the fecal loss of bile salts was so high that the conversion of cholesterol into bile salts was increased. After 5 months from 80% resection values in serum and bile were almost normal suggesting either an increase in extrahepatic cholesterol synthesis or a partial prevention of fecal loss that can be explained by the observed caecal enlargement.

  15. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  16. Cholesterol metabolism and body composition in women: the effects of moderate weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, S; Demonty, I; Lichtenstein, A H; Jones, P J H

    2007-06-01

    To determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirty-five otherwise healthy, hypercholesterolemic women completed a 24-week weight loss study. A 20% decrease in energy intake through diet and a 10% increase in energy expenditure by exercise were combined with motivational strategies to encourage weight loss. The diet was self-selected and comprised of 50-60% carbohydrates, 20% protein and dyslipidemia.

  17. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufingerl, Nicole; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Trautwein, Elke A

    2013-06-01

    Evidence from clinical studies has suggested that cocoa may increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. However, it is unclear whether this effect is attributable to flavonoids or theobromine, both of which are major cocoa components. We investigated whether pure theobromine increases serum HDL cholesterol and whether there is an interaction effect between theobromine and cocoa. The study had a 2-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, full factorial parallel design. After a 2-wk run-in period, 152 healthy men and women (aged 40-70 y) were randomly allocated to consume one 200-mL drink/d for 4 wk that contained 1) cocoa, which naturally provided 150 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [cocoa intervention (CC)], 2) 850 mg pure theobromine [theobromine intervention (TB)], 3) cocoa and added theobromine, which provided 1000 mg theobromine and 325 mg flavonoids [theobromine and cocoa intervention (TB+CC)], or 4) neither cocoa nor theobromine (placebo). Blood lipids and apolipoproteins were measured at the start and end of interventions. In a 2-factor analysis, there was a significant main effect of the TB (P Theobromine independently increased serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.16 mmol/L. The lack of significant cocoa and interaction effects suggested that theobromine may be the main ingredient responsible for the HDL cholesterol-raising effect. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01481389.

  18. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  19. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R

    2003-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed...

  20. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sever, Peter S; Dahlöf, Björn; Poulter, Neil R

    2004-01-01

    The lowering of cholesterol concentrations in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease improves outcome. No study, however, has assessed benefits of cholesterol lowering in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertensive patients who are not conventionally deemed...

  1. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the supplementation of different levels of fish oil (FO) and flax seed (FS) in the diets of layers on the content of egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, blood parameters, egg production and egg quality criteria. In the experiment, a total of 120 Isa-White laying hens of 34 weeks of ...

  2. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CORN AND OLIVE OIL VERSUS COCONUT FAT ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the

  3. Enzymatic Oxidation of Cholesterol: Properties and Functional Effects of Cholestenone in Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuvonen, M.; Manna, M.; Mokkila, S.

    2014-01-01

    of cholestenone using simulations and cell biological experiments and assessed the functional effects of cholestenone in human cells. Atomistic simulations predicted that cholestenone reduces membrane order, undergoes faster flip-flop and desorbs more readily from membranes than cholesterol. In primary human...

  4. Effect of high fat diet without cholesterol supplementation on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitha, P; Vasudevan, D M; Kamath, Prakash

    2010-02-26

    Dietary fats may affect coronary artery disease risk by influencing factors other than serum cholesterol. The effect of diets containing coconut oil and sunflower oil without cholesterol supplementation on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were studied in male New Zealand White rabbits. Animals assigned to four groups (control, cholesterol-fed, coconut oil-fed and sunflower oil-fed), given an isocaloric diet and studied for 6 months. The lipid profile, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin C and lipid peroxidation were evaluated at the beginning of the study, at the third month and at the end of the study period. Serum lipid values did not show significant variation between animals fed coconut oil and sunflower oil, but total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol was reduced in cholesterol-fed animals. Lipid peroxidation was higher in cholesterol-fed and sunflower oil-fed rabbits compared to controls and coconut oil-fed rabbits. Though other parameters such as reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate did not vary between the two oil-fed rabbit groups, cholesterol-fed rabbits showed severe oxidative stress. We conclude that in the absence of cholesterol supplementation, coconut oil intake up to 30% of daily energy supply did not cause hypercholesterolemia or oxidative stress in rabbits.

  5. A Mechanistic Systems Pharmacology Model for Prediction of LDL Cholesterol Lowering by PCSK9 Antagonism in Human Dyslipidemic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, K; Budha, N; Baruch, A; Davis, J D; Fielder, P; Ramanujan, S

    2014-11-26

    PCSK9 is a promising target for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology model of the mechanisms of action of statin and anti-PCSK9 therapies was developed to predict low density lipoprotein (LDL) changes in response to anti-PCSK9 mAb for different treatment protocols and patient subpopulations. Mechanistic interactions and cross-regulation of LDL, LDL receptor, and PCSK9 were modeled, and numerous virtual subjects were developed and validated against clinical data. Simulations predict a slightly greater maximum percent reduction in LDL cholesterol (LDLc) when anti-PCSK9 is administered on statin background therapy compared to as a monotherapy. The difference results primarily from higher PCSK9 levels in patients on statin background. However, higher PCSK9 levels are also predicted to increase clearance of anti-PCSK9, resulting in a faster rebound of LDLc. Simulations of subjects with impaired LDL receptor (LDLR) function predict compromised anti-PCSK9 responses in patients such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemics, whose functional LDLR is below 10% of normal.

  6. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Morales, Rogelio Palomino; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana

    2010-07-14

    Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) in SMC cultures. An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch) alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO) and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C). Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V) and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.

  7. The effect of β-sitosterol on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in rats on a diet containing coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, T.; Shorland, F. B.; Dunckley, G. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Intraperitoneal injection of β-sitosterol (5mg./rat/day for 25 days) into 1-year-old male Wistar rats fed on a low-fat diet supplemented with 10% of coconut oil resulted in a lowering of cholesterol and lipid concentrations in the tissues. 2. β-Sitosterol increased the rate of biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids in the tissues, but to an even greater extent enhanced their oxidative degradation. 3. The present results are similar to those previously obtained on a low-fat diet, indicating that the presence of fat had no marked effect on the action of β-sitosterol. PMID:5891218

  8. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  9. Effect of Cholesterol on the Structure of a Five-Component Mitochondria-Like Phospholipid Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Kelly; Patel, Amit; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.; Fradin, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membranes have a complex phospholipid composition that varies greatly depending on the organism, cell type and function. In spite of this complexity, most structural data available for phospholipid bilayers concern model systems containing only one or two different phospholipids. Here, we examine the effect of cholesterol on the structure of a complex membrane reflecting the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes, with five different types of headgroups (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS) and cardiolipin (CL)) and a variety of hydrocarbon tails. This particular system was chosen because elevated cholesterol contents in mitochondrial membranes have been linked to a breaking down of Bax-mediated membrane permeabilization and resistance to cancer treatments. High resolution electron density profiles were determined by X-ray reflectivity, while the area per phospholipid chain, Apc, and the chain order parameter, SX-ray, were determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). We show that chain order increases upon the addition of cholesterol, resulting in both a thickening of the lipid bilayer and a reduction in the average surface area per phospholipid chain. This effect, well known as cholesterol’s condensation effect, is similar, but not as pronounced as for single-component phospholipid membranes. We conclude by discussing the relevance of these findings for the insertion of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in mitochondrial membranes with elevated cholesterol content. PMID:26529029

  10. Effect of Cholesterol on the Structure of a Five-Component Mitochondria-Like Phospholipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cathcart

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular membranes have a complex phospholipid composition that varies greatly depending on the organism, cell type and function. In spite of this complexity, most structural data available for phospholipid bilayers concern model systems containing only one or two different phospholipids. Here, we examine the effect of cholesterol on the structure of a complex membrane reflecting the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes, with five different types of headgroups (phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylinositol (PI, phosphatidylserine (PS and cardiolipin (CL and a variety of hydrocarbon tails. This particular system was chosen because elevated cholesterol contents in mitochondrial membranes have been linked to a breaking down of Bax-mediated membrane permeabilization and resistance to cancer treatments. High resolution electron density profiles were determined by X-ray reflectivity, while the area per phospholipid chain, Apc, and the chain order parameter, SX-ray, were determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS. We show that chain order increases upon the addition of cholesterol, resulting in both a thickening of the lipid bilayer and a reduction in the average surface area per phospholipid chain. This effect, well known as cholesterol’s condensation effect, is similar, but not as pronounced as for single-component phospholipid membranes. We conclude by discussing the relevance of these findings for the insertion of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in mitochondrial membranes with elevated cholesterol content.

  11. Effects of extended-release niacin/laropiprant, simvastatin, and the combination on correlations between apolipoprotein B, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol in patients with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnier M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Michel Farnier,1 Erluo Chen,2 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,2 Christine McCrary Sisk,2 Yale B Mitchel21Point Médical, Dijon, France; 2Merck and Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USABackground: Statins modify correlations between apolipoprotein B (apoB and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apoB and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C; however, it is not known whether niacin-based therapies have similar effects.Objective: To evaluate the effects of extended-release niacin (ERN/laropiprant (LRPT, simvastatin (SIMVA, and ERN/LRPT + SIMVA (pooled ERN/LRPT + SIMVA on apoB:LDL-C and apoB:non-HDL-C correlations in dyslipidemic patients.Methods: This post-hoc analysis of a 12-week study evaluated the apoB:LDL-C and apoB:non-HDL-C correlations in dyslipidemic patients randomized equally to double-blind ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg, SIMVA 10, 20, or 40 mg, or ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg + SIMVA (10, 20, or 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks. At week 5, doses were doubled in all groups except SIMVA 40 mg (unchanged and ERN/LRPT 1 g/20 mg + SIMVA 40 mg (switched to ERN/LRPT 2 g/40 mg + SIMVA 40 mg. Simple linear regression analyses were used to calculate LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels corresponding to known apoB baseline values (ie, in untreated patients and following treatment.Results: The apoB:LDL-C and apoB:non-HDL-C correlations were higher and the predicted LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels for a known apoB value were considerably lower following treatment with ERN/LRPT, SIMVA and ERN/LRPT + SIMVA compared with untreated patients at baseline.Conclusion: Greater dissociation of apoB, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C targets occur following treatment with ERN/LRPT, SIMVA, and ERN/LRPT + SIMVA in patients with dyslipidemia. The achievement of more aggressive LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals in patients receiving lipid-modifying therapy may further reduce coronary risk by normalizing apoB-containing atherogenic lipoproteins.Keywords: apoB, LDL-C, non-HDL-C

  12. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ŁULE

    that saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids cause negative effects on human health, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a positive effect on human health as regards CHD (Blanch & Grashorn, 1995;. Bhatnagar & Durrington, 2003; Erkkila et al., 2003; Meyer et al., 2003). In recent years, consumer demands.

  13. The Volatility Effect: Lower Risk without Lower Return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe present empirical evidence that stocks with low volatility earn high risk-adjusted returns. The annual alpha spread of global low versus high volatility decile portfolios amounts to 12% over the 1986-2006 period. We also observe this volatility effect within the US, European and

  14. Hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of "triguero" asparagus from andalusia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M D; De la Puerta, R; Sáenz, M T; Marquez-Martín, A; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2012-01-01

    The cultivated species of the wild autochthonous Asparagus officinalis in Andalusia in Spain is commonly called "triguero" asparagus. This vegetable has traditionally been very much appreciated for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. This study has been designed to evaluate the potential effect of different concentrations of freeze-dried asparagus (500, 250, and 125 mg/Kg of body weight/day) on oxidative status and lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After five weeks of treatment, doses of 250 and 500 mg/Kg of asparagus were able to significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Atherogenic index was also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by administrating freeze-dried asparagus. A beneficial effect was observed in the HDL cholesterol levels in asparagus-fed groups although the increase was not significant. Consumption of asparagus also improved antioxidant status, assayed superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, and protected against lipid peroxidation. These results show that the intake of green asparagus from Andalusia (Spain) helps to regulate plasma lipid levels and prevents oxidative damage in hypercholesterolemic conditions.

  15. Extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in 92,348 Danes without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes in 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-02-01

    We estimated the extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in individuals in the Danish general population without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We examined 92,348 such individuals aged 35-100 years recruited from 2004 through 2014 in the Copenhagen General Population Study. Each individual was assigned their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease according to the European SCORE chart based on age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. European guidelines recommend cholesterol-lowering therapy definitely at ≥10% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥1.8 mmol/L, definitely at 5-9% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥2.5 mmol/L, possibly at 1-4% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L, but not at cholesterol-lowering therapy. Definite undertreatment and overtreatment according to guidelines were found in 19% and 0.2% or in 187,660 and 1570 per million 35-100 year olds without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes. If definite and possible undertreatment and overtreatment were combined, the corresponding numbers were 52% and 3% or 519,416 and 29,194 per million. In the Danish general population, ∼190,000 per million 35-100 year olds without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes are not treated to LDL cholesterol goals according to European guidelines. Conversely, ∼1600 per million received cholesterol-lowering therapy without endorsement in European guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of plasma membrane cholesterol depletion on glucose transport regulation in leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    Full Text Available GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF. Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLCγ phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism.

  17. Effect of pre-germination time of brown rice on serum cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohinejad, Shahin; Omidizadeh, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor; Hamid, Azizah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2010-01-30

    Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health. Brown rice (BR) and pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol, dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24, 48 h pre-germination) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24 and 48 h pre-germination). As compared to the control sample, the pre-germination time had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats. It was also found that the significantly (P < 0.05) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time. As compared to non-germinated brown rice, the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats. The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR. The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components, thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol. This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Sublethal Effects of Diesel on Total Protein Levels and Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    and from the hydrophobic nature of the oil (Osuji and. Mbata, 2004). Oil in contact ... The various effects revealed with biomarkers can therefore be applied in regulatory decision making and environmental management (Ewald, 1995). This study was .... architecture (Singh et al., 2010) and therefore any interference with this ...

  19. Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extract Capsule on Total Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia. *For correspondence: Email: gracesanthysasnan@gmail.com; Tel: +6221-98769399; Fax: +6221-63870030. Received: 11 October 2013. Revised accepted: 23 June 2014. Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the reducing effect ...

  20. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, pcholesterol synthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    for an extended range of foods, including yellow fat spreads, dairy products, cheese, rye bread, oatmeal, fermented soy milk based products (drinkable and spoonable yoghurt-type products), and oat based milk drinks. The applicant provided an unpublished meta-analysis with 18 randomised, controlled human studies...... to foods such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products such as milk, yoghurts including low-fat yoghurts, and cheese have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol levels, the size of the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanols added to other food formats...

  2. EFFECT OF CLEAN INTERMITTENT CATHETERIZATION ON LOWER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. E. ABDEL MAGID, R.A. SALEH . Urology and Anatomy Departments, Faculty of Medicine, A/-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. Objective To investigate the effect of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) on the lower urinary tract in experimental animals. Patients and Methods Eight male spinalized cats were subjected to ...

  3. Effect of LDL cholesterol and treatment with losartan on end-stage renal disease in the RENAAL study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tershakovec, A.M.; Keane, W.F.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Renal pathology and dyslipidemia commonly coexist. Treatments that lower albuminuria/proteinuria may lower lipids, but it is not known whether lipid lowering independent of lessening albuminuria/proteinuria slows progression of kidney disease. We examined the association between LDL cholesterol...

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus fermented soymilk and soy yogurt on hepatic lipid accumulation in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Ryoko; Nishimura, Yuko; Takagi, Naohiro; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro; Tsuzuki, Kimiko; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2009-07-01

    We examined the effects of lactic acid fermented soymilk, in which part of the soymilk was replaced with okara (soy yogurt), on plasma and hepatic lipid profiles in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Additionally, we investigated the effects of soy yogurt on hepatic gene expression in rats using DNA microarray analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 5 weeks (n=5/group) were fed a control diet (AIN-93) or a test diet in which 20% of the diet was replaced by soy yogurt for 7 weeks. Soy yogurt consumption did not affect body weight or adipose tissue weight as compared with control diet. In the soy yogurt group, the liver weight and hepatic triglyceride content were significantly lower than the control group, and the level of plasma cholesterol was also lower. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis indicated that soy yogurt ingestion down-regulated the expression of the SREBP-1 gene and enzymes related to lipogenesis in the rat liver, while expression of beta-oxidation-related genes was up-regulated. These results suggest that soy yogurt is beneficial in preventing hepatic lipid accumulation in rats.

  5. Dietary cholesterol inhibits the development of aberrant crypt foci in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sohemy, A; Kendall, C W; Rao, A V; Archer, M C; Bruce, W R

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of dietary cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol on the promotion of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which are putative precancerous lesions in the colon. Sixty female C57BL/6J mice were given four weekly injections (ip) of azoxymethane (AOM) then fed either a control AIN-76 diet or the control diet supplemented with 0.3% cholesterol or 0.3% oxidized cholesterol for 100 days. The oxidized cholesterol was prepared by heating cholesterol at 110 degrees C for 48 hours. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oxidized cholesterol showed that 96% of the cholesterol was unchanged and less than 2% of the cholesterol was oxidized. The remaining 2% impurities were unidentified and present in both the cholesterol and heated cholesterol. The number of ACF in the group fed cholesterol was significantly lower than the control group (7.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 12.5 +/- 1.2, p < 0.01). The number of ACF in the group fed oxidized cholesterol (10.1 +/- 1.1) was not different from the control or cholesterol groups. The size of the ACF (no. of crypts per focus) did not differ between the three dietary groups. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was greater in the cholesterol-fed group than the control group (40.5 +/- 4.6 vs. 24.3 +/- 3.6 mg/dl, p < 0.05). LDL cholesterol from the animals fed oxidized cholesterol (37.7 +/- 4.7 mg/dl) was not different from the control or cholesterol-fed animals. Total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol did not differ between the groups. The results show that dietary cholesterol significantly inhibits the promotion of ACF in the colon. The elevated LDL cholesterol may inhibit de novo cholesterol synthesis in the preneoplastic colonic epithelial cells, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.

  6. Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Moo; Kim, Ik Heon; Choi, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of persimmon peel (PPM) supplementation on carcass performance, pork quality, eating quality, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol concentration of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. No adverse effects of PPM supplementation were observed on carcass and meat quality characteristics among the treatment groups (P > 0.05), whereas pork loins from pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0.9 % persimmon peel (T3) showed more tender meat than did pork loins from pigs fed a control diet (P peel appeared to have beneficial effects on fatty acid composition and cholesterol concentration, probably leading to a hypocholesterolemic effect. Animal diets fortified with persimmon peel represents an efficient and useful method for improving the nutritional quality of pork without impairing growth performance and eating quality properties.

  7. Molecular simulations of the effects of phospholipid and cholesterol peroxidation on lipid membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Antenor J P; Cordeiro, Rodrigo M

    2016-09-01

    Non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation may change biomembrane structure and function. Here, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to study the effects of either phospholipid or cholesterol peroxidation individually, as well as the combined peroxidation of both components. When lipids were peroxidized, the generated OOH groups migrated to the membrane surface and engaged in H-bonds with each other and the phospholipid carbonyl ester groups. It caused the sn-2 acyl chains of phospholipid hydroperoxides to bend and the whole sterol backbone of cholesterol hydroperoxides to tilt. When phospholipids were kept intact, peroxidation of the sterol backbone led to a partial degradation of its condensing and ordering properties, independently of the position and isomerism of the OOH substitution. However, even in massively peroxidized membranes in which all phospholipids and cholesterol were peroxidized, the condensing and ordering properties of the sterol backbone were still significant. The possible implications for the formation of membrane lateral domains were discussed. Cholesterol peroxyl radicals were also investigated and we found that the OO groups did not migrate to the headgroups region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of raloxifene and hormone therapy on serum markers of brain and whole-body cholesterol metabolism in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelvang, Tatjana E; Mijatovic, Velja; van der Mooren, Marius J; Pinsdorf, Ursula; von Bergmann, Klaus; Netelenbos, J Coen; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2005-04-11

    To compare the 2-year effects of raloxifene (Rlx) with oral postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on serum markers of brain and whole-body cholesterol metabolism. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 95 healthy, non-hysterectomized, early postmenopausal women received either daily Rlx 60 mg (n = 24), Rlx 150 mg (n = 23), HT (conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg; n = 24), or placebo (n = 24). Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6, 12, and 24 months of treatment for measurement of serum concentrations of cholesterol by means of gas-liquid chromatography; 24S-hydroxycholesterol (cerebrosterol), lathosterol, and the plant sterol campesterol by means of gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses were performed retrospectively from serum samples stored at -70 degrees C for 5 years. Twenty-four months of treatment with raloxifene 150 mg was associated with a significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations (-10%, P = 0.007). The ratio of 24S-hydroxycholesterol to cholesterol, a serum marker of brain cholesterol metabolism, showed a significant increase after 6 and 12 months with raloxifene 150 mg but not after 24 months (P = 0.001). The ratio of lathosterol to cholesterol, a marker of whole-body cholesterol synthesis, increased with raloxifene 60 mg (P = 0.163), raloxifene 150 mg (P cholesterol, a marker of cholesterol absorption rate, was significantly reduced with HT (P = 0.002). Two-year treatment with raloxifene or HT had no influence on brain cholesterol metabolism, while whole-body cholesterol synthesis, assessed by the ratio of lathosterol to cholesterol, increased during raloxifene and HT.

  9. Effect of cholesterol feeding on tissue lipid perioxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity and liver microsomal functions in rats and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSAI, A. C.; THIE, G. M.; Lin, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cholesterol feeding on liver and aortic nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activities, and on liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, codeine hydroxylation and cytochrome P-450 levels was examined in rats and guinea pigs. One percent cholesterol was

  10. Effects of combined prednisone + fluvastatin on cholesterol and bilirubin in pediatric patients with minimal change nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minghui; Li, Anjun; Gong, Junhua; Yang, Dan; Ma, Lu; Zhou, Xinmin; Yan, Yan; Xie, Yongxin

    2013-03-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is associated with hyperlipidemia and low serum bilirubin. Corticosteroids and statins are routinely administered to patients with this syndrome. However, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie hyperlipidemia is incomplete. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of prednisone monotherapy with those of prednisone + fluvastatin on lipid, albumin, and bilirubin levels in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric patients (4-12 years of age) with minimal change nephropathy were consecutively assigned to receive prednisone monotherapy (1-2 mg/kg/d; maximal total dose, ≤60 mg) or prednisone at the same dosage plus fluvastatin (5 mg/d if aged years; 10 mg/d if aged ≥5 years), for 6 weeks. A control group comprised healthy children without evidence of renal, hepatobiliary, cardiovascular, or hematologic disease. Total and direct bilirubin, albumin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and 24-hour urinary protein (Upr) were determined at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 4 and 6 after the start of therapy. Sixty evaluable patients were assigned active treatment (monotherapy: 16 male, 14 female; mean age, 7.6 [3.6] years [range, 6-12 years]; combination therapy: 15 male, 15 female; mean age, 7.1 [4.9] years [range, 4-12 years]); the control group comprised 50 healthy children (26 male, 24 female). With both prednisone monotherapy and prednisone + fluvastatin, total and direct bilirubin, and albumin were significantly increased from baseline, and TG, TC, and Upr were significantly decreased (all, P effect between the 2 treatment groups. Pretreatment total and direct bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the active-treatment groups than in the control group (n = 50) (all, P effect of fluvastatin on lipids. ChiCTR-TQR-12002602. Copyright © 2013. Published by EM Inc USA.

  11. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  13. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  15. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of statine side chain building blocks and application in the total synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering compound solistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Oliver; Wolberg, Michael; Foegen, Silke E; Müller, Michael

    2017-09-20

    The synthesis and enzymatic reduction of several 6-substituted dioxohexanoates are presented. Two-step syntheses of tert-butyl 6-bromo-3,5-dioxohexanoate and the corresponding 6-hydroxy compound have been achieved in 89% and 59% yield, respectively. Regio- and enantioselective reduction of these diketones and of the 6-chloro derivative with alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH) gave the (5S)-5-hydroxy-3-oxo products with enantiomeric excesses of 91%, 98.4%, and >99.5%, respectively. Chain elongation of the reduction products by one carbon via cyanide addition, and by more than one carbon by Julia-Kocienski olefination, gave access to well-established statine side-chain building blocks. Application in the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering natural compound solistatin is given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Cholesterol Repletion Effect on Nanomechanical Properties of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Via Rapid Broadband Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Ren, Juan; Liu, Yue; Huang, Huarong; Zheng, Xi; Zou, Qingze

    2017-03-01

    Abnormalities of blood cholesterol concentration are associated with increased risks for vascular disease, especially heart attacks and strokes. As one of the main lipid components of plasma membrane in all mammalian cells, cholesterol has a major impact on the mechanical properties of the membrane of endothelial cells. Although the effect of cholesterol depletion on cell mechanical properties has been studied, no results yet have been reported on quantitative investigation of cholesterol repletion effect. In this study, the cholesterol repletion effect on the nanomechanical properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EA.hy926) was studied using a control-based atomic force microscope (AFM) nanomechanical measurement protocol. The viscoelasticity of EA.hy926 cells were measured over a large frequency range (0.1-100 Hz) using both constant-rate excitation force with different loading rates and a broadband excitation force. The viscoelasticity oscillation of the cell membranes under the cholesterol effect was also monitored in real-time. The experiment results showed that under the effect of cholesterol repletion, both the Young's modulus and the complex modulus of EA.hy926 cell were increased over 30%, respectively, and moreover, the amplitudes of both the elasticity oscillation and the viscosity oscillation at a period of around 200 s were increased over 70%, respectively. Therefore, this work is among the first to investigate the mechanical properties, particularly, the broadband viscoelasticity variations of EA.hy926 cells under cholesterol repletion treatment. The results revealed that cholesterol repletion may reinforce the coupling of F-actin to plasma membrane by increasing actin stability, and the cholesterol might have modified the submembrane cytoskeletal organization of EA.hy926 cell by causing the involvement of the motor protein nonmuscle myosin II.

  17. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  18. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  19. The Effect of a Three-Month Physical Fitness Program on Serum Free Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. L.; Ismail, A. H.

    This study investigates the effect of a three-month physical fitness program on serum-free cholesterol concentration in four age and fitness adult groups. Twenty-four men were divided into the following groups: (a) young, low-fit; (b) old, low-fit; (c) young, high-fit; and (d) old, high-fit. All subjects had normal resting glucose and triglyceride…

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley beta-glucan and lowering of blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Cargill Incorporated submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... intervention studies, two animal studies and one mechanistic study. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one meta-analysis including 11 RCTs and one additional RCT which investigated the effects of barley beta-glucans at doses of at least 3 g/day showed a decrease in total and LDL...... the consumption of barley beta-glucans and the lowering of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Barley beta-glucans have been shown to lower/reduce blood cholesterol. High cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease”. At least...

  1. Effects of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Coronary Artery Calcification Progression According to High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression was defined as a change in CACS ≥0 over 4 years. We divided the subjects into nine groups according to baseline HDL-C and LDL-C levels and compared their risks for CAC progression. After 4 years, 475 subjects (22.3%) exhibited CAC progression. We identified a positive relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk for incident CAC. However, this association was attenuated by high baseline HDL-C levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, smoking, and exercise status revealed that the odds ratios for incident CAC in the lowest HDL-C tertile were 3.08 for LDL-C tertile 3 and 2.02 for LDL-C tertile 2 compared to LDL-C tertile 1. However, these differences disappeared in the highest HDL-C tertile (HDL-C ≥54.0 mg/dL). In this longitudinal study, we found that the positive relationship between LDL-C and the relative risk for incident CAC was attenuated by higher HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-C levels should be considered when estimating CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary high-polyphenols extra-virgin olive oil is effective in reducing cholesterol content in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, Vito; Ceci, Edmondo; Lastella, Nunzia M B; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-02-07

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents an important food in Mediterranean diet due to its favorable effects on human and animal health derived from the consumption of polyphenols. We studied the effects of dietary EVOO differing in polyphenols levels on egg quality. A total of 150 laying hens were allotted into three groups over 10 weeks of the experimental period. The three diets were based on wheat-soybean meal with added oils at 2.5%. Hens were fed the following diets: (1) commercial diet containing sunflower oil (Control), (2) diet EVOO from Cima di Bitonto variety (low-polyphenols content; Low-P), and (3) diet EVOO from Coratina variety (high-polyphenols content; High-P). The performance of the hen, the qualitative traits of eggs, and the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk were measured. None of the egg productive parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was enhanced in hens fed the both EVOO diets (PEVOO reduced serum cholesterol level in hens (PEVOO raised the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) composition and increased the content of oleic and linolenic acids in egg-yolk. Moreover, the atherogenic index in egg-yolk decreased linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary polyphenols (P<0.01). In conclusion, a diet for hens consisting of high-polyphenols level from extra-virgin olive oil can improve the fatty acid quality of egg-yolk while lowering the egg-yolk cholesterol level, which could be a beneficial functional food for human health.

  3. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  4. Impact of dietary fat type within the context of altered cholesterol homeostasis on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in the F1B hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2010-10-01

    Cholesterol status and dietary fat alter several metabolic pathways reflected in lipoprotein profiles. To assess plasma lipoprotein response and mechanisms by which cholesterol and dietary fat type regulate expression of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, we developed an experimental model system using F1B hamsters fed diets (12 weeks) enriched in 10% (wt/wt) coconut, olive, or safflower oil with either high cholesterol (0.1%; cholesterol supplemented) or low cholesterol coupled with cholesterol-lowering drugs 10 days before killing (0.01% cholesterol, 0.15% lovastatin, 2% cholestyramine; cholesterol depleted). Irrespective of dietary fat, cholesterol depletion, relative to supplementation, resulted in lower plasma non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) and HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (all Ps cholesterol status, coconut oil, relative to olive and safflower oils, resulted in higher non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (both Ps cholesterol depletion are associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary fat type on gene expression was modest, which limits the usefulness of the experimental animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of pancreatopeptidase E (elastase) on the suppression of intimal fibrous proliferation after arterial reconstruction in high cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O-hara, M; Esato, K; Mohri, H

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pancreatopeptidase E (Elastase) administration on the healing of anastomosed arteries. A segment of infrarenal aorta was resected and reanastomosed in rabbits. In the control group, rabbits were fed commercial chow (ORC 4). In the cholesterol group, rabbits were fed a diet of 1% cholesterol added to ORC 4. In the Elastase group, rabbits were fed the same diet as the cholesterol group but received intraabdominal injections of Elastase. The rabbits were kept for 4 months and the abdominal aorta was retrieved for examination. All anastomosed aortas were patent. The cholesterol group developed aneurysmal dilatation in one and stenosis of the anastomosed sites due to hypergranulation in the remaining rabbits. Neither aneurysmal nor stenotic changes were detected in the other groups. We concluded that the administration of Elastase suppressed cholesterol induced atherosclerotic changes at the anastomotic sites in these animals.

  6. [Effect of the DiabetIMSS program on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Romo, Miguel Angel; Montes-Acuña, Juan Felipe; Zavala-Cruz, Gad Gamed; Nieva-de Jesús, Rafael Natividad; Ramírez-Arreola, María Cleofas; Andrade-Rodríguez, Héctor Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the DiabetIMSS program on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure and HDL cholesterol in patients with metabolic syndrome. Quasi-experimental intervention study. Non-probabilistic convenience sampling. 35 subjects in the educational strategy one year were included. The following variables were collected: age, gender, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiovascular risk calculator based on Framingham is calculated. Descriptive and inferential statistical percentages with Student t test was used. There was an increase in the proportion of subjects increased their subsequent figures HDL cholesterol intervention, there by generating an increase of protective factor (p < 0.05). Because of the blood pressure a marked improvement in all ranges of blood pressure (p < 0.05) was presented. The educational strategy for the control of diabetic patients presented a favorable performance in HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure, reducing the risk of cardiovascular patients.

  7. Heat-epimerized tea catechins rich in gallocatechin gallate and catechin gallate are more effective to inhibit cholesterol absorption than tea catechins rich in epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hamada, Tadateru; Tsuda, Koichi; Goto, Hitomi; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Nozawa, Ayumu; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami

    2003-12-03

    It has been known that tea catechins, (-)-epicatechin (1), (-)-epigallocatechin (2), (-)-epicatechin gallate (3), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (4) are epimerized to(-)-catechin (5), (-)-gallocatechin (6), (-)-catechin gallate (7), and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (8), respectively, during retort pasteurization. We previously reported that tea catechins, mainly composed of 3 and 4, effectively inhibit cholesterol absorption in rats. In this study, the effect of heat-epimerized catechins on cholesterol absorption was compared with tea catechins. Both tea catechins and heat-epimerized catechins lowered lymphatic recovery of cholesterol in rats cannulated in the thoracic duct and epimerized catechins were more effective than tea catechins. The effect of purified catechins on micellar solubility of cholesterol was examined in an in vitro study. The addition of gallate esters of catechins reduced micellar solubility of cholesterol by precipitating cholesterol from bile salt micelles. Compounds 7 and 8 were more effective to precipitate cholesterol than 3 and 4, respectively. These observations strongly suggest that heat-epimerized catechins may be more hypocholesterolemic than tea catechins.

  8. Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged cooked beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, K; Lynch, A M; Kerry, J P; Morrissey, P A; Buckley, D J

    2000-05-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged, cooked, refrigerated and frozen beef steaks, was investigated. Steers (Friesian×Charolais×Black Hereford) were fed diets providing 20 or 3000 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/head/day for 135 days prior to slaughter. α-Tocopherol concentrations in M. psoas major (PM) and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) were significantly (poxidation (monitored by measuring 7-ketocholesterol formation) increased during refrigerated and frozen storage in some, but not all, groups, and tended to be higher in PM than LD. Dietary vitamin E did not affect 7-ketocholesterol formation in LD, but significantly (pvitamin E improved oxidative stability in both muscles. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation inhibits cholesterol oxidation in vacuum packaged, cooked beef during refrigerated and frozen storage, but may be influenced by muscle type.

  9. Cholesterol through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ika; Luu, Winnie; Stevenson, Julian; Cartland, Sian; Jessup, Wendy; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    How cholesterol is sensed to maintain homeostasis has been explained by direct binding to a specific protein, Scap, or through altering the physical properties of the membrane. The enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-cholesterol) is a valuable tool in distinguishing between these two models because it shares nonspecific membrane effects with native cholesterol (nat-cholesterol), but not specific binding interactions. This is the first study to compare ent- and nat-cholesterol directly on major molecular parameters of cholesterol homeostasis. We found that ent-cholesterol suppressed activation of the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism, SREBP-2, almost as effectively as nat-cholesterol. Importantly, ent-cholesterol induced a conformational change in the cholesterol-sensing protein Scap in isolated membranes in vitro, even when steps were taken to eliminate potential confounding effects from endogenous cholesterol. Ent-cholesterol also accelerated proteasomal degradation of the key cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, squalene monooxygenase. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that cholesterol maintains its own homeostasis not only via direct protein interactions, but also by altering membrane properties. PMID:22869373

  10. The Expected Cardiovascular Benefit of Plasma Cholesterol Lowering with or Without LDL-C Targets in Healthy Individuals at Higher Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013. For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70] and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]. Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%, LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target is more appropriate at the individual level.

  11. Fish oil supplementation reverses the effect of cholesterol on apoptotic gene expression in smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linares Ana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional control of gene regulation guides the transformation of smooth muscle cells (SMC into foam cells in atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress has been reported in areas of lipid accumulation, activating proliferation genes. Suppression of oxidative stress by antioxidant administration reduces this activation and the progression of lesions. We hypothesized that fish oil consumption may protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. The study objective was to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol and fish-oil intake on the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC in SMC cultures. Methods An in vivo/in vitro cell model was used, culturing SMC isolated from chicks exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet with 5% of cholesterol (SMC-Ch alone or followed by an anti-atherogenic fish oil-rich diet with 10% of menhaden oil (SMC-Ch-FO and from chicks on standard diet (SMC-C. Cells were exposed to 25-HC, studying apoptosis levels by flow cytometry (Annexin V and expressions of caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Exposure to 25-HC produced apoptosis in all three SMC cultures, which was mediated by increases in caspase-3, c-myc, and p53 gene expression. Changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-C, indicating that dietary cholesterol makes SMC more susceptible to 25-HC-mediated apoptosis. Expression of p53 gene was elevated in SMC-Ch-FO. This supports the proposition that endogenous levels of p53 protect SMC against apoptosis and possibly against the development of atherosclerosis. Fish oil attenuated the increase in c-myc levels observed in SMC-C and SMC-Ch, possibly through its influence on the expression of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of the cholesterol-induced changes, increasing the resistance of SMC to apoptosis.

  12. Effects of seaweed-restructured pork diets enriched or not with cholesterol on rat cholesterolaemia and liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Bocanegra, Aranzazu; Méndez, M Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, M Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Seaweed enriched-restructured pork (RP) is a potential functional food. However, indications of adverse effects associated with herbal medications, which include among others liver failure, toxic hepatitis, and death have been reported. Cholesterol feeding produces hepatomegalia and fat liver infiltration. The effect of seaweed-RP diet, cholesterol-enriched or not, on plasma cholesterol, liver damage markers, structure, and cytochrome CYP4A-1 were evaluated after 5 wk. Eight rat groups were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet plus 15% RP. The Cholesterol-control (CC), Cholesterol-Wakame (CW), Cholesterol-Nori (CN) and Cholesterol-Sea Spaghetti (CS) groups respectively consumed similar diets to control (C), Wakame (W), Nori (N), and Sea Spaghetti (S) but as part of hypercholesterolaemic diets. CN and CS significantly blocked the hypercholesterolaemic effect observed in CC group. After 5-wk, N and S diets increased the CYP4A-1 expression. However, seaweed-RPs were unable to reduce the histological liver alterations observed in CC group. Larger and more abundant hepatocellular alterations were found in CS and CN rats suggesting that the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these seaweed-RPs seem to be a two-edged sword as they increased liver damage. Future studies are needed to understand the involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effects of AMG 145, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: the Reduction of LDL-C with PCSK9 Inhibition in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Disorder (RUTHERFORD) randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Frederick; Scott, Rob; Somaratne, Ransi; Bridges, Ian; Li, Gang; Wasserman, Scott M; Stein, Evan A

    2012-11-13

    Despite statin treatment, many patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia do not reach desired low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. AMG 145, a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serine protease, demonstrated significant reductions in LDL-C in phase 1 studies. This phase 2, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study evaluated the efficacy and safety of AMG 145 in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia diagnosed by Simon Broome criteria with LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) despite statin therapy with or without ezetimibe were randomized 1:1:1 to AMG 145 350 mg, AMG 145 420 mg, or placebo-administered subcutaneously every 4 weeks. The primary end point was percentage change from baseline in LDL-C at week 12. Of 168 patients randomized, 167 received investigational product and were included in the full analysis set (mean [SD] age, 50 [13] years; 47% female; 89% white; mean [SD] baseline LDL-C, 4.0 [1.1] mmol/L (156 [42] mg/dL)). At week 12, LDL-C reduction measured by preparative ultracentrifugation (least squares mean [standard error (SE)]) was 43 (3)% and 55 (3)% with AMG 145 350 mg and 420 mg, respectively, compared with 1 (3)% increase with placebo (P<0.001 for both dose groups). Serious adverse events (not considered treatment-related) occurred in 2 patients on AMG 145. AMG 145 administered every 4 weeks yielded rapid and substantial reductions in LDL-C in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients despite intensive statin use, with or without ezetimibe, with minimal adverse events and good tolerability. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01375751.

  14. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  15. REDUCTION DEGREE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF STATINS; ITS EFFECT ON THE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE ACUTE EPISODES DEPENDING ON TREATMENT DURATION; AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC AND THROMBOEMBOLIC STROKE. COMMENT ON THE PAPER OF LAW M.R., WALD N.J., RUDNICKA A.R. QUANTIFYING EFFECT OF STATINS ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND STROKE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. BMJ 2003; 326:1423-1427

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Perova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dose-dependent ability of different statins to lower serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol was determined in three large meta-analysis. Besides, it was found that standardized decrease in LDL cholesterol levels on 1.0 or 1.8 mmol/l leads to rate reduction in ischemic heart disease acute episodes as well as stroke depending on treatment duration. Effect of LDL cholesterol reduction on stroke occurrence was more significant in studies, which included a major share of patients with vascular disease, because these patients have a higher risk of thromboembolic stroke (rather than haemorrhagic stroke in comparison with the general population.

  16. Bariatric surgery improves lipoprotein profile in morbidly obese patients by reducing LDL cholesterol, apoB, and SAA/PON1 ratio, increasing HDL cholesterol, but has no effect on cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmo, Christian Abendstein; Karlsson, Helen; Nestvold, Torunn K; Ljunggren, Stefan; Cederbrant, Karin; Marcusson-Ståhl, Maritha; Mathisen, Monica; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Hovland, Anders

    2017-11-08

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events and cause-specific mortality for coronary artery disease in obese patients. Lipoprotein biomarkers relating to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), their subfractions, and macrophage cholesterol efflux have all been hypothesized to be of value in cardiovascular risk assessment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a lifestyle intervention followed by bariatric surgery on the lipid profile of morbidly obese patients. Thirty-four morbidly obese patients were evaluated before and after lifestyle changes and then 1 year after bariatric surgery. They were compared with 17 lean subjects. Several lipoprotein metrics, serum amyloid A (SAA), serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), and macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) were assessed. Average weight loss after the lifestyle intervention was 10.5% and 1 year after bariatric surgery was 33.9%. The lifestyle intervention significantly decreased triglycerides (TGs; -28.7 mg/dL, P < .05), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C; -32.3 mg/dL, P < .0001), and apolipoprotein B (apoB; -62.9 μg/mL, P < .001). Bariatric surgery further reduced TGs (-36.7 mg/dL, P < .05), increased HDL cholesterol (+12 mg/dL, P < .0001), and reductions in LDL-C and apoB were sustained. Bariatric surgery reduced large, buoyant LDL (P < .0001), but had no effect on the small, dense LDL. The large HDL subfractions increased (P < .0001), but there was no effect on the smaller HDL subfractions. The ratio for SAA/PON1 was reduced after the lifestyle intervention (P < .01) and further reduced after bariatric surgery (P < .0001). Neither the lifestyle intervention nor bariatric surgery had any effect on CEC. Lifestyle intervention followed by bariatric surgery in 34 morbidly obese patients showed favorable effects on TGs, LDL-C, and apoB. HDL cholesterol and apoA1 was increased, apoB/apoA1 ratio as well as SAA/PON1 ratio reduced, but bariatric

  17. EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY LIVER SYNDROME IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

  18. Modelling cholesterol effects on the dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vladimir M; Čupić, Željko; Maćešić, Stevan; Stanojević, Ana; Vukojević, Vladana; Kolar-Anić, Ljiljana

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cholesterol as a dynamical variable was derived to investigate the effects of cholesterol, the primary precursor of all steroid hormones, on the ultradian and circadian HPA axis activity. To develop the model, the parameter space was systematically examined by stoichiometric network analysis to identify conditions for ultradian oscillations, determine conditions under which dynamic transitions, i.e. bifurcations occur and identify bifurcation types. The bifurcations were further characterized using numerical simulations. Model predictions agree well with empirical findings reported in the literature, indicating that cholesterol levels may critically affect the global dynamics of the HPA axis. The proposed model provides a base for better understanding of experimental observations, it may be used as a tool for designing experiments and offers useful insights into the characteristics of basic dynamic regulatory mechanisms that, when impaired, may lead to the development of some modern-lifestyle-associated diseases. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  19. The hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary coconut fat versus corn oil in hypo- or hyperresponsive rabbits is not exerted through influencing cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, G W; Lemmens, A G; Versluis, A; Van Zutphen, L F; Beynen, A C

    1991-05-01

    In two inbred strains of rabbits with high or low response of plasma cholesterol to dietary saturated versus polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured. The feeding of a cholesterol-free purified diet containing saturated fatty acids in the form of coconut fat, when compared with a diet containing corn oil as polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not influence the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the two rabbit strains. Irrespective of the dietary fat source, the hyperresponsive rabbits absorbed cholesterol more efficiently. It is concluded that the hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary coconut fat versus corn oil is not exerted by influencing cholesterol absorption.

  20. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperlipidemia - cholesterol and lifestyle; CAD - cholesterol and lifestyle; Coronary artery disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Heart disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Prevention - cholesterol and lifestyle; ...

  1. Dietary values of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in Penaeus monodon in the presence and absence of cholesterol supplementation: effect on growth, nutrient digestibility and tissue carotenoid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jin; Li, Chun-Hou; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Chen, Xu; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2012-07-14

    Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (SE 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 % canthaxanthin alone (D6), and a combination of 0·07 % canthaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D7). Weight gain (WG, %), specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) and survival were chosen as parameters of shrimp growth performance. Total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were chosen as indices of shrimp plasma antioxidant capacity. Meanwhile, digestibility, retention efficiency and tissue carotenoids were also investigated to determine the additive effect of cholesterol on the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 74 d rearing, WG and SGR of shrimp fed D2-D4 and D7 were higher than those of shrimp fed D1 (P 98 %) in D2-D4 and no differences were found among them (P>0·05), the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D2-D3 treatments) were considerably low; however, cholesterol supplementation significantly improved the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D4 treatment). Accordingly, the addition of cholesterol also significantly enhanced the carotenoid contents of tissues. Shrimp fed supplemented carotenoid diets (D2-D7) had higher TAS and lower SOD, ALT and AST than shrimp fed D1 (P cholesterol could positively enhance the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin.

  2. Systematic review and metaanalysis of statins for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in children: evaluation of cholesterol changes and side effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2012-02-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) affects 1 in 500 individuals. Evidence supports the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effect of statins for adults with heFH. However, there are concerns regarding the treatment children with heFH. By performing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the published literature, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins used for children with heFH. A systematic review was performed by searching multiple medical databases and citations to identify reports of randomized controlled trials of statins used to treat children with heFH. The trials were retrieved, reviewed, and subjected to metaanalysis. The search yielded 2,174 titles. Of the 63 studies retrieved and reviewed, 56 were excluded, 7 were included in the systematic review, and 4 were included in the metaanalysis. Significant heterogeneity was detected. The metaanalysis showed significant LDL lowering, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol elevation, and increases in height and weight with statins. The metaanalysis could not be performed for many side effects of statins, but individual trials showed no significant side effects. Quality assessment showed methodologic concerns, with potential for bias. For example, six trials analyzed statin effects without intention to treat despite such a stated intention. Metaanalysis shows significant LDL lowering with statin treatment. Further studies, including epidemiologic and multicenter studies, are required.

  3. A Population-Based Study of Cholesterol Measurements in the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Christensen, Kaare; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effect of lipid-lowering treatment in the oldest old is a matter of debate as there is no unequivocal evidence of statins being beneficial among the oldest. The need for cholesterol measurements is therefore also questionable, but the frequency of cholesterol measurements in the oldest......+ living on the Island of Funen. The development in trends for cholesterol measurements was analysed in age groups of 5-years interval using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 30,424 persons with a cholesterol measurement entered the study. The total number of cholesterol measurements...... increased by 246% during the observation period. The percentage of people having a cholesterol measurement increased significantly (p

  4. Plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols: Minute concentrations-Major physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Ikonen, Elina

    2017-05-01

    Non-cholesterol sterols are present in our body at very low concentrations as compared to cholesterol. Small changes in the structure of sterol molecules confer them highly distinct biological activities. The best-known example are steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. During the past decade, our knowledge of also other biomolecules related to or derived from cholesterol, particularly plant sterols, biosynthetic precursors of cholesterol, and oxysterols, has expanded rapidly. In this review article we recapitulate the latest insights into the properties and physiological activities of these non-cholesterol sterols, as well as their importance in disease processes and potential as diagnostic biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant sterols/stanols and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of an application to modify the conditions of use of an authorised Article 14 claim related to 1.5 - 3.0 g plant sterols/stanols per day and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol by 7 - 12 % and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease. The applicant has further requested that the minimum duration to obtain the effect...... be one to two weeks. The applicant provided a published systematic review and meta-analysis that evaluated the comparative efficacy of plant sterols and plant stanols for lowering blood LDL-cholesterol in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic subjects and an unpublished meta-analysis on 27 randomised....../2010 (yellow fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) have a similar efficacy on blood LDL-cholesterol lowering, that plant sterols and stanol esters at a daily intake of 3 g (range 2.6 g to 3.4 g) plant sterols/stanols in matrices approved by Regulation (EC) No 376/2010 lower LDL-cholesterol...

  6. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from Type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux : a potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Aims To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods Eight male Type 2

  7. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux: A potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. van Tol (Arie)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Eight

  8. Simvastatin Efficiently Lowers Small LDL-IgG Immune Complex Levels: A Therapeutic Quality beyond the Lipid-Lowering Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Hörl

    Full Text Available We investigated a polyethylene glycol non-precipitable low-density lipoprotein (LDL subfraction targeted by IgG and the influence of statin therapy on plasma levels of these small LDL-IgG-immune complexes (LDL-IgG-IC. LDL-subfractions were isolated from 6 atherosclerotic subjects and 3 healthy individuals utilizing iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation. Cholesterol, apoB and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined in each fraction by enzymatic testing, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The levels of LDL-IgG-IC were quantified densitometrically following lipid electrophoresis, particle size distribution was assessed with dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography. The influence of simvastatin (40 mg/day for three months on small LDL-IgG-IC levels and their distribution among LDL-subfractions (salt gradient separation were investigated in 11 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD. We demonstrate that the investigated LDL-IgG-IC are small particles present in atherosclerotic patients and healthy subjects. In vitro assembly of LDL-IgG-IC resulted in particle density shifts indicating a composition of one single molecule of IgG per LDL particle. Normalization on cholesterol levels revealed MDA values twice as high for LDL-subfractions rich in small LDL-IgG-IC if compared to dominant LDL-subfractions. Reactivity of affinity purified small LDL-IgG-IC to monoclonal antibody OB/04 indicates a high degree of modified apoB and oxidative modification. Simvastatin therapy studied in the CAD patients significantly lowered LDL levels and to an even higher extent, small LDL-IgG-IC levels without affecting their distribution. In conclusion simvastatin lowers levels of small LDL-IgG-IC more effectively than LDL-cholesterol and LDL-apoB levels in atherosclerotic patients. This antiatherogenic effect may additionally contribute to the known

  9. Simvastatin Efficiently Lowers Small LDL-IgG Immune Complex Levels: A Therapeutic Quality beyond the Lipid-Lowering Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ulrika; Ledinski, Gerhard; Binder, Josepha; Cvirn, Gerhard; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Trauner, Michael; Koidl, Christoph; Tafeit, Erwin; Amrein, Karin; Scharnagl, Hubert; Jürgens, Günther; Hallström, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a polyethylene glycol non-precipitable low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction targeted by IgG and the influence of statin therapy on plasma levels of these small LDL-IgG-immune complexes (LDL-IgG-IC). LDL-subfractions were isolated from 6 atherosclerotic subjects and 3 healthy individuals utilizing iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation. Cholesterol, apoB and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in each fraction by enzymatic testing, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The levels of LDL-IgG-IC were quantified densitometrically following lipid electrophoresis, particle size distribution was assessed with dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography. The influence of simvastatin (40 mg/day for three months) on small LDL-IgG-IC levels and their distribution among LDL-subfractions (salt gradient separation) were investigated in 11 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). We demonstrate that the investigated LDL-IgG-IC are small particles present in atherosclerotic patients and healthy subjects. In vitro assembly of LDL-IgG-IC resulted in particle density shifts indicating a composition of one single molecule of IgG per LDL particle. Normalization on cholesterol levels revealed MDA values twice as high for LDL-subfractions rich in small LDL-IgG-IC if compared to dominant LDL-subfractions. Reactivity of affinity purified small LDL-IgG-IC to monoclonal antibody OB/04 indicates a high degree of modified apoB and oxidative modification. Simvastatin therapy studied in the CAD patients significantly lowered LDL levels and to an even higher extent, small LDL-IgG-IC levels without affecting their distribution. In conclusion simvastatin lowers levels of small LDL-IgG-IC more effectively than LDL-cholesterol and LDL-apoB levels in atherosclerotic patients. This antiatherogenic effect may additionally contribute to the known beneficial

  10. Cholesterol interactions with fluid-phase phospholipids: effect on the lateral organization of the bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Katrin K; Ramstedt, Bodil; Nyström, Joel H; Slotte, J Peter; Nyholm, Thomas K M

    2008-10-01

    The lateral organization of lipids and proteins in cell membranes is recognized as an important factor in several cellular processes. Cholesterol is thought to function as a modulator of the lateral segregation of lipids into cholesterol-poor and cholesterol-rich domains. We investigated how the affinity of cholesterol for different phospholipids, as seen in cholesterol partitioning between methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and large unilamellar vesicles, was reflected in the lateral organization of lipids in complex bilayers. We especially wanted to determine how the low-T(m) lipid affected the lateral structure. Partition experiments showed that cholesterol had a higher affinity for N-oleoyl-sphingomyelin (OSM) than for palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers, but the highest preference was for N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin (PSM)-containing bilayers. Partial phase diagrams of POPC/PSM/cholesterol and OSM/PSM/cholesterol bilayers at 23 degrees C and 37 degrees C were used to gain insight into the lateral organization of lipids in bilayers. Analysis of phase diagrams revealed that the phospholipid composition of cholesterol-poor and cholesterol-rich domains reflected the affinity that cholesterol exhibited toward bilayers composed of different lipids. Therefore, the determined affinity of cholesterol for different phospholipid bilayers was useful in predicting the cholesterol-induced lateral segregation of lipids in complex bilayers.

  11. Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-feng XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

  12. Effect of fermented oatmeal soup on the cholesterol level and the Lactobacillus colonization of rat intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, G; Andersson, R; Ahrné, S; Lönner, C; Marklinder, I; Johansson, M L; Jeppsson, B; Bengmark, S

    1992-04-01

    Rats were fed with freeze-dried oatmeal soup fermented by six different Lactobacillus strains from rat and man; the formula is intended for enteral feeding. The serum cholesterol levels after 10 d were lower for rats eating oatmeal as compared to a commercial product, Biosorb Sond. Colonizing ability of the administered strains were evaluated in vivo. Only Lactobacillus reuteri R21c were able to, effectively, colonizing the mucosa; it represented about 30% of the Lactobacillus population 24 d after termination of the administration. L. reuteri R21c was easily recognized by the ability to produce a yellow pigment on agar plates. The identity was confirmed by carbohydrate fermentations (API 50CH), plasmid pattern and endonuclease restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA.

  13. Higher prevalence of smoking and lower BMI, waist circumference, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels in Prague's homeless compared to a majority of the Czech population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambousková Jolana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless people have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. Research has shown that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in older homeless adults. This study was undertaken to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the homeless population in Prague. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2003. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerides (TAG and smoking habits were assessed. The homeless participants in the study were recruited from a homeless center run by a Prague charitable organization called Naděje ("Hope" and at Prague's main railway station. Most participants were assessed at the Naděje center (134 persons while the rest were assessed at Prague's Bulovka University Hospital (67 persons. Results A total of 201 homeless (174 males and 27 females aged 19 – 70 years were examined. Mean values of BMI, WC, TC and TAG in homeless men and women were within normal limits. Compared with the majority of the Czech population, the homeless had significantly lower mean levels of TC and TAG and lower BMI and WC values. When compared to the majority of the Czech population, the incidence of smoking among the homeless was significantly higher. Among smokers in both populations, no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusion Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as TC, TAG, BMI and WC, are significantly lower in Prague's homeless minority than in the majority of the Czech population. However, the prevalence of smoking is much higher in the homeless population.

  14. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-05-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from (/sup 3/H) acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37/sup 0/C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane.

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Three Extract Sorts of Soybean DETAM 1 on the Total Cholesterol Level in Balb-C Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilinah Hidayat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Pharmacological treatment of  hypercholesterolemia are known to have side effects, hence the need for an alternative medicine, like herbal medicine, such as soybean as an example. Research objective is to compare the effects of ethanol extract, protein extract, and ethyl acetate fraction of soybean tempeh Detam-1 on the total serum cholesterol level of male mice. METHODS: This study was a laboratory experimental study with Completely Randomized Design (CRD method. Twenty five balb-C strain male mice were allocated into five groups, namely: the negative-control (aquabidest, the positive-control (simvastatin, ethanol extract, protein extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the soybean tempeh Detam-1 and all were fed with high cholesterol containing food for 31 days. Starting on the 18th day all groups were treated for 14 days. The observed parameter was the total serum cholesterol level. The data of the study results were analyzed with ANOVA, followed by Tukey HSD test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between treatment groups and the negative-control (p=0.004. The reduction of the total cholesterol level of soy ethanol extract was 35.11±15%, the ethyl acetate fraction of soybean tempeh 26.48±17%, and soy protein extract was 15.33±33.1%, and no significant difference was noted in the positive-control group (simvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: The ethanol extract of soybean seed, protein extract of soybean seed, and ethyl acetate fraction of soybean tempeh Detam-1 have the same effect as do simvastin, and ethanol extract of soybean seed is the most effective substance for lowering total serum cholesterol in Balb-C male mice. KEYWORDS: hypericholesterolemia, ethanol extract, protein extract and ethyl acetate fraction, soybean Detam-1.

  16. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ŁULE

    Corresponding ... composition of fats consumed, are more important than the amount of dietary cholesterol consumed. (Leskanich ... different omega-3 fatty acids sources in diets on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg yolk and. The South ...

  17. Effects of early cholesterol intake on cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression in piglets receiving sow's breast milk or infant formula until weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike breast milk, infant formulas are not rich in cholesterol. To compensate for the dietary loss, hepatic cholesterol synthesis is increased in formula-fed infants. Observational studies have reported significant increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides in adults that received formula dur...

  18. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R; Saxena, Preeti S; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-05

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R.; Saxena, Preeti S.; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-01

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2 mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19 mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100 mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel.

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  1. The effect of Coicis semen and Rhizopus oligosporus-fermented Coicis semen (tempeh) on serum cholesterol in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 基; 臼井, 真一; 岡崎, 三代

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Coicis semen and Rhizopus oligosporus-fermented Coicis semen (tempeh) on serum cholesterol fractions was examined in the rat. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were received commercial MF meal (control group), Coicis semen-containing MF meal (Coicis semen group), or tempeh-containing MF meal (tempeh group). Cholesterol fractions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography at the start of experiment, and 2, 6, 18 weeks later. No difference was found in body wei...

  2. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  3. Effects of dietary cholesterol in the Mongolian gerbil and the rat : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TEMMERMAN, AM; VONK, RJ; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, Rudolf; Fernandes, J

    To come to a better understanding of the diet-induced cholesterol-ester storage in the gerbil liver, the reactions of the gerbil to 0.2% of cholesterol in the diet during 4 weeks were compared with those of the rat consuming the same diet. The major reason for the increased hepatic cholesterol-ester

  4. Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kawasaki, Yuuki; Suzuki, Naoko; Takara, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble quinone compound that has a strong anti-oxidant capacity. A previous study in rats fed a PQQ-depleted diet showed that elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) decreased after PQQ supplementation. However, there is only one study reporting the effects of PQQ on serum lipid levels, such as those of TG and cholesterol, in humans. In this study, the effects of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on serum TG and cholesterol levels in humans after 6 and 12 wk of treatment at an oral dosage of 20 mg/d were examined. This trial was conducted according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded protocol. A total of 29 healthy Japanese adults, ranging from 40 to 57 y old, with normal to moderately high TG levels (110-300 mg/dL) as measured by a recent blood examination, were included in this study. In eleven volunteers out of 29, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) levels at baseline were high (≥140 mg/dL). After 12 wk, the mean serum TG levels had not changed; however, a marginally significant decrease in the mean LDL-chol (from 136.1 to 127.0 mg/dL) was observed in the PQQ group. In the stratification analysis of the high LDL-chol subgroup (baseline LDL-chol level ≥140 mg/dL), the mean LDL-chol levels decreased significantly from the baseline values in the PQQ group compared to the placebo group. Our study findings suggest that PQQ suppressed the LDL-chol level, which is an important finding, because a high level of this lipid is a risk factor for various lifestyle-related diseases.

  5. Quercetin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate effect on the anisotropy of model membranes with cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Diana; Margină, Denisa; Ilie, Mihaela; Iftime, Adrian; Ganea, Constanţa

    2013-11-01

    Cell membrane fluidity, which can be altered by oxidative stress, plays an important role in the cell physiology. Flavonoids are among the most studied food substances that prevent and/or reduce oxidative stress, but their action mechanisms are far from being understood. We performed a study on the effect of quercetin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on 2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) with different amounts of cholesterol, using Laurdan as a fluorescent probe, to put into evidence the perturbations of the phospholipid membrane fluidity and local lipid order in an attempt to decipher the action mechanism of the flavonoids at the cell membrane level. Results indicate that polyphenols modulate the transition from the gel phase to the liquid crystalline phase of SUVs in all studied membranes. SUVs with cholesterol have by themselves higher phase transition temperature and the presence of polyphenols stabilizes further the membrane. Quercetin has a dose-dependent effect on the fluidity and local order of the lipid membranes, whilst epigallocatechin-3-gallate action is not dose-dependent, the differences being attributable to the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the substances. The findings are discussed within the frame of earlier reports on the effect of polyphenols on artificial membranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment with ETC-1002 alone and in combination with ezetimibe lowers LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients with or without statin intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul D; MacDougall, Diane E; Newton, Roger S; Margulies, Janice R; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Orloff, David G; McKenney, James M; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2016-01-01

    ETC-1002 is an oral, once-daily, first-in-class medication being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia. To compare 2 doses of ETC-1002, alone or combined with ezetimibe 10 mg (EZE), vs EZE monotherapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This phase 2b, multicenter, double-blind trial-evaluated hypercholesterolemic patients (LDL-C, 130 to 220 mg/dL) with (n = 177) or without (n = 171) muscle-related intolerance to ≥2 statins; 1 at lowest approved dose. Subjects were randomized to 12-week treatment with ETC-1002 120 mg or ETC-1002 180 mg alone, EZE alone, ETC-1002 120 mg plus EZE, or ETC-1002 180 mg plus EZE. EZE alone lowered LDL-C by 21%, whereas ETC-1002 monotherapy with 120 mg or 180 mg reduced LDL-C by 27% (P = .0008 vs EZE) and 30% (P statin-intolerant patients reported more muscle-related adverse events than did statin-tolerant patients. ETC-1002 was safe and well tolerated, and rates of muscle-related adverse events were similar in all treatment groups. In patients with and without statin intolerance, daily treatment with ETC-1002 120 mg and 180 mg alone or with EZE reduced LDL-C more than EZE alone and had a similar tolerability profile (NCT01941836). Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hussin, Aminuddin Bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

  8. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR. In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

  9. Effect of VULM 1457, an ACAT inhibitor, on serum lipid levels and on real time red blood cell flow in diabetic and non-diabetic hamsters fed high cholesterol-lipid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtassáková, E; Syneková, M; Tazká, D; Mátyás, S; Hózová, R; Sadlonová, I; Svec, P

    2007-12-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the formation of cholesterol/fatty acyl-coenzyme A esters. Accumulation of cholesterol esters leads to pathological changes connected with atherosclerosis. We have evaluated effects of a newly synthesized ACAT inhibitor, 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM 1457), on serum lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels and velocity of red blood cells (RBC) in non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on high cholesterol-lipid (HCHL) diet during 3 months. The VULM 1457 effects on the paw microcirculation were assessed using capillary microscopy by measuring (RBC) velocity in vivo. Hamsters fed on HCHL diet became hypercholesterolemic with a dramatic increase in serum lipids accompanied with significantly decreased RBC velocity. Diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet had further increased serum lipids with reduction of RBC velocity. The VULM 1457 inhibitor lowered cholesterol levels in both non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet. The greater VULM 1457 effect was shown in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet where VULM 1457 expressed hypotriglycerides effects, too. An improved RBC velocity-pronounced effect was observed in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet treated with VULM 1457. These results suggest that the ACAT inhibitor, VULM 1457, is a prospective hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic drug which treats diabetes.

  10. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayelly López-Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  11. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  12. A model to assess the cost effectiveness of statins in achieving the UK National Service Framework target cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Koo; Marriott, John; Fuller, Stephen; Lacey, Loretto; Gillen, David

    2003-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a public health priority in the UK. The National Service Framework (NSF) has set standards for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of CHD, which include the use of cholesterol-lowering agents aimed at achieving targets of blood total cholesterol (TC) < 5.0 mmol/L and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) < 3.0 mmol/L. In order to achieve these targets cost effectively, prescribers need to make an informed choice from the range of statins available. To estimate the average and relative cost effectiveness of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin in achieving the NSF LDL-C and TC targets. Model-based economic evaluation. An economic model was constructed to estimate the number of patients achieving the NSF targets for LDL-C and TC at each dose of statin, and to calculate the average drug cost and incremental drug cost per patient achieving the target levels. The population baseline LDL-C and TC, and drug efficacy and drug costs were taken from previously published data. Estimates of the distribution of patients receiving each dose of statin were derived from the UK national DIN-LINK database. The estimated annual drug cost per 1000 patients treated with atorvastatin was pound 289000, with simvastatin pound 315000, with pravastatin pound 333000 and with fluvastatin pound 167000. The percentages of patients achieving target are 74.4%, 46.4%, 28.4% and 13.2% for atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin and fluvastatin, respectively. Incremental drug cost per extra patient treated to LDL-C and TC targets compared with fluvastatin were pound 198 and pound 226 for atorvastatin, pound 443 and pound 567 for simvastatin and pound 1089 and pound 2298 for pravastatin, using 2002 drug costs. As a result of its superior efficacy, atorvastatin generates a favourable cost-effectiveness profile as measured by drug cost per patient treated to LDL-C and TC targets. For a given drug budget, more patients would achieve NSF LDL

  13. Overactivation of intestinal SREBP2 in mice increases serum cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    Full Text Available Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2 transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2 driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body.

  14. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  15. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the foods you eat. Meat, fish, eggs, butter, cheese, and whole or low-fat milk all have cholesterol in them. You Need a Little, Not a ... are some foods that have a lot of cholesterol? Meat, eggs, butter, cheese, and milk (and stuff that's made with some ...

  16. The effect of 17β-estradiol on cholesterol content in human macrophages is influenced by the lipoprotein milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael P; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Meydani, Mohsen; Dillard, Alice; Schaefer, Ernst J; Lamon-Fava, Stefania

    2011-08-01

    Estrogen and testosterone are thought to modulate coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. To examine how these hormones affect human macrophage cholesterol transport, a key factor in atherogenesis, we obtained monocytes from healthy male and postmenopausal female donors (age 50–70 years). Cells were allowed to differentiate in autologous serum. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were exposed to estrogen, testosterone, or vehicle, during differentiation.Cells were cholesterol enriched with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the presence of treatment. Cell cholesterol mass, efflux, and the expression of proteins involved in HMDM cholesterol transport were examined.Estrogen significantly reduced cholesteryl ester (CE) content in both female and male HMDMs while having no measurable effect on cholesterol efflux. Testosterone did not affect cholesterol content or efflux. Both hormones significantly but modestly affected the gene expression of several proteins involved in HMDM transport, yet these effects did not translate into significant changes in protein expression. In THP-1 macrophages, the effect of estrogen on CE content was more potent in unloaded macrophages and was estrogen receptor dependent. A trend for a reduction in nonoxLDL uptake by estrogen was observed and was also found to be dependent upon estrogen receptor activation. Our data indicate that estrogen, but not testosterone, reduces CE accumulation in HMDMs obtained from a CHD age relevant population, independent of changes in the expression of proteins important to macrophage cholesterol transport. In THP-1 cells, this effect is reduced in the presence of oxLDL, indicating that a pro-atherogenic lipoprotein milieu is an important variable in sex hormone modulation of CHD.

  17. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  18. Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J W; Gilliland, S E

    1999-02-01

    Two controlled clinical studies were performed to examine effects of consumption of one daily serving of fermented milk (FM) (yogurt) on serum lipids. In the first study, subjects were randomly allocated to FM containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 of human origin or to FM containing L. acidophilus ATCC 43211 of swine origin. In this single-blind study, subjects consumed one 200 ml serving of FM daily for 3 weeks. The second study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Subjects completed a 4-week first treatment, had a 2-week washout, and completed a second 4-week treatment. In the second study subjects consumed FM containing L. acidophilus L1 or placebo FM over 4 weeks. In the first study, FM containing L. acidophilus L1 was accompanied by a 2.4% (pcholesterol concentration. In the second study, strain L1 reduced serum cholesterol concentration by 3.2% (pcholesterol concentration. Combined analysis of the two L1 treatment studies demonstrated a 2.9% (pcholesterol concentration. Since every 1% reduction in serum cholesterol concentration is associated with an estimated 2% to 3% reduction in risk for coronary heart disease, regular intake of FM containing an appropriate strain of L. acidophilus has the potential of reducing risk for coronary heart disease by 6 to 10%.

  19. The effect of a cholesterol liquid crystalline structure on osteoblast cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Jianping; Ji Jian; Shen Jiacong, E-mail: jijian@zju.edu.c [Department of Polymer Science, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization of Minster of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the effect of a liquid crystalline structure on cell behavior, polymethylsiloxane-graft-(10-cholesteryloxydecanol) was specially designed to get a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicated that cholesterol was successfully covalently grafted onto polymethylhydrosiloxane via decamethylene 'flexible spacer'. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM) investigations revealed that the copolymer with 44.9% mesogenic unit showed obvious thermotropic liquid crystalline transition at about 124.9 deg. C. Polymer films were prepared by spin coating on clean glass plates from 5 mg ml{sup -1} toluene solutions of the copolymers. The POM investigation indicated that while the unannealed films (SC15, SC45) showed no liquid crystalline structure, the films which were annealed in vacuo at 140 deg. C for 9 h and then quenched to room temperature (SC15C, SC45C) formed discrete island-like liquid crystalline and continuous liquid crystalline structures, respectively. Osteoblast cells (MC3T3) were chosen to test the cell behavior of annealed and unannealed films. In comparison to unannealed films, the annealed films with a cholesterol liquid crystalline structure could promote osteoblast cell attachment and growth significantly.

  20. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  1. LDL cholesterol modulates human CD34+ HSPCs through effects on proliferation and the IL-17 G-CSF axis.

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    Thomas R Cimato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia plays a critical role in atherosclerosis. CD34+ CD45dim Lineage- hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs give rise to the inflammatory cells linked to atherosclerosis. In mice, high cholesterol levels mobilize HSPCs into the bloodstream, and promote their differentiation to granulocytes and monocytes. The objective of our study was to determine how cholesterol levels affect HSPC quantity in humans. METHODS: We performed a blinded, randomized hypothesis generating study in human subjects (n=12 treated sequentially with statins of differing potencies to vary lipid levels. CD34+ HSPC levels in blood were measured by flow cytometry. Hematopoietic colony forming assays confirmed the CD34+ population studied as HSPCs with multlineage differentiation potential. Mobilizing cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The quantity of HSPCs was 0.15 ± 0.1% of buffy coat leukocytes. We found a weak, positive correlation between CD34+ HSPCs and both total and LDL cholesterol levels (r(2=0.096, p < 0.025. Additionally, we tested whether cholesterol modulates CD34+ HSPCs through direct effects or on the levels of mobilizing cytokines. LDL cholesterol increased cell surface expression of CXCR4, G-CSFR affecting HSPC migration, and CD47 mediating protection from phagocytosis by immune cells. LDL cholesterol also increased proliferation of CD34+ HSPCs (28 ± 5.7%, n=6, p < 0.03. Finally, the HSPC mobilizing cytokine G-CSF (r(2=0.0683, p < 0.05, and its upstream regulator IL-17 (r(2=0.0891, p < 0.05 both correlated positively with LDL cholesterol, while SDF-1 levels were not significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a model where LDL cholesterol levels positively correlate with CD34+ HSPC levels in humans through effects on the levels of G-CSF via IL-17 promoting mobilization of HSPCs, and by direct effects of LDL cholesterol on HSPC proliferation. The findings are provocative of further study to determine

  2. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M R; Thompson, S G; Wald, N J

    1994-02-05

    To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration. The only cause of death attributable to low serum cholesterol concentration was haemorrhagic stroke. The excess risk was associated only with concentrations below about 5 mmol/l (relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 2.5), affecting about 6% of people in Western populations. For noncirculatory causes of death there was a pronounced difference between cohort studies of employed men, likely to be healthy at recruitment, and cohort studies of subjects in community settings, necessarily including some with existing disease. The employed cohorts showed no excess mortality. The community cohorts showed associations between low cholesterol concentration and lung cancer, haemopoietic cancers, suicide, chronic bronchitis, and chronic liver and bowel disease; these were most satisfactorily explained by early disease or by factors that cause the disease lowering serum cholesterol concentration (depression causes suicide and lowers cholesterol concentration, for example). In the randomised trials nine deaths (from a total of 687 deaths not due to ischaemic heart disease in treated subjects) were attributed to known adverse effects of the specific treatments, but otherwise there was no evidence of an increased mortality from any cause arising from reduction in cholesterol concentration. There is no evidence that low or reduced serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause other than haemorrhagic stroke. This risk affects only those people with a very low concentration and even in these will be

  3. Reduction of cholesterol absorption by dietary plant sterols and stanols in mice is independent of the Abcg5/8 transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plosch, Torsten; Kruit, Janine K.; Bloks, Vincent W.; Huijkman, Nicolette C. A.; Havinga, Rick; Duchateau, Guns S. M. J. E.; Lin, Yuguang; Kuipers, Folkert

    Dietary supplementation with plant sterols, stanols, and their esters reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, thus lowering plasma LDL cholesterol concentration in humans. It was suggested that these beneficial effects are attributable in part to induction of genes involved in intestinal

  4. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  5. Optimizing the effect of plant sterols on cholesterol absorption in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, F H; Grundy, S M; Crouse, J R

    1982-04-01

    During three experimental periods, nine adults were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and fed a meal containing 500 mg of cholesterol as a component of scrambled eggs. In addition, the meal contained: 1) no additive, 2) 1 g beta-sitosterol, or 3) 2 g beta-sitosteryl oleate. Stools for the succeeding 5 days were analyzed to determine the percentage of the cholesterol in the test meal that was absorbed. The addition of beta-sitosterol resulted in a 42% decrease in cholesterol absorption; the beta-sitosteryl oleate caused a 33% reduction. These results indicate that the judicious addition of beta-sitosterol or beta-sitosteryl oleate to meals containing cholesterol-rich foods will result in a significant decrease in cholesterol absorption, with a consequent decrease in plasma cholesterol.

  6. Impact of subdermal norgestrel on hepatic acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol- acyltransferase (ACAT) activity: possible antiatherogenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letterie, G S

    2000-06-01

    The impact of subdermally placed ethinyl estradiol, norgestrel, and the combination of the two on cholesterol metabolism as measured by hepatic acyl:cholesterol-acyltransferase (ACAT) activity was examined in the rat model. A total of 48 rats were assigned to one of 6 groups, receiving either 0.1 mg or 1.0 mg of ethinyl estradiol daily, 1.0 or 10 mg of norgestrel daily, and combinations of either 0.1 mg ethinyl estradiol/1.0 mg norgestrel or 1.0 mg ethinyl estradiol/10 mg norgestrel daily. All drugs were administered through subdermally placed time release capsules. The administration of norgestrel only in either 1.0 mg or 10 mg resulted in significantly lower rates of ACAT activity (0.77 +/- 0.566 and 0.91 +/- 0.239 pmol/mg/min, respectively). The combination of 1.0 ethinyl estradiol and 10 mg norgestrel resulted in a significant increase in ACAT activity to 2.17 +/- 0.873. This combination also resulted in significantly greater weight loss at the conclusion of treatment [247.83 +/- 6.2 g (pre) vs. 205.50 +/- 10.6 (post)]. There were no other differences in ACAT activity between groups and no other differences in weight, both between groups and pre- and post-treatment within groups. In summary, subdermally placed norgestrel resulted in a significant lowering of ACAT activity not seen with either administration of ethinyl estradiol alone or the combination of ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel in doses ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 1.0 to 10.0 mg of norgestrel. Significantly increased ACAT activity for the combination of 1.0 ethinyl estradiol and 10 mg norgestrel over either ethinyl estradiol or norgestrel alone or a lower dose combination suggests a dose-related threshold and drug-drug interaction for this effect. These results suggest that subdermally placed norgestrel may result in significantly lower ACAT activity and may have a potential role as an antiatherogenic treatment.

  7. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  8. Cost-effective and highly sensitive cholesterol microsensors with fast response based on the enzyme-induced conductivity change of polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Kuan-Chung; Chu, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Kang, Yen-Wen; Fang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Chih-Chen; Li, Sheng-Shian; Andrew Yeh, J.; Yao, Da-Jeng; Wang, Yu-Lin, E-mail: ylwang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Hsien [Division of Medical Engineering, National Health Research Institutes, MiaoLi, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yu-Fen [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, a cost-effective and highly sensitive cholesterol microsensor, which is consisted of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and polyaniline (PANI), was developed based on the enzyme-induced conductivity change of PANI with fast response. Hydrogen peroxide is produced via the reaction between cholesterol and ChOx, which was immobilized in a dialysis membrane. The produced hydrogen peroxide can oxidize HRP, which can be reduced by oxidizing PANI, thus resulting in decreased conductivity of the polyaniline thin film. The reduced HRP can be oxidized again by hydrogen peroxide and the cycle of the oxidation/reduction continues until all hydrogen peroxide are reacted, leading to the high sensitivity of the sensor due to the signal contributed from all hydrogen peroxide molecules. Cholesterol was detected near the physiological concentrations ranging from 100 mg/dl to 400 mg/dl with the cholesterol microsensors. The results show linear relation between cholesterol concentration and the conductivity change of the PANI. The microsensor showed no response to cholesterol when the PANI was standalone without cholesterol oxidase immobilized, indicating that the enzymatic reaction is required for cholesterol detection. The simple process of the sensor fabrication allows the sensor to be cost-effective and disposable usage. This electronic cholesterol microsensor is promising for point-of-care health monitoring in cholesterol level with low cost and fast response.

  9. Prevention and Treatment of High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t is the first step in lowering your risk of heart disease. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol A heart-healthy eating plan can help you ... lowers HDL cholesterol. When a person with high cholesterol also smokes, their risk of coronary heart disease increases more than it otherwise would. ...

  10. Association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with coronary heart disease risk across categories of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Lee, Fleur; Astor, Brad C

    2011-03-01

    National cholesterol treatment guidelines include a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) that should be considered when making decisions on treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We investigated the association of HDL and LDL-cholesterol with incident CHD events (fatal or nonfatal CHD) over 14 years of follow-up among 13,615 adults aged 45 to 64 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. A total of 966 (7.1%) participants had a CHD event during follow-up. After adjustment for age, race, sex, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, chronic kidney disease and physical activity, a graded association was present between progressively lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and higher CHD risk, overall (P cholesterol (cholesterol, each standard deviation higher HDL-cholesterol (18 mg/dL) was associated with a hazard ratio of incident CHD of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63-0.77). These data suggest a graded association exists between lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and CHD across the full range of LDL-cholesterol levels. As interventions targeting HDL levels are developed, the combinatorial effects of lower HDL levels with various levels of LDL-cholesterol should be examined.

  11. Joint effects