Sample records for cholesterol dietary

  1. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  2. Mechanism of Resistance to Dietary Cholesterol

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    Lindsey R. Boone


    Full Text Available Background. Alterations in expression of hepatic genes that could contribute to resistance to dietary cholesterol were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, which are known to be resistant to the serum cholesterol raising action of dietary cholesterol. Methods. Microarray analysis was used to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in rats in response to dietary cholesterol. Changes were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Western blotting was employed to measure changes in hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase protein. Results. Of the 28,000 genes examined using the Affymetrix rat microarray, relatively few were significantly altered. As expected, decreases were observed for several genes that encode enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The largest decreases were seen for squalene epoxidase and lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP 51A1. These changes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. LDL receptor expression was not altered by dietary cholesterol. Critically, the expression of cholesterol 7α hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis, was increased over 4-fold in livers of rats fed diets containing 1% cholesterol. In contrast, mice, which are not resistant to dietary cholesterol, exhibited lower hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1 protein levels, which were not increased in response to diets containing 2% cholesterol.

  3. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials (United States)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  4. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

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    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  5. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

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    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J


    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  6. The Role of Dietary Cholesterol in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Related Metabolic Abnormalities: A Mini-review. (United States)

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Goulet, Amy; Moghadasian, Mohammed H


    Cholesterol plays a vital role in cell biology. Dietary cholesterol or "exogenous" cholesterol accounts for approximately one-third of the pooled body cholesterol, and the remaining 70% is synthesized in the body (endogenous cholesterol). Increased dietary cholesterol intake may result in increased serum cholesterol in some individuals, while other subjects may not respond to dietary cholesterol. However, diet-increased serum cholesterol levels do not increase the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) cholesterol ratio, nor do they decrease the size of LDL particles or HDL cholesterol levels. Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol levels, and small, dense LDL particles are independent risk factors for coronary artery disease. Dietary cholesterol is the primary approach for treatment of conditions such as the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Recent studies have highlighted mechanisms for absorption of dietary cholesterol. These studies have help understand how dietary and/or pharmaceutical agents inhibit cholesterol absorption and thereby reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations. In this article, various aspects of cholesterol metabolism, including dietary sources, absorption, and abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism, have been summarized and discussed.

  7. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.


    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and b

  8. Apoprotein E genotype and the response of serum cholesterol to dietary fat, cholesterol and cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.


    Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on r

  9. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.


    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol o

  10. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats given with and without dietary cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol synthesis and hepatic lipid metabolism. (United States)

    Bochenek, W; Rodgers, J B


    Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was studied in rats after consuming diets of varying neutral lipid and cholesterol content. Cholesterol synthesis was evaluated by measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and by determining the rate of 3H-labeled sterol production from [3H]mevalonate. Results were correlated with sterol balance data and hepatic lipid content. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was relatively great when cholesterol was excluded from the diet. The source of neutral dietary lipids, saturated vs. unsaturated, produced no change in hepatic sterol synthesis. Values for fecal sterol outputs and hepatic cholesterol levels were also similar in rats consuming either saturated or unsaturated fats. When 1% cholesterol was added to the diet, hepatic cholesterol synthesis was suppressed but the degree of suppression was greater in rats consuming unsaturated vs. saturated fats. This was associated with greater accumulation of cholesterol in livers from rats consuming unsaturates and a reduction in fecal neutral sterol output in this group as opposed to results from rats on saturated fats. Cholesterol consumption also altered the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipids producing decreases in the percentages of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is concluded that dietary cholesterol alters cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver and that this effect is enhanced by dietary unsaturated fats.

  11. The effect of squalane on the absorption of dietary cholesterol by the rat. (United States)

    Richter, E; Schäfer, S G


    Replacement of dietary triglyceride by a saturated hydrocarbon, squalane, resulted in a significant reduction (up to 50%) of cholesterol absorption of control values. Squalane may be useful in the treatment of dietary hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Effects of partial replacement of dietary fat by olestra on dietary cholesterol absorption in man

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    Jandacek, R.J.; Ramirez, M.M.; Crouse, J.R. III (Procter Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH (USA))


    Olestra, a nonabsorbable fat substitute comprising long-chain fatty acid esters of sucrose, had been previously shown to reduce cholesterol absorption in humans when ingested at a level of 50 g/d. To determine whether or not a lower level of dietary olestra would also reduce cholesterol absorption, we studied the effect of 7 g of olestra twice a day in 20 normocholesterolemic male inpatients in a double-blind, crossover trial. Two 6-day diet treatment and stool collection periods were separated by a 14-day washout period. Half of the subjects received butter, and half, a butter-olestra blend during each treatment period according to a crossover design. All subjects ingested trace amounts of 3H-cholesterol and 14C-beta-sitosterol with the butter or the butter-olestra blend. Cholesterol absorption was determined from the 3H/14C ratios in the diet and in saponified and extracted stools according to previously validated methodology. Cholesterol absorption during the butter regimen was significantly greater than that during the olestra regimen (56.1% +/- 1.6% v 46.7% +/- 1.1%, P less than .01).

  13. Is the control of dietary cholesterol intake sufficiently effective to ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

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    Munechika; Enjoji; Makoto; Nakamuta


    In our examination of the distribution of abdominal fat,dietary intake and biochemical data in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD),non-obese NAFLD patients without insulin resistance presented a characteristic pattern of dietary intake.Dietary cholesterol intake was superabundant in non-obese patients compared with obese patients,although total energy and carbohydrate intake was not excessive.Namely,excess cholesterol intake appears to be one of the main factors associated with NAFLD devel...

  14. Dietary regulation of maternal and fetal cholesterol metabolism in the guinea pig. (United States)

    Yount, N Y; McNamara, D J


    Studies to determine the effects of pre-natal interventions on maternal and fetal cholesterol homeostasis were carried out in the guinea pig. Guinea pig dams were fed either non-purified guinea pig diet or diet supplemented with either 1.1% of the bile acid binding resin cholestyramine or 0.25% cholesterol. Whole body rates of endogenous cholesterol synthesis were determined by quantitation of [3H]water incorporation into digitonin precipitable sterols in non-pregnant animals and at 40 and 60 days of gestation in the dam and fetus. Maternal hepatic cholesterol synthesis was reduced 87% by dietary cholesterol and was increased 3.5-fold with cholestyramine feeding. Fetal hepatic and peripheral tissue cholesterol synthesis rates peaked at 40 days gestation when peripheral tissue cholesterol synthesis was 5.7-fold higher and hepatic synthesis 6.2-fold greater than the near adult levels observed at 60 days. Cholesterol synthesis in the fetus was relatively insensitive to dietary manipulations; however, maternal cholestyramine treatment did result in a 1.4-fold increase in fetal carcass cholesterol synthesis at 60 days gestation. These data demonstrate that maternal cholesterogenic systems maintain responsiveness to dietary regulation during pregnancy; whereas fetal cholesterol homeostasis is relatively insensitive to dietary cholesterol throughout gestation yet may respond to induction by maternal cholestyramine treatment during the late gestation period.

  15. Cholesterol absorption and excretion in ileostomy subjects on high- and low-dietary-cholesterol intakes. (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I


    Six healthy ileostomy subjects were given [3H]cholesterol and [14C]beta-sitosterol in a single meal together with two controlled diets containing 150 or 450 mg cholesterol/d. Each diet was eaten for 3 d. Cholesterol absorption and excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, fat, energy, and nitrogen were analyzed. Fractional cholesterol absorption increased from 44 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) to 61 +/- 3.4% (P effluent, or excretion of energy, nitrogen, fat, and bile acids did not differ between periods. Endogenous cholesterol excretion remained unchanged whereas net cholesterol excretion (output minus intake) was 37% higher (P < 0.05) on low compared with high cholesterol intake.

  16. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

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    Beppu Fumiaki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  17. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

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    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten


    Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  18. Dietary cholesterol fails to stimulate the human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) in transgenic mice. (United States)

    Agellon, Luis B; Drover, Victor A B; Cheema, Sukhinder K; Gbaguidi, G Franck; Walsh, Annemarie


    Dietary cholesterol has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on the murine cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (Cyp7a1), but its effect on human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) expression in vivo is not known. A transgenic mouse strain harboring the human CYP7A1 gene and homozygous for the disrupted murine Cyp7a1 gene was created. Cholesterol feeding increased the expression of the endogenous modified Cyp7a1 allele but failed to stimulate the human CYP7A1 transgene. In transfected hepatoma cells, 25-hydroxycholesterol increased murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter activity, whereas the human CYP7A1 gene promoter was unresponsive. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the interaction of the liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha): retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer, a transcription factor complex that is activated by oxysterols, with the murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter, whereas no binding to the human CYP7A1 gene promoter was detected. The results demonstrate that the human CYP7A1 gene is not stimulated by dietary cholesterol in the intact animal, and this is attributable to the inability of the CYP7A1 gene promoter to interact with LXRalpha:RXR.

  19. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: dietary saturated fat and... Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.75 Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease. (a) Relationship between dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and...

  20. Distinct metabolic and vascular effects of dietary triglycerides and cholesterol in atherosclerotic and diabetic mouse models. (United States)

    Laplante, Marc-André; Charbonneau, Alexandre; Avramoglu, Rita Kohen; Pelletier, Patricia; Fang, Xiangping; Bachelard, Hélène; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Laakso, Markku; Després, Jean-Pierre; Deshaies, Yves; Sweeney, Gary; Mathieu, Patrick; Marette, André


    Cholesterol and triglyceride-rich Western diets are typically associated with an increased occurrence of type 2 diabetes and vascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the relative impact of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, atherosclerotic plaque formation, and endothelial function. C57BL6 wild-type (C57) mice were compared with atherosclerotic LDLr(-/-) ApoB(100/100) (LRKOB100) and atherosclerotic/diabetic IGF-II × LDLr(-/-) ApoB(100/100) (LRKOB100/IGF) mice. Each group was fed either a standard chow diet, a 0.2% cholesterol diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or a high-fat 0.2% cholesterol diet for 6 mo. The triglyceride-rich HFD increased body weight, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance but did not alter endothelial function or atherosclerotic plaque formation. Dietary cholesterol, however, increased plaque formation in LRKOB100 and LRKOB100/IGF animals and decreased endothelial function regardless of genotype. However, cholesterol was not associated with an increase of insulin resistance in LRKOB100 and LRKOB100/IGF mice and, unexpectedly, was even found to reduce the insulin-resistant effect of dietary triglycerides in these animals. Our data indicate that dietary triglycerides and cholesterol have distinct metabolic and vascular effects in obese atherogenic mouse models resulting in dissociation between the impairment of glucose homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis.

  1. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice. (United States)

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura


    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  2. Physiological performance of quails that underwent dietary and pharmacological manipulation of cholesterol. (United States)

    Botelho, G G; Falbo, M K; Ost, P R; Czekoski, Z M; Raviolo, A E; Giotto, F M; Goldoni, E C; Morais, R N


    The present work evaluated whether dietary and pharmacological interference on cholesterol synthesis were capable of inducing alterations in blood and yolk cholesterol levels and the secretion of corticosterone metabolites. Forty-five 40-day-old quails were divided into three experimental groups: vegetal fat diet, 2% beef fat (tallow) diet and vegetal fat diet with simvastatin administration (3.13 mg/kg/day). During all experiments, the animal weights and food consumption were recorded and blood and faecal samples (days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60), as well as eggs (days 30, 45 and 60), were collected. Analysis of serum and yolk cholesterol was performed and faecal corticosterone levels were measured. No differences were observed on blood cholesterol or faecal corticosterone between all treatments, despite a tendency of increased cholesterol in the group with the animal fat diet. However, quails submitted to an animal fat diet displayed an increase in yolk cholesterol at day 30 of the treatment and the egg yolks of quails treated with simvastatin exhibited a decrease in cholesterol content by the end of the treatment at 60 days. These results improved the knowledge regarding the physiology of quails and offered support to other studies concerning the consequences of the pharmacological treatment and the dietary manipulation of cholesterol levels.

  3. Influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, X; Beynen, A C


    The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.


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    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the d

  5. Spontaneous gallstone formation in deer mice: interaction of cholesterol, bile acids, and dietary fiber. (United States)

    Ginnett, Dorothy A; Theis, Jerold H; Kaneko, J Jerry


    A study of the physiologic and ecologic factors involved in a spontaneous seasonal gallstone cycle of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii) was conducted at the Tulelake National Wildlife Refuge (California, USA) from March 1991 to June 1992. The specific hypothesis examined was whether or not seasonal increases in dietary fiber intake provides the necessary conditions for a solubility defect, or supersaturation mechanism, resulting in precipitation of cholesterol gallstones. Results indicated that in addition to the seasonal gallstone prevalence cycle, these deer mice exhibit significant seasonal cycling in serum cholesterol, serum bile acids, fecal bile acids, and diet composition. These physiologic and dietary cycles were phase-advanced 3 mo over the gallstone prevalence cycle, indicating an approximate 3 mo time period for gallstone formation under field conditions. Further, seasonal dietary fiber (plant material and seeds) was positively correlated with both serum cholesterol and the fecal bile acids. This suggests that in wild deer mice, variations in dietary fiber may significantly affect the resorption of bile acids, thereby providing a potential physiologic and nutritional mechanism for spontaneous cholesterol gallstone formation.

  6. Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: A combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Nikolsky, Y.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Verheij, E.R.; Smilde, A.K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Smith, G.J.; Kaznacheev, V.; Nikolskaya, T.; Melnikov, A.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Greef, J. van der; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.


    Background: Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we treat

  7. A novel posttranscriptional mechanism for dietary cholesterol-mediated suppression of liver LDL receptor expression. (United States)

    Singh, Amar Bahadur; Kan, Chin Fung Kelvin; Shende, Vikram; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jingwen


    It is well-established that over-accumulation of dietary cholesterol in the liver inhibits sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-mediated LDL receptor (LDLR) gene transcription leading to a reduced hepatic LDLR mRNA level in hypercholesterolemic animals. However, it is unknown whether elevated cholesterol levels can elicit a cellular response to increase LDLR mRNA turnover to further repress LDLR expression in liver tissue. In the current study, we examined the effect of a high cholesterol diet on the hepatic expression of LDLR mRNA binding proteins in three different animal models and in cultured hepatic cells. Our results demonstrate that high cholesterol feeding specifically elevates the hepatic expression of LDLR mRNA decay promoting factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP)D without affecting expressions of other LDLR mRNA binding proteins in vivo and in vitro. Employing the approach of adenovirus-mediated gene knockdown, we further show that depletion of HNRNPD in the liver results in a marked reduction of serum LDL-cholesterol and a substantial increase in liver LDLR expression in hyperlipidemic mice. Additional studies of gene knockdown in albumin-luciferase-untranslated region (UTR) transgenic mice provide strong evidence supporting the essential role of 3'UTR in HNRNPD-mediated LDLR mRNA degradation in liver tissue. Altogether, this work identifies a novel posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism by which dietary cholesterol inhibits liver LDLR expression via inducing HNRNPD to accelerate LDLR mRNA degradation.

  8. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet. (United States)

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping


    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.


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    Rajesh Pandey et al


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

  10. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with elevated cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik. (United States)

    Labonté, Marie-Ève; Dewailly, Eric; Lucas, Michel; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît


    Our cross-sectional study assessed the associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Nunavik Inuit. This study was conducted as part of the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey, which included the collection of clinical measurements, plasma samples, and diet information from a food frequency questionnaire. A sample of 666 Inuit aged 18 years and older was included in our analyses. Dietary patterns were generated by principal component analysis. Multivariate general linear models adjusting for sex, age, waist circumference, and other potential confounders were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors. Four distinct patterns were identified, namely the traditional, Western, nutrient-poor food, and healthy patterns. The traditional pattern showed positive associations with plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B100, LDL peak particle diameter, and oxidized LDL (all P values for trend≤0.04), but showed no association with the total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio or with inflammatory biomarkers (all P values for trend ≥0.19). The nutrient-poor food pattern was positively associated with oxidized LDL (P=0.04), but inversely associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Ppatterns showed no association with any CVD risk factor. Our data show that high adherence to a traditional pattern among Nunavik Inuit is not associated with important changes in CVD risk factors, with the exception of a slight elevation in cholesterol concentrations, most likely attributable to increased n-3 fatty acid intake. Dietary patterns reflecting the recent introduction of market foods in the Inuit diet appear to exert a trivial influence on CVD risk factors.

  11. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild


    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish.

  12. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej;


    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene...... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...... esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota...

  13. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism. (United States)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik


    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene expression in the liver. Germ-free and conventionally raised mice were fed a lard or fish oil diet for 11 weeks. We performed lipidomics analysis of the liver and serum and microarray analysis of the liver. As expected, most of the variation in the lipidomics dataset was induced by the diet, and abundance of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota-induced regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism is dependent on dietary lipid composition.

  14. Dietary cholesterol promotes AOM-induced colorectal cancer through activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. (United States)

    Du, Qianming; Wang, Qing; Fan, Huimin; Wang, Jianing; Liu, Xiuting; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yajing; Hu, Rong


    Prolonged ingestion of a cholesterol-enriched diet induces chronic, auto-inflammatory responses resulting in significant health problems including colorectal cancer. Inflammasomes are thought to mediate intestinal homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to inflammatory bowel diseases and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, in vitro and in vivo information regarding the inflammation-inducing and tumor-promoting effect of cholesterol is lacking. Here we show that the cholesterol promoted colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice through activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. High cholesterol diet (HCD) significantly increased inflammatory responses and tumor burden. Cholesterol crystals, detected in the colon of mice fed with HCD, also promoted NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages, as indicated by elevated expression of cleaved caspase-1, formation of NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 complex assembly, and higher IL-1β secretion. Importantly, cholesterol was found to inhibit the activity of AMPKα in macrophages, leading to a significant production of mitochondrial ROS, which in turn activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, crystal uptake and cathepsin B accounted for cholesterol crystal-induced inactivation of AMPKα. Finally, HCD-induced increase in IL-1β secretion, macrophage infiltration and tumor burden was diminished by the deletion of NLRP3 in AOM-treated mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory and cancer-promoting effects of HCD are mediated by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our study extended our knowledge on how dietary choices can influence processes involved in chronic inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer.

  15. The effects of various sources of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasse-Wolthuis, M.


    This thesis deals with the influence of several types of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in young healthy subjects. Dietary fibre has been defined as those plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances) and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis b


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

  17. CYP7A1 A-278C polymorphism affects the response of plasma lipids after dietary cholesterol and cafestol interventions in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.K.; Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.; Princen, H.M.G.


    The response of plasma lipids to dietary cholesterol and fat varies among individuals. Variations in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism can be important in these interindividual differences. The rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids is cholesterol 7-hydroxylase

  18. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells. (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph


    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  19. The relation of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol to childhood cognitive flexibility. (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H


    Identification of health behaviors and markers of physiological health associated with childhood cognitive function has important implications for public health policy targeted toward cognitive health throughout the life span. Although previous studies have shown that aerobic fitness and obesity exert contrasting effects on cognitive flexibility among prepubertal children, the extent to which diet plays a role in cognitive flexibility has received little attention. Accordingly, this study examined associations between saturated fats and cholesterol intake and cognitive flexibility, assessed using a task switching paradigm, among prepubertal children between 7 and 10 years (N = 150). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, VO2max, and BMI), children consuming diets higher in saturated fats exhibited longer reaction time during the task condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive flexibility. Further, increasing saturated fat intake and dietary cholesterol were correlated with greater switch costs, reflecting impaired ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and poorer efficiency of cognitive control processes involved in task switching. These data are among the first to indicate that children consuming diets higher in saturated fats and cholesterol exhibit compromised ability to flexibly modulate their cognitive operations, particularly when faced with greater cognitive challenge. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to comprehensively characterize the interrelationships between diet, aerobic fitness, obesity, and children's cognitive abilities.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance. (United States)

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K


    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.

  1. Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbit’s Nictitating Membrane Response

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    Bernard G. Schreurs


    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease, including learning and memory changes. Although we have shown 2% cholesterol and copper in water can retard learning, other studies show feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition whereas feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explored this issue by manipulating cholesterol concentration and duration following classical trace conditioning of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response and assessed conditioned responding after eight weeks on cholesterol. First, rabbits given trace classical conditioning followed by 0.5%, 1%, or 2% cholesterol for eight weeks showed body weight and serum cholesterol levels that were a function of dietary cholesterol. Although all concentrations of cholesterol showed some sign of retarding long-term memory, the level of memory retardation was correlated with serum cholesterol levels. Second, rabbits given trace conditioning followed by different durations of a 2% cholesterol diet combined with different durations of a 0% control diet for 8 weeks showed duration and timing of a 2% cholesterol diet were important in affecting recall. The data support the idea that dietary cholesterol may retard long-term memory.

  2. Can dietary factors explain differences in serum cholesterol profiles among different ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Li, T.; Tan, W.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Suok Chai Chew,; Deurenberg, P.


    In Singapore. there exists differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease among the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This study aimed to investigate if differences in dietary intakes of fat, types of fat, cholesterol, fruits, vegetables and grain foods could explain the

  3. Apolipoprotein A4-1/2 polymorphism and response of serum lipids to dietary cholesterol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Meyboom, S.; Funke, H.; Katan, M.B.


    The response of serum lipids to dietary changes is to some extent an innate characteristic. One candidate genetic factor that may affect the response of serum lipids to a change in cholesterol intake is variation in the apolipoprotein A4 gene, known as the APOA4-1/2 or apoA-IVGln360His polymorphism.

  4. A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Beeson, W.L.; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Koenig, K.L.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Smit, E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.


    Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary

  5. The effect of dietary phytosphingosine on cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Sleddering, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jazet, I.M.


    Background: Sphingolipids, like phytosphingosine (PS) are part of cellular membranes of yeasts, vegetables and fruits. Addition of PS to the diet decreases serum cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in rodents and improves insulin sensitivity.Objective:To study the effect of dietary suppleme

  6. Nature's Cholesterol-Lowering Drug: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Lovastatin from Red Yeast Rice-Containing Dietary Supplements (United States)

    Nazri, Maisarah Mohd; Samat, Farah D.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.; Walsh, John J.


    Red yeast rice, produced by fermenting the fungus, "Monascus purpureus", on rice ("Oryza sativa" L. gramineae), is commonly used as a dietary supplement. It contains lovastatin, a member of the statin family of compounds, and is licensed for use as a cholesterol-lowering agent. This experiment involves the isolation and structure elucidation of…

  7. Phytosterol intake and dietary fat reduction are independent and additive in their ability to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol (United States)

    The plasma LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols (PS) appears to be independent of background diet, but definitive proof is lacking. The effect of background diet on plasma concentrations of PS has not been reported. We determined the effects of manipulating dietary contents of PS and f...

  8. A novel posttranscriptional mechanism for dietary cholesterol-mediated suppression of liver LDL receptor expression[S (United States)

    Singh, Amar Bahadur; Kan, Chin Fung Kelvin; Shende, Vikram; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jingwen


    It is well-established that over-accumulation of dietary cholesterol in the liver inhibits sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-mediated LDL receptor (LDLR) gene transcription leading to a reduced hepatic LDLR mRNA level in hypercholesterolemic animals. However, it is unknown whether elevated cholesterol levels can elicit a cellular response to increase LDLR mRNA turnover to further repress LDLR expression in liver tissue. In the current study, we examined the effect of a high cholesterol diet on the hepatic expression of LDLR mRNA binding proteins in three different animal models and in cultured hepatic cells. Our results demonstrate that high cholesterol feeding specifically elevates the hepatic expression of LDLR mRNA decay promoting factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP)D without affecting expressions of other LDLR mRNA binding proteins in vivo and in vitro. Employing the approach of adenovirus-mediated gene knockdown, we further show that depletion of HNRNPD in the liver results in a marked reduction of serum LDL-cholesterol and a substantial increase in liver LDLR expression in hyperlipidemic mice. Additional studies of gene knockdown in albumin-luciferase-untranslated region (UTR) transgenic mice provide strong evidence supporting the essential role of 3′UTR in HNRNPD-mediated LDLR mRNA degradation in liver tissue. Altogether, this work identifies a novel posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism by which dietary cholesterol inhibits liver LDLR expression via inducing HNRNPD to accelerate LDLR mRNA degradation. PMID:24792925

  9. Dietary sphingomyelin lowers hepatic lipid levels and inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption in high-fat-fed mice.

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    Rosanna W S Chung

    Full Text Available Controlling intestinal lipid absorption is an important strategy for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Accumulation of lipids in the liver is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is well-known that sphingomyelin (SM can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is, however, unclear if dietary SM also lowers liver lipid levels. In the present study (i the effect of pure dietary egg SM on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured with [(14C]cholesterol and [(3H]sitostanol in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF diet with or without 0.6% wt/wt SM for 18 days; and (ii hepatic lipid levels and gene expression were determined in mice given a HF diet with or without egg SM (0.3, 0.6 or 1.2% wt/wt for 4 weeks. Mice supplemented with SM (0.6% wt/wt had significantly increased fecal lipid and cholesterol output and reduced hepatic [(14C]cholesterol levels after 18 days. Relative to HF-fed mice, SM-supplemented HF-fed mice had significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (-30%. Liver weight was significantly lower in the 1.2% wt/wt SM-supplemented mice (-18%. Total liver lipid (mg/organ was significantly reduced in the SM-supplemented mice (-33% and -40% in 0.6% wt/wt and 1.2% wt/wt SM, respectively, as were triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The reduction in liver triglycerides was due to inactivation of the LXR-SREBP-1c pathway. In conclusion, dietary egg SM has pronounced hepatic lipid-lowering properties in mice maintained on an obesogenic diet.

  10. Influence of cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake on nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, Ma José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana


    Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is critically involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that dietary cholesterol intake induces changes in SMC at molecular and gene expression levels. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the differential response to nitric oxide of vascular SMC obtained from chicks after cholesterol and fish oil dietary intake and to examine effects on the main pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. Dietary cholesterol intake reduced the Bcl-2/Bax (anti-apoptotic/pro-apoptotic) protein ratio in SMC, making them more susceptible to apoptosis. When cholesterol was withdrawn and replaced with a fish oil-enriched diet, the Bcl-xl/Bax protein ratio significantly increased, reversing the changes induced by cholesterol. The decrease in c-myc gene expression after apoptotic stimuli and the increase in Bcl-xl/Bax ratio indicate that fish oil has a protective role against apoptosis in SMC. Nitroprussiate-like nitric oxide donors exerted an intensive action on vascular SMC cultures. However, SMC-C (isolated from animals fed with control diet) and SMC-Ch (isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched diet) responded differently to nitric oxide, especially in their bcl-2 and bcl-xl gene expression. SMC isolated from animals fed with cholesterol-enriched and then fish oil-enriched diet (SMC-Ch-FO cultures) showed an intermediate apoptosis level (Bcl-2/Bax ratio) between SMC-C and SMC-Ch, induction of c-myc expression and elevated p53 expression. These findings indicate that fish oil protects SMC against apoptosis.

  11. Dietary cholesterol stimulates CYP7A1 in rats because farnesoid X receptor is not activated. (United States)

    Xu, Guorong; Pan, Lu-Xing; Li, Hai; Shang, Quan; Honda, Akira; Shefer, Sarah; Bollineni, Jaya; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Tint, G Stephen; Salen, Gerald


    Cholesterol feeding upregulates CYP7A1 in rats but downregulates CYP7A1 in rabbits. To clarify the mechanism responsible for the upregulation of CYP7A1 in cholesterol-fed rats, the effects of dietary cholesterol (Ch) and cholic acid (CA) on the activation of the nuclear receptors, liver X-receptor (LXR-alpha) and farsenoid X-receptor (FXR), which positively and negatively regulate CYP7A1, were investigated in rats. Studies were carried out in four groups (n = 12/group) of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed regular chow (control), 2% Ch, 2% Ch + 1% CA, and 1% CA alone for 1 wk. Changes in mRNA expression of short heterodimer partner (SHP) and bile salt export pump (BSEP), target genes for FXR, were determined to indicate FXR activation, whereas the expression of ABCA1 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), target genes for LXR-alpha, reflected activation. CYP7A1 mRNA and activity increased twofold and 70%, respectively, in rats fed Ch alone when the bile acid pool size was stable but decreased 43 and 49%, respectively, after CA was added to the Ch diet, which expanded the bile acid pool 3.4-fold. SHP and BSEP mRNA levels did not change after feeding Ch but increased 88 and 37% in rats fed Ch + CA. This indicated that FXR was activated by the expanded bile acid pool. When Ch or Ch + CA were fed, hepatic concentrations of oxysterols, ligands for LXR-alpha increased to activate LXR-alpha, as evidenced by increased mRNA levels of ABCA1 and LPL. Feeding CA alone enlarged the bile acid pool threefold and increased the expression of both SHP and BSEP. These results suggest that LXR-alpha was activated in rats fed both Ch or Ch + CA, whereas CYP7A1 mRNA and activity were induced only in Ch-fed rats where the bile acid pool was not enlarged such that FXR was not activated. In rats fed Ch + CA, the bile acid pool expanded, which activated FXR to offset the stimulatory effects of LXR-alpha on CYP7A1.

  12. Serum hs-CRP varies with dietary cholesterol, but not dietary fatty acid intake in individuals free of any history of cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Mazidi, M; Heidari-Bakavoli, A; Khayyatzadeh, S S; Azarpazhooh, M R; Nematy, M; Safarian, M; Esmaeili, H; Parizadeh, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Kengne, A P; Ferns, G A


    The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration varies with dietary fatty acid intake in Iranian adults free of any history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study involved 8105 adults (3142 men) aged 35-65 years. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. The relationship between anthropometric, cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary data and serum hs-CRP was assessed using SPSS software. Median crude dietary saturated fat decreased across hs-CRP quarters (P =0.009 for linear trend), whereas energy-adjusted total fat (P =0.017), trans-fat (P =0.016), monounsaturated fatty acids (P =0.030) and cholesterol (P =0.005) monotonically increased, with some evidence of statistical interactions by gender. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP concentrations were associated with some components of dietary fatty acid intake in our population of individuals without CVD, suggesting that dietary fat intake could be associated with subclinical inflammation.

  13. An examination of the evidence supporting the association of dietary cholesterol and saturated fats with serum cholesterol and development of coronary heart disease. (United States)

    Volk, Marion G


    The lipid hypothesis is the basis for much of the contemporary diet advice and drug therapy aimed at preventing coronary heart disease (CHD), and was developed from a sequential association of dietary lipids, cholesterol, and CHD nearly 100 years ago. The lipid hypothesis considers pathological changes that relate to the end stage of the complex chronic condition summarized as CHD, not to its genesis. Ongoing research provides only inconclusive evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins, the highest selling drugs in medical history, may provide evidence that the lipid hypothesis is based on erroneous assumptions, since some of the mechanisms of action of statins seem to be independent of cholesterol reduction. This article assesses the methodology and assumptions underlying the early studies that gave rise to the current assumption of a causal relationship between dietary fat consumption and CHD. It argues that flaws in methodology have led to inaccurate and highly debatable conclusions. It assesses research supporting criticism of these early studies and considers other factors that may influence CHD. It offers alternative interpretations of the use of statins in controlling CHD. Finally, it provides an historical context suggesting different causes of CHD that have no relation to fat intake.

  14. Influence of dietary boron supplementation on some serum metabolites and egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens. (United States)

    Eren, M; Uyanik, F


    The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on some serum parameters and egg-yolk cholesterol was studied in laying hens. A total of 224 eighteen-week-old hens of the Hyline Brown 98 strain were assigned to 7 groups with 4 replicates of 8 hens each after 10 days of adaptation, and they were fed commercial diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg (diet) B (H3BO3) for 8 weeks. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels were decreased with all B levels. Except in the group receiving 5 mg/kg B supplementation, decreases were found in serum triglycerides in all groups. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was decreased in the groups receiving 100 mg/kg or higher levels of B. All levels of B supplementation increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity at weeks 21 and 22, while 10 mg/kg or higher levels of B increased serum globulin, urea and egg-yolk cholesterol levels. The results demonstrate that B supplementation at levels exceeding 5 mg/kg affects serum biochemical parameters and increases egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

  15. Pathways of cholesterol homeostasis in mouse retina responsive to dietary and pharmacologic treatments. (United States)

    Zheng, Wenchao; Mast, Natalia; Saadane, Aicha; Pikuleva, Irina A


    Effects of serum cholesterol on cholesterol content in the retina are currently unknown. It is also unclear how cholesterol levels are controlled in the retina. High-cholesterol diet and oral administrations of simvastatin were used to modulate serum cholesterol in mice. These treatments only modestly affected cholesterol content in the retina and had no significant effect on retinal expression of the major cholesterol- and vision-related genes; the sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway of transcriptional regulation does not seem to be operative in the retina under the experimental conditions used. Evidence is obtained that posttranslational mechanisms play a role in the control of retinal cholesterol. Retinal genes were only upregulated by oral administrations of TO901317 activating liver X receptors. Three of the upregulated genes could be of particular importance (apoD, Idol, and Rpe65) and have not yet been considered in the context of cholesterol homeostasis in the retina. Collectively, the data obtained identify specific features of retinal cholesterol maintenance and suggest additional therapies for age-related macular degeneration, a blinding disease characterized by cholesterol and lipid accumulations in chorioretinal tissues.


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    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  17. Maternal dietary betaine supplementation modifies hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes via epigenetic mechanisms in newborn piglets. (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Lu, Jingyu; Yuan, Mengjie; Sui, Shiyan; Song, Haogang; Zhao, Ruqian


    To elucidate the effects of maternal dietary betaine supplementation on hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in newborn piglets and the involved epigenetic mechanisms, we fed gestational sows with control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout pregnancy. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had higher serum methionine concentration and hepatic content of betaine, which was associated with significantly up-regulated hepatic expression of glycine N-methyltransferase. Prenatal betaine exposure increased hepatic cholesterol content and modified the hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in neonatal piglets. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 was down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) was down-regulated at the mRNA level, but up-regulated at the protein level, in betaine-exposed piglets. The transcriptional repression of HMGCR was associated with CpG island hypermethylation and higher repressive histone mark H3K27me3 (histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation) on the promoter, whereas increased HMGCR protein content was associated with significantly decreased expression of miR-497. Furthermore, LDL receptor was significantly down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, which was associated with promoter CpG hypermethylation. In addition, the expression of cholesterol-27α-hydroxylase (CYP27α1) was up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while the expression of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) was increased at the mRNA level, but unchanged at the protein level associated with increased expression of miR-181. These results indicate that maternal betaine supplementation increases hepatic cholesterol content in neonatal piglets through epigenetic regulations of cholesterol metabolic genes, which involve alterations in DNA and histone methylation and in the expression of microRNA targeting these genes.

  18. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.


    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol

  19. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serlie Mireille J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

  20. Changes in the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and the response to dietary cholesterol in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demacker, P.N.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Katan, M.B.


    The effect of a cholesterol-enriched diet was studied in nine healthy volunteers with special emphasis to the changes which occurred in the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (d<1.019 g/ml). Compared to the habitual diet, a moderately increased intake of cholesterol (from 300–900 mg/day) resulted in cha

  1. Differences between men and women in the response of serum cholesterol to dietary changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.


    Background. Hypercholesterolaemia is initially treated by diet. However, most studies of diet and cholesterol response have been carried out in men, and it is not known whether women react to diet to the same extent as men do. We therefore studied sex differences in the response of serum cholesterol

  2. Trans Fatty Acids, HDL-cholesterol, and Cardiovascular Disease. Effects of Dietary Changes on Vascular Reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.


    A high consumption of trans fatty acids increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigeted whether this increase in risk was due to the decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol by trans fatty acids, because low concentrations of serum HDL-cholesterol also increase risk of CVD. Flow-mediate

  3. Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Vuksan, Vladimir; Jenkins, Alexandra L; Rogovik, Alexander L; Fairgrieve, Christopher D; Jovanovski, Elena; Leiter, Lawrence A


    The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (SD 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (SEM 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14,300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136,300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY (-12.6 (SEM 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB (-14.6 (SEM 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet.

  4. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken. (United States)

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J


    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  5. Dietary chitosan enhances hepatic CYP7A1 activity and reduces plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. (United States)

    Moon, Min-Sun; Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha


    The present study was performed to elucidate the hypocholesterolemic action of chitosan on the diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were fed with chitosan-free diet (Control), diets containing 2% or 5% chitosan for 4 weeks. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by adding 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid to all diets. Body weight gain and food intake of rats did not differ among the groups. The chitosan treated groups showed significant improvement in the plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the control group (pCYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was increased by 123% and 165% for the 2% or 5% chitosan diets, respectively. These findings suggest that enhancement of hepatic CYP7A1 activity may be a mechanism, which can partially account for the hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary chitosan in cholesterol metabolism.

  6. Positive effect of dietary lutein and cholesterol on the undirected song activity of an opportunistic breeder (United States)

    Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel


    Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol) in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate) and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting) in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We predicted that males supplemented with lutein and cholesterol would sing at higher rates than controls because both lutein and cholesterol have important health-related physiological functions in birds and birdsong mirrors individual condition. To control for testosterone secretion that may upregulate birdsong, birds were exposed to a decreasing photoperiod. Our results showed that control males down-regulated testosterone in response to a decreasing photoperiod, while birds treated with lutein or cholesterol maintained a constant singing activity. Both lutein- and cholesterol-supplemented groups sang more than control groups by the end of the experiment, indicating that the quality of food can affect undirected song irrespective of circulating testosterone concentrations. None of the other measured behaviors were affected by the treatment, suggesting that, when individuals have full availability of food, sexually selected song traits are more sensitive to the effect of food quality than other behavioral traits. Overall the results support our prediction that undirected song produced by male zebra finches signals access to high-quality food.

  7. Treatment of young rats with cholestyramine or a hypercholesterolemic diet does not influence the response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Bruijne, J.J. de; Katan, M.B.


    Groups of 10 female Wistar rats (aged 4 weeks) were fed for 29 days either a low-cholesterol commercial diet, a commercial diet containing 2% (w/w) cholesterol, 0.5% cholate and 5% olive oil or a diet containing 2% cholestyramine. The rats were then fed the low-cholesterol commercial diet for the ne

  8. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis. (United States)

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M


    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs.

  9. Impact of Mediterranean diet education versus posted leaflet on dietary habits and serum cholesterol in a high risk population for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Broer, J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; May, J.F.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.


    Objective: To investigate the impact of intensive group education on the Mediterranean diet on dietary intake and serum total cholesterol after 16 and 52 weeks, compared to a posted leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines, in the context of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). D

  10. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  11. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, I.; Voshol, P.J.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Romijn, J.A.; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.


    Background: The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed. Objec

  12. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  13. The effect of dietary rape-seed oil on cholesterol-ester metabolism and cholesterol-ester-hydrolase activity in the rat adrenal. (United States)

    Beckett, G J; Boyd, G S


    The effects of stock diet and stock diet supplemented by olive oil and rape seed on rat adrenal cholesterol ester metabolism have been studied. Rats fed rape seed oil failed to gain weight at the same rate as rats fed olive oil. A prominent feature of the rats fed rape seed oil was an accumulation of high concentrations of cholesterol erucate in the adrenal lipid droplets. When these rats were subjected to an ether stress no percentage decrease in the amount of cholesterol erucate was observed. Adrenal cholesterol ester hydrolase activity was higher in rats fed the olive oil and rape seed oil diets than rats fed the stock diet. In rats fed stock or olive oil diets, a ten-minute ether anaesthesia stress resulted in a two-fold increase in activity of adrenal cholesterol ester hydrolase. Cofactor addition of ATP, cyclic AMP and MgCl-2 in vitro resulted in a stimulation of cholesterol ester hydrolase to a similar activity in both quiescent and ether-stressed rats. By contrast rats fed the rape seed oil diet gave no significant stimulation of cholesterol ester hydrolase activity when given an ether stress or when cofactors were added in vitro. Cholesterol erucate was hydrolysed at only 25% to 30% of the rate of cholesterol oleate in vitro in all groups of animals. Oleic acid added in vitro gave an inhibition of cholesterol ester hydrolase activity in rats fed stock diet while erucic acid activated the enzyme. The accumulation of cholesterol erucate in the adrenal when rats are fed rape seed oil could be due to the reduced ability of cholesterol ester hydrolase to hydrolyse this ester.

  14. HDL cholesterol, LDL receptor activity and response to dietary cholesterol *1 A reply to the letter of Cortese, Miller, Marenah and Lewis [2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.


    Variation in the concentration of cholesterol in blood plasma is partly accounted for by differences in diet, age, sex and genetic constitution. No correlation between plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and the activity of the LDL receptor in white blood cells could be fo

  15. Phenotypic factors influencing the variation in response of circulating cholesterol level to personalised dietary advice in the Food4Me study. (United States)

    Kirwan, Laura; Walsh, Marianne C; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Kolossa, Silvia; Daniel, Hannelore; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine


    Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.

  16. Dietary Karaya Saponin and Rhodobacter capsulatus Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects by Suppression of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis and Promotion of Bile Acid Synthesis in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrose


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hypolipidemic action of karaya saponin or Rhodobacter (R. capsulatus. A total of 40 laying hens (20-week-old were assigned into four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (as a control or basal diets supplemented with either karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, or both for 60 days. The level of serum low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum, liver, and egg yolk were reduced by all the supplementations (<.05. Liver bile acid concentration and fecal concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and bile acid were simultaneously increased by the supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus (<.05. The supplementation of karaya saponin, R. capsulatus, and the combination of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus suppressed the incorporation of 14C from 1-14C-palmitic acid into the fractions of total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol in the liver in vitro (<.05. These findings suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effects of karaya saponin and R. capsulatus are caused by the suppression of the cholesterol synthesis and the promotion of cholesterol catabolism in the liver.

  17. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai


    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  18. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.


    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  19. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S


    Full Text Available Abstract The liver is responsible for controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the body. HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor (LDL-r are involved in this regulation and are also ubiquitously expressed in all major tissues. We have previously shown in guinea pigs that there is a correlation in gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL-r between liver and mononuclear cells. The present study evaluated human mononuclear cells as a surrogate for hepatic expression of these genes. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction with low and high cholesterol content on HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r mRNA expression in mononuclear cells. All subjects were counseled to consume a carbohydrate restricted diet with 10–15% energy from carbohydrate, 30–35% energy from protein and 55–60% energy from fat. Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions per day] for 12 weeks. At the end of the intervention, there were no changes in plasma total or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C compared to baseline (P > 0.10 or differences in plasma total or LDL-C between groups. The mRNA abundance for HMG-CoA reductase and LDL-r were measured in mononuclear cells using real time PCR. The EGG group showed a significant decrease in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.98 ± 1.26 to 1.32 ± 0.92 arbitrary units P

  20. Influence of dietary sugar on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat: Marked reduction of hepatic Abcg5/8 expression following sucrose ingestion. (United States)

    Apro, Johanna; Beckman, Lena; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats


    Previous studies have indicated that dietary intake of sugar may lower bile acid production, and may promote cholesterol gallstone formation in humans. We studied the influence of dietary sucrose on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the rat. In two different experiments, rats received high-sucrose diets. In the first, 60% of the weight of standard rat chow was replaced with sucrose (high-sucrose diet). In the second, rats received a diet either containing 65% sucrose (controlled high-sucrose diet) or 65% complex carbohydrates, in order to keep other dietary components constant. Bile acid synthesis, evaluated by measurements of the serum marker 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and of the hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp7a1, was markedly reduced by the high-sucrose diet, but not by the controlled high-sucrose diet. Both diets strongly reduced the hepatic - but not the intestinal - mRNA levels of Abcg5 and Abcg8. The differential patterns of regulation of bile acid synthesis induced by the two sucrose-enriched diets indicate that it is not sugar per se in the high-sucrose diet that reduces bile acid synthesis, but rather the reduced content of fiber or fat. In contrast, the marked reduction of hepatic Abcg5/8 observed is an effect of the high sugar content of the diets.

  1. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation. (United States)

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria


    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice.

  2. 我国成年居民膳食胆固醇摄入量与血清总胆固醇水平关系的研究%Study on the relationships between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol among Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏畅; 贾小芳; 王志宏; 王惠君; 张兵


    Objective To describe the relationships between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol among Chinese adults.Methods Data used in the present study was from the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS).Chinese adults,18 to 65 year olds who participated in the 2009 CHNS with complete individual information were included in the study.Correlation of dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol among different sex groups was described to explore the effect of dietary cholesterol intake on the level of serum cholesterol as well as to examine the effect of higher intake of dietary cholesterol related to hypercholesterolemia.Results Results from the correlation analysis indicated that dietary cholesterol appeared a highly positive correlation (P<0.05) with serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Data from the multiple regression analysis showed that dietary cholesterol intake was an important factor that affecting the serum TC (P<0.05) in both males and females but LDL-C was only in females (P=0.01).After adjusting for potential confounders,the high intake of dietary cholesterol (≥300 mg/d) had higher risks for developing hypercholesterolemia in both males and females (OR=1.2 1,95% CI:1.03-1.42,P=0.019;OR=1.18,95%CI:1.00-1.40,P=0.044),respectively.Conclusion Dietary cholesterol intake seemed to correlate with the serum cholesterol level,and hypercholesterolemia should be prevented through reducing the dietary cholesterol among Chinese adults.%目的 了解我国成年居民膳食胆固醇摄入量与血清总胆固醇(TC)水平的关系.方法 资料来源于2009年第八轮“中国健康与营养调查”.将参加2009年中国健康与营养调查并有完整个人信息的18~65岁成年居民作为调查对象.分析调查对象膳食胆固醇摄入量与TC水平的相关关系,探讨膳食胆固醇摄入对TC水平的影响及膳食胆固醇摄入过量人群高胆固醇血症的患病风险.结果 我国成年居民膳

  3. Dietary values of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in Penaeus monodon in the presence and absence of cholesterol supplementation: effect on growth, nutrient digestibility and tissue carotenoid composition. (United States)

    Niu, Jin; Li, Chun-Hou; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Chen, Xu; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao


    Penaeus monodon (mean initial wet weight 1·19 (SE 0·01) g) were fed seven diets in triplicate: a control diet (D1) without carotenoids; three diets formulated to supply 0·1 % astaxanthin alone (D2), 0·2 % astaxanthin alone (D3), and a combination of 0·1 % astaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D4); three diets with 0·07 % canthaxanthin alone (D5), 0·13 % canthaxanthin alone (D6), and a combination of 0·07 % canthaxanthin and 1 % cholesterol (D7). Weight gain (WG, %), specific growth rate (SGR, %/d) and survival were chosen as parameters of shrimp growth performance. Total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were chosen as indices of shrimp plasma antioxidant capacity. Meanwhile, digestibility, retention efficiency and tissue carotenoids were also investigated to determine the additive effect of cholesterol on the efficiency of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. After 74 d rearing, WG and SGR of shrimp fed D2-D4 and D7 were higher than those of shrimp fed D1 (P astaxanthin in D2-D4 were higher than those of canthaxanthin in D5-D7 (P astaxanthin were quite high (>98 %) in D2-D4 and no differences were found among them (P>0·05), the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D2-D3 treatments) were considerably low; however, cholesterol supplementation significantly improved the carotenoid retention efficiencies in the whole body, muscle and shell (D4 treatment). Accordingly, the addition of cholesterol also significantly enhanced the carotenoid contents of tissues. Shrimp fed supplemented carotenoid diets (D2-D7) had higher TAS and lower SOD, ALT and AST than shrimp fed D1 (P astaxanthin or canthaxanthin was higher than that of shrimp fed D1 during the stress test (P astaxanthin was better than canthaxanthin as the dietary carotenoid source in the commercial diet of P. monodon, and the supplement of cholesterol could positively enhance the efficiency of

  4. Dietary cholesterol induces trafficking of intestinal Niemann-Pick Type C1 Like 1 from the brush border to endosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Tønnesen, Carina K; Hansen, Gert H


    early endosome antigen 1, whereas only a minor fraction was left in the brush border. Neither APN, lactase, nor sucrase-isomaltase was endocytosed in parallel, demonstrating that this is a selective cholesterol-induced endocytosis of NPC1L1. Conceivably either the induced internalization could be due...

  5. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk. (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique


    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  6. Trans fatty acids, HDL-cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk - Effects of dietary changes on vascular reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.


    Intake of trans fatty acids increases the risk of coronary heart disease, even more so than saturated fatty acids. We wanted to investigate whether this higher risk was caused by the decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol by trans fatty acids. To do this, we studied th

  7. Glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina added to pork significantly block dietary cholesterol effects on lipoproteinemia, arylesterase activity, and CYP7A1 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats. (United States)

    González-Torres, Laura; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Olivero-David, Raúl; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González, Rafaela Raposo; González-Muñoz, Ma José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J


    Zucker fa/fa rats easily develop dyslipidemia and obesity. Restructured pork (RP) is a suitable matrix for including functional ingredients. The effects of glucomannan- RP or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched RP on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) expression, and arylesterase activity in growing fa/fa rats fed high-energy, high-fat cholesterol-enriched diets were tested. Groups of six rats each received diet containing 15% control-RP (C), 15% glucomannan-RP diet (G), 15% glucomannan + spirulina-RP diet (GS), and same diets enriched with 2.4% cholesterol and 0.49% cholic acid (cholesterol-enriched control (HC), cholesterol-enriched glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-enriched glucomannan + spirulina (HGS) diets) over a 7-week period. C diet induced obesity, severe hyperglycemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Those facts were not significantly modified by G or GS diets. G diet increased CYP7A1 expression but decreased the total cholesterol/high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (p CYP7A1 expression. HC vs. C diet reduced food intake, body weight gain, and plasma glucose (p CYP7A1 expression (at least p CYP7A1 expression (p < 0.01) but did not modify the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. HGS vs. HG decreased triglyceridemia, the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity (p < 0.05). In conclusion, G- and GS-RP act as functional foods and notably blocked the dietary cholesterol effects. In addition, HGS-RP improved the glucomannan hypolipidemic effects, increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity, and decreased insulin resistance.

  8. Community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol/triglyceride and dietary habits/life styles in Pu-Li, Taiwan. (United States)

    Chou, P; Shaw, C K; Lai, M Y


    This is a community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol (CHO)/triglyceride (TG) and dietary habits/life styles of persons living in a central Taiwan Town. Door-to-door interviews were carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade, and fasting blood for CHO and TG tests was drawn by public health nurses from Pu-Li Health Station. Univariate analysis found that significant variables correlated with CHO were age (+), locality, non-fish seafood (+) and pungent food (+). Significant variables correlated with TG were age (+), sex, locality, smoking (+), alcohol (+) and physical activity (-). Stratified by age (> or = 50 and area; and OR = 0.74, 95% C.I. = 0.50-1.08 for rural area); sea food consumption (OR = 1.50, 95% C.I. = 0.94-2.40); and smoking (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. = 0.48-0.99).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on high- fat/cholesterol-dietary hamsters. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chou, Chung-Hsi; Yang, Deng-Jye; Chen, Jr-Wei; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen


    Noni juice (NJ) is rich in phytochemicals and polysaccharides. Lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects of NJ were investigated in this study. Fifty male hamsters were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) normal diet and distilled water (LFCD); (2) high-fat/cholesterol diet and distilled water (HFCD); (3) HFCD and 3 ml NJ (including 0.20 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_L); (4) HFCD and 6 mL NJ (including 0.40 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_M); (5) HFCD and 9 ml NJ (including 0.60 g solids)/kg BW (NJ_H) for six weeks. NJ supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, atherogenic index, malondialdehyde levels, and hepatic lipids in HFCD hamsters, whereas serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, glutathione, and fecal lipids in HFCD hamsters were increased (p < 0.05) by NJ supplementation. Although NJ supplementation downregulated (p < 0.05) sterol regulator element binding protein-1c in HFCD hamsters, it upregulated (p < 0.05) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and uncoupling protein 2 gene expressions in HFCD hamsters. Results demonstrate that NJ promotes cardioprotection in a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

  10. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer. (United States)

    Broitman, S A


    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  11. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster. (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H


    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils.

  12. Dietary oleic and palmitic acids modulate the ratio of triacylglycerols to cholesterol in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in men and cell viability and cycling in human monocytes. (United States)

    López, Sergio; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Moreda, Wenceslao; Villar, José; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J G


    The postprandial metabolism of dietary fats produces triacylglycerol (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) that could interact with circulating cells. We investigated whether the ratios of oleic:palmitic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA):SFA in the diet affect the ratio of TG:cholesterol (CHOL) in postprandial TRL of healthy men. The ability of postprandial TRL at 3 h (early postprandial period) and 5 h (late postprandial period) to affect cell viability and cycle in the THP-1 human monocytic cell line was also determined. In a randomized, crossover experiment, 14 healthy volunteers (Caucasian men) ate meals enriched (50 g/m(2) body surface area) in refined olive oil, high-palmitic sunflower oil, butter, and a mixture of vegetable and fish oils, which had ratios of oleic:palmitic acid (MUFA:SFA) of 6.83 (5.43), 2.36 (2.42), 0.82 (0.48), and 13.81 (7.08), respectively. The ratio of TG:CHOL in postprandial TRL was inversely correlated (r = -0.89 to -0.99) with the ratio of oleic:palmitic acid and with the MUFA:SFA ratio in the dietary fats (P the cell cycle in THP-1 cells.

  13. Cholesterol Test (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  14. What's Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  15. What's Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  16. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens. (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W


    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  17. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1 induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage.

  18. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging to the study of effects of age and dietary l-arginine on aortic lesion composition in cholesterol-fed rabbits (United States)

    Palombo, Francesca; Cremers, Stephanie G.; Weinberg, Peter D.; Kazarian, Sergei G.


    Diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in the descending thoracic segment of rabbit aorta were analysed ex vivo by micro-attenuated total reflection (ATR)–Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging. The distribution and chemical character of lipid deposits within the arterial wall near intercostal branch ostia were assessed in histological sections from immature and mature rabbits fed cholesterol with or without l-arginine supplements. Previous studies have shown that both these properties change with age in cholesterol-fed rabbits, putatively owing to changes in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) from l-arginine. Immature animals developed lesions at the downstream margin of the branch ostium, whereas lipid deposition was observed at the lateral margins in mature animals. Dietary l-arginine supplements had beneficial effects in mature rabbit aorta, with overall disappearance of the plaques; on the other hand, they caused only a slight decrease of the lipid load in lesions at the downstream margin of the ostium in immature rabbits. ATR–FTIR imaging enabled differences in the lipid to protein density ratio of atherosclerotic lesions caused by age and diet to be visualized. Lipid deposits in immature rabbits showed higher relative absorbance values of their characteristic spectral bands compared with those in immature l-arginine-fed rabbits and mature rabbits. The multivariate methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were employed, and relevant chemical and structural information were obtained. Two distinct protein constituents of the intima–media layer at different locations of the wall were identified using the method of FA. This approach provides a valuable means of investigating the structure and chemistry of complex heterogeneous systems. It has potential for in vivo diagnosis of pathology. PMID:18986964

  19. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet. (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang


    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibited lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles.

  20. Effects of Dietary Brazilian Palm Oil (Mauritia flexuosa L. on Cholesterol Profile and Vitamin A and E Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino


    Full Text Available In vitro studies have been carried out to establish the nutritional differences between crude and refined vegetable oils; however, the impact of the consumption of these foods on metabolism, in particular the effect of buriti oil, needs to be further evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical and murine parameters and the vitamin A and E status in young rats fed with diets supplemented with crude or refined buriti oil. The animals (n = 30 were randomized into three groups receiving diet added of soybean oil (control, crude buriti oil (CBO and refined buriti oil (RBO for 28 days. Rats fed with diet added of refined buriti oil (RBO showed reduced total cholesterol (up to 60.27%, LDL (64.75%, triglycerides (55.47% and enzyme aspartate transaminase (21.57% compared to those fed with diet added of crude oil. Serum and hepatic retinol and tocopherol were higher by two to three times in CBO and RBO groups compared to the control group, but no differences were observed for murine parameters. The results indicate that buriti oil is an important source of the antioxidant vitamins A and E, and refined buriti oil is suggested as alternative to improve the lipid profile of healthy rats.

  1. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet



    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/choleserol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for ...

  2. About Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  3. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 are associated with factors of the metabolic syndrome and modify the association between dietary saturated fat and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. (United States)

    Cuda, Cristina; Badawi, Alaa; Karmali, Mohamed; El-Sohemy, Ahmed


    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a protein of the innate immune system hypothesized to mediate some of the effects of a high-fat diet on inflammation and insulin resistance. As both these factors are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), genetic variation in TLR4 may affect the relationship between dietary lipids and MetS. The objective of the study was to determine whether 2 polymorphisms in TLR4 (rs4986790 Asp299Gly and rs5030728 G>A) modify the relationship between dietary fat and markers of the MetS. Participants were healthy young men and women of various ethnocultural backgrounds. Dietary intake was estimated using a 1-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. The Asp299Gly polymorphism in TLR4 was associated with increased insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P < .05), and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (P < .05) and family history of diabetes (P = .0002). The intronic polymorphism rs5030728 modified the relationship between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = .003 for interaction). The SFA intake was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol among individuals homozygous for the G allele (β = -0.015 ± 0.007 mmol/L, P = .04), whereas a positive relationship was observed for heterozygotes (β = 0.025 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P = .02). There was no association between dietary SFAs and HDL cholesterol among individuals homozygous for the A allele. These observations suggest that both diet and innate immunity may interact to influence components of the MetS.

  4. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol) and a decrease in oxidative damage. (United States)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel


    Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites), we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  5. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  6. Food combinations for cholesterol lowering. (United States)

    Harland, Janice I


    Reducing elevated LDL-cholesterol is a key public health challenge. There is substantial evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that a number of foods and food components can significantly reduce LDL-cholesterol. Data from RCT have been reviewed to determine whether effects are additive when two or more of these components are consumed together. Typically components, such as plant stanols and sterols, soya protein, β-glucans and tree nuts, when consumed individually at their target rate, reduce LDL-cholesterol by 3-9 %. Improved dietary fat quality, achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fat, reduces LDL-cholesterol and can increase HDL-cholesterol, further improving blood lipid profile. It appears that the effect of combining these interventions is largely additive; however, compliance with multiple changes may reduce over time. Food combinations used in ten 'portfolio diet' studies have been reviewed. In clinical efficacy studies of about 1 month where all foods were provided, LDL-cholesterol is reduced by 22-30 %, whereas in community-based studies of >6 months' duration, where dietary advice is the basis of the intervention, reduction in LDL-cholesterol is about 15 %. Inclusion of MUFA into 'portfolio diets' increases HDL-cholesterol, in addition to LDL-cholesterol effects. Compliance with some of these dietary changes can be achieved more easily compared with others. By careful food component selection, appropriate to the individual, the effect of including only two components in the diet with good compliance could be a sustainable 10 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol; this is sufficient to make a substantial impact on cholesterol management and reduce the need for pharmaceutical intervention.

  7. Cholesterol (image) (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  8. A genetic variant of the CAPN10 gene in Mexican subjects with dyslipidemia is associated with increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations after the consumption of a soy protein and soluble fiber dietary portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Guevara-Cruz

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major public health problem, and therefore, it is important to develop dietary strategies to diminish the prevalence of this disorder. It was recently reported that diet may play an important role in triggering insulin resistance by interacting with genetic variants at the CAPN10 gene locus in patients with metabolic syndrome. Nonetheless, it remains unknown whether genetic variants of genes involved in the development of type 2 diabetes are associated with variations in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. The study used a single-center, prospective, cohort design. Here, we assessed the effect of four variants of the CAPN10 gene on HDL-C levels in response to a soy protein and soluble fiber dietary portfolio in subjects with dyslipidemia. In 31 Mexican dyslipidemic individuals, we analyzed four CAPN10 gene variants (rs5030952, rs2975762, rs3792267, and rs2975760 associated with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with the GG genotype of the rs2975762 variant of the CAPN10 gene were better responders to dietary intervention, showing increased HDL-C concentrations from the first month of treatment. HDL-C concentrations in participants with the wild type genotype increased by 17.0%, whereas the HDL-C concentration in subjects with the variant genotypes increased by only 3.22% (p = 0.03; the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of GG carriers tended to decrease (-12.6%. These results indicate that Mexican dyslipidemic carriers of the rs2975762-GG genotype are better responders to this dietary intervention.

  9. Nori- and sea spaghetti- but not wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption. (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; Benedi, Juana; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Reus, Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J


    Restructured pork (RP) enriched in Seaweeds are potential functional foods. The antiapoptotic and hypocholesterolemic effects of consuming cholesterol enriched diets containing Wakame-RP (CW), Nori-RP (CN) and Sea Spaghetti (CS) were tested in a 1-wk study. Groups of six rats per group were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid as a cholesterol rising agent plus 15% RP containing alga. These diets were compared to control-RP diets enriched or not in cholesterol (CC and C, respectively). After 1-wk, cholesterol feeding significantly increased liver apoptosis markers which were significantly reduced by CS (cellular cycle DNA, caspase-3, and cytochrome c), CN (caspase-3 and cytochrome c) and CW (caspase-3) diets. CN and CS diets significantly blocked the cholesterolaemic rising effect observed in the CC group but no protective effect was observed in the CW group. Differences in seaweed composition added to RP appear responsible for blocking or not the proapoptotic and hypercholesterolemic effects of high cholesterol-RP consumption; thus, any generalization on seaweed effects or food containing seaweeds must be avoided. Although present results are worthy, future studies are demanded to ascertain the utility of consuming algal-RP as part of usual diets.

  10. Nori- and Sea Spaghetti- but not Wakame-restructured pork decrease the hypercholesterolemic and liver proapototic short-term effects of high-dietary cholesterol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana R. Schultz Moreira


    Full Text Available Restructured pork (RP enriched in Seaweeds are potential functional foods. The antiapoptotic and hypocholesterolemic effects of consuming cholesterol enriched diets containing Wakame-RP (CW, Nori-RP (CN and Sea Spaghetti (CS were tested in a 1-wk study. Groups of six rats per group were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid as a cholesterol rising agent plus 15% RP containing alga. These diets were compared to control-RP diets enriched or not in cholesterol (CC and C, respectively. After 1-wk, cholesterol feeding significantly increased liver apoptosis markers which were significantly reduced by CS (cellular cycle DNA, caspase-3, and cytochrome c, CN (caspase-3 and cytochrome c and CW (caspase-3 diets. CN and CS diets significantly blocked the cholesterolaemic rising effect observed in the CC group but no protective effect was observed in the CW group. Differences in seaweed composition added to RP appear responsible for blocking or not the proapoptotic and hypercholesterolemic effects of high cholesterol-RP consumption; thus, any generalization on seaweed effects or food containing seaweeds must be avoided. Although present results are worthy, future studies are demanded to ascertain the utility of consuming algal-RP as part of usual diets.

  11. Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Caraballo Sonia C


    > male, and cholesterol content (high > low of the diet, but not on dietary fat composition. Conclusions Dietary cholesterol plays a determining, independent role in inflammation, especially in female mice. The fatty-acid saturation of the diet hardly affected hepatic steatosis or inflammation.

  12. Soya protein stimulates bile acid excretion by the liver and intestine through direct and indirect pathways influenced by the presence of dietary cholesterol. (United States)

    Arellano-Martínez, Gloria Leticia; Granados, Omar; Palacios-González, Berenice; Torres, Nimbe; Medina-Vera, Isabel; Tovar, Armando R


    Several studies using different animal models have demonstrated that the consumption of soya protein (SP) reduces serum cholesterol concentrations by increasing the excretion of bile acids (BA). However, the mechanism by which SP enhances BA excretion is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of SP regulates the expression of key enzymes involved in hepatic BA synthesis and the transporters involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) via fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and/or small heterodimer protein (SHP) in rats. To achieve this aim, four groups of rats were fed experimental diets containing 20 % casein (C) or SP with or without the addition of 0·2 % cholesterol and the expression of hepatic genes involved in BA synthesis and the ileal and hepatic RCT was measured. Rats fed the SP diet had higher concentrations of ileal FGF15 and hepatic FGF15 receptor (FGFR4) and increased expression of SHP and liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1) than those fed the C diet; as a result, the excretion of faecal BA was greater. The addition of cholesterol to the diet repressed the protein abundance of FGF15 and FGFR4; however, SP increased the expression of SHP and LRH1 to a lesser extent. Nonetheless, the expression of ABCG5/8 was increased in the intestine of rats fed the SP diet, and the effect was enhanced by the addition of cholesterol to the diet. In conclusion, SP in the presence of cholesterol increases BA synthesis via the repressions of FGF15 and SHP and accelerates BA excretion to prevent cholesterol overload in the enterocytes by increasing RCT.

  13. Dietary fibre: influence on body weight, glycemic control and plasma cholesterol profile Fibra dietética: influencia sobre el peso corporal, el control glicémico y el perfil del colesterol plasmático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Babio


    Full Text Available There have been several studies on the effects of dietary fibre on the metabolism. Epidemiologic studies have consistently reported an inverse relationship between dietary fibre and type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular mortality. This review focuses on observational and experimental studies that examine the effect of different types and sources of dietary fibre on body weight, glucose metabolism and lipid profile. From the available evidence, we conclude that clinical studies consistently show that the intake of viscous dietary fibre decreases the low density lipoprotein cholesterol and postprandial glucose levels, and induces short term satiety. However, few clinical trials have demonstrated that the intake of dietary fibre has a positive effect on the control of diabetes and body weight.Existen diversos estudios que han evaluado el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética sobre el metabolismo. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos observaron una relación inversa entre la fibra dietética y la diabetes mellitas tipo 2 o la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esta revisión se basa sobre estudios observacionales y experimentales que han valorado los efectos de diferentes tipos y fuentes de fibra dietética sobre el peso corporal, el metabolismo de la glucosa y el perfil lipídico. De la evidencia disponible, concluimos que los estudios clínicos consistentemente muestran que la ingesta de alimentos fuentes de fibra viscosa disminuye el colesterol de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y los niveles de glucosa postprandial e induce la saciedad a corto plazo. Sin embargo, pocos ensayos clínicos han demostrado un efecto positivo sobre el control de la diabetes y el peso corporal.

  14. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  15. High Blood Cholesterol (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  16. Dietary cholesterol reduces plasma triacylglycerol in apolipoprotein E-null mice: suppression of lipin-1 and -2 in the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Obama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated by both cholesterol and its metabolites in the mammalian liver, but the regulatory mechanism of triacylglycerol (TG synthesis remains to be elucidated. Lipin, which catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol, is a key enzyme involved in de novo TG synthesis in the liver via the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P pathway. However, the regulatory mechanisms for the expression of lipin in the liver are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Apolipoprotein E-knock out (apoE-KO mice were fed a chow supplemented with 1.25% cholesterol (high-Chol diet. Cholesterol and bile acids were highly increased in the liver within a week. However, the amount of TG in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, but not in the liver, was reduced by 78%. The epididymal adipose tissue was almost eradicated in the long term. DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that the mRNA expression of all the genes in the G3P pathway in the liver was suppressed in the high-Chol diet apoE-KO mice. In particular, the mRNA and protein expression of lipin-1 and lipin-2 was markedly decreased, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α, which up-regulates the transcription of lipin-1, was also suppressed. In vitro analysis using HepG2 cells revealed that the protein expression of lipin-2 was suppressed by treatment with taurocholic acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data using apoE-KO mice indicate that cholesterol and its metabolites are involved in regulating TG metabolism through a suppression of lipin-1 and lipin-2 in the liver. This research provides evidence for the mechanism of lipin expression in the liver.

  17. The Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba L. on Chicken Performance, Carcass, Egg Quality and Cholesterol Content of Meat and Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paichok PANJA


    Full Text Available Experiment I (Broilers The experimental design was completely randomized. Two hundred and forty of 3 week old male broilers were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 12 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diets were 20 % and 3,000 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results demonstrated that feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy intake were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The carcass quality showed that carcass weight, dressing percentage and percent of abdominal fat pad were also not significantly different (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol and triglyceride were significant (P < 0.05 lower at higher levels of mulberry leaves. However, the cholesterol content in thigh meat was not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05.   Experiment II (Layers The experimental design was completely randomized and two hundred of 27 week old laying hens were divided into 5 groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. The protein and metabolizable energy content of basal diet were 16 % and 2,750 kcal/kg, respectively. The basal diets were supplemented with mulberry leaves at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % of diet. The results found that feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, and egg quality were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05. The blood cholesterol was found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 % of mulberry leaves inclusion. Likewise, triglyceride was also found to decrease (P < 0.05 at 0.5 to 1.5 % of inclusion. In addition, yolk cholesterol content was found to decrease and was significantly different (P < 0.05 at 2 % of inclusion.

  18. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer. (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J


    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  19. Assessment of modes of action and efficacy of plasma cholesterol-lowering drugs : measurement of cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis and turnover using novel stable isotope techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert


    Several processes are involved in control of plasma cholesterol levels, e.g., intestinal cholesterol absorption, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and transport and bile acid synthesis. Adaptation of either of these processes allows the body to adapt to changes in dietary cholesterol intake. Disturba

  20. Progress in the Mechanism of Dietary Cholesterol Absorption%饮食胆固醇吸收的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹钰; 宋保亮


    Niemann Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1), a polytopic transmembrane protein, is a key protein that mediates the enterohepatic absorption of free cholesterol from diet and bile. In this article, we reviewed the function, structure and working mechanism of NPC1L1. NPC1L1 associates with lipid raft proteins Flotillin-1 or Flotillin-2 to form the cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains on the plasma membrane. The microdomains are endocytosed and transported to the intercellular endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) via vesicular endocytosis pathway mediated by clathrin/AP2 complex. Cholesterol depletion leads to the transport of NPC1L1-Flotillin complex from ERC to plasma membrane, during which Cdc42 and the Myosin Vb· Rab11a·Rab11-FIP2 triple complex play crucial roles, and then the plasma membrane-localized NPC1L1 specifically binds exogenous cholesterol via its N-terminal domain (NTD), which is necessary for the formation of NPC1L1-flotillin-cholesterol membrane microdomain. Nonsynonymous variants of NPC1L1 in humans are suggested to associate with abnormal cholesterol absorption. We also summarized some of the remaining questions and proposed future directions for this research.%膜蛋白尼曼-匹克C1型类似蛋白1(Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1,NPC1L1)是介导肝脏和小肠细胞从胆汁或食物中吸收胆固醇的关键蛋白质.本文综述了NPC1L1蛋白的结构、功能及其介导肝肠细胞吸收外源胆固醇的分子机制.NPC1L1蛋白与脂筏蛋白Flotillin-1或Flotillin-2结合,在细胞质膜上形成富含胆固醇的膜微结构域,通过clathrin/AP2介导的囊泡内吞机制,将该NPC1L1-Flotillin-Cholesterol膜微结构域内吞运输至细胞内的内吞循环体上;内吞循环体上的胆固醇浓度下降后,NPC1L1-Flotillin复合物则由Cdc42和Myosin Vb·Rab11a·Rab11-FIP2蛋白运输至质膜,以执行下一轮的胆固醇吸收功能.NPC1L1蛋白的N端结构域可特异性结合胆固醇,是NPC1L1-Flotillin-Cholesterol膜微结构域

  1. A cholesterol-free, high-fat diet suppresses gene expression of cholesterol transporters in murine small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.M.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Vermeulen, H.; Veen, van der J.N.; Houten, S.M.; Kuipers, F.; Müller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.


    Transporters present in the epithelium of the small intestine determine the efficiency by which dietary and biliary cholesterol are taken up into the body and thus control whole-body cholesterol balance. Niemann-Pick C1 Like Protein 1 (Npc1l1) transports cholesterol into the enterocyte, whereas ATP-

  2. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette;


    to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 saturated fatty acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted...... in a relatively lower lipemic response than did intake of the unsaturated fatty acids, probably because the saturated fatty acids were absorbed less and at a lower rate; therefore, the lipemic response took longer to return to postabsorptive values. Conclusions: Fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation...

  3. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem


    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  4. Women and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  5. HDL Cholesterol Test (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  6. Cholesterol IQ Quiz (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  7. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  8. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  9. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  10. LDL Cholesterol Test (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  11. Cholesterol and synaptic compensatory mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease mice brain during aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.; Janssen, C.I.F.; Vanmierlo, T.; Dederen, P.J.; Rooij, D. van; Zinnhardt, B.; Nobelen, C.L.; Janssen, A.L.; Hafkemeijer, A.; Mutsaers, M.P.; Doedee, A.M.; Kuipers, A.A.; Broersen, L.M.; Mulder, M.; Kiliaan, A.J.


    Research into the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) provides increasing evidence that vascular risk factors, including high serum cholesterol, might influence the progression of cognitive impairment and neural degeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects of high dietary cholesterol

  12. Cholesterol treatment practices of primary care physicians.


    Hyman, D J; Maibach, E W; Flora, J A; Fortmann, S.P.


    The active involvement of primary care physicians is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated blood cholesterol. Empirical evidence suggests that primary care physicians generally initiate dietary and pharmacological treatment at threshold values higher than is currently recommended. To determine current treatment thresholds and establish factors that distinguish physicians who are more likely to initiate therapy at lower cholesterol values, 119 primary care physicians in four nor...

  13. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline. (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter


    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  14. What Is Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  15. What Is Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol A A A What's ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  16. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  17. Get Your Cholesterol Checked (United States)

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  18. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  19. Cholesterol lowering, low cholesterol, and mortality. (United States)

    LaRosa, J C


    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  20. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome produced in rats with AY 9944 treated by intravenous injection of lipoprotein cholesterol. (United States)

    Chambers, C M; McLean, M P; Ness, G C


    A limitation to treating Smith-Lemli-Opitz infants by giving dietary cholesterol is their impaired ability to absorb cholesterol due to a deficiency of bile acids. Since intravenously administered lipoprotein cholesterol should not require bile acids for uptake into tissues, we tested the effects of this form of cholesterol on tissue cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels in an animal model of SLO, created by feeding rats 0.02% AY 9944. Intravenous administration of 15 mg of bovine cholesterol supertrate twice daily increased serum cholesterol levels from 11 to over 250 mg/dl. This treatment increased liver cholesterol levels from 309 to over 900 micrograms/g and lowered hepatic 7-dehydrocholesterol levels from 1546 to 909 micrograms/g. A combination of iv cholesterol and 2% dietary cholesterol was most effective as it raised hepatic cholesterol levels to 1950 micrograms/g, which is 50% above normal. 7-Dehydrocholesterol levels were decreased to 760 micrograms/g. Similar responses were seen for heart, lung, kidney, and testes. Brain sterol levels were not significantly affected. AY 9944 caused a modest increase in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. Administration of dietary cholesterol together with iv cholesterol lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity to barely detectable levels. The data indicate that the combination of iv and dietary cholesterol was most effective in raising cholesterol levels, lowering 7-dehydrocholesterol levels, and inhibiting de novo cholesterol biosynthesis.

  1. Molecular interactions between bile salts, phospholipids and cholesterol : relevance to bile formation, cholesterol crystallization and bile salt toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, Antonio


    Cholesterol is a nonpolar lipid dietary constituent, absorbed from the small intestine, transported in blood and taken up by the liver. In bile, the sterol is solubilized in mixed micelles by bile salts and phospholipids. In case of supersaturation, cholesterol is kept in vesicles with phospholipid

  2. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  3. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion]. (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric


    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde


    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  5. Physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol. (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio


    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling functions. At an organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor for all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones and vitamin D, all of which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the precursor for bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy and glucose metabolic regulation. Importantly, complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the disregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these diseases has been demonstrated by diverse genetic and pharmacologic animal models that are commented in this review.

  6. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs


    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  7. Fish oil replacement in current aquaculture feed: is cholesterol a hidden treasure for fish nutrition? (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Lewis, Michael; Hamid, Noor Khalidah Abdul; Hermon, Karen; Donald, John A; Turchini, Giovanni M


    Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation were recorded, whilst in L-Chol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations.

  8. Cholesterol testing and results (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  9. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  10. Cholesterol - drug treatment (United States)

    ... this page: // Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  11. Cholesterol and public policy. (United States)

    LaRosa, J C


    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  12. High blood cholesterol levels (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  13. Influence of infant and juvenile diets on serum cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein concentrations in juvenile baboons (Papio sp.). (United States)

    Mott, G E; McMahan, C A; Kelley, J L; Farley, C M; McGill, H C


    The long-term effects of infant diet (breast milk or formula containing 2, 30, or 60 mg/dl cholesterol) and subsequent dietary cholesterol (1 mg/kcal) and fat (saturated or unsaturated) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations were estimated using 82 juvenile baboons 4-6 years of age. A significant interaction of infant diet (breast vs formula) with type of fat (saturated vs unsaturated) at 4-6 years of age was observed on HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations. That is, animals breast-fed as infants had higher HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations when fed unsaturated fat from weaning to 4-6 years of age than those fed saturated fat (77 vs 68 mg/dl). In contrast, animals fed formulas in infancy followed by a diet containing unsaturated fat had lower HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations at 4-6 years of age than did those fed saturated fat (67 vs 78 mg/dl). However, breast feeding or feeding formulas containing various levels of cholesterol for 3 months during infancy did not result in statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations. Dietary cholesterol after infancy significantly increased serum total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol, apoA-I and apoB concentrations. All of these response variables also were higher in animals fed saturated fat compared to those fed unsaturated fat on the same level of cholesterol. At 4-6 years of age, regardless of diet, females had significantly higher serum VLDL + LDL cholesterol (57 vs 43 mg/dl) and apoB concentrations (39 vs 30 mg/dl) than did males.

  14. The biosynthesis, absorption, and origin of cholesterol and plant sterols in the Florida land crab. (United States)

    Douglass, T S; Connor, W E; Lin, D S


    In order to study the biosynthesis, composition, and origin of sterols in the Florida land crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille), we fed 17 male crabs either a cholesterol-free or a high cholesterol diet for 2 to 7 weeks. The origin of sterols in these crabs, whether from biosynthesis or from the diet, was determined by tahree procedures: the incorporation of isotopic mevalonate into the cholesterol when the diet was cholesterol-free; the absorption of isotopic cholesterol and sitosterol from the diet; the cholesterol and plant sterol concentrations of hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle under conditions of cholesterol-free and high cholesterol diets. In addition, the interconversion of cholesterol and sitosterol was investigated. Dietary sterols of plant and animal sources were readily absorbed and provided the major source of sterols for this species of crab. The biosynthesis of cholesterol from mevalonate in this crab was minimal. However, cholesterol was synthesized from dietary sitosterol by dealkylation. Cholesterol and the three plant sterols (24 epsilon-methyl cholesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) were found in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crab. Plant sterols contributed from 9 to 37% of the total sterols in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crabs fed a cholesterol-free diet.

  15. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato


    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  16. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  17. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  18. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. (United States)

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourgeux Cynthia


    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  1. Role of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in nutrigenetics and pharmacogenetics of cholesterol lowering. (United States)

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Bobkova, Dagmar


    The relationship between dietary composition/cholesterol-lowering therapy and final plasma lipid levels is to some extent genetically determined. It is clear that these responses are under polygenic control, with multiple variants in many genes participating in the total effect (and with each gene contributing a relatively small effect). Using different experimental approaches, several candidate genes have been analyzed to date.Interesting and consistent results have been published recently regarding the A-204C promoter variant in the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene. CYP7A1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis and therefore plays an important role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1-204CC homozygotes have the greatest decrease in total cholesterol level in response to dietary changes in different types of dietary intervention studies. In contrast, one study has reported that the effect of statins in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels was slightly greater in -204AA homozygotes. The CYP7A1 A-204C variant accounts for a significant proportion of the genetic predisposition of the response of plasma cholesterol levels.

  2. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen


    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  3. Bad cholesterol and good mood: exploring the link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswi Gupta


    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that high cholesterol increases the risks of heart disease. Hence, physicians actively encourage cholesterol-lowering interventions using medications and lifestyle modifications. However, there is considerable evidence that aggressive lowering of cholesterol is associated with depression, bipolar disorders, violent behaviour, and suicidal ideation. It has been hypothesised that low cholesterol leads to low levels of serotonin, a chemical that is responsible for maintaining mood balance. South Korea and India have highest number of suicides in Asia. It is a significant challenge for physicians to search an alternative that will not only maintain healthy level of cholesterol, but also contribute to psychological well-being of the patient. Generally, the role of diet and physical activity is considered secondary to medications. However, dietary supplements like coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, omega-3 fatty acids, niacin, and physical activity like Yoga are extremely beneficial for improving lipid profile and symptoms of depression.

  4. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau


    Full Text Available Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55 mg/1010 cfu in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33 mg/1010 cfu of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.

  5. Retracted: Advances in the physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol. (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Mardones, Pablo; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio


    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signalling, and endocrine functions in animal systems. At the cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signalling functions. At the organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor of all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones, and vitamin D, which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive, and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the immediate precursor of bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy homeostasis and glucose regulation. Complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the dysregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these conditions has been demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological manipulations in animal models of human disease that are discussed herein. Importantly, the understanding of basic aspects of cholesterol biology has led to the development of high-impact pharmaceutical therapies during the past century. The continuing effort to offer successful treatments for prevalent cholesterol-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders, warrants further interdisciplinary research in the coming decades.

  6. Diet × genotype interactions in hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil. (United States)

    Morais, Sofia; Pratoomyot, Jarunan; Torstensen, Bente E; Taggart, John B; Guy, Derrick R; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R


    The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be differentially affected by the diet depending on the genetic background of the fish, and this was further investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, plasma and lipoprotein biochemical analysis. Results indicate a reduction in VLDL and LDL levels, with no changes in HDL, when FO is replaced by VO in the lean family group, whereas in fat fish fed FO, levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins were low and comparable with those fed VO in both family groups. Significantly lower levels of plasma TAG and LDL-TAG were measured in the fat group that was independent of diet, whereas plasma cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed the FO diet in both groups. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, β-oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism showed relatively subtle changes. A significantly lower expression of genes considered anti-atherogenic in mammals (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, apoAI, scavenger receptor class B type 1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)b (TC67836) and LPLc (TC84899)) was found in lean fish, compared with fat fish, when fed VO. Furthermore, the lean family group appeared to show a greater response to diet composition in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, mediated by sterol-responsive element-binding protein 2. Finally, the presence of three different transcripts for LPL, with differential patterns of nutritional regulation, was demonstrated.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sericin-derived oligopeptides in high-cholesterol fed rats. (United States)

    Lapphanichayakool, Phakhamon; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip


    The beneficial effect of cholesterol-lowering proteins and/or peptides derived from various dietary sources is continuously reported. A non-dietary protein from silk cocoon, sericin, has also demonstrated cholesterol-lowering activity. A sericin hydrolysate prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was also expected to posses this effect. The present study was aimed at investigating the cholesterol-lowering effect of sericin peptides, so called "sericin-derived oligopeptides" (SDO) both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that SDO at all three doses tested (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) suppressed serum total and non-HDL cholesterol levels in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed among all groups. The fecal contents of bile acids and cholesterol did not differ among high-cholesterol fed rats. SDO dose-dependently reduced cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles, and inhibited cholesterol uptake in monolayer Caco-2 cells. SDO also effectively bound to all three types of bile salts including taurocholate, deoxytaurocholate, and glycodeoxycholate. Direct interaction with bile acids of SDO may disrupt micellar cholesterol solubility, and subsequently reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol in intestines. Taking all data together, SDO or sericin peptides exhibit a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol levels and could be potentially used as a health-promoting dietary supplement or nutraceutical product.

  8. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  9. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson


    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  10. Measurement of Intestinal and Peripheral Cholesterol Fluxes by a Dual-Tracer Balance Method. (United States)

    Ronda, Onne A H O; van Dijk, Theo H; Verkade, H J; Groen, Albert K


    Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice. The percentage of absorbed cholesterol is calculated from a stable isotope-based double-label method. Cholesterol synthesis is calculated from MIDA after (13) C-acetate enrichment. Cholesterol is removed from the body via the feces. The fecal excretion route is either biliary or non-biliary. The non-biliary route is dominated by trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux, or TICE. Biliary excretion of cholesterol is measured by collecting bile. Non-biliary excretion is calculated by computational modeling. In this article, we describe methods and procedures to measure and calculate dietary intake of cholesterol, fractional cholesterol absorption, fecal neutral sterol output, biliary cholesterol excretion, TICE, cholesterol synthesis, peripheral fluxes, and whole-body cholesterol balance. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  12. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  13. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires Asociación entre hábitos nutricionales, educación, triglicéridos séricos y colesterol total en mujeres de Cabildo, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Schneider


    Full Text Available A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl. Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively. Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58% and butter (43% are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.Se realizó un estudio transversal en 107 mujeres, habitantes del pueblo de Cabildo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, sobre el consumo de alimentos entre mujeres de 20 a 69 años de edad, analizando su relación con la educación, colesterol total y niveles de triglicéridos. Se encuestó a las participantes sobre el tipo y frecuencia de consumo alimentario y

  14. Cholesterol and Women's Health (United States)

    ... can I make to reduce my risk of cardiovascular disease? • Is there medication that can help reduce my cholesterol ... It also helps your body make vitamin D and produces the bile that helps you ...

  15. Two-compartment model as a teaching tool for cholesterol homeostasis. (United States)

    Wrona, Artur; Balbus, Joanna; Hrydziuszko, Olga; Kubica, Krystian


    Cholesterol is a vital structural and functional molecule in the human body that is only slightly soluble in water and therefore does not easily travels by itself in the bloodstream. To enable cholesterol's targeted delivery to cells and tissues, it is encapsulated by different fractions of lipoproteins, complex particles containing both proteins and lipids. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis is a highly regulated process with multiple factors acting at both molecular and tissue levels. Furthermore, to regulate the circulatory transport of cholesterol in lipoproteins, the amount of cholesterol present depends on and is controlled by cholesterol dietary intake, de novo synthesis, usage, and excretion; abnormal and/or unbalanced cholesterol levels have been shown to lead to severe outcomes, e.g., cardiovascular diseases. To investigate cholesterol transport in the circulatory system, we have previously developed a two-compartment mathematical model. Here, we show how this model can be used as a teaching tool for cholesterol homeostasis. Using the model and a hands-on approach, students can familiarize themselves with the basic components and mechanisms behind balanced cholesterol circulatory transport as well as investigate the consequences of and countermeasures to abnormal cholesterol levels. Among others, various treatments of high blood cholesterol levels can be simulated, e.g., with commonly prescribed de novo cholesterol synthesis inhibitors.

  16. MD-2 binds cholesterol. (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I


    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  17. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail:, E-mail:


    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  18. Hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol is decreased and fecal cholesterol excretion is increased in mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with milk phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jacquelyn M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk phospholipids (PLs reduce liver lipid levels when given as a dietary supplement to mice fed a high-fat diet. We have speculated that this might be due to reduced intestinal cholesterol uptake. Methods Mice were given a high-fat diet for 3 or 5 weeks that had no added PL or that were supplemented with 1.2% by wt PL from cow's milk. Two milk PL preparations were investigated: a a PL-rich dairy milk extract (PLRDME, and b a commercially-available milk PL concentrate (PC-700. Intestinal cholesterol uptake was assessed by measuring fecal and hepatic radioactivity after intragastric administration of [14C]cholesterol and [3H]sitostanol. Fecal and hepatic lipids were measured enzymatically and by ESI-MS/MS. Results Both PL preparations led to significant decreases in total liver cholesterol and triglyceride (-20% to -60%, P 14C]cholesterol was significantly less (-30% to -60%, P 14C]cholesterol and unlabeled cholesterol was significantly higher in PL-supplemented mice (+15% to +30%, P 14C]cholesterol (P 14C]cholesterol (P P P Conclusion These results indicate that milk PL extracts reduce hepatic accumulation of intestinal cholesterol and increase fecal cholesterol excretion when given to mice fed a high-fat diet.

  19. Cholesterol and prostate cancer. (United States)

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R


    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  20. Dietary fiber and retrograde starch. (United States)

    Zivković, R


    The history of the recognition of the importance of dietary fiber, their current classification into water-soluble and water-insoluble fiber, and lignin, a single non-carbohydrate fiber, and the physiologic role of dietary fiber, with particular reference to retrograde starch resistance to small intestine digestion, are briefly presented. Dietary fiber are highly hygroscopic, thus they greatly contribute to stool voluminosity by binding water, decrease the glycemic index, and exert a protective action, via an as yet unknown mechanism, against the occurrence of colon cancer. It should be added that some dietary fiber decrease the concentration of cholesterol in the blood, i.e. in the human body. The importance of the methodology used for NSP determination is underlined, since some methods determine only some of the polysaccharides, other also measure some other substances, whereas Englyst's method determines NSP only.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids...

  2. Genetic polymorphisms and lipid response to dietary changes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Ramos-Galluzzi, J.; Katan, M.B.


    Previous studies on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the serum cholesterol response to dietary treatments were often inconsistent and frequently involved small numbers of subjects. We studied the effect of 10 genetic polymorphisms on the responses of serum cholesterol to saturated and trans f

  3. Orbitofrontal cholesterol granuloma. (United States)

    Chow, L P; McNab, A A


    Cholesterol granuloma of the orbital bones is a rare but readily recognisable condition. It is an osteolytic lesion with a granulomatous reaction surrounding cholesterol crystals, old haemorrhage and a fibrous capsule. There is a male preponderance and it usually occurs in young or middle-aged men. It is treatable with drainage and curettage via an orbitotomy, and craniotomy or wide bone removal is almost never required. Six cases of this condition were reviewed to highlight the typical clinical presentation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance results, and surgical management.

  4. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis. (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael


    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  5. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.


    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible anti-atherosc

  6. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  7. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.


    Purpose of review Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is a complex interplay of a multitude of metabolic pathways situated in different organs. The liver plays a central role and has received most attention of the research community. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the understanding

  8. Cholesterol: Up in Smoke. (United States)

    Raloff, Janet


    Discussed is the contribution cooked meat makes to air pollution. The dozens of compounds, including cholesterol, that are released when a hamburger is grilled are described. The potential effects of these emissions on humans and the urban environment are discussed. (KR)

  9. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion (United States)

    Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na


    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:27642591

  10. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion. (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; He, Lei; Shao, Yang; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo


    Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  11. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface

  12. Cholesterol transport in model membranes (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula


    Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.

  13. Effect of Enzymatic Treatment on Cholesterol-Binding Capacity of Dietary Fiber from Millet Bran%酶法改性对小米糠膳食纤维体外胆固醇吸附活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉; 郭利娜; 楚佳希; 吕凤霞; 陆兆新; 别小妹; 张充; 赵海珍


    以小米糠为原材料,采用AOAC 985.29《食物中总膳食纤维酶-质量法》制备小米糠总膳食纤维(totaldietary fiber,TDF).利用纤维素酶对TDF进行酶法改性,以提高其体外胆固醇吸附活性.通过单因素试验和正交试验,最终确定TDF的酶法改性条件为:酶解pH 3.8、酶添加量140 U/g、酶解温度55℃、酶解时间3h,所得纤维素酶改性膳食纤维(cellulase-modified dietary fiber,CMF)的体外胆固醇吸附效果最佳,吸附量达到14.21 mg/g,比TDF的胆固醇吸附量(5.91 mg/g)提高了1.40倍.对TDF和CMF的单糖组成、红外光谱以及超微结构等物化特性分析发现,纤维素酶的作用改变了TDF的单糖组成,形成了更多纤维二糖,产生了较多憎水基团,结构粗糙,这些组成及微观结构的改变可能与CMF胆固醇吸附活性显著提高有着密切的关系.

  14. 复合膳食纤维对大鼠脂代谢的长期作用及其机制%Long-term effect of dietary fiber complex-B on cholesterol metabolism in rats and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马正伟; 张喜忠


    目的:观察复合膳食纤维 B( dietary fiber complex B,DFC-B)对大鼠脂代谢的长期作用及可能的作用机制. 方法:健康 SD大鼠 84只,诱导成高脂血症模型后按体质量及血胆固醇均衡的原则分为 7组,以基础及高脂饲料作为对照组,其余 5组给不同水平的 DFC配方 B,实验期 3个月,观察 DFC对大鼠血脂、肝脂水平以及粪胆汁酸排泄的长期影响. 结果:与高脂组相比,大鼠血 TC在不同水平的 DFC组均显著降低,差异有显著性意义 (P< 0.05). DFC可以长期有效地降低大鼠肝胆固醇的水平 (mmol/L)(0.42± 0.12~ 2.20± 1.02 和 3.26± 0.16, P< 0.05).不同水平 DFC均能增加大鼠粪胆汁酸的排泄,并存在明显的量效关系,但长期食用较高剂量 DFC会减少大鼠粪胆汁酸的排泄量. 结论:DFC确能长期有效地降低血浆胆固醇水平,减少肝胆固醇的沉积,增加粪胆汁酸的排泄是 DFC降低血胆固醇的机制之一.

  15. 油脂来源及使用量对小鼠生长、健康、血脂和肝脏胆固醇代谢指标的影响%Effect of Dietary Fat Sources and Dosages on Growth, Health, Serum Lipid and Liver Cholesterol Metabolism of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄阳; 李平华; 贺丽春; 汪涵; 牛清; 石磊; 周波; 黄瑞华


    Objective]This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary fat source and dosages on growth performance, health status, serum lipid indicators and liver cholesterol metabolism-related gene mRNA expression level and to explore the mechanism of dietary fats source and dosage on hepatic cholesterol metabolism of mice. Results will contribute to select a suitable amount and type of oil for mammal.[Method] Forty eight 3-week-old healthy KM mice whose body weights were 16-19 g were randomly assigned into four groups with 4 replicates per group and 3 mice each. Mice were fed: normal diet (control group); 4% bean oil diet (group B); 4% emulsified coconut powder diet (group L); 8% emulsified coconut powder diet (group H)for fourteen days, respectively. During the whole experiment, daily feeding times, feed quantity and remaining amount of feed of each time were recorded. All animals were fed and wateredad libitum. According to the recorded data, body weight and average daily feed intake (ADFI), the average daily gain (ADG), feed gain ratio (F/G) were calculated. Blood distribution, health index and liver weight of mice were measured. The concentrations of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum were determined. The expression of mRNA of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low density lipoprotein-receptor (LDLR) in liver were determined by real time PCR.[Result]Supplementation of 4% bean oil significantly increased body weight, ADFI and liver index of mice compared with the control group (P0.05). Supplementation of 4% emulsified coconut powder failed to significantly change growth performance of mice compared with the control group (P>0.05). Supplementation of 8% emulsified coconut powder significantly increased ADFI of mice compared with the control group (P0.05). Healthy status: Fat had

  16. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol plays a ... factors for heart disease and stroke . How is cholesterol tested? A cholesterol screening measures your level of ...

  17. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter


    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat d

  18. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.


    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high- f

  19. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism) (United States)



    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  20. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan


    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  1. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine


    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  2. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs. (United States)

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P


    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (Pacidophilus. However, significant differences in total serum cholesterol concentrations were observed when comparing the combined treatment group (BCD and L. acidophilus) with the control group, which consisted of a basal diet and sterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  3. Study of Lipid Profile in Obese Individuals and the Effect of Cholesterol Lowering Agents on Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Kumar Mukhopadhyay


    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of cholesterol lowering agents on lipid profile in obese patients. Background: Obesity leads to morbidity as well as mortality. There is usually increased level of total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL- cholesterol, triglycerides and decreased level of HDL- cholesterol in obesity. These are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary disorder and gall stones. Method: Thirty obese patients received treatment with Lovastatin along with dietary measures, compared with age and sex matched controls- before and after 6 weeks of therapy, presented in a table and results were analysed using student's "t" test (both paired and unpaired. Result: There was significant reduction in total cholesterol as well as LDL- cholesterol; HDL- cholesterol was also increased significantly. But triglycerides and VLDL- cholesterol showed small but significant increase. Conclusion: Cholesterol lowering agents like Lovastatin was quite effective when used long-term in dyslipidaemia in obesity towards reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, strokes, etc. Hypertriglyceridaemia should also be treated adequately

  4. Cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin is associated with down-regulation on genes of sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption. (United States)

    Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu


    Sesame seed is rich in sesamin. The present study was to (i) investigate the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of dietary sesamin and (ii) examine the interaction of dietary sesamin with the gene expression of sterol transporters, enzymes, receptors, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. Thirty hamsters were divided into three groups fed the control diet (CON) or one of two experimental diets containing 0.2% (SL) and 0.5% (SH) sesamin, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels in hamsters given the CON, SL, and SH diets were 6.62 ± 0.40, 5.32 ± 0.40, and 5.00 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively, indicating dietary sesamin could reduce plasma TC in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the excretion of total fecal neutral sterols was dose-dependently increased with the amounts of sesamin in diets (CON, 2.65 ± 0.57; SL, 4.30 ± 0.65; and SH, 5.84 ± 1.27 μmol/day). Addition of sesamin into diets was associated with down-regulation of mRNA of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP-binding cassette transporters subfamily G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Results also showed that dietary sesamin could up-regulate hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas it down-regulated hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). It was concluded that the cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin was mediated by promoting the fecal excretion of sterols and modulating the genes involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism.

  5. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  6. Simultaneous assessment of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans using on-line gas chromatography/ combustion and gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Gremaud, G; Piguet, C; Baumgartner, M; Pouteau, E; Decarli, B; Berger, A; Fay, L B


    A number of dietary components and drugs are known to inhibit the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol, but at the same time can compensate by increasing cholesterol synthesis. It is, therefore, necessary to have a convenient and accurate method to assess both parameters simultaneously. Hence, we validated such a method in humans using on-line gas chromatography(GC)/combustion and GC/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Cholesterol absorption was measured using the ratio of [(13)C]cholesterol (injected intravenously) to [(18)O]cholesterol (administered orally). Simultaneously, cholesterol synthesis was measured using the deuterium incorporation method. Our methodology was applied to 12 mildly hypercholesterolemic men that were given a diet providing 2685 +/- 178 Kcal/day (mean +/- SD) and 255 +/- 8 mg cholesterol per day. Cholesterol fractional synthesis rates ranged from 5.0 to 10.5% pool/day and averaged 7.36% +/- 1.78% pool/day (668 +/- 133 mg/day). Cholesterol absorption ranged from 36.5-79.9% with an average value of 50.8 +/- 15.4%. These values are in agreement with already known data obtained with mildly hypercholesterolemic Caucasian males placed on a diet similar to the one used for this study. However, our combined IRMS method has the advantage over existing methods that it enables simultaneous measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans, and is therefore an important research tool for studying the impact of dietary treatments on cholesterol parameters.

  7. Orlistat limits cholesterol intestinal absorption by Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) inhibition. (United States)

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Qosa, Hisham; Primeaux, Brian; Kaddoumi, Amal


    The known mechanism by which orlistat decreases the absorption of dietary cholesterol is by inhibition of intestinal lipases. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of orlistat to limit cholesterol absorption by inhibition of the cholesterol transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) as another mechanism of action. In situ rat intestinal perfusion studies were conducted to study the effect of orlistat on jejunal cholesterol absorption. Inhibition kinetic parameters were calculated from in vitro inhibition studies using Caco2 and NPC1L1 transfected cell lines. The in situ studies demonstrated that intestinal perfusion of orlistat (100µM) was able to reduce cholesterol absorption by three-fold when compared to control (i.e. in the absence of orlistat, Pabsorption of cholesterol, we demonstrated for the first time that orlistat limits cholesterol absorption by the inhibition of NPC1L1 transport protein.

  8. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz;


    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...... and comparable global analysis. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean serum total cholesterol....

  9. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters. (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J


    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  10. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos


    Full Text Available Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR. The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health.

  11. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris


    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  12. Cholesterol metabolism in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; Hayden, Michael R


    The CNS is rich in cholesterol, which is essential for neuronal development and survival, synapse maturation, and optimal synaptic activity. Alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis are linked to neurodegeneration. Studies have demonstrated that Huntington disease (HD), a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting from polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, is associated with changes in cellular cholesterol metabolism. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies indicates that attenuated brain sterol synthesis and accumulation of cholesterol in neuronal membranes represent two distinct mechanisms occurring in the presence of mutant huntingtin that influence neuronal survival. Increased knowledge of how changes in intraneuronal cholesterol metabolism influence the pathogenesis of HD will provide insights into the potential application of brain cholesterol regulation as a therapeutic strategy for this devastating disease.

  13. Cholesterol Embolism: An Overlooked Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Nihal ESATOĞLU


    Full Text Available Acute renal failure following angiography is usually due to radiocontrast nephropathy; however, cholesterol embolism should be kept in mind when making the differential diagnosis. Cholesterol embolism is a multisystem disease, usually seen in elderly men who have severe atherosclerosis. In this case report, we describe a patient with cholesterol embolism who had a typical clinical history of progressive renal failure. We hope that this case report will emphasize the importance of this overlooked syndrome.

  14. Dietary Fiber (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  15. Hypolipidemic effect in cholesterol-fed rats of a soluble fiber-rich product obtained from cocoa husks. (United States)

    Ramos, Sonia; Moulay, Leila; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Vilanova, Olga; Muguerza, Begoña; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura


    A new soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP), obtained after enzymatic treatment of cocoa husks, was characterized and its potential health effects studied in an animal model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia. The SCFP was rich in soluble dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant polyphenols. Consumption of a cholesterol-rich diet containing the SCFP as a source of DF resulted in lower food intake and body weight gain in comparison with control groups consuming cholesterol-free or cholesterol-rich diets with cellulose as DF. The cholesterol-rich diet caused remarkable hypercholesterolemia. However, the SCFP diminished the negative impact of the cholesterol-rich diet, buffering the decrease of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and the increase of total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) induced by the fatty diet. The SCFP also decreased triglyceride levels to values lower than those in the group fed the cholesterol-free diet. These results put forward the potential application of the SCFP as a dietary supplement or functional food ingredient.

  16. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica). (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup


    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  17. The mechanism of lowering cholesterol absorption by calcium studied by using an in vitro digestion model. (United States)

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai D; Stoyanov, Simeon; Lips, Alex


    Studies in humans show that a calcium-enriched diet leads to lower cholesterol in blood serum. This phenomenon is usually explained in the literature with a reduced cholesterol absorption in the small intestine. Our study aims to clarify the effect of calcium on the solubilisation of cholesterol and fatty acid in the dietary mixed micelles (DMM), viz. on the bioaccessibility of these lipophilic substances in the gut. We use an in vitro digestion model which mimics very closely the intestinal pH-profile and the composition of the intestinal fluids. We quantified the effects of Ca(2+) concentration on the lipid solubilization for fats and oils with different saturated/unsaturated fatty acid (FA) contents. We found that the increase of calcium significantly decreases the solubilization of cholesterol, FA and MG. Most importantly, we observe a clear positive correlation between the amounts of solubilized cholesterol, on one side, and solubilized free fatty acids and monoglycerides, on the other side. The main conclusion is that Ca(2+) ions strongly affect the bioaccessibility of both cholesterol and saturated FA. Therefore, calcium may decrease the serum cholesterol via two complementary mechanisms: (1) fatty acid precipitation by calcium ions reduces the solubilisation capacity of the DMM, thus decreasing the levels of solubilised (bioaccessible) cholesterol; (2) the observed strong decrease of the bioaccessible saturated FA, in its own turn, may suppress the cholesterol synthesis in the liver.

  18. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol (United States)

    Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol Lifestyle changes can help reduce cholesterol, keep you off cholesterol-lowering medications or enhance the effect of your medications. Here are five lifestyle ...

  19. Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 LDL (bad) cholesterol is ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol Guidelines: Putting the pieces together Myth vs. Truth – ...

  20. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? High blood cholesterol is treated with lifestyle ... need to follow a heart healthy diet . Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes TLC is a set ...

  1. Effects of a disrupted blood-brain barrier on cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed A; Genové, Guillem; Li, Tian; Lütjohann, Dieter; Olin, Maria; Mast, Natalia; Pikuleva, Irina A; Crick, Peter; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William; Betsholtz, Christer; Björkhem, Ingemar


    The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for cholesterol metabolism in the brain, preventing uptake of lipoprotein-bound cholesterol from the circulation. The metabolic consequences of a leaking BBB for cholesterol metabolism have not been studied previously. Here we used a pericyte-deficient mouse model, Pdgfb(ret/ret), shown to have increased permeability of the BBB to a range of low-molecular mass and high-molecular mass tracers. There was a significant accumulation of plant sterols in the brains of the Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. By dietary treatment with 0.3% deuterium-labeled cholesterol, we could demonstrate a significant flux of cholesterol from the circulation into the brains of the mutant mice roughly corresponding to about half of the measured turnover of cholesterol in the brain. We expected the cholesterol flux into the brain to cause a down-regulation of cholesterol synthesis. Instead, cholesterol synthesis was increased by about 60%. The levels of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) were significantly reduced in the brains of the pericyte-deficient mice but increased in the circulation. After treatment with 1% cholesterol in diet, the difference in cholesterol synthesis between mutants and controls disappeared. The findings are consistent with increased leakage of 24S-OHC from the brain into the circulation in the pericyte-deficient mice. This oxysterol is an efficient suppressor of cholesterol synthesis, and the results are consistent with a regulatory role of 24S-OHC in the brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a defective BBB may lead to increased flux of a lipophilic compound out from the brain. The relevance of the findings for the human situation is discussed.

  2. Dietary Supplements (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  3. The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Cater, Nilo B; Garg, Abhimanyu


    Dietary therapy is the cornerstone of lipid management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key strategies are the reduction of intake of saturated fat, trans unsaturated fat and cholesterol, and the reduction of energy intake to promote weight loss. This approach will produce significant improvements in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. According to both the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the primary target of therapy is the serum LDL cholesterol level, with the secondary targets being non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The recently updated guidelines of the NCEP place new emphasis on increasing soluble fiber intake to 10 to 25 g/d and adding foods fortified with plant stanols/sterols (2 g/d) as options to enhance the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of diet.

  4. Dietary fats and health: dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence. (United States)

    Lawrence, Glen D


    Although early studies showed that saturated fat diets with very low levels of PUFAs increase serum cholesterol, whereas other studies showed high serum cholesterol increased the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the evidence of dietary saturated fats increasing CAD or causing premature death was weak. Over the years, data revealed that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are not associated with CAD and other adverse health effects or at worst are weakly associated in some analyses when other contributing factors may be overlooked. Several recent analyses indicate that SFAs, particularly in dairy products and coconut oil, can improve health. The evidence of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) promoting inflammation and augmenting many diseases continues to grow, whereas ω3 PUFAs seem to counter these adverse effects. The replacement of saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates, especially sugars, has resulted in increased obesity and its associated health complications. Well-established mechanisms have been proposed for the adverse health effects of some alternative or replacement nutrients, such as simple carbohydrates and PUFAs. The focus on dietary manipulation of serum cholesterol may be moot in view of numerous other factors that increase the risk of heart disease. The adverse health effects that have been associated with saturated fats in the past are most likely due to factors other than SFAs, which are discussed here. This review calls for a rational reevaluation of existing dietary recommendations that focus on minimizing dietary SFAs, for which mechanisms for adverse health effects are lacking.

  5. Effects of vitamin C supplementation in human volunteers with a range of cholesterol levels on biomarkers of oxygen radical-generated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, D.; Phillips, B.J.; Yu, T-W.; Edwards, A.J.; Ayesh, R.; Butterworth, K.R.


    Twenty-four men and 24 women, all nonsmoking, and maintaining normal dietary habits were assigned to 3 groups of 16. Each group comprising 4 males with "low" cholesterol levels (<6 mmol/L) matched for age and build with 4 males with "high" cholesterol levels (>6 mmol/L) and 8 similarly matched femal

  6. Guar gum and similar soluble fibers in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism: Current understandings and future research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Rideout


    Full Text Available Todd C Rideout1, Scott V Harding1, Peter JH Jones1, Ming Z Fan21Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 2Centre for Nutrition Modeling, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: The hypocholesterolemic effects associated with soluble fiber consumption are clear from animal model and human clinical investigations. Moreover, the modulation of whole-body cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary fiber consumption, including intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal sterol and bile acid loss, has been the subject of many published reports. However, our understanding of how dietary fibers regulate molecular events at the gene/protein level and alter cellular cholesterol metabolism is limited. The modern emphasis on molecular nutrition and rapid progress in ‘high-dimensional’ biological techniques will permit further explorations of the role of genetic polymorphisms in determining the variable interindividual responses to soluble fibers. Furthermore, with traditional molecular biology tools and the application of ‘omic’ technology, specific insight into how fibers modulate the expression of genes and proteins that regulate intestinal cholesterol absorption and alter hepatic sterol balance will be gained. Detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which soluble fibers reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations is paramount to developing novel fiber-based “cocktails” that target specific metabolic pathways to gain maximal cholesterol reductions.Keywords: dietary fiber, cholesterol, bile acids, gene, protein

  7. Comparative effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) pectin and pectin hydrolyzates on the cholesterol homeostasis of hamsters fed high-cholesterol diets. (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Li, Tuo-Ping; Chen, Gang; Peng, Xue; Duan, Wen-Bin; Zheng, Zheng-Zheng; Shi, Shu-Lei; Xu, Jing-Guo; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Yi


    This study aims to compare the effects of feeding haw pectin (HP), haw pectin hydrolyzates (HPH), and haw pectin pentasaccharide (HPPS) on the cholesterol metabolism of hypercholesterolemic hamsters induced by high-cholesterol diets. The animals were fed a standard diet (SD), high-cholesterol diet (HCD), or HCD plus HP, HPH, or HPPS at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight for 4weeks. Results showed that HPPS was more effective than HP and HPH in decreasing the body weight gain (by 38.2%), liver weight (by 16.4%), and plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC; by 23.6% and 27.3%, respectively) of hamsters. In addition, the bile acid levels in the feces were significantly higher by 39.8% and 132.8% in the HPH and HPPS groups than in the HCD group. Such changes were not noted in the HP group. However, the HP group had higher cholesterol excretion capacities than the HPH and HPPS groups by inhibiting cholesterol absorption in the diet, with a 21.7% increase in TC excretion and a 31.1% decrease in TC absorption. Thus, HPPS could be a promising anti-atherogenic dietary ingredient for the development of functional food to improve cholesterol metabolism.

  8. The Arachidonic Acid Metabolome Serves as a Conserved Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetz, Egon; Schroll, Andrea; Auer, Kristina; Heim, Christiane; Patsch, Josef R.; Eller, Philipp; Theurl, Markus; Theurl, Igor; Theurl, Milan; Seifert, Markus; Lener, Daniela; Stanzl, Ursula; Haschka, David; Asshoff, Malte; Dichtl, Stefanie; Nairz, Manfred; Huber, Eva; Stadlinger, Martin; Moschen, Alexander R.; Li, Xiaorong; Pallweber, Petra; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Garlaschelli, Katia; Uboldi, Patrizia; Catapano, Alberico L.; Stellaard, Frans; Rudling, Mats; Kuba, Keiji; Imai, Yumiko; Arita, Makoto; Schuetz, John D.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Trauner, Michael; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Claudel, Thierry; Hicks, Andrew A.; Weiss, Guenter; Tancevski, Ivan


    Cholesterol metabolism is closely interrelated with cardiovascular disease in humans. Dietary supplementation with omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (AA) was shown to favorably affect plasma LDL-C and HDL-C. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. By co

  9. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application (United States)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati


    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  10. Intrahepatic cholesterol influences progression, inhibition and reversal of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in hyperlipidemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Kristiaan; van Bilsen, Marc; van Gorp, Patrick J.; Bieghs, Veerle; Luetjohann, Dieter; Kerksiek, Anja; Staels, Bart; Hofker, Marten H.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit


    Hepatic inflammation is the key factor in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes progression to liver damage. We recently identified dietary cholesterol as the cause of hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice. We now show that hepatic transcriptome responses are strongly dependent on

  11. Dietary trans fatty acids increase serum cholesterylester transfer protein activity in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie); J.P. Zock; T. van Gent (Teus); L. Scheek (Leo); M.B. Katan (Martijn)


    textabstractThe average diet may provide some 8–10 g/day of unsaturated fatty acids with a trans double bond. Previous studies showed that dietary trans fatty acids may simultaneously raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and reduce high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Human plasma

  12. Dietary trans fatty acids increase serum cholesterylester transfer protein activity in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van A.; Zock, P.L.; Gent, van T.; Scheek, L.M.; Katan, M.B.


    The average diet may provide some 8–10 g/day of unsaturated fatty acids with a trans double bond. Previous studies showed that dietary trans fatty acids may simultaneously raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and reduce high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Human plasma contains a p

  13. Dietary fatty acids and risk factors for coronary heart disease: controlled studies in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.


    High levels of LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and Lp(a), and low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). This thesis describes the effects of dietary fatty acids on these risk factors. In each of three trials we fed diets with tailored fatty acid composition to

  14. Stability and Reliability of Plasma Level of Lipid Biomarkers and Their Correlation with Dietary Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ah Lee


    Full Text Available The reliability and stability of plasma lipid biomarkers and their association with dietary fat intake were evaluated among 48 subjects who were randomly chosen from the participants of a validation study of the population-based cohort, the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS. Four spot blood samples, one taken each season, were measured for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The reliability and stability of these measurements were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and by the correlations between a randomly chosen measurement with the mean of measurements across seasons using a bootstrap approach. The median levels for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were 177.5, 164.5, 41.0, and 102.5 (mg/dl, respectively. The ICCs of the biomarkers ranged from 0.58 (LDL-cholesterol to 0.83 (HDL-cholesterol. The correlation between randomly chosen spot measurements and the mean measurement were 0.91, 0.86, 0.93, and 0.83 for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. The correlations of lipid biomarkers with dietary fat intake and other lifestyle factors were comparable to other previous reports. In conclusion, this study suggests that measurements of lipid biomarkers from a single spot blood sample are a good representation of the average blood levels of these biomarkers in the study population and could be a useful tool for epidemiological studies.

  15. Very low density lipoproteins in intestinal lymph: role in triglyceride and cholesterol transport during fat absorption (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Hughes, Faith B.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.


    The role of nonchylomicron very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, Sf 20-400) in the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol was studied during lipid absorption. Various long chain fatty acids were infused intraduodenally in the form of mixed fatty acid—mono-olein-taurocholate micelles; control animals received saline or taurocholate. As compared with controls, all fatty acids (palmitic, oleic, linoleic) resulted in significant increases in chylomicron (Sf > 400) triglyceride. In addition, palmitic acid resulted in a twofold increase in VLDL triglyceride, whereas with the absorption of oleic or linoleic acid VLDL triglyceride did not change significantly. Differences in triglyceride fatty acid composition between chylomicrons and VLDL were observed during lipid absorption. Although the absolute amount of endogenous cholesterol in intestinal lymph was not significantly affected by lipid absorption under these conditions, its lipoprotein distribution differed substantially among the lipid-infused groups. During palmitate absorption, VLDL cholesterol was similar to that in the taurocholate-infused controls, and was equal to chylomicron cholesterol. In contrast, during oleate and linoleate absorption the VLDL cholesterol fell markedly, and was less than half of the chylomicron cholesterol in these groups. The half-time of plasma survival of VLDL cholesterol-14C was found to be twice that of chylomicron cholesterol-14C. These studies demonstrate that dietary long chain fatty acids differ significantly in their effects upon the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol by lipoproteins of rat intestinal lymph. These findings, together with the observed differences in rates of removal of chylomicrons and VLDL from plasma, suggest that variations in lipoprotein production at the intestinal level may be reflected in differences in the subsequent metabolism of absorbed dietary and endogenous lipids. PMID:5355348

  16. A study on the inhibitory mechanism for cholesterol absorption by α-cyclodextrin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Furune


    Full Text Available Background: Micelle formation of cholesterol with lecithin and bile salts is a key process for intestinal absorption of lipids. Some dietary fibers commonly used to reduce the lipid content in the body are thought to inhibit lipid absorption by binding to bile salts and decreasing the lipid solubility. Amongst these, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD is reportedly one of the most powerful dietary fibers for decreasing blood cholesterol. However, it is difficult to believe that α-CD directly removes cholesterol because it has a very low affinity for cholesterol and its mechanism of action is less well understood than those of other dietary fibers. To identify this mechanism, we investigated the interaction of α-CD with lecithin and bile salts, which are essential components for the dissolution of cholesterol in the small intestine, and the effect of α-CD on micellar solubility of cholesterol.Results: α-CD was added to Fed-State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF, and precipitation of a white solid was observed. Analytical data showed that the precipitate was a lecithin and α-CD complex with a molar ratio of 1:4 or 1:5. The micellar solubility of cholesterol in the mixture of FeSSIF and α-CD was investigated, and found to decrease through lecithin precipitation caused by the addition of α-CD, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, each of several other water-soluble dietary fibers was added to the FeSSIF, and no precipitate was generated.Conclusion: This study suggests that α-CD decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol in the lumen of the small intestine via the precipitation of lecithin from bile salt micelles by complex formation with α-CD. It further indicates that the lecithin precipitation effect on the bile salt micelles by α-CD addition clearly differs from addition of other water-soluble dietary fibers. The decrease in micellar cholesterol solubility in the FeSSIF was the strongest with α-CD addition.

  17. Formation of cholesterol bilayer domains precedes formation of cholesterol crystals in cholesterol/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes: EPR and DSC studies. (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K


    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol %. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogues, it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol % cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol % cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that the formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol % is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol % cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals.

  18. Cholesterol testing on a smartphone. (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Mancuso, Matthew; Erickson, David


    Home self-diagnostic tools for blood cholesterol monitoring have been around for over a decade but their widespread adoption has been limited by the relatively high cost of acquiring a quantitative test-strip reader, complicated procedure for operating the device, and inability to easily store and process results. To address this we have developed a smartphone accessory and software application that allows for the quantification of cholesterol levels in blood. Through a series of human trials we demonstrate that the system can accurately quantify total cholesterol levels in blood within 60 s by imaging standard test strips. In addition, we demonstrate how our accessory is optimized to improve measurement sensitivity and reproducibility across different individual smartphones. With the widespread adoption of smartphones and increasingly sophisticated image processing technology, accessories such as the one presented here will allow cholesterol monitoring to become more accurate and widespread, greatly improving preventive care for cardiovascular disease.

  19. Americans' Cholesterol Levels Keep Falling (United States)

    ... and 2013-2014, the CDC reported. Dr. David Friedman is chief of heart failure services at Long ... for cholesterol treatment, all seem to be working," Friedman said. The study was published online Nov. 30 ...

  20. Cholesterol Worships a New Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ira G. Schulman


    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R


    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  2. Steroidal Triterpenes of Cholesterol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Rozman


    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts by conversion of acyclic squalene into lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate of the pathway, followed by production of 20 structurally very similar steroidal triterpene molecules in over 11 complex enzyme reactions. Due to the structural similarities of sterol intermediates and the broad substrate specificity of the enzymes involved (especially sterol-Δ24-reductase; DHCR24 the exact sequence of the reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol remains undefined. This article reviews all hitherto known structures of post-squalene steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis, their biological roles and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Furthermore, it summarises kinetic parameters of enzymes (Vmax and Km and sterol intermediate concentrations from various tissues. Due to the complexity of the post-squalene cholesterol synthesis pathway, future studies will require a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pathway to elucidate the exact reaction sequence in different tissues, physiological or disease conditions. A major reason for the standstill of detailed late cholesterol synthesis research was the lack of several steroidal triterpene standards. We aid to this efforts by summarizing commercial and laboratory standards, referring also to chemical syntheses of meiosis-activating sterols.

  3. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  4. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase. (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S


    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C.

  5. A study of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and triene/tetraene ratio in coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanksale K


    Full Text Available The biochemical assessment of coronary heart diseases (CHD is done by studying serum lipids. This is usually done to under-stand the pathogenesis o f atherosclerosis which is the cause o f CHD. Indoor patients suffering from CHD were studied for their serum cholesterol, phospholipids, total fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Cholesterol/phospholipid and triene/tetraene ratios were calculated. It was observed that there was no significant difference in any of the parameters studied on the basis of dietary habit or body size. It was further observed on the basis of triene/tetraene ratio that the patients were ingesting adequate amounts of linoleate, there were high levels of cholesterol, phospholipids and c/p ratio in all the groups. This paradox may be due to disturbed PUFA metabolism and particularly of linoleate so that there is no influence o f linoleate on cholesterol and phospholipid synthesis.

  6. Monounsaturated oils do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol. (United States)

    Truswell, A S; Choudhury, N


    Evidence assembled here indicates that when olive oil forms a major part of dietary fat in controlled human experiments, total and LDL-cholesterols are somewhat higher than when the same amount of fat is one of the modern predominantly monounsaturated oils: low erucic rapeseed or high oleic sunflower oil. Oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids thus do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol. This phenomenon is explicable by consideration of the content of other fatty acids and the non-saponifiable fractions of the different monounsaturated oils. It helps to explain the discrepancy that has existed between the classic experiments (using olive oil), which found monounsaturated oils 'neutral', and some of the more recent experiments which found them more cholesterol-lowering than carbohydrates. Four published meta-analyses are reviewed. The three which included most of the published experiments show that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have less plasma cholesterol-lowering effect than polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  8. Dietary fiber. (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R


    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  9. Digital gene-expression profiling analysis of the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To prevent cardiovascular disease, people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE in yolk and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using digital gene-expression profiling analysis. Liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. RESULTS: The cholesterol content of the yolks of eggs from hens fed 120 mg/kg ASE declined considerably on day 60. Other groups (60, 240, 480 mg/kg ASE group also showed decreases, but they were not significant. Digital gene expression generated over nine million reads per sample, producing expression data for least 12,384 genes. Among these genes, 110 genes showed greater than normal expression in the liver and 107 genes showed greater than normal expression in the ovary. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1 and apolipoprotein H (Apoh, which act in the synthesis of bile acid and cholesterol efflux, showed more expression in the livers of hens given dietary ASE supplementation. In the ovary, levels of very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr, apolipoprotein B (Apob, apovitellenin 1 (ApovldlII and vitellogenin (VtgI, VtgII and VtgIII in ovary decreased with dietary ASE supplementation. CONCLUSION: Transcriptome analysis revealed that the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE were partially mediated by enhancement of cholesterol efflux in the liver and this reduced of cholesterol deposition in the ovary.

  10. Cholesterol changes in coronary patients after a short behavior modification program. (United States)

    Sebregts, Ellen H; Falger, Paul R; Bär, Frits W; Kester, Arnold D; Appels, Ad


    Serum cholesterol changes after an 8-week behavior modification program for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were studied in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 94) or to usual care (N = 90). After 9 months' follow-up the intervention was effective in reducing total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, particularly in patients with high baseline lipid levels. After correcting for changes in dose of statins during follow-up, effects were weakened, but for patients with high baseline cholesterol levels favorable effects remained. In these patients, the intervention group showed a decline of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels of 20% and 29%, respectively, compared to a 12% and 19% reduction in the control group (p <.01). These effects could not be explained by changes in dietary fat consumption. An unexpected finding was a lower increase in HDL cholesterol in the intervention group than in the control group.

  11. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri


    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress.

  12. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril


    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  13. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  14. Polarizable multipolar electrostatics for cholesterol (United States)

    Fletcher, Timothy L.; Popelier, Paul L. A.


    FFLUX is a novel force field under development for biomolecular modelling, and is based on topological atoms and the machine learning method kriging. Successful kriging models have been obtained for realistic electrostatics of amino acids, small peptides, and some carbohydrates but here, for the first time, we construct kriging models for a sizeable ligand of great importance, which is cholesterol. Cholesterol's mean total (internal) electrostatic energy prediction error amounts to 3.9 kJ mol-1, which pleasingly falls below the threshold of 1 kcal mol-1 often cited for accurate biomolecular modelling. We present a detailed analysis of the error distributions.

  15. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne


    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol tra

  16. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels


    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium....

  17. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling


    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...

  18. Steroid balance and tissue cholesterol accumulation in germfree and conventional rats fed diets containing saturated and polyunsaturated fats. (United States)

    Kellogg, T F


    Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.

  19. Cholesterol-lowering drugs: science and marketing. (United States)

    Garattini, Livio; Padula, Anna


    Long-term use of statin therapy is essential to obtain clinical benefits, but adherence is often suboptimal and some patients are also reported to fail because of 'statin resistance'. The identification of PCSK9 as a key factor in the LDL clearance pathway has led to the development of new monoclonal antibodies. Here we critically review the economic evaluations published in Europe and focused on statins. We searched the PubMed database to select the studies published from July 2006 to June 2016 and finally selected 19 articles. Overall, the majority of studies were conducted from a third-party payer's viewpoint and recurred to modelling. Most studies were sponsored by industry and funding seemed to play a pivotal role in the study design. Patients resistant to LDL-C level reduction were considered only in a few studies. The place in therapy of the new class of biologic should be considered a kind of 'third line' for cholesterol-lowering, after patients have failed with restricted dietary regimens and then with current drug therapies. Otherwise they could result in hardly sustainable expenses even for developed countries.

  20. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control. (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M


    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. The ABC of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plösch, Torsten


    Cholesterol fulfills an indispensable role in mammalian physiology. It is an important constituent of all cell membranes. Furthermore, it is the precursor of steroid hormones, which regulate a variety of physiological functions, and of bile salts, which are necessary for the generation of bile flow

  2. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.


    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  3. Saturated fats: what dietary intake? (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J


    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  4. Soluble fiber polysaccharides: effects on plasma cholesterol and colonic fermentation. (United States)

    Topping, D L


    Many soluble-fiber polysaccharides, used as stabilizers and thickeners by the food industry, lower plasma cholesterol and slow small intestinal transit and nutrient absorption. Although nondigestible by human enzymes, these polysaccharides are fermented by the large-bowel microflora, yielding short-chain fatty acids that are absorbed and contribute to energy. The caloric yield from fiber polysaccharides needs to be quantified. Short-chain fatty acid production from soluble fibers is modified by the presence of insoluble fibers but, in total, is probably less than from other carbohydrates, e.g., resistant starch. Short-chain fatty acids do not seem to mediate effects of fiber on plasma cholesterol, but in the large bowel they exert the trophic and antineoplastic effects of dietary fiber. The mechanism for cholesterol reduction by soluble fibers relates to enhanced steroid excretion and altered fat absorption and may be a function of the viscosity of these fibers in solution. The relationships between the chemical structure of soluble polysaccharides and their documented physiologic effects are not yet clear. By using polysaccharides of defined structure and properties, it should be possible to identify those characteristics that predict physiologic actions.

  5. What You Need to Know about Cholesterol (United States)

    ... 164304.html What You Need to Know About Cholesterol Heart expert explains the difference between good and ... 28, 2017 MONDAY, March 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cholesterol plays a vital role in your health, so ...

  6. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  7. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Cholesterol--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Brand Name Generic Name Zetia Ezetimibe ...

  8. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector. (United States)

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L


    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  9. Cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride metabolism intertwined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen


    Hyperlipidemie wordt gekarakteriseerd door verhoogd plasma cholesterol en/of triglyceriden en sterk geassocieerd met het risico op cardiovasculaire aandoeningen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar de regulatie van plasma cholesterol en triglyceriden concentraties en de achterliggende mechani

  10. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Inhibition of cholesterol transport in an intestine cell model by pine-derived phytosterols. (United States)

    Yi, Jinsoo; Knudsen, Tine A; Nielsen, Anne-Louise; Duelund, Lars; Christensen, Morten; Hervella, Pablo; Needham, David; Mouritsen, Ole G


    We have quantified the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol transport by pine-derived phytosterols using an HT29-MTX intestine cell model that forms a mucus layer similar to that in the intestine. An artificial intestinal fluid consisting of digested fat, bile salt, cholesterol, and phytosterols was formulated in order to mimic the conditions in the intestine. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the positive control, i.e., 0.1mM of cholesterol solubilized in the artificial intestine fluid, was found to be 0.33 (±0.17)×10(-6)cm/s. When 0.1mM β-sitosterol was solubilized alongside, Papp was effectively zero, corresponding to a total inhibition of cholesterol transport. A similar strong inhibition was found when commercial pine-derived phytosterols, PinVita™ FSP DuPont, were co-solubilized with cholesterol in the dietary model micelles, leading to Papp=0.06 (±0.06)×10(-6)cm/s, i.e., 5.5 times lower than the cholesterol positive control. Additionally, the effect of potential oral administration formulations generated by the pine-derived phytosterols was also characterized. The formulations were produced as a liquid formulation of the cholesterol-containing artificial intestine fluid. Six liquid formulations were tested of which four displayed a Papp in the range of 0-0.09×10(-6)cm/s. The remaining two formulations did not show any inhibition effect on cholesterol transport and even enhanced cholesterol transport. It was furthermore observed that the phytosterols were found in the collected intestine cells but not transported to the basolateral region in the intestinal cell model system.

  12. Dietary Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schoolchildren (United States)

    Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.


    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (Psaturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

  13. Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain


    Zhang, Juan; Qiang LIU


    Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD)...

  14. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang


    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  15. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.


    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  16. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.


    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  17. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)


    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  18. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation. (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.


    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  19. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia. (United States)

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H


    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux.

  20. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam


    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  1. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage (United States)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.


    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  2. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.


    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originat

  3. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; van Deursen, Jan M; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) cont

  4. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet


    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  5. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel


    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  6. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux (United States)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan


    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  7. Effects of Dietary Intervention on Hyperlipidemia in Eight Communities of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To examine the effect of community-based dietary intervention on hyperlipidemia.Methods A total of 180 hyperlipidemia individuals with TG>2.26 mmol@L-1 ( 200 mg@dL-1 ) and/orTC>5.72 mmol@L-1 (220 mg@dL-1) were selected from 428 eligible subjects in eight communities ofBeijing. They were randomly divided into intervention group (n=108) and control group (n=72).Dietary intervention was provided for the intervention group for 6 months. Information on dietaryintakes, physical examinations and blood samples was collected. Serum lipids were assayed atbaseline and endpoint of the study period. Results Respective decrease in dietary intake of totalcalories, fat, cholesterol and cooking oil by 13.62%, 24.75%, 24.40%, and 22.43%, in the interventiongroup was observed. The percentages of total calories from fat, carbohydrate and protein appeared tobe desirable after study. Reduced body weight and BMI were also observed. There was a respective5.61% and 7.06 % decrease in total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in theintervention group, while no significant changes were found in the control group. ConclusionsCommunity-based dietary intervention can effectively improve dietary patterns, control body weight,and decrease the levels of total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  8. When is dietary fiber considered a functional food? (United States)

    Prosky, L


    gut, coronary artery health, cholesterol reduction, glucose metabolism, insulin response, blood lipids, cancer etc. The author discusses in detail the functional food properties of dietary fiber.

  9. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism. (United States)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K


    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  10. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.


    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  11. Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain. (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Qiang


    Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and some cognitive deficits typical of the old age. The brain contains large amount of cholesterol, but the cholesterol metabolism and its complex homeostasis regulation are currently poorly understood. This review will seek to integrate current knowledge about the brain cholesterol metabolism with molecular mechanisms.

  12. Effect of astaxanthin and cholesterol on growth, survival, and pigmentation of adult spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus (Decapoda, Palinuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai V. Hung


    Full Text Available Prior research on the spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 determined thatintermediate levels of cholesterol are important in diets, but astaxanthin may not be. Here we examinedhow the growth, survival and coloration of spiny lobster were influenced by the inclusion of bothastaxanthin (50, 60 and 70 and cholesterol (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % in a two factor experiment.Overall, survival was 84.8% with no significant difference among dietary treatments. Lobsters grew thebest when fed the diet containing the lowest cholesterol and greatest astaxanthin of the levels presented.The results of this study point out the need to examine the effects of dietary component addition acrossa range of inclusion levels simultaneously for multiple nutrients.

  13. The pivotal role of cholesterol absorption inhibitors in the management of dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Ehab S


    Full Text Available Abstract Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol is associated with a significantly increased risk of coronary heart disease. Ezetimibe is the first member of a new class of selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors. It impairs the intestinal reabsorption of both dietary and hepatically excreted biliary cholesterol. Ezetimibe is an effective and safe agent for lowering LDL-C and non HDL-C. Short term clinical trials have established the role of ezetimibe monotherapy and its use in combination with statins. Furthermore, ezetimibe and statin combination therapy increased the percentage of patients who achieved their LDL-C treatment goal. Studies using surrogate markers of atherosclerosis have suggested a possible role of ezetimibe in combating atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe provides an effective therapeutic strategy for the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH and sitosterolemia. The lack of outcomes and long term safety data is attributed to the relatively recent introduction of this medication.

  14. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors. (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean


    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  15. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects. (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Quintela, José C; de la Fuente, Ester; Haya, Javier; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes


    Recently, polyphenols have been found to affect blood lipids in animals in a similar manner as soluble dietary fibre. The aim was to assess whether an insoluble dietary fiber very rich in polyphenols has a beneficial effect on serum lipids in humans. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study with parallel arms, 88 volunteers with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to consume daily either, fiber with insoluble 84% polyphenols 4 g twice a day (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. The insoluble polyphenols consumption reduced the total cholesterol by 17.8 +/- 6.1% (p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol by 22.5 +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001), LDL: HDL cholesterol ratio by 26.2 +/- 14.3% (p < 0.001) and triglycerides by 16.3 +/- 23.4% (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared with baseline. No significant differences were found during the study time in the placebo group for the lipid profile. The consumption of fiber very rich in insoluble polyphenols shows beneficial effects on human blood lipid profile and may be effective in prevention and treatment of hyperlipemia.

  16. Effect of rye bran on excretion of bile acids, cholesterol, nitrogen, and fat in human subjects with ileostomies. (United States)

    Zhang, J X; Lundin, E; Hallmans, G; Adlercreutz, H; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I; Aman, P; Stenling, R; Dahlgren, S


    The excretion of bile acids, cholesterol, dry matter, nitrogen, fat, and energy in ileostomy effluent, and plasma lipid concentrations were studied in eight subjects with ileostomies. The subjects consumed a wheat bread-based, low-fiber diet (LFD) for 3 wk and a rye bran bread-based, high-fiber diet (HFD) for 3 wk. The ileal excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, fat, and energy was higher during the HFD period. The daily excretion and the percentage of conjugated bile acids were significantly higher and the percentage of free bile acids lower in the ileostomy effluents during the HFD as compared with the LFD period. No significant difference in the excretion of cholesterol, net cholesterol, sterol, or net sterol was noted between the HFD and LFD periods. No significant differences in plasma concentrations of HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and B were observed between the two 3-wk dietary periods.

  17. Imbalanced cholesterol metabolism in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Xue-shan, Zhao; Juan, Peng; Qi, Wu; Zhong, Ren; Li-hong, Pan; Zhi-han, Tang; Zhi-sheng, Jiang; Gui-xue, Wang; Lu-shan, Liu


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that is mainly caused by β-amyloid accumulation. A large number of studies have shown that elevated cholesterol levels may perform a function in AD pathology, and several cholesterol-related gene polymorphisms are associated with this disease. Although numerous studies have shown the important function of cholesterol in AD pathogenesis and development, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To further elucidate cholesterol metabolism disorder and AD, we first, review metabolism and regulation of the cholesterol in the brain. Second, we summarize the literature stating that hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of AD. Third, we discuss the main mechanisms of abnormal cholesterol metabolism that increase the risk of AD. Finally, the relationships between AD and apolipoprotein E, PCSK9, and LRP1 are discussed in this article.

  18. Biophysical studies of cholesterol effects on chromatin. (United States)

    Silva, Isabel T G; Fernandes, Vinicius; Souza, Caio; Treptow, Werner; Santos, Guilherme Martins


    Changes in chromatin structure regulate gene expression and genome maintenance. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Previous work indicated that cholesterol, a ubiquitous cellular lipid, may bind to chromatin in vivo, suggesting a potential function for lipids in modulating chromatin architecture. However, the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol action on chromatin structure have remained unclear. Here, we explored the biophysical impact of cholesterol on nucleosome and chromatin fibers reconstituted in vitro and characterized in silico the cholesterol binding to nucleosome. Our findings support that cholesterol assists 10nm and 30nm chromatin formation and induces folding of long chromatin fibers as a result of direct interaction of the cholesterol to six nucleosomal binding sites.

  19. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne; Dikkers; Uwe; JF; Tietge


    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the f inal step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the main pathophys...

  20. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC


    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe JF


    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the ...

  1. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun


    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China.

  2. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr


    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  3. Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts (United States)

    Toppozini, Laura; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Armstrong, Clare L.; Yamani, Zahra; Kučerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.


    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules, we observe raftlike structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raftlike structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  4. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Röhrl, Clemens


    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy...... is to use intrinsically fluorescent sterols, as dehydroergosterol (DHE), having minimal chemical alteration compared to cholesterol but giving low fluorescence signals in the UV region of the spectrum. Alternatively, one can use dye-tagged cholesterol analogs and in particular BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol......), whose synthesis and initial characterization was pioneered by Robert Bittman. Here, we give a general overview of the properties and applications but also limitations of BODIPY-tagged cholesterol probes for analyzing intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We describe our own experiences...

  5. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins. (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip


    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  6. [Is there a relationship between cholesterol reduction, low levels of cholesterol and mortality?]. (United States)

    LaRosa, J C


    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  7. From blood to gut : Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.


    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol lowering therapies By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body For a long time this removal via

  8. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.


    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  9. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K


    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  10. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats]. (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J


    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  11. Cholesterol orientation and tilt modulus in DMPC bilayers


    Khelashvili, George; Pabst, Georg; Harries, Daniel


    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrated bilayers containing mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Cholesterol at various ratios, to study the effect of cholesterol concentration on its orientation, and to characterize the link between cholesterol tilt and overall phospholipid membrane organization. The simulations show a substantial probability for cholesterol molecules to transiently orient perpendicular to the bilayer normal, and suggest that cholesterol...

  12. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxfield, F. R.; van Meer, G.


    Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, invo

  13. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K.


    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of chol

  14. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood


    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  15. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.


    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers...... in a monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves...

  16. The Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    CERN Document Server

    Toppozini, Laura; Armstrong, Clare L; Yamani, Zahra; Kucerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstaedter, Maikel C


    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking and lipid/protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short-lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules we observe raft-like structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to orderin...

  17. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders. (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin


    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  18. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  19. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  20. Cholesterol: Top Five Foods to Lower Your Numbers (United States)

    Cholesterol: Top foods to improve your numbers Diet can play an important role in lowering your cholesterol. Here are the top foods to lower your cholesterol and protect your heart. By Mayo Clinic Staff ...

  1. Hydration properties and binding capacities of dietary fibers from bamboo shoot shell and its hypolipidemic effects in mice. (United States)

    Luo, Xianliang; Wang, Qi; Zheng, Baodong; Lin, Liangmei; Chen, Bingyan; Zheng, Yafeng; Xiao, Jianbo


    In the bamboo shoot processing industries, bamboo shoot shells are discarded without any utilization. As a cheap potential dietary fibers resource, bamboo shoot (Leleba oldhami Nakal) shell was decomposed to dietary fibers by multiple enzymes. The extraction yields of insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber were 56.21% and 8.67%, respectively. The resulting fibers showed significant swelling capacity, water holding capacity and exhibit in vitro binding capacities to fat, cholesterol, bile acids and nitrites. The administration of bamboo shoot shell fibers improved the lipid metabolism disorderly situation of hyperlipidemia mice. Compared with normal group, total dietary fiber supplement could exhibit the lowest body weight gain (2.84%) in mice, and decrease total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 31.53%, 21.35% and 31.53%, respectively; while it can increase high density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 37.6%. The bamboo shoot shell fibers could be a potentially available dietary ingredient in functional food industries.

  2. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diet in a healthy elderly population. (United States)

    Hooper, P L; Garry, P J; Goodwin, J S; Hooper, E M; Leonard, A G


    This study examined how high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) correlated with a 3-day food record of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol consumption in a group of 270 healthy subjects over age 60. HDL-C concentrations correlated with alcohol consumption (expressed as grams/day) (r = + .25, P less than .001), and inversely with total carbohydrate (r = - .18, P less than .01) and refined carbohydrate (r = - .17, P less than .01) ingestion (expressed as a percent of total caloric intake). Subjects consuming diets low in either total carbohydrate or refined carbohydrate had 10 to 20% higher HDL-C levels than did those consuming diets high in these food substances. The relationships between HDL-C levels and alcohol and carbohydrate ingestion were independent of other variables which correlated with HDL-C levels. Dietary fat (total fat, saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol) did not correlate with HDL-C. LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not correlate with any dietary variable measured.

  3. Differences in individual responsiveness of serum cholesterol to fat-modified diets in man. (United States)

    Katan, M B; van Gastel, A C; de Rover, C M; van Montfort, M A; Knuiman, J T


    In the period 1963-1974, 82 monks and 48 nuns from five Dutch and Belgian Trappist monasteries each participated in two or more out of nine different trials designed to test the effect of 58 different fat-modified diets on serum cholesterol. We analysed these data to quantify the extent to which healthy, normolipaemic subjects differ in the responsiveness of their serum cholesterol to a change in dietary fatty acid composition. Statistically significant between-person variance components (SD2p) were found in the serum cholesterol responses for the whole group (SD2p = [0.20 mmol l-1]2), for the men (SD2p = [0.24 mmol l-1]2) and for those women who participated in three or more trials (SD2p = [0.14 mmol l-1]2). The between-person variation (expressed as SD) was on average only half as large as the within-person variation in response when the same subject was challenged repeatedly. It is concluded that medically significant differences in responsiveness to fat-modified diets exist in both men and women. However, few subjects fail entirely to respond to a change in dietary fatty acid composition. In addition, the large within-subject variability makes it difficult to identify hypo- and hyperresponders.

  4. A church-based cholesterol education program. (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Flack, J M


    The leading cause of death among black people in the United States is coronary heart disease, accounting for about 25 percent of the deaths. The Task Force on Black and Minority Health formed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in 1985 subsequently recommended increased efforts to reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease in the black population. A stated focus of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's National Cholesterol Education Program has been that of reaching minority groups. This report describes a pilot cholesterol education program conducted in black churches by trained members of those churches. Cholesterol screening, using a Reflotron, and other coronary heart disease risk factor screening was conducted in six churches with predominantly black members and at a neighborhood library. A total of 348 persons with cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dl) or higher were identified. At the time of screening, all were provided brief counseling on lowering their cholesterol and were given a copy of the screening results. Half of those identified, all members of one church, were invited to attend a 6-week nutrition education class of 1 hour each week about techniques to lower blood cholesterol. Information about cholesterol was also mailed to them. They were designated as the education group. Persons in the church were trained to teach the classes. A report of the screening results was sent to the personal physicians of the remaining 174 people in other churches who had cholesterol levels of 200 mg per dl or higher. This group served as a usual care comparison group.Six months after the initial screening, members of both groups were invited for followup screening.Among the 75 percent of the education group who returned for followup screening there was a 23.4 mg per dl (10 percent) decrease in the mean cholesterol level. Thirty-six percent of the usual care group returned for followup screening; their mean cholesterol

  5. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases


    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Urano, Yasuomi


    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as...

  6. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol. (United States)

    Khoo, Bernard


    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH.

  7. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Syahruddin


    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  8. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect. (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace


    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  9. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;


    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...

  10. Isomer-specific effects of conjugated linoleic acid on HDL functionality associated with reverse cholesterol transport. (United States)

    Nicod, Nathalie; Parker, Robert S; Giordano, Elena; Maestro, Virginia; Davalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco


    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are atheroprotective because of their role in reverse cholesterol transport. The intestine is involved in this process because it synthesizes HDL, removes cholesterol from plasma and excretes it into the lumen. We investigated the role of selected dietary fatty acids on intestinal cholesterol uptake and HDL functionality. Caco-2 monolayers grown on Transwells were supplemented with either palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic, arachidonic or conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs): c9,t11-CLA; t9,t11-CLA; c10,t12-CLA. Cells synthesized HDL in the basolateral compartment for 24 h in the absence or presence of an antibody to SR-BI (aSR-BI), which inhibits its interaction with HDL. Free cholesterol (FC) accumulated to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of aSR-BI, indicating net uptake of FC by SR-BI. Uptake's efficiency was significantly decreased when cells were treated with c9,t11-CLA relative to the other fatty acids. These differences were associated with lower HDL functionality, since neither SR-BI protein expression nor expression and alternative splicing of other genes involved lipid metabolism were affected. Only INSIG2 expression was decreased, with no increase of its target genes. Increasing pre-β-HDL synthesis, by inducing ABCA1 and adding APOA1, resulted in reduced uptake of FC by SR-BI after c9,t11-CLA treatment, indicating reduced functionality of pre-β-HDL. Conversely, treatment with c9,t11-CLA resulted in a greater uptake of FC and esterified cholesterol from mature HDL. Therefore, Caco-2 monolayers administered c9,t11-CLA produced a nonfunctional pre-β-HDL but took up cholesterol more efficiently via SR-BI from mature HDL.

  11. Can adverse effects of dietary fat intake be overestimated as a consequence of dietary fat underreporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Lissner, Lauren


    that systematic underreporting of dietary fat by high-risk groups such as the obese may produce an overestimated association. These results imply that previous epidemiological studies showing a positive association between percentage of energy from fat and other health outcomes, e.g. cancer and heart disease, may......OBJECTIVE: To describe the consequences of systematic reporting bias by the obese for diet-disease relationships. DESIGN: The present report used 24-hour urinary nitrogen and estimates of 24-hour energy expenditure to assess error in diet reporting, and examined the consequence of accounting...... for this error for associations between dietary fat intake and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. SETTING: Sub-study to the Danish MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) project, carried out in 1987-1988. SUBJECTS: A random sub-sample of the adult Danish male...

  12. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  13. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers. (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi


    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou


    Full Text Available Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532 rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05. When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020 and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048. In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Role of Dietary Soy Protein in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel T. Velasquez, Sam J. Bhathena


    Full Text Available Soy protein is an important component of soybeans and provides an abundant source of dietary protein. Among the dietary proteins, soy protein is considered a complete protein in that it contains ample amounts of all the essential amino acids plus several other macronutrients with a nutritional value roughly equivalent to that of animal protein of high biological value. Soy protein is unique among the plant-based proteins because it is associated with isoflavones, a group of compounds with a variety of biological properties that may potentially benefit human health. An increasing body of literature suggests that soy protein and its isoflavones may have a beneficial role in obesity. Several nutritional intervention studies in animals and humans indicate that consumption of soy protein reduces body weight and fat mass in addition to lowering plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In animal models of obesity, soy protein ingestion limits or reduces body fat accumulation and improves insulin resistance, the hallmark of human obesity. In obese humans, dietary soy protein also reduces body weight and body fat mass in addition to reducing plasma lipids. Several potential mechanisms whereby soy protein may improve insulin resistance and lower body fat and blood lipids are discussed and include a wide spectrum of biochemical and molecular activities that favorably affect fatty acid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. The biologic actions of certain constituents of soy protein, particularly conglycinin, soyasaponins, phospholipids, and isoflavones, that relate to obesity are also discussed. In addition, the potential of soy protein in causing food allergy in humans is briefly discussed.

  16. Relative Validity of Three Food Frequency Questionnaires for Assessing Dietary Intakes of Guatemalan Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marcinkevage

    Full Text Available To determine the relative validity of three food frequency questionnaires (FFQs compared with results from 24-hour dietary recalls for measuring dietary intakes in Guatemalan schoolchildren.A cross-sectional study of primary caregivers (mothers or grandmothers of 6-11 year-old children. Caregivers completed one of three constructed FFQs to measure the child's dietary consumption in the last week: FFQ1 did not incorporate portion sizes; FFQ2 provided portion sizes; and FFQ3 incorporated pictures of median portion sizes. During the same week, each caregiver also completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results from the FFQ were compared with corresponding results from the 24-hour dietary recalls.Santa Catarina Pinula, peri-urban Guatemala City.Caregivers (n = 145 of 6-11 year-old children: 46 completed FFQ1, 49 completed FFQ2, and 50 completed FFQ3.The mean values for all nutrients obtained from the 24-hour dietary recall were lower than for those obtained from the FFQs, excluding folic acid in FFQ3, cholesterol and zinc in FFQ2, and cholesterol, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc in FFQ1. Energy-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.07 (protein to 0.54 (cholesterol for FFQ1 and from 0.05 to 0.74 for FFQ2 and FFQ3. Agreement by both methods (FFQ and 24-hour dietary recalls of classifying children into the same or adjacent quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient consumption ranged from 62.0% for cholesterol to 95.9% for vitamin B12 across all three FFQs.Our FFQs had moderate to good relative validity in measuring energy and nutrient intakes for 6-11 year-old Guatemalan children. More evidence is needed to evaluate their reproducibility and applicability in similar populations.

  17. [Cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Historical considerations and treatment]. (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Basurto, Lourdes; De la Chesnaye, Elsa; Saldívar, Iván


    Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane, however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite, the recognition of historical events for 200 years, starting with Michel Chevreul naming «cholesterol»; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor; as well as the emerging of different drugs, such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs this decade, promising to increase HDL and the most recent ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of LDL receptor, however morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease.

  18. A new framework for reverse cholesterol transport: Non-biliary contributions to reverse cholesterol transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan; E; Temel; J; Mark; Brown


    Reduction of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol through statin therapy has only modestly decreased coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated mortality in developed countries, which has prompted the search for alternative therapeutic strategies for CHD. Major efforts are now focused on therapies that augment high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and ultimately increase the fecal disposal of cholesterol. The process of RCT has long been thought to simply involve HDL-media...

  19. From blood to gut: Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; LJ; Vrins


    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol-lowering therapies. By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body. For a long time this removal via the hepatobiliary secretion was considered to be the sole route involved in the RCT. However, observations from early studies in animals and humans already pointed towards the possibility of another route. In t...

  20. Prevention of obesity relatred metabolic diseases by processed foods containing soluble dietary fibers and flavonoids (abstract) (United States)

    Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...

  1. Physical Activity, Dietary Intake, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Nondiabetic Adults with Mental Retardation. (United States)

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.


    A study identified 145 adults with mild mental retardation and hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and abdominal obesity. Those who participated in more frequent bouts of physical activity or who consumed lower dietary fat intakes were one-third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia…

  2. Functional and physiological properties of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibres derived from defatted rice bran. (United States)

    Daou, Cheickna; Zhang, Hui


    Enzymatic- gravimetric method was used to obtain three fractions of dietary from defatted rice bran. The functional and physiological properties such as viscosity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI), cholesterol and bile salt adsorption capacity of the resultant fractions were evaluated. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) when compared showed that SDF exhibited significantly (p functional ingredients which can be added to various food products and dietetic, low-calorie high-fiber foods to enhance their nutraceutical properties and health benefits.

  3. Cardioprotective effect of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola seed extract in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola seeds on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The results revealed that cholesterol administration at a dose of 30mg/day for eight consecutive weeks caused a significant increase (p<0.001 in relative heart weights of the cholesterol-fed rats when compared with the control. However, co-treatment with kolaviron at doses 100 and 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the cholesterol induced enlargement of the heart. This is a pointer to the cardioprotective potential of kolaviron; and thus suggests a possible use as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of coronary heart diseases.

  4. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.


    Law, M. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Wald, N J


    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. DESIGN--Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration....

  5. Cholesterol modulates the dimer interface of the β₂-adrenergic receptor via cholesterol occupancy sites. (United States)

    Prasanna, Xavier; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Sengupta, Durba


    The β2-adrenergic receptor is an important member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, whose stability and function are modulated by membrane cholesterol. The recent high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor revealed the presence of possible cholesterol-binding sites in the receptor. However, the functional relevance of cholesterol binding to the receptor remains unexplored. We used MARTINI coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to explore dimerization of the β2-adrenergic receptor in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol. A novel (to our knowledge) aspect of our results is that receptor dimerization is modulated by membrane cholesterol. We show that cholesterol binds to transmembrane helix IV, and cholesterol occupancy at this site restricts its involvement at the dimer interface. With increasing cholesterol concentration, an increased presence of transmembrane helices I and II, but a reduced presence of transmembrane helix IV, is observed at the dimer interface. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to explore the correlation between cholesterol occupancy and GPCR organization. Our results indicate that dimer plasticity is relevant not just as an organizational principle but also as a subtle regulatory principle for GPCR function. We believe these results constitute an important step toward designing better drugs for GPCR dimer targets.

  6. Obesity, Cholesterol Metabolism and Breast Cancer Pathogenesis (United States)

    McDonnell, Donald P.; Park, Sunghee; Goulet, Matthew T.; Jasper, Jeff; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Chang, Ching-yi; Norris, John D.; Guyton, John R.; Nelson, Erik R.


    Obesity and altered lipid metabolism are risk factors for breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. These pathologic relationships have been attributed in part to the impact of cholesterol on the biophysical properties of cell membranes and to the influence of these changes on signaling events initiated at the membrane. However, more recent studies have indicated that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), and not cholesterol per se, may be the primary biochemical link between lipid metabolism and cancer. The enzyme responsible for production of 27HC from cholesterol, CYP27A1, is expressed primarily in the liver and in macrophages. In addition significantly elevated expression of this enzyme within breast tumors has also been observed. It is believed that 27HC, acting through the liver X receptor (LXR) in macrophages and possibly other cells is involved in maintaining organismal cholesterol homeostasis. It has also been shown recently that 27HC is an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist in breast cancer cells and that it stimulates the growth and metastasis of tumors in several models of breast cancer. These findings provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical approaches that interfere with cholesterol/27HC synthesis as a means to mitigate the impact of cholesterol on breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25060521

  7. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić L.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  8. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

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    Mohammad Reza Haeri


    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno


    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  10. Antidiabetogenic Effects of Chromium Mitigate Hyperinsulinemia-Induced Cellular Insulin Resistance via Correction of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Imbalance


    Horvath, Emily M.; Tackett, Lixuan; McCarthy, Alicia M.; Raman, Priya; Brozinick, Joseph T.; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.


    Previously, we found that a loss of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) structure contributes to insulin-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a dietary supplement thought to improve glycemic status in insulin-resistant individuals, augments insulin-regulated glucose transport in insulin-sensitive 3T3-L1 adipocytes by lowering PM cholesterol. Here, to gain mechanisti...

  11. Atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice fed cholesterol and soybean oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Olsen, P.; Frandsen, H.


    In order to study aortic atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic response to dietary cholesterol and soybean oil in homozygous LDLR-/- mice, the 16 weeks old animals were randomized in 4 groups either fed standard diet (no cholesterol added, group I, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 0.......9 +/- 0.07 (group III), 32.6 +/-0.1 (group IV), and of females 6.9 +/- 2.7 (group I) and 31.7 +/- 4.4 (group II). No apparent difference in plasma triglyceride levels was observed between the groups of either sexes. Aortic atherosclerosis (ratio intima/media) in males was 0.17 +/- 0.09 (SD) (group I), 0...

  12. Normocaloric low cholesterol diet modulates Th17/Treg balance in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maggio

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is associated with hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, including immunological disorders. Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC is often characterized by cholesterol and lipid metabolism alterations, leading to hepatic steatosis. Cholesterol metabolism, in fact, is crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent works described that a higher dietary cholesterol intake is associated with the progression of HCV-related liver disease. CHC patients have increased levels of T helper 17 (Th17-cells, a lymphocytic population involved in the pathogenesis of liver inflammation and autoimmune hepatitis. The balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg cells is crucial for chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17-cell differentiation is deeply influenced by the activation LXRs, nuclear receptors modulating cholesterol homeostasis. Moreover, HCV may affect these nuclear receptors, and cholesterol metabolism, through both direct and indirect mechanisms. On these bases, we hypothesized that modulation of cholesterol levels through Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet (NLCD may represent an innovative strategy to reduce the progression of HCV infection, through the modulation of peripheral Th17/Treg balance. To this end, we performed a pilot study to investigate whether a Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet may be able to modulate Th17/Treg balance in patients affected by chronic HCV infection. After 30 days of NLCD CHC patients showed a significant reduction in Th17 cells frequency, which correlated with strong reduction of IL-17 and IL-22 serum levels. At the same time, we appreciated an increase in the percentage of Treg cells, thus improving Treg/Th17 balance. Moreover, we observed an increased expression of LXRs and their target genes: SREBP-1c and ABCA-1. In conclusion, NLCD finely regulates Th17/Treg balance, improving immune system response in CHC patients. This study could pave the way for new treatments of CHC patients, suggesting that

  13. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.


    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  14. Biliary lipid, bile acid composition, and dietary correlations in Micmac Indian women. A population study. (United States)

    Williams, C N; Johnston, J L; McCarthy, S; Field, C A


    The precursor state for cholesterol gallstone formation is cholesterol-saturated bile. We studied a high-risk group for cholesterol gallstones to determine whether dietary variables affect bile cholesterol. Bile samples were analyzed from 46 Micmac Indian women without gallstones and 13 with gallstones for molar percentage cholesterol (MPC) and bile acid composition. The data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis with MPC as the dependent variable and the dietary variables, obtained from four consecutive-day food records, and biliary bile acid composition as the independent variables. In the 46 women without gallstones, obesity, calorie range/calorie intake, and iron and calcium intake were, in their order of importance, significant factors. In normal weight subjects (ponderal index > 12.5) relative obesity was still a significant correlate. Obesity and iron intake were positive correlates while calorie range/calorie intake and calcium intake varied inversely. When the effect of obesity was controlled, these factors were still significant in this group, as they were in the gallstone group. In addition, the duration of overnight fast obtained by history, together with the proportions of deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in bile were correlates of the biliary molar percentage cholesterol.

  15. Dietary fats explained (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  16. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes. (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm


    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  17. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti


    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  18. Is Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase a Moonlighting Protein Whose Day Job is Cholesterol Sulfate Synthesis? Implications for Cholesterol Transport, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Seneff


    Full Text Available Theoretical inferences, based on biophysical, biochemical, and biosemiotic considerations, are related here to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other degenerative conditions. We suggest that the “daytime” job of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, when sunlight is available, is to catalyze sulfate production. There is a striking alignment between cell types that produce either cholesterol sulfate or sulfated polysaccharides and those that contain eNOS. The signaling gas, nitric oxide, a well-known product of eNOS, produces pathological effects not shared by hydrogen sulfide, a sulfur-based signaling gas. We propose that sulfate plays an essential role in HDL-A1 cholesterol trafficking and in sulfation of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs, both critical to lysosomal recycling (or disposal of cellular debris. HSPGs are also crucial in glucose metabolism, protecting against diabetes, and in maintaining blood colloidal suspension and capillary flow, through systems dependent on water-structuring properties of sulfate, an anionic kosmotrope. When sunlight exposure is insufficient, lipids accumulate in the atheroma in order to supply cholesterol and sulfate to the heart, using a process that depends upon inflammation. The inevitable conclusion is that dietary sulfur and adequate sunlight can help prevent heart disease, diabetes, and other disease conditions.

  19. Aspirin prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs. (United States)

    Lee, S P; Carey, M C; LaMont, J T


    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  20. Metabolism of adrenal cholesterol in man (United States)

    Borkowski, Abraham; Delcroix, Claude; Levin, Sam


    The synthesis of adrenal cholesterol, its esterification and the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones were studied in vitro on human adrenal tissue. It was found that the synthesis of adrenal cholesterol may normally be small in the zona “fasciculata,” particularly when compared with the synthesis of the glucocorticosteroid hormones, that it is several times higher in the zona “reticularis” where esterified cholesterol is less abundant, and that under ACTH stimulation it increases strikingly and proportionally to the degree of esterified adrenal cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, the relative rate of esterification as well as the concentration of free adrenal cholesterol are remarkably stable: they do not differ according to the adrenal zonation and are unaffected by ACTH. Furthermore, from a qualitative point of view, the relative proportions of Δ1 and Δ2 cholesteryl esters formed in situ are similar to those anticipated from their relative concentrations, suggesting that the characteristic fatty acid distribution of the adrenal cholesteryl esters results from an in situ esterification rather than from a selective uptake of the plasma cholesteryl esters. Besides, the in vitro esterification reveals a propensity to the formation of the most unsaturated cholesteryl esters. Regarding hydrocortisone and corticosterone, their synthesis tends to be more elevated in the zona “fasciculata.” Despite its higher cholesterol concentration the zona “fasciculata” should not therefore be viewed as a quiescent functional complement to the zona “reticularis” and the cortical distribution of glucocorticosteroid hormone synthesis is quite distinct from that of adrenal cholesterol synthesis. PMID:4338120

  1. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? (United States)

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  2. Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose. (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa


    Dietary fiber is a nutritional concept based not on physiological functions but on defined chemical and physical properties. Recent definitions of dietary fiber differentiate inherent plant cell wall-associated fiber from isolated or synthetic fiber. For the latter to be defined as fiber, beneficial physiological effects should be demonstrated, such as laxative effects, fermentability, attenuation of blood cholesterol levels, or postprandial glucose response. Grain fibers are a major natural source of dietary fiber worldwide, while inulin, a soluble indigestible fructose polymer isolated from chicory, and polydextrose, a synthetic indigestible glucose polymer, have more simple structures. Inulin and polydextrose show many of the same functionalities of grain fiber in the large intestine, in that they are fermentable, bifidogenic, and laxative. The reported effects on postprandial blood glucose and fasting cholesterol levels have been modest, but grain fibers also show variable effects. New biomarkers are needed to link the physiological functions of specific fibers with long-term health benefits.

  3. Cholesterol content and methods for cholesterol determination in meat and poultry (United States)

    Available data for cholesterol content of beef, pork, poultry, and processed meat products were reported. Although the cholesterol concentration in meat and poultry can be influenced by various factors, effects of animal species, muscle fiber type, and muscle fat content are focused on in this revi...

  4. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S.; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Temel, Ryan E.; Brown, J. Mark


    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the non-biliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI

  5. Transintestinal and Biliary Cholesterol Secretion Both Contribute to Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Dikkers, Arne; Koehorst, Martijn; Havinga, Rick; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F; Groen, Albert K


    OBJECTIVE: Reverse cholesterol transport comprises efflux of cholesterol from macrophages and its subsequent removal from the body with the feces and thereby protects against formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Because of lack of suitable animal models that allow for evaluation of the respective c

  6. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janine K Kruit; Albert K Groen; Theo J van Berkel; Folkert Kuipers


    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis,clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor to high density lipoprotein (HDL; good cholesterol) formation. The liver has a central position in the classical definition of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway by taking up peripheryderived cholesterol from lipoprotein particles followed by conversion into bile acids or its direct secretion into bile for eventual removal via the feces. During the past couple of years, however, an additional important role of the intestine in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of plasma cholesterol levels has become apparent. Firstly, molecular mechanisms of cholesterol absorption have been elucidated and novel pharmacological compounds have been identified that interfere with the process and positively impact plasma cholesterol levels. Secondly, it is now evident that the intestine itself contributes to fecal neutral sterol loss as a cholesterol-secreting organ. Finally, very recent work has unequivocally demonstrated that the intestine contributes significantly to plasma HDL cholesterol levels.Thus, the intestine is a potential target for novel antiatherosclerotic treatment strategies that, in addition to interference with cholesterol absorption, modulate direct cholesterol excretion and plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

  7. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler F. Daniels, Karen M. Killinger, Jennifer J. Michal, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Zhihua Jiang


    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  8. LDL cholesterol: controversies and future therapeutic directions. (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M


    Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe. Several novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of people with genetic defects that result in loss of function within the LDL receptor, a major determinant of inherited hyperlipidaemias. Moreover, the usefulness of monoclonal antibodies that extend the LDL-receptor lifecycle (and thus result in substantial lowering of LDL cholesterol below the levels achieved with statins alone) is being assessed in phase 3 trials that will enrol more than 60,000 at-risk patients worldwide. These trials represent an exceptionally rapid translation of genetic observations into clinical practice and will address core questions of how low LDL cholesterol can be safely reduced, whether the mechanism of LDL-cholesterol lowering matters, and whether ever more aggressive lipid-lowering provides a safe, long-term mechanism to prevent atherothrombotic complications.

  9. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K


    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P carotenoids (P carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study, serum carotenoids were mediators of dietary carotenoids and CVD risk biomarker associations. Serum β-carotene was also a moderator of the dietary β-carotene and CRP association. These findings may help in the design of future intervention studies on dietary carotenoids in the prevention of CVD.

  10. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of dietary-induced hyperlipidemia gene expression profiles in miniature pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia animal models have been established, but complete gene expression profiles of the transition from normal lipid levels have not been obtained. Miniature pigs are useful model animals for gene expression studies on dietary-induced hyperlipidemia because they have a similar anatomy and digestive physiology to humans, and blood samples can be obtained from them repeatedly. METHODOLOGY: Two typical dietary treatments were used for dietary-induced hyperlipidemia models, by using specific pathogen-free (SPF Clawn miniature pigs. One was a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD and the other was a high-fat, high-cholesterol, and high-sucrose diet (HFCSD. Microarray analyses were conducted from whole blood samples during the dietary period and from white blood cells at the end of the dietary period to evaluate the transition of expression profiles of the two dietary models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Variations in whole blood gene expression intensity within the HFCD or the HFCSD group were in the same range as the controls provide with normal diet at all periods. This indicates uniformity of dietary-induced hyperlipidemia for our dietary protocols. Gene ontology- (GO based functional analyses revealed that characteristics of the common changes between HFCD and HFCSD were involved in inflammatory responses and reproduction. The correlation coefficient between whole blood and white blood cell expression profiles at 27 weeks with the HFCSD diet was significantly lower than that of the control and HFCD diet groups. This may be due to the effects of RNA originating from the tissues and/or organs. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant differences in fasting plasma lipids and glucose levels between the HFCD and HFCSD groups were observed. However, blood RNA analyses revealed different characteristics corresponding to the dietary protocols. In this study, whole blood RNA analyses proved to be a useful tool to evaluate transitions in

  11. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  12. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.


    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarize

  13. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR


    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  14. Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties by up-regulating the gene expression of PPAR-α in hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet. (United States)

    Wan, Chun-Wai; Wong, Candy Ngai-Yan; Pin, Wing-Kwan; Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Kwok, Ching-Yee; Chan, Robbie Yat-Kan; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan


    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Natural compounds have been proved to be useful in lowering serum cholesterol to slow down the progression of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects of the dietary consumption of chlorogenic acid were investigated by monitoring plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein) in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with chlorogenic acid (1 or 10 mg/kg/day p.o.) for 28 days. Chlorogenic acid markedly altered the increased plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein but decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on both atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor. Lipid depositions in liver were attenuated significantly in hypercholesterolemic animals supplemented with chlorogenic acid. It is postulated that hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by chlorogenic acid, which leads to other secondary beneficial effects such as atheroscleroprotective, cardioprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The hypocholesterolemic functions of chlorogenic acid are probably due to the increase in fatty acids unitization in liver via the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor α mRNA.

  15. Biosynthesis of polar steroids from the Far Eastern starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. Cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate are converted into polyhydroxylated sterols and monoglycoside asterosaponin P1 in feeding experiments. (United States)

    Ivanchina, Natalia V; Kicha, Alla A; Malyarenko, Timofey V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A


    For the first time, it is experimentally established that the dietary cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate are biosynthetic precursors of polyhydroxysteroids and related low molecular weight glycosides in starfishes. These deuterium labeled precursors were converted into partly deuterated 5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol, 5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15β,16β,26-octaol, and steroid monoside asterosaponin P1 in result of feeding experiments on the Far Eastern starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. The incorporations of deuterium were established by MS and NMR spectroscopy. Scheme of the first stages of biosynthesis of polar steroids in these animals was suggested on the basis of inclusion of three from six deuterium atoms and determination of their positions in biosynthetic products, when [2,2,3,4,4,6-(2)H6]cholesterol 3-sulfate was used as precursor. It was also shown that labeled cholesterol is transformed into Δ(7)-cholesterol (lathosterol) in digestive organs and gonads of the starfish.

  16. Mitotic spindle defects and chromosome mis-segregation induced by LDL/cholesterol-implications for Niemann-Pick C1, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoneta Granic

    Full Text Available Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor for both Alzheimer's disease (AD and Atherosclerosis (CVD, suggesting a common lipid-sensitive step in their pathogenesis. Previous results show that AD and CVD also share a cell cycle defect: chromosome instability and up to 30% aneuploidy-in neurons and other cells in AD and in smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques in CVD. Indeed, specific degeneration of aneuploid neurons accounts for 90% of neuronal loss in AD brain, indicating that aneuploidy underlies AD neurodegeneration. Cell/mouse models of AD develop similar aneuploidy through amyloid-beta (Aß inhibition of specific microtubule motors and consequent disruption of mitotic spindles. Here we tested the hypothesis that, like upregulated Aß, elevated LDL/cholesterol and altered intracellular cholesterol homeostasis also causes chromosomal instability. Specifically we found that: 1 high dietary cholesterol induces aneuploidy in mice, satisfying the hypothesis' first prediction, 2 Niemann-Pick C1 patients accumulate aneuploid fibroblasts, neurons, and glia, demonstrating a similar aneugenic effect of intracellular cholesterol accumulation in humans 3 oxidized LDL, LDL, and cholesterol, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL, induce chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy in cultured cells, including neuronal precursors, indicating that LDL/cholesterol directly affects the cell cycle, 4 LDL-induced aneuploidy requires the LDL receptor, but not Aß, showing that LDL works differently than Aß, with the same end result, 5 cholesterol treatment disrupts the structure of the mitotic spindle, providing a cell biological mechanism for its aneugenic activity, and 6 ethanol or calcium chelation attenuates lipoprotein-induced chromosome mis-segregation, providing molecular insights into cholesterol's aneugenic mechanism, specifically through its rigidifying effect on the cell membrane, and potentially explaining why ethanol

  17. Elevated Remnant Cholesterol Causes Both Low-Grade Inflammation and Ischemic Heart Disease, Whereas Elevated Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Causes Ischemic Heart Disease Without Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....

  18. Effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus Isolated from Tibetan Mushrooms on the Plasma Lipids, Egg Cholesterol Level, Egg Quality and Intestinal Health of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zhong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 strain, isolated from Tibetan mushrooms, on plasma lipids, egg cholesterol level, egg quality, and intestinal health of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 160 Beijing fatty laying hens (43 weeks old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% freeze-dried K. marxianus M3 powder for four weeks. The results showed that yeast supplementation reduced serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels (p<0.01, and increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level (p<0.05. Moreover, regardless of K. marxianus M3 dietary addition level, the cholesterol content of the eggs decreased by more than 26%. When0.3% yeast was supplemented, significant differences were found in the egg weights, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit and nutrient content of the eggs (p<0.01. Finally, 0.3% yeast supplementation improved the intestinal flora conditions of the hens by decreasing the Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts (p<0.01 and increasing the Bifidobacterium count (p<0.01. The results in this work demonstrated that yeast culture supplementation to the diets deceased the serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and increased egg quality.

  19. CHOBIMALT: a cholesterol-based detergent. (United States)

    Howell, Stanley C; Mittal, Ritesh; Huang, Lijun; Travis, Benjamin; Breyer, Richard M; Sanders, Charles R


    Cholesterol and its hemisuccinate and sulfate derivatives are widely used in studies of purified membrane proteins but are difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, even in the presence of detergent micelles. Other cholesterol derivatives do not form conventional micelles and lead to viscous solutions. To address these problems, a cholesterol-based detergent, CHOBIMALT, has been synthesized and characterized. At concentrations above 3−4 μM, CHOBIMALT forms micelles without the need for elevated temperatures or sonic disruption. Diffusion and fluorescence measurements indicated that CHOBIMALT micelles are large (210±30 kDa). The ability to solubilize a functional membrane protein was explored using a G-protein coupled receptor, the human kappa opioid receptor type 1 (hKOR1). While CHOBIMALT alone was not found to be effective as a surfactant for membrane extraction, when added to classical detergent micelles CHOBIMALT was observed to dramatically enhance the thermal stability of solubilized hKOR1.

  20. Ordering effects of cholesterol and its analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    Without any exaggeration, cholesterol is one of the most important lipid species in eukaryotic cells. Its effects on cellular membranes and functions range from purely mechanistic to complex metabolic ones, besides which it is also a precursor of the sex hormones (steroids) and several vitamins....... In this review, we discuss the biophysical effects of cholesterol on the lipid bilayer, in particular the ordering and condensing effects, concentrating on the molecular level or inter-atomic interactions perspective, starting from two-component systems and proceeding to many-component ones e.g., modeling lipid...... rafts. Particular attention is paid to the roles of the methyl groups in the cholesterol ring system, and their possible biological function. Although our main research methodology is computer modeling, in this review we make extensive comparisons between experiments and different modeling approaches....

  1. Effects of a Dietary Portfolio of Cholesterol-Lowering Foods vs Lovastatin on Serum Lipids and C-Reactive Protein%联合降胆固醇饮食与洛伐他汀对血脂和C-反应蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J. A. Jenkins; Karen G. Lapsley; Elke A. Trautwein; Robert G. Josse; Lawrence A. Leiter; Philip W. Connelly; Cyril W. C. Kendall; Augustine Marchie; Dorothea A. Faulkner; Julicc M.W.Wong; Russell de Souza; Azadeh Emam; Tina L. Parker; Edward Vidgen


    背景:为增强饮食治疗降低胆固醇的效果,国家胆固醇教育计划(National Cholesterol Education Program,NCEP)成人治疗小组(Adult Treatment Panel,ATP)Ⅲ强调食用低饱和脂肪以及植物固醇和粘胶纤维食物,而美国心脏病协会(American Heart Association,AHA)则支持食用大豆蛋白和坚果.目的:确定食用含有这些推荐食物所有成分的食物是否可以取得类似于3-羟-3-甲戊二酰辅酶A还原酶抑制剂(他汀类)的降低胆固醇的效果.设计:于2002年10月至12月间进行的随机对照试验.地点和参试者:从一家加拿大医院的营养研究中心和社区入选46例成年高脂血症患者(25例男性和21例已绝经女性),平均年龄(SE)59岁(1岁),体重指数27.6(0.5).干预:参与者随机分配至以下三种干预门诊治疗1个月:极低饱和脂肪饮食,以碾碎的全麦谷类食品和低脂奶制品为基础(n=16;对照组);极低饱和脂肪饮食加洛伐他汀20 mg/d(n=14,他汀组);富含植物固醇(1 0 g/1 000 kcal)、大豆蛋白(21 4 g/1 000 kcal)、粘胶纤维(9 8 g/1 000 kcal)和杏仁(14 g/1 000 kcal)的饮食(联合饮食组)主要观察指标:血脂和C-反应蛋白水平,来自空腹血样;血压;体重;在0周、2周和4周时分别测量这些指标,并在三组间比较.结果:〗对照组、他汀组和联合饮食组低密度脂蛋白胆固醇分别平均(SE)下降8.0% (2.1%) (P<=0.002)、30.9%(3.6%)(P<0.001)和28.6%(8.6%)(P<0.001).C-反应蛋白分别下降10.0%(8.6%)(P=0.27)、33.3%(8.3%)(P=0.002)和28.2%(10.8%)(P=0.02).他汀组和联合饮食组降低程度明显大于对照组.他汀治疗和联合饮食治疗的效果无显著差异.结论:研究显示,在同一饮食方案中,降胆固醇成分的多样化增加了饮食治疗高胆固醇血症的效果.

  2. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel


    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  3. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols]. (United States)

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat


    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  5. Unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols regulate cholesterol transporter genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines. (United States)

    Park, Youngki; Carr, Timothy P


    Dietary consumption of phytosterols and certain fatty acids has been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether phytosterols or fatty acids can alter the expression of cholesterol transporters by functioning as signaling molecules. This study tested the hypothesis that various fatty acids and phytosterols commonly found in the food supply can modulate the expression of transporters including Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cells were used as models of enterocytes, and HepG2 cells were used as a model of hepatocytes. The cells were treated for 18 hours with 100 μmol/L of a fatty acid, or for 24 hours with 10 μmol/L of 25α-hydroxycholesterol, or 100 μmol/L of cholesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol to measure expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caco-2 cells and sterols in HepG2 cells significantly reduced the messenger RNA expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B type I, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Importantly, sitosterol and stigmasterol reduced the messenger RNA levels of genes to a similar extent as cholesterol. The data support the hypothesis that unsaturated fatty acid and phytosterols can act as signaling molecules and alter the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism.

  6. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Igl


    Full Text Available Background . The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. Objective . To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. Study design . We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS based on reindeer herding (TLS group with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group. The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, triglycerides (TG, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. Results . The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥240 mg/dl, as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. Conclusions . The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  7. Effects of dietary nickel on mallards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastin, W.C. Jr.; O' Shea, T.J.


    Thirty breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups and were fed breeder mash containing 0, 12.5, 50.0, 200.0, or 800.0 ppM Ni (as the sulfate) for 90 d. Ni ingestion had no effect on egg production, hatchability, or survival of ducklings. After 90 d birds were bled, sacrificed, and necropsied. There were no significant differences in hematocrit; concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol; or plasma activities of ornithine carbamoyltranferase and alanine aminotransferase. A black tarry feces was noted in the high Ni dose group at necrospy, but no gross or histopathologic lesions were observed. Although absolute concentrations of Ni in tissues were low, there were significant accumulations in kidneys of birds fed Ni at all dietary levels and in feathers, blood, and livers of birds fed high doses of Ni compared with controls.

  8. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess? (United States)

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J


    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis.

  9. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice. (United States)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A; Sawyer, Janet K; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J F; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L; Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark


    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the nonbiliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg)). SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway.

  10. MCPIP is induced by cholesterol and participated in cholesterol-caused DNA damage in HUVEC. (United States)

    Da, Jingjing; Zhuo, Ming; Qian, Minzhang


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cholesterol treatment would cause multiple damages, including DNA damage, on endothelial cells. In this work, we have used human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC) to explore the mechanism of cholesterol induced damage. We have found that cholesterol treatment on HUVEC could induce the expression of MCPIP1. When given 12.5 mg/L cholesterol on HUVEC, the expression of MCPIP1 starts to increase since 4 hr after treatment and at 24 hr after treatment it could reach to 10 fold of base line level. We hypothesis this induction of MCPIP1 may contribute to the damaging process and we have used siRNA of MCPIP1 in further research. This MCPIP1 siRNA (siMCPIP) could down regulate MCPIP1 by 73.4% and when using this siRNA on HUVECs, we could see the cholesterol induced DNA damage have been reduced. We have detected DNA damage by γH2AX foci formation in nuclear, γH2AX protein level and COMET assay. Compare to cholesterol alone group, siMCPIP group shows much less γH2AX foci formation in nuclear after cholesterol treatment, less γH2AX protein level in cell and also less tail moment detected in COMET assay. We have also seen that using siMCPIP1 could result in less reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell after cholesterol treatment. We have also seen that using siMCPIP could reduce the protein level of Nox4 and p47(phox), two major regulators in ROS production. These results suggest that MCPIP1 may play an important role in cholesterol induced damage.

  11. The dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Bantle, J P


    The most important dietary goal for individuals with type I diabetes mellitus is the establishment of a regular meal pattern with consistent day-to-day caloric and carbohydrate intake. Ideally, the diet should contain 55 to 60 per cent of total calories as carbohydrate, less than 30 per cent of calories as fat, less than 10 per cent of calories as saturated fat, and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. The best tool for helping type I individuals achieve these objectives is the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. A second important dietary goal in type I diabetes is to avoid weight gain during intensive treatment programs. The most important dietary and therapeutic goal in obese persons with type II diabetes is weight loss. Unfortunately, no dietary method, whether initiated by self-help groups like TOPS, physicians, or other health care professionals, has been demonstrated to be effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss. Nevertheless, some individual patients will be successful, and it therefore is appropriate to attempt weight reduction with a balanced diet moderately restricted in calories. A reduction of 500 calories per day below the weight maintenance level is reasonable and can be expected to produce weight loss of about 1 lb per week. For those type II diabetic patients who are not able to lose weight and are at least twice their ideal body weight, gastric reduction surgery could be considered. The Glycemic Index of Foods is a new concept that has not been evaluated adequately. Recent evidence suggests that differences among foods are reduced when the foods are combined in a meal and thus raises questions about the utility of glycemic indexing. The longstanding restriction on the use of sucrose in the diabetic diet is without scientific basis. Recognizing this, the American Diabetes Association recently sanctioned consumption of modest amounts of sucrose in the diabetic diet. Although conclusive evidence is not yet available that high fiber diets

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  13. Transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus is affected by maternal plasma cholesterol concentrations in the golden Syrian hamster. (United States)

    Burke, Katie T; Colvin, Perry L; Myatt, Leslie; Graf, Gregory A; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Woollett, Laura A


    The fetus has a high requirement for cholesterol and synthesizes cholesterol at elevated rates. Recent studies suggest that fetal cholesterol also can be obtained from exogenous sources. The purpose of the current study was to examine the transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus and determine the mechanism responsible for any cholesterol-driven changes in transport. Studies were completed in pregnant hamsters with normal and elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. Cholesterol feeding resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in the amount of LDL-cholesterol taken up by the fetus and a 2.4-fold increase in the amount of HDL-cholesterol taken up. LDL-cholesterol was transported to the fetus primarily by the placenta, and HDL-cholesterol was transported by the yolk sac and placenta. Several proteins associated with sterol transport and efflux, including those induced by activated liver X receptor, were expressed in hamster and human placentas: NPC1, NPC1L1, ABCA2, SCP-x, and ABCG1, but not ABCG8. NPC1L1 was the only protein increased in hypercholesterolemic placentas. Thus, increasing maternal lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations can enhance transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus, leading to 1) increased movement of cholesterol down a concentration gradient in the placenta, 2) increased lipoprotein secretion from the yolk sac (shown previously), and possibly 3) increased placental NPC1L1 expression.

  14. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dietary curcumin and capsaicin in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. (United States)

    Manjunatha, H; Srinivasan, K


    Health beneficial hypolipidemic and antioxidant influences of dietary spice principles--curcumin, capsaicin alone and in combination included in the diet for 8 weeks were evaluated in induced hypercholesterolemic rats, in order to verify if there is any additive or synergistic effect of these two bioactive compounds. Dietary curcumin (0.2%), capsaicin (0.015%) or their combination significantly countered the hypercholesterolemia brought about by high cholesterol feeding. Hepatic cholesterol was lowered by dietary spice principles only in normal rats. Liver triglyceride levels were lowered in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rats by capsaicin. Curcumin and capsaicin lowered hepatic and blood lipid peroxides in hypercholesterolemic rats, while the effect in blood was additive with their combination. Hepatic ascorbic acid was enhanced by dietary spice principles in normal rats; glutathione was enhanced by their combination only in hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of serum glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase and catalase and hepatic glutathione reductase in normal rats and serum glutathione peroxidase in hypercholesterolemic rats were enhanced by dietary spice principles. While dietary curcumin and capsaicin normalized the changes in the levels of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes to a significant extent, this effect was not generally additive when given in combination, and was higher than the individual effects only in a few instances.

  15. On defining dietary fibre. (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W


    Establishing a definition for dietary fibre has historically been a balance between nutrition knowledge and analytical method capabilities. While the most widely accepted physiologically-based definitions have generally been accurate in defining the dietary fibre in foods, scientists and regulators have tended, in practice, to rely on analytical procedures as the definitional basis in fact. As a result, incongruities between theory and practice have resulted in confusion regarding the components that make up dietary fibre. In November 1998 the president of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) appointed an expert scientific review committee and charged it with the task of reviewing and, if necessary, updating the definition of dietary fibre. The committee was further charged with assessing the state of analytical methodology and making recommendations relevant to the updated definition. After due deliberation, an updated definition of dietary fibre was delivered to the AACC Board of Directors for consideration and adoption (Anon, 2000; Jones 2000b). The updated definition includes the same food components as the historical working definition used for approximately 30 years (a very important point, considering that the majority of the research of the past 30 years delineating the positive health effects of dietary fibre is based on that working definition). However, the updated definition more clearly delineates the make-up of dietary fibre and its physiological functionality. As a result, relatively few changes will be necessary in analytical methodology. Current methodologies, in particular AACC-approved method of analysis 32-05 (Grami, 2000), Association of Official Analytical Chemists' official method of analysis 985.29 (Horwitz, 2000a) or AACC 32-07 (Grami, 2000) Association of Official Analytical Chemists 991.43 (Horwitz, 2000a) will continue to be sufficient and used for most foods. A small number of additional methods will be necessary to

  16. Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. (United States)

    Harrison, Earl H


    Mechanisms involved in the digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A require the participation of several proteins. Dietary retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestine by the pancreatic enzyme, pancreatic triglyceride lipase, and intestinal brush border enzyme, phospholipase B. Unesterified retinol taken up by the enterocyte is complexed with cellular retinol-binding protein type 2 and the complex serves as a substrate for reesterification of the retinol by the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). The retinyl esters are then incorporated into chylomicrons, intestinal lipoproteins containing other dietary lipids, such as triglycerides, phospholipids, and free and esterified cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Chylomicrons containing newly absorbed retinyl esters are then secreted into the lymph. Although under normal dietary conditions much of the dietary vitamin A is absorbed via the chylomicron/lymphatic route, it is also clear that under some circumstances there is substantial absorption of unesterified retinol via the portal route. Evidence supports the idea that the cellular uptake and efflux of unesterified retinol by enterocytes is mediated by lipid transporters, but the exact number, identity, and role of these proteins is not known and is an active area of research.

  17. A Critical Look at Prebiotics Within the Dietary Fiber Concept. (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M


    This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.

  18. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kochan


    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.

  19. Effectiveness of a Brief Dietetic Intervention for Hyperlipidaemic Adults Using Individually-Tailored Dietary Feedback. (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Spratt, Neil J; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E


    Dietary modifications can improve serum lipids and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, attendance at multiple dietary consultations can be a barrier to achieving behaviour change. This study investigated the effectiveness of a brief dietetic intervention on CVD risk factors in hyperlipidaemic adults. Adults with total cholesterol ≥ 5.0 mmol/L or low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥ 4.0 mmol/L and not currently taking lipid-lowering medication were eligible for a minimum 6-week dietary intervention. Dietary intake data and blood lipids were acquired prior to a single counselling session with an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD). The intervention used targeted feedback with purpose-developed education materials to supplement advice. CVD risk factors and dietary intakes were used to assess pre-post intervention change using linear mixed model regression analyses. Thirty-nine participants (59.3 ± 11.1 years, n = 28 female) were analysed. Mean ± SD follow-up from baseline time was 9.5 ± 2.5 weeks. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in total cholesterol (-0.51 mmol/L), total:HDL (high density lipoprotein) ratio (-0.27 mmol/L), triglycerides (-0.38 mmol/L), total energy (-870 kJ/day), energy from nutrient-poor foods (-1006 kJ/day) and sodium (-325 mg/day), and improved dietary fat quality (-5.1% of energy/day saturated, +5.0% of energy/day polyunsaturated) and body mass index (-0.4 kg/m2) were achieved. A brief intervention by an APD incorporating targeted, personalised dietary feedback and education in a single counselling session can improve lipid profiles in adults with hyperlipidaemia.

  20. Effectiveness of a Brief Dietetic Intervention for Hyperlipidaemic Adults Using Individually-Tailored Dietary Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Schumacher


    Full Text Available Dietary modifications can improve serum lipids and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. However, attendance at multiple dietary consultations can be a barrier to achieving behaviour change. This study investigated the effectiveness of a brief dietetic intervention on CVD risk factors in hyperlipidaemic adults. Adults with total cholesterol ≥ 5.0 mmol/L or low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol ≥ 4.0 mmol/L and not currently taking lipid-lowering medication were eligible for a minimum 6-week dietary intervention. Dietary intake data and blood lipids were acquired prior to a single counselling session with an Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD. The intervention used targeted feedback with purpose-developed education materials to supplement advice. CVD risk factors and dietary intakes were used to assess pre-post intervention change using linear mixed model regression analyses. Thirty-nine participants (59.3 ± 11.1 years, n = 28 female were analysed. Mean ± SD follow-up from baseline time was 9.5 ± 2.5 weeks. Significant (p < 0.05 reductions in total cholesterol (−0.51 mmol/L, total:HDL (high density lipoprotein ratio (−0.27 mmol/L, triglycerides (−0.38 mmol/L, total energy (−870 kJ/day, energy from nutrient-poor foods (−1006 kJ/day and sodium (−325 mg/day, and improved dietary fat quality (−5.1% of energy/day saturated, +5.0% of energy/day polyunsaturated and body mass index (−0.4 kg/m2 were achieved. A brief intervention by an APD incorporating targeted, personalised dietary feedback and education in a single counselling session can improve lipid profiles in adults with hyperlipidaemia.

  1. Cholesterol levels in fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Levin, Rebecca; Shah, Haroon; Mathur, Shaguna; Darnell, Jennifer C; Ouyang, Bichun


    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with intellectual disability and behavioral dysfunction, including anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and autistic features. Although individuals with FXS are largely considered healthy and lifespan is not thought to be reduced, very little is known about the long-term medical health of adults with FXS and no systematically collected information is available on standard laboratory measures from metabolic screens. During the course of follow up of a large cohort of patients with FXS we noted that many patients had low cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) values and thus initiated a systematic chart review of all cholesterol values present in charts from a clinic cohort of over 500 patients with FXS. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL were all significantly reduced in males from the FXS cohort relative to age-adjusted population normative data. This finding has relevance for health monitoring in individuals with FXS, for treatments with cholesterol-lowering agents that have been proposed to target the underlying CNS disorder in FXS based on work in animal models, and for potential biomarker development in FXS.

  2. Structure of cholesterol/ceramide monolayer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffer, L.; Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.


    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two...

  3. Blood cholesterol, a public health perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, W.M.M.


    Changes in total cholesterol levels (TC) were studied using data from three epidemiological studies: about 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 were examined between 1974 and 1980 (CB Project), about 80,000 men aged 33-37 between 1981 and 1986 (RIFOH Project) and 42,000 men and women aged 20-59 from 1987

  4. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters (United States)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  5. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat

  6. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David


    plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to the control (-53% and -65%, respectively) and ferulic acid (-47% and -60%, respectively) diets. Hamsters fed the control and ferulic acid diets had significantly higher plasma vitamin E concentrations compared to the RBO (201% and 161%, respectively) and oryzanol (548% and 462%, respectively) diets; the ferulic acid and oryzanol diets had significantly lower plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels than the control (-57% and -46%, respectively) diet. The oryzanol-fed hamsters excreted significantly more coprostenol and cholesterol in their feces than the ferulic acid (127% and 120%, respectively) diet. The control diet had significantly greater aortic TC and FC accumulation compared to the RBO (115% and 89%, respectively), ferulic acid (48% and 58%, respectively) and the oryzanol (74% and 70%, respectively) diets. However, only the RBO and oryzanol diets had significantly lower aortic cholesterol ester accumulation compared to the control (-73% and -46%, respectively) diet. The present study suggests that at equal dietary levels, oryzanol has a greater effect on lowering plasma non-HDL-C levels and raising plasma HDL-C than ferulic acid, possibly through a greater extent to increase fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites. However, ferulic acid may have a greater antioxidant capacity via its ability to maintain serum vitamin E levels compared to RBO and oryzanol. Thus, both oryzanol and ferulic acid may exert similar antiatherogenic properties, but through different mechanisms.

  7. Dietary hydrogenated soybean oil affects lipid and vitamin E metabolism in rats. (United States)

    Naziroglu, Mustafa; Brandsch, Corinna


    Fatty acids containing stearic acid, which are found in hydrogenated fat, may have a detrimental effect on the cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TAG) content of plasma lipoproteins, and on the absorption of fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. The aim of our study was to examine the tissue concentration of lipids and vitamins A and E after feeding a hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO) diet to rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, fed on coconut oil (control) and HSO, respectively in amounts corresponding to 15% of the total feed. Plasma total cholesterol, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and daily excretion of the TAG and cholesterol in feces were higher in the HSO than in the control group. TAG values in plasma and liver, and HDL-cholesterol levels in plasma were lower in the HSO than in the control group. The same was true for phospholipids in plasma and for saturated fatty acids, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in the liver and vitamin E in plasma, LDL and adipose tissue. The results of this study provide new evidence concerning the effect of dietary hydrogenated fat on lipid, TAG and vitamin E status, which are important for maintenance of good health. Consumption of dietary HSO may be associated with cardiovascular disease.

  8. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens. (United States)

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X


    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  9. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements (United States)

    ... that is otherwise adulterated or misbranded. Dietary supplement advertising, including ads broadcast on radio and television, falls ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  11. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  12. Are You Taking the Right Treatment for Your High Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... you taking the right treatment for your high cholesterol? Our analysis and new guidelines could change your ... people consider a moderate-intensity statin (reduces LDL cholesterol by 30 percent to 50 percent) • People 40 ...

  13. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof


    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  15. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  16. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne


    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  17. Cholesterol paradox: a correlate does not a surrogate make. (United States)

    DuBroff, Robert


    The global campaign to lower cholesterol by diet and drugs has failed to thwart the developing pandemic of coronary heart disease around the world. Some experts believe this failure is due to the explosive rise in obesity and diabetes, but it is equally plausible that the cholesterol hypothesis, which posits that lowering cholesterol prevents cardiovascular disease, is incorrect. The recently presented ACCELERATE trial dumbfounded many experts by failing to demonstrate any cardiovascular benefit of evacetrapib despite dramatically lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-risk patients with coronary disease. This clinical trial adds to a growing volume of knowledge that challenges the validity of the cholesterol hypothesis and the utility of cholesterol as a surrogate end point. Inadvertently, the cholesterol hypothesis may have even contributed to this pandemic. This perspective critically reviews this evidence and our reluctance to acknowledge contradictory information.

  18. Metabolic response of soy pinitol on lipid-lowering, antioxidant and hepatoprotective action in hamsters fed-high fat and high cholesterol diet. (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Do, Geoyng-Min; Park, Yong Bok; Jeon, Seon-Min


    This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering, antioxidant, and hepato-protective effects of pinitol in dose-dependent manners in hamsters fed-high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. Pinitol supplementation (0.05%, P-I and 0.1% pinitol, P-II) with an HFHC diet (10% coconut oil plus 0.2% cholesterol) for 10 wks significantly lowered the white adipose tissue weights, hepatic lipid droplets, plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, nonHDL-cholesterol, total-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and hepatic lipid levels. Whereas it significantly increased the brown adipose tissue weight, plasma HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) concentrations, paraoxonase (PON) activity, and/or mRNA expression, compared to the HFHC control group. Plasma insulin and adiponectin levels were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in both P-I and P-II groups than the HFHC control group. Dietary pinitol significantly inhibited hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) activities without altering their mRNA expressions compared to the control group. Pinitol significantly elevated the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, whereas it also significantly reduced the hepatic lipid peroxide and H2O2 production. Accordingly, these results indicate that both 0.05 and 0.1% pinitol supplementation may improve the lipid and antioxidant metabolism in HFHC diet-fed hamsters. In particular, pinitol supplementation was very effective on the elevation of antiatherogenic factors, including plasma HDL-cholesterol, apo A-I, adiponectin, and PON.

  19. Comparison between Complementary Dietary Treatment of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Ahmadian-Attari


    Full Text Available Dietary notifications have been introduced recently for Alzheimer Disease (AD. In Iranian old medical manuscripts, there are some nutritional recommendations related to Nesyan (AD equivalent. The aim of this article was to compare dietary recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM with novel medical outcomes.1 Searching for dietary recommendations and abstinences described in ITM credible manuscripts; 2 Extracting fatty components of ITM diet according to the database of the Department of Agriculture of the USA; 3 Statistical analysis of fatty elements of traditionally recommended foods via Mann-Whitney Test in comparison with elements of the abstinent ones; 4 Searching for AD dietary recommendations and abstinences which currently published in medical journals; 5 Comparing traditional and new dietary suggestions with each other.1 Traditionally recommended foods are fattier than abstinent ones (P<0.001. There are meaningful differences between unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs (P<0.001, saturated fatty acids (P<0.001, and cholesterol (P<0.05 of recommended foods and abstinent ones. 2 Traditionally recommended diet is also fattier than the abstinent diet (4.5 times; UFAs of the recommended diet is 11 times more than that of the abstinent one; it is the same story for cholesterol (1.4 times; 3 Recent studies show that diets with high amounts of UFAs have positive effects on AD; a considerable number of papers emphasizes on probable positive role of cholesterol on AD; 4 Traditional recommended diet is in agreement with recent studies.ITM recommended diet which is full of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol can be utilized for complementary treatment of AD.

  20. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic (United States)

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A.


    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived cholesterol and the exogenous cholesterol carrier protein low-density lipoprotein (LDL) traffic to the PV. To test the possibility that increasing PV cholesterol levels affects bacterial survival, infected cells were treated with U18666A, a drug that traps cholesterol in lysosomes and PVs. U18666A treatment led to PVs containing degraded bacteria and a significant loss in bacterial viability. The PV pH was significantly more acidic in cells with cholesterol or cells treated with U18666A, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocked cholesterol-induced PV acidification and bacterial death. Additionally, treatment of infected HeLa cells with several FDA-approved cholesterol-altering drugs led to a loss of bacterial viability, a phenotype also rescued by bafilomycin. Collectively, these data suggest that increasing PV cholesterol further acidifies the PV, leading to Coxiella death. PMID:28246364

  1. Polymer sorbent with the properties of an artificial cholesterol receptor (United States)

    Polyakova, I. V.; Ezhova, N. M.; Osipenko, A. A.; Pisarev, O. A.


    A cholesterol-imprinted polymer sorbent and the corresponding reticular control copolymer were synthesized from hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. The sorption isotherms of cholesterol were analyzed using the generalized Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In the case of the imprinted reticular polymer, cholesterol sorption occurred on the energetically homogeneous binding centers, forming one monolayer, while the nonspecific sorption of cholesterol on the control copolymer occurred with energetically nonhomogeneous binding of the sorbate and depended on the physicochemical conditions of sorption.

  2. High value co-products from wine by-product's (i): dietary fibre concentrates with antioxidants properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Simal, S.; Eim, V. S.; Castell-Palou, A.; Femenia, A.


    The concept of dietary fibre (DF) is well established and the nutritional benefits (protection against certain types of cancer, regulation of food transit through the digestive system, blood cholesterol lowering) of DF intake are generally accepted. Our DF intake comes primarily form cereal products, fruits and vegetables that are consumed in its traditional presentation. (Author)

  3. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  4. Dietary plasmalogen increases erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawatari Shiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many disorders with plasmalogen deficiency have been reported. Replenishment or replacement of tissue plasmalogens of these disorders would be beneficial to the patients with these disorders, but effects of dietary plasmalogen on mammals have not been reported. Methods Plasmalogens were purified from chicken skin. The purified plasmalogens consisted of 96.4% ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn, 2.4% choline plasmalogen (PlsCho and 0.5% sphingomyelin (SM. A diet containing 0.1% the purified plasmalogens (PlsEtn diet was given to rats. Relative composition of phospholipids was measured by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method that can separate intact plasmalogens and all other phospholipid classes by a single chromatographic run. Results The PlsEtn diet given to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats for 4 weeks caused decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipid as compared to control diet. The other routine laboratory tests of plasma including triacylglycerol, glucose, liver and renal functions, albumin, and body weight were not different. Relative compositions of erythrocyte PlsEtn and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE increased, and that of phosphatidylcholine (PC decreased in PlsEtn diet group. The PlsEtn diet given to normal rats for 9 weeks again caused decrease of plasma cholesterol and phospholipid, and it induced increase of relative composition of PlsEtn of the erythrocyte membrane. The other routine laboratory tests of plasma and body weight were not different. Conclusions Dietary PlsEtn increases relative composition of PlsEtn of erythrocyte membranes in normal and ZDF rats, and it causes decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipids. Dietary PlsEtn for 9 weeks seemingly causes no adverse effect to health of normal rats.

  5. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, Janine K.; Groen, Albert K.; van Berkel, Theo J.; Kuipers, Folkert


    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis, clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor t

  6. Greased hedgehogs : new links between hedgehog signaling and cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, Rainer


    The close link between signaling by the developmental regulators of the Hedgehog family and cholesterol biochemistry has been known for some time. The morphogen is covalently attached to cholesterol in a peculiar autocatalytic reaction and embryonal disruption of cholesterol synthesis leads to malfo

  7. Carbon Inverse Opal Rods for Nonenzymatic Cholesterol Detection. (United States)

    Zhong, Qifeng; Xie, Zhuoying; Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Yang, Zixue; Gu, Zhongze


    Carbon inverse opal rods made from silica photonic crystal rods are used for nonenzymatic cholesterol sensing. The characteristic reflection peak originating from the physical periodic structure works as sensing signals for quantitatively estimating cholesterol concentrations. Carbon inverse opal rods work both in cholesterol standard solutions and human serum. They are suitable for practical use in clinical diagnose.

  8. Understanding Lipoproteins as Transporters of Cholesterol and Other Lipids (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Kyle D.; Wooten, Joshua S.


    A clear picture of lipoprotein metabolism is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Many students are taught that low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "bad" and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "good." This misconception leads to students thinking that lipoproteins are types of cholesterol rather than…

  9. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.


    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Tol, van A.; Fournier, C.


    Moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol, which is involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on cholesterol efflux, using J774 mouse macrophages and Fu5AH cells, and on other parameters in the RC

  11. Cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis in regulation of the cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    Full Text Available The cell cycle is a ubiquitous, multi-step process that is essential for growth and proliferation of cells. The role of membrane lipids in cell cycle regulation is not explored well, although a large number of cytoplasmic and nuclear regulators have been identified. We focus in this work on the role of membrane cholesterol in cell cycle regulation. In particular, we have explored the stringency of the requirement of cholesterol in the regulation of cell cycle progression. For this purpose, we utilized distal and proximal inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis, and monitored their effect on cell cycle progression. We show that cholesterol content increases in S phase and inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis results in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase under certain conditions. Interestingly, G1 arrest mediated by cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors could be reversed upon metabolic replenishment of cholesterol. Importantly, our results show that the requirement of cholesterol for G1 to S transition is absolute, and even immediate biosynthetic precursors of cholesterol, differing with cholesterol merely in a double bond, could not replace cholesterol for reversing the cell cycle arrest. These results are useful in the context of diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease, that are associated with impaired cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Methods using thin-layer chromatography, solid-phase extraction, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography are described for the analysis of single cholesterol, esterified and sulfated cholesterol, and for cholesterol in the context of other li

  13. Compliance to Dietary Counselling in Controlling Blood Lipid and its Barriers among Dyslipidemic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaina Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a risk factor causing cardiovascular disease and compliance to dietary counselling results in an improved lipid profile. The present study aimed to assess the compliance to dietary counselling and its barriers among dyslipidemic individuals attending dietary follow-ups counselling in Diet Clinic of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC. A cross sectional study using the convenience sampling technique was conducted from May to June 2012. Data on food intake, lifestyle habits, physical activity level and barriers in adhering to dietary counselling were collected using interview-based questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were conducted, while blood lipid profile and medical information were obtained from medical records. The results showed that non-compliance is prevalent among dyslipidemic patients who received dietary counselling. Most subjects (81% were unable to achieve at least four of the therapeutic lifestyle change dietary recommendations as outlined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Factors such as time, food taste and price have been reported as the main barriers to comply towards dietary counselling. A significantly higher proportion of those in non-compliance group did not meet total fat (p < 0.001 and saturated fat (p < 0.001 recommendations as compared to the compliance group. In conclusion, acknowledgements of barriers while providing dietary education are necessary to improve dyslipidemic patients’ compliance with controlling blood lipid.

  14. Effects of Cholesterol-altering Pharmaceuticals on Cholesterol Metabolism, Steroidogenesis, and Gene Expression in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals that target cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are among the most widely prescribed drugs and have been detected in the aquatic environment. Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome pr...

  15. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin


    OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega...... and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING AND POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country...... at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic...

  16. Dietary Fibres and Whole Grain Products for Improving Health and Reducing Disease Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Willem van der Kamp


    @@ In recent years the occurrence of civilisation related diseases such as diabetes and obesity is increasing at a dramatic rate. This results in a growing consumer awareness of relationships between diet and health. Industry is respond ing to this trend by introducing products with a healthy image, including products with dietary fibre. Every year about 500 products are being launched globally with statements regarding their fibre content. Dietary fibre is usually defined as "the edible parts of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine. Dietary fibre includes polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lignin, and associated substances. Dietary fibres promote beneficial physiological effects including laxation, and/or blood cholesterol attenuation, and/or blood glucose attenuation" (AACC, 2001).

  17. Nutritional and nutraceutical approaches to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis prevention: Focus on dietary proteins. (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Arnoldi, Anna


    A correct lifestyle is crucial in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Innovative nutritional strategies to reduce the main risk factors have been developed including either dietary changes or consumption of specifically targeted functional foods and dietary supplements. These nutraceutical products may also provide an alternative to lipid lowering, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic drugs. Functional foods and beverages have the appearance of normal foods, but contain specific components whose activity on at least one measurable risk factor has been scientifically demonstrated. Dietary supplements, having formulations similar to drugs, allow the delivery of a bioactive ingredient in dosages that exceed those obtainable from food products. Among bioactive components, at present dietary proteins from both vegetable and animal sources are of high interest, because of their specific effects on cholesterolemia and blood pressure. Active peptides have been identified for the latter indication, whereas works is in progress in attempting to identify specific cholesterol lowering peptides.

  18. Understanding Cholesterol and Heart Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol Understanding Cholesterol and Heart Health Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table ... both types of lipoproteins is important. High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides High blood cholesterol is a condition ...

  19. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. Groen (Albert); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); R. de Vries (Rindert); W. Sluiter (Wim); A. van Tol (Arie)


    textabstractObjective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In

  20. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher


    sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.

  1. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet. (United States)

    Tuncer, M Altug; Yaymaci, Bengi; Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Acar, Goksemin; Altug, Tuncay; Demir, Ramazan


    The aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, Tribulus terrestris (TT), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in New Zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). One experimental group (EG-I) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (EG-II) was treated with TT following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (CG) was fed a standard diet. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and then at weeks 4 and 12 to determine total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipid-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipid-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Tissues were collected from the abdominal aorta for immunohistochemistry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In EG-II, the serum lipid profile was significantly lower than that of EG-I at week 12 with a reduction of TC: 65%; LDL-C: 66%; HDL-C: 64%; TG: 55%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial damage was more prominent in EG-I compared to EG-II. The ruptured endothelial linings and damaged cellular surfaces increased in EG-I compared to EG-II. Our data indicate that dietary intake of TT can significantly lower serum lipid profiles, decrease endothelial cellular surface damage and rupture and may partially repair the endothelial dysfunction resulting from hyperlipidemia.

  2. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component. (United States)

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H


    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from

  3. Lipoprotein composition and serum cholesterol ester fatty acids in nonwesternized Melanesians. (United States)

    Lindeberg, S; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Vessby, B


    In this study, the relationships between dietary fat [as measured by serum cholesterol ester fatty acids (CE-FA)], age, smoking, body mass index, and serum lipids were analyzed in 151 subsistence horticulturalists, aged 20-86 yr, from Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea. Their diet consists of tubers, fruit, coconut, fish, and vegetables with a negligible influence of western food and alcohol. Total fat intake is low [21% of energy (en%)], while saturated fat intake from coconuts is high (17 en%, mainly lauric and myristic acid). In multivariate analysis, 11-43% of the variation of the serum lipoprotein composition was explained by CE-FA, age, and smoking habits. The proportion of CE20:5n-3 explained much of the variation of triglycerides (TG, negative relation) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, positive) in both sexes and serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, positive) in the males. CE16:0 was positively related to TG and negatively related to HDL-C and ApoA1 in both sexes, and in males it related negatively to total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In males, negative relationships were present between CE18:2n-6 and TC and between CE14:0 and serum lipoprotein(a). Smoking was independently associated with lower ApoA1 in both sexes and with lower HDL-C and higher TG, TC, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B in males. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid showed the same potentially beneficial relationships with lipoproteins and apolipoproteins as in western populations. The relations of palmitic acid to serum lipids may be explained in terms of endogenous fat synthesis at a low-fat intake, rather than reflecting its relative intake.

  4. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna]. (United States)

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L


    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet.

  5. Biochemical and Bioimaging Evidence of Cholesterol in Acquired Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Bjarne; Bloksgaard, Maria; Groza, Alexandra


    : The results show that the total lipid content of the cholesteatoma matrix is similar to that of stratum corneum from skin and that the cholesteatoma matrix unquestionably contains cholesterol. The cholesterol content in the cholesteatoma matrix is increased by over 30% (w/w dry weight) compared to the control....... The cholesterol sulfate content is below 1% of the total lipids in both the cholesteatoma and the control. Cholesterol ester was reduced by over 30% when compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: The content of cholesterol in the cholesteatoma matrix is significantly different from that in stratum corneum from skin...

  6. Cholesterol: a novel regulatory role in myelin formation. (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Quintes, Susanne; Nave, Klaus-Armin


    Myelin consists of tightly compacted membranes that form an insulating sheath around axons. The function of myelin for rapid saltatory nerve conduction is dependent on its unique composition, highly enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate limiting for the development of CNS and PNS myelin. Experiments with conditional mouse mutants that lack cholesterol biosynthesis in oligodendrocytes revealed that only minimal changes of the CNS myelin lipid composition are tolerated. In Schwann cells of the PNS, protein trafficking and myelin compaction depend on cholesterol. In this review, the authors summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and myelin disease.

  7. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan


    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  8. Parvovirus capsid disorders cholesterol-rich membranes. (United States)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Mäkelä, Anna R; Rintanen, Nina; Oker-Blom, Christian; Jalonen, Tuula O; Vuento, Matti


    In this study canine parvovirus, CPV, was found to induce disorder in DPPC:cholesterol membranes in acidic conditions. This acidicity-induced fluidizing effect is suggested to originate from the N-terminus of the viral capsid protein VP1. In accordance with the model membrane studies, a fluidizing effect was seen also in the endosomal membranes during CPV infection implying an important functional role of the fluidization in the endocytic entry of the virus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Babu


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice in lowering cholesterol in the blood. At the same time, alanine aminotranferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT were measured for notable side effects in the liver. Possible muscle damage was determined by measuring creatine kinase (CK. METHODS The cholesterol lowering effect in serum of red yeast rice-fed rats were studied over a 42-day feeding period. A total of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into 8 per group: control and treated. Treated rats were administered 1.35g/kg/day. Control rats were maintained on ordinary rat chow. RESULTS Serum cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by 19.13% in treated group compared to controls. This treatment also showed increase in serum ALT and AST activities by 41.90% and 21.53%, respectively. Mean CK activity in treated rats showed an increase by 32.32% when compared with control rats. γ-GT is the only enzyme that showed a decrease of 15.16% in sera of treated rats. Body weights of control and treated rats increased significantly by 10% end of feeding period but were not due to treatment. CONCLUSION Red yeast rice significantly decreased serum cholesterol level at a dosage of 1.35g/kg/day. However, the differences in serum enzyme activities between control and treated rats were not significant.

  10. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.


    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation.

  11. Cholesterol impairment contributes to neuroserpin aggregation (United States)

    Giampietro, Costanza; Lionetti, Maria Chiara; Costantini, Giulio; Mutti, Federico; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.


    Intraneural accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). FENIB is a rare disease due to a point mutation in neuroserpin which accelerates protein aggregation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we show that cholesterol depletion induced either by prolonged exposure to statins or by inhibiting the sterol reg-ulatory binding-element protein (SREBP) pathway also enhances aggregation of neuroserpin proteins. These findings can be explained considering a computational model of protein aggregation under non-equilibrium conditions, where a decrease in the rate of protein clearance improves aggregation. Decreasing cholesterol in cell membranes affects their biophysical properties, including their ability to form the vesicles needed for protein clearance, as we illustrate by a simple mathematical model. Taken together, these results suggest that cholesterol reduction induces neuroserpin aggregation, even in absence of specific neuroserpin mutations. The new mechanism we uncover could be relevant also for other neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein aggregation. PMID:28255164

  12. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  13. LXR driven induction of HDL-cholesterol is independent of intestinal cholesterol absorption and ABCA1 protein expression. (United States)

    Kannisto, Kristina; Gåfvels, Mats; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Slätis, Katharina; Hu, Xiaoli; Jorns, Carl; Steffensen, Knut R; Eggertsen, Gösta


    We investigated whether: (1) liver X receptor (LXR)-driven induction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other LXR-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on intestinal cholesterol absorption; and (2) combined treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 and the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe results in synergistic effects on cholesterol metabolism that could be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. Mice were fed 0.2 % cholesterol and treated with GW3965+ezetimibe, GW3965 or ezetimibe. GW3965+ezetimibe treatment elevated serum HDL-C and Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, effectively reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased the excretion of faecal neutral sterols. No changes in intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 or ABCG5 protein expression were observed, despite increased mRNA expression, while hepatic ABCA1 was slightly reduced. The combined treatment caused a pronounced down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reduced hepatic and intestinal cholesterol levels. GW3965 did not affect the intestinal cholesterol absorption, but increased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. GW3965 also increased Apoa1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and HEPA1-6 cells. Ezetimibe reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption, ABCA1 and ABCG5, but did not affect the serum HDL-C or ApoAI levels. Thus, the LXR-driven induction of HDL-C and ApoAI was independent of the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased expression of intestinal or hepatic ABCA1 was not required. Inhibited influx of cholesterol via NPC1L1 and/or low levels of intracellular cholesterol prevented post-transcriptional expression of intestinal ABCA1 and ABCG5, despite increased mRNA levels. Combined LXR activation and blocked intestinal cholesterol absorption induced effective faecal elimination of cholesterol.

  14. HDL Cholesterol and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    Observationally, low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally...... associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (n = 47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol-related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol-decreasing gene scores...... and allele numbers associated with up to -13 and -20% reductions in HDL cholesterol levels. The corresponding theoretically predicted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.44 (95% CI 1.38-1.52) and 1.77 (1.61-1.95), whereas the genetic estimates were nonsignificant. Genetic risk ratios for type 2 diabetes...

  15. Dietary spices as beneficial modulators of lipid profile in conditions of metabolic disorders and diseases. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura


    Spices are valued for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. Dietary garlic, onion, fenugreek, red pepper, turmeric, and ginger have been proven to be effective hypocholesterolemics in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic potential of fenugreek in diabetic subjects and of garlic and onion in humans with induced lipemia has been demonstrated. Capsaicin and curcumin - the bioactive compounds of red pepper and turmeric - are documented to be efficacious at doses comparable to usual human intake. Capsaicin and curcumin have been shown to be hypotriglyceridemic, thus preventing accumulation of fat in the liver under adverse situations by enhancing triglyceride transport out of the liver. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion enhance secretion of bile acids into bile. These hypocholesterolemic spices/spice principles reduce blood and liver cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol conversion to bile acids through activation of hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. Many human trials have been carried out with garlic, onion, and fenugreek. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of spices is fairly well understood. Health implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of spices experimentally documented are cardio-protection, protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes by restoration of membrane cholesterol/phospholipid profile and prevention of cholesterol gallstones by modulation of the cholesterol saturation index in bile.

  16. Dietary leucine--an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmin; Emanuelli, Brice; Bång, Anneli M


    and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated...... with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest...

  17. Mitochondrial cholesterol: mechanisms of import and effects on mitochondrial function. (United States)

    Martin, Laura A; Kennedy, Barry E; Karten, Barbara


    Mitochondria require cholesterol for biogenesis and membrane maintenance, and for the synthesis of steroids, oxysterols and hepatic bile acids. Multiple pathways mediate the transport of cholesterol from different subcellular pools to mitochondria. In steroidogenic cells, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) interacts with a mitochondrial protein complex to mediate cholesterol delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone. In non-steroidogenic cells, several members of a protein family defined by the presence of a StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain play key roles in the delivery of cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes. Subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), form membrane contact sites with mitochondria and may contribute to the transport of ER cholesterol to mitochondria, either independently or in conjunction with lipid-transfer proteins. Model systems of mitochondria enriched with cholesterol in vitro and mitochondria isolated from cells with (patho)physiological mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial cholesterol levels affect mitochondrial function. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in several diseases, including cancer, ischemia, steatohepatitis and neurodegenerative diseases, and influence disease pathology. Hence, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms maintaining mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis may reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we give a brief overview of mitochondrial cholesterol import in steroidogenic cells, and then focus on cholesterol trafficking pathways that deliver cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes in non-steroidogenic cells. We also briefly discuss the consequences of increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels on mitochondrial function and their potential role in disease pathology.

  18. Influence of the fatty acid composition of high-density lipoprotein phospholipids on the cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts. (United States)

    Esteva, O; Baudet, M F; Lasserre, M; Jacotot, B


    The purpose of this work was to determine whether the changes induced by dietary manipulations in the chemical composition of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (particularly phospholipid fatty acid composition) modified their capacity to promote [3H]cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts. Plasma HDL were obtained from subjects fed for six successive long periods on diets consisting of one predominant fat: peanut oil, corn oil, olive oil, soybean oil, low erucic acid rapeseed oil or milk fats. The [3H]cholesterol efflux from cells in the presence of plasma HDL was studied by means of normal adult human fibroblasts in culture. The [3H]cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts appeared to be independent of the overall composition of HDL and of the degree of saturation of the HDL phospholipid fatty acids, but it was correlated with the phospholipid fatty acid chain length. The [3H]cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts is highly and positively correlated with the sum of the HDL phospholipid C20, C22, C24 fatty acids, and negatively correlated with the sum of the HDL phospholipid C18 fatty acids.

  19. The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women. (United States)

    Müller, Hanne; Lindman, Anja S; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Pedersen, Jan I


    We compared the effects of a high fat diet [38.4% of energy (E%) from fat; HSAFA diet, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio = 0.14], a low fat diet (19.7 E% from fat; LSAFA diet, P/S = 0.17), both based on coconut oil, and a diet with a high content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 38.2 E% from fat; HUFA diet, P/S = 1.9) on serum lipoproteins. The 25 women studied consumed each diet for 3-wk periods in a crossover design. The two high fat diets were identical except for the quality of the test fat. The LSAFA diet was identical to the HSAFA diet except that half the fat was replaced by carbohydrates. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB concentrations did not differ between the HSAFA and the LSAFA diet periods. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the other two diets. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were 15 and 11%, respectively, higher when women consumed the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the LSAFA diet; HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet, but not the LSAFA diet. The LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and apoB/apoA-I ratios were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet. The LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was higher when women consumed either the LSAFA or the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet, whereas apoB/apoA-I was higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet. Triacylglycerol and VLDL cholesterol were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed either the HSAFA or the HUFA diet. We conclude that, to influence the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, changing the proportions of dietary fatty acids may be more important than restricting the percentage of total or saturated fat energy, at least when derived mainly from lauric and myristic acids, both of which increase HDL cholesterol.

  20. When cholesterol is not cholesterol: a note on the enzymatic determination of its concentration in model systems containing vegetable extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamplona Reinald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evidences demonstrate that vegetable derived extracts inhibit cholesterol absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. To further explore the mechanisms behind, we modeled duodenal contents with several vegetable extracts. Results By employing a widely used cholesterol quantification method based on a cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction we analyzed the effects on cholesterol partition. Evidenced interferences were analyzed by studying specific and unspecific inhibitors of cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase coupled reaction. Cholesterol was also quantified by LC/MS. We found a significant interference of diverse (cocoa and tea-derived extracts over this method. The interference was strongly dependent on model matrix: while as in phosphate buffered saline, the development of unspecific fluorescence was inhibitable by catalase (but not by heat denaturation, suggesting vegetable extract derived H2O2 production, in bile-containing model systems, this interference also comprised cholesterol-oxidase inhibition. Several strategies, such as cholesterol standard addition and use of suitable blanks containing vegetable extracts were tested. When those failed, the use of a mass-spectrometry based chromatographic assay allowed quantification of cholesterol in models of duodenal contents in the presence of vegetable extracts. Conclusions We propose that the use of cholesterol-oxidase and/or peroxidase based systems for cholesterol analyses in foodstuffs should be accurately monitored, as important interferences in all the components of the enzymatic chain were evident. The use of adequate controls, standard addition and finally, chromatographic analyses solve these issues.

  1. Promoting dietary change. (United States)

    Crawford, S


    The discouraging failure rate of counselling patients for dietary change suggests that traditional methods require some reconsideration. These have been frequently based on generalized assumptions regarding patients' health values, their need for knowledge, level of literacy, and ability to translate abstract concepts into daily food. Similarly, both patient and counsellor often insufficiently examine the environmental context of the dietary changes to determine whether or not they are feasible. This brief overview examines ways in which nutrition counselling can be enhanced to ensure that patients are enabled to develop a heart-healthy diet through active problem solving and directed development of self-efficacy in the skills they will need for lasting change.

  2. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis. (United States)

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R


    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  3. Protective effect of the oligomeric acylphloroglucinols from Myrtus communis on cholesterol and human low density lipoprotein oxidation. (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Melis, M Paola; Deiana, Monica; Atzeri, Angela; Appendino, Giovanni; Corona, Giulia; Incani, Alessandra; Loru, Debora; Dessì, M Assunta


    Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), a culinary spice and flavouring agent for alcoholic beverages widespread in the Mediterranean area and especially in Sardinia, contains the structurally unique oligomeric non-prenylated acylphloroglucinols, semimyrtucommulone and myrtucommulone A, whose antioxidant activity was investigated during the oxidative modification of lipid molecules implicated in the onset of cardiovascular diseases. Both acylphloroglucinols showed powerful antioxidant properties during the thermal (140 degrees C), solvent-free degradation of cholesterol. Moreover, the pre-treatment with semimyrtucommulone and myrtucommulone A significantly preserved LDL from oxidative damage induced by Cu(2+) ions at 2h of oxidation, and showed remarkable protective effect on the reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, inhibiting the increase of their oxidative products (conjugated dienes fatty acids hydroperoxides, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol). Taking into account the widespread culinary use of myrtle leaves, the results of the present work qualify the natural compounds semimyrtucommulone and myrtucommulone A as interesting dietary antioxidants with potential antiatherogenicity.

  4. Dietary intakes of macronutrients among Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans: the San Antonio heart study. (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Knapp, J A; Hazuda, H P; Stern, M P; Young, E A


    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were obtained on 1254 Mexican Americans (MA) and 916 Anglo Americans (AA), aged 25 to 64, as part of the San Antonio heart study, a population-based survey of cardiovascular risk factors from 1979 to 1982. In order to separate the effects of ethnicity from those of socioeconomic status (SES), we sampled subjects in three distinct neighborhoods: a low income MA neighborhood (barrio), a middle income neighborhood, and an upper income, predominantly Anglo, neighborhood. Intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrate were similar to those found in other dietary surveys (NHANES, LRC). MA females living in the barrio consumed more cholesterol than either Anglos or MAs living in the other two neighborhoods. In MA males, the rise in the Hegsted Score with increasing SES paralleled the rise in LDL cholesterol with rising SES reported previously by our group. Females consumed a less atherogenic diet than males.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reciprocally modifies ketogenesis and lipid secretion by the rat liver. (United States)

    Sakono, M; Miyanaga, F; Kawahara, S; Yamauchi, K; Fukuda, N; Watanabe, K; Iwata, T; Sugano, M


    The effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linoleic acid (LA) on ketone body production and lipid secretion were compared in isolated perfused rat liver. After feeding the 1% CLA diet for 2 wk, the concentration of post-perfused liver cholesterol was significantly reduced by CLA feeding, whereas that of triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Livers from CLA-fed rats produced significantly more ketone bodies; and the ratio of beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate, an index of mitochondrial redox potential, tended to be consistently higher in the liver perfusate. Conversely, cumulative secretions of triacylglycerol and cholesterol were consistently lower in the livers of rats fed CLA, and the reduction in the latter was statistically significant. Thus dietary CLA appeared to exert its hypolipidemic effect at least in part through an enhanced beta-oxidation of fatty acids at the expense of esterification of fatty acid in the liver.

  6. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J


    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  7. A new model of reverse cholesterol transport: enTICEing strategies to stimulate intestinal cholesterol excretion. (United States)

    Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the largest cause of mortality in most developed countries. Although recent failed clinical trials and Mendelian randomization studies have called into question the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypothesis, it remains well accepted that stimulating the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can prevent or even regress atherosclerosis. The prevailing model for RCT is that cholesterol from the artery wall must be delivered to the liver where it is secreted into bile before leaving the body through fecal excretion. However, many studies have demonstrated that RCT can proceed through a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE). The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of knowledge of the TICE pathway, with emphasis on points of therapeutic intervention.

  8. Effects of Supplemental Fat to Low Metabolizable Energy Diets on Cholesterol and Triglyceride Contents of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA and Polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1 in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (pConclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison

  9. Control of Angiogenesis by AIBP-mediated Cholesterol Efflux (United States)

    Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Baek, Ji Sun; Liu, Chao; Almazan, Felicidad; Ulrich, Florian; Wiesner, Philipp; Taleb, Adam; Deer, Elena; Pattison, Jennifer; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.


    Cholesterol is a structural component of the cell, indispensable for normal cellular function, but its excess often leads to abnormal proliferation, migration, inflammatory responses and/or cell death. To prevent cholesterol overload, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate cholesterol efflux from the cells to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and to the ApoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)1-3. Maintaining efficient cholesterol efflux is essential for normal cellular function4-6. However, the role of cholesterol efflux in angiogenesis and the identity of its local regulators are poorly understood. Here we show that ApoA-I binding protein (AIBP) accelerates cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (EC) to HDL and thereby regulates angiogenesis. AIBP/HDL-mediated cholesterol depletion reduces lipid rafts, interferes with VEGFR2 dimerization and signaling, and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and mouse aortic neovascularization ex vivo. Remarkably, Aibp regulates the membrane lipid order in embryonic zebrafish vasculature and functions as a non-cell autonomous regulator of zebrafish angiogenesis. Aibp knockdown results in dysregulated sprouting/branching angiogenesis, while forced Aibp expression inhibits angiogenesis. Dysregulated angiogenesis is phenocopied in Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos, and cholesterol levels are increased in Aibp-deficient and Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos. Our findings demonstrate that secreted AIBP positively regulates cholesterol efflux from EC and that effective cholesterol efflux is critical for proper angiogenesis. PMID:23719382

  10. Phytosterol ester constituents affect micellar cholesterol solubility in model bile. (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P


    Plant sterols and stanols (phytosterols) and their esters are nutraceuticals that lower LDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We hypothesized that intact esters and simulated hydrolysis products of esters (phytosterols and fatty acids in equal ratios) would differentially affect the solubility of cholesterol in model bile mixed micelles in vitro. Sodium salts of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were sonicated with phosphatidylcholine and either sterol esters or combinations of sterols and fatty acids to determine the amount of cholesterol solubilized into micelles. Intact sterol esters did not solubilize into micelles, nor did they alter cholesterol solubility. However, free sterols and fatty acids altered cholesterol solubility independently (no interaction effect). Equal contents of cholesterol and either campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, or stigmastanol (sitostanol) decreased cholesterol solubility in micelles by approximately 50% compared to no phytosterol present, with stigmasterol performing slightly better than sitosterol. Phytosterols competed with cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating a 1:1 M substitution of phytosterol for cholesterol in micelle preparations. Unsaturated fatty acids increased the micelle solubility of sterols as compared with saturated or no fatty acids. No differences were detected in the size of the model micelles. Together, these data indicate that stigmasterol combined with saturated fatty acids may be more effective at lowering cholesterol micelle solubility in vivo.

  11. ACAT1 deficiency increases cholesterol synthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (United States)

    Dove, Dwayne E; Su, Yan Ru; Swift, Larry L; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio


    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) esterifies free cholesterol and stores cholesteryl esters in lipid droplets. Macrophage ACAT1 deficiency results in increased atherosclerotic lesion area in hyperlipidemic mice via disrupted cholesterol efflux, increased lipoprotein uptake, accumulation of intracellular vesicles, and accelerated apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether lipid synthesis is affected by ACAT1. The synthesis, esterification, and efflux of new cholesterol were measured in peritoneal macrophages from ACAT1(-/-) mice. Cholesterol synthesis was increased by 134% (p=0.001) in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages compared to wildtype macrophages. Increased synthesis resulted in a proportional increase in the efflux of newly synthesized cholesterol. Although the esterification of new cholesterol was reduced by 93% (pSREBP1a mRNA was increased 6-fold in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages compared to wildtype macrophages, suggesting an up-regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages. Increased cholesterol synthesis and up-regulation of SREBP in ACAT1(-/-) macrophages suggests that ACAT1 affects the regulation of lipid metabolism in macrophages. This change in cholesterol homeostasis may contribute to the atherogenic potential of ACAT1(-/-) macrophages.

  12. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol. (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V


    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  13. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.


    Feunekes, G.I.J.


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  14. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions


    Bijaya Upadhyaya; Lacey McCormack; Ali Reza Fardin-Kia; Robert Juenemann; Sailendra Nichenametla; Jeffrey Clapper; Bonny Specker; Moul Dey


    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat wer...

  15. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat


    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 101±8 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets.

  16. Dietary modification in a workplace health promotion program in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Ab Sallam, Atiya; Wong, Mee Lian


    Lifestyle modification is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours to prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was a quasi-experimental trial with a follow up of two years. The intervention group (n = 102) received intensive individual and group counselling on diet and physical activity. The comparison group (n = 84) was given minimal education through mail and group counselling. Following the intervention, both groups reduced their total fat intake through a replacement in carbohydrate intake. The saturated fat and cholesterol intake was also reduced with a larger magnitude in the intervention group. Fruits and vegetables consumption was increased within the intervention group. The intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction in their mean total cholesterol levels with an intervention effect of -0.38 (95% C.I. = -0.63, -0.14) mmol/l. This study has achieved moderate improvement in dietary intakes as well as the total cholesterol of the participants.

  17. Mathematically modelling the dynamics of cholesterol metabolism and ageing. (United States)

    Morgan, A E; Mooney, K M; Wilkinson, S J; Pickles, N A; Mc Auley, M T


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. This condition becomes increasingly prevalent during ageing; 34.1% and 29.8% of males and females respectively, over 75 years of age have an underlying cardiovascular problem. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism is inextricably correlated with cardiovascular health and for this reason low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are routinely used as biomarkers of CVD risk. The aim of this work was to use mathematical modelling to explore how cholesterol metabolism is affected by the ageing process. To do this we updated a previously published whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism to include an additional 96 mechanisms that are fundamental to this biological system. Additional mechanisms were added to cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), bile acid synthesis, and their enterohepatic circulation. The sensitivity of the model was explored by the use of both local and global parameter scans. In addition, acute cholesterol feeding was used to explore the effectiveness of the regulatory mechanisms which are responsible for maintaining whole-body cholesterol balance. It was found that our model behaves as a hypo-responder to cholesterol feeding, while both the hepatic and intestinal pools of cholesterol increased significantly. The model was also used to explore the effects of ageing in tandem with three different cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) genotypes. Ageing in the presence of an atheroprotective CETP genotype, conferring low CETP activity, resulted in a 0.6% increase in LDL-C. In comparison, ageing with a genotype reflective of high CETP activity, resulted in a 1.6% increase in LDL-C. Thus, the model has illustrated the importance of CETP genotypes such as I405V, and their potential role in healthy ageing.

  18. Dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with the risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia (United States)

    Song, Su Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee-Young; Park, Min Sun


    Several studies have been conducted on dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition in Asian populations. We examined the cross-sectional associations in dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition, including the glycemic index (GI) with dyslipidemia and diabetes among the Korean adult population. We analyzed 9,725 subjects (3,795 men and 5,930 women, ≥ 20 years) from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary information was collected using single 24-hour recall. Reduced rank regression was used to derive dietary patterns from 22 food groups as predictor variables and four dietary factors related to the quantity and quality of carbohydrates as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: 1) the balanced pattern was characterized by high intake of various kinds of foods including white rice, and 2) the rice-oriented pattern was characterized by a high intake of white rice but low intake of vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy products. Both patterns had considerable amounts of total carbohydrate, but GI values differed. The rice-oriented pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia in men and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both men and women. The balanced pattern had no overall significant association with the prevalence of dyslipidemia or diabetes, however, men with energy intake above the median showed a reduced prevalence of diabetes across quintiles of balanced pattern scores. The results show that dietary patterns based on carbohydrate nutrition are associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia and diabetes in the Korean adult population. PMID:22977690

  19. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.


    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  20. Evolution of dietary antioxidants. (United States)

    Benzie, Iris F F


    Oxygen is vital for most organisms but, paradoxically, damages key biological sites. Oxygenic threat is met by antioxidants that evolved in parallel with our oxygenic atmosphere. Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidants) produced during photosynthesis. The human body is exposed to these same oxidants, and we have also evolved an effective antioxidant system. However, this is not infallible. ROS breach defences, oxidative damage ensues, accumulates with age, and causes a variety of pathological changes. Plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods traditionally formed the major part of the human diet, and plant-based dietary antioxidants are hypothesized to have an important role in maintaining human health. This hypothesis is logical in evolutionary terms, especially when we consider the relatively hypoxic environment in which humans may have evolved. In this paper, the human diet is discussed briefly in terms of its evolutionary development, different strategies of antioxidant defence are outlined, and evolution of dietary antioxidants is discussed from the perspectives of plant need and our current dietary requirements. Finally, possibilities in regard to dietary antioxidants, evolution, and human health are presented, and an evolutionary cost-benefit analysis is presented in relation to why we lost the ability to make ascorbic acid (vitamin C) although we retained an absolute requirement for it.

  1. Dietary supplements in sport. (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S


    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  2. Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality. (United States)

    Stopsack, Konrad H; Gerke, Travis A; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Penney, Kathryn L; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Sesso, Howard D; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Cerhan, James R; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Rider, Jennifer R


    Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4785-90. ©2016 AACR.

  3. The Effects of Different Levels of Dietary Protein and L-Carnitine on Blood Sugar and Lipids of the New GIFT Strain of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen


    Full Text Available The new GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain of Nile tilapia is a popular cultivated fish in Asia, but intensive aquaculture using nutritionally imbalanced feed has led to disorder of lipid metabolisms. An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in order to assess the effects of different levels of L-carnitine (0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg and dietary protein (22, 25, and 28% on blood sugar and blood lipid contents of the new juvenile GIFT strain of Nile tilapia. Results showed that dietary protein and L-carnitine had significant influences on glucose (GLU, high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C in the blood serum. The contents of GLU and HDL-C increased with the increases in dietary protein and L-carnitine levels, while the contents of TC, LDL-C, and TG decreased with the increases in dietary protein and L-carnitine levels. The interactive effect of both dietary protein and L-carnitine was most significant on GLU (p = 0.0001, followed by TG (p = 0.001, TC (p = 0.005, HDL-C (p = 0.056, and LDL-C (p = 0.109. These results suggested that high levels of dietary protein and L-carnitine supplementation reduce blood lipids and the burden of the fish liver.

  4. Type of dietary lipids and storing time on egg stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of diets containing different lipid sources on eggs quality during refrigerated storage, on yolk fatty acid composition, and on cholesterol in the yolk. Four diets were used containing Soy Oil (SO, Sunflower Seed (SS, and Meat and Bone Meal + Soy Oil (MBM + SO or Meat and Bone Meal + Tallow (MBM + TA. The experiment followed a factorial design 4 × 3 with four dietary treatments and three storage times. The eggs were stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The collected eggs were analyzed for egg weight loss, Haugh units, yolk moisture, yolk lipid oxidation, and cooked yolk firmness. Refrigerated storage reduced Haugh units, and increased yolk moisture. Sixty days of storage time reduced the firmness of hard-cooked yolk. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and storage time for egg weight loss and lipid oxidation. With regard to yolk fatty acid profile, MBM + TA diet increased the contents of palmitic and palmitoleic acids. The levels of oleic and arachidonic acids were higher in yolks from birds fed with SS diet. Linoleic acid level was higher in the yolk from treatment with SO diet. Diets containing MBM + SO induced higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid. Yolk cholesterol content was reduced with the inclusion of SS in the diet. Therefore, the type of lipid present in the diet and refrigerated storage for 60 days at 4 °C can affect the egg quality.

  5. Use of dietary supplements by cardiologists, dermatologists and orthopedists: report of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyon Nicolas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements are regularly used by a majority of the American population, and usage by health professionals is also common. There is considerable interest in usage patterns within the population and in the reasons for using dietary supplements. The "Life...supplemented" Healthcare Professionals 2008 Impact Study (HCP Impact Study surveyed usage of dietary supplements by physicians in three specialties: cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Methods The HCP Impact Study was conducted online by Ipsos Public Affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN, a trade association of the dietary supplement industry. Respondents were 900 physicians, including 300 each from three specialties - cardiology, dermatology, and orthopedics. Results Fifty-seven percent of cardiologists said they use dietary supplements at least occasionally, as did 75% of dermatologists and 73% of orthopedists. The product most commonly reported to be used was a multivitamin, but over 25% in each specialty said they used omega-3 fatty acids and over 20% said they used some botanical supplements. Regular dietary supplement use was reported by 37% of cardiologists, 59% of dermatologists, and 50% of orthopedists. Seventy-two percent of cardiologists, 66% of dermatologists, and 91% of orthopedists reported recommending dietary supplements to their patients. The primary reason given for recommending dietary supplements to patients was for heart health or lowering cholesterol for the cardiologists; benefits for skin, hair and nails for the dermatologists; and bone and joint health for the orthopedists. Conclusions Reported dietary supplement use was relatively common in this sample of physicians, and when they recommended dietary supplements to patients, they tended to do so for reasons related to their specialty.

  6. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka


    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  7. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor (United States)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana


    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs.

  8. Cholesterol monohydrate nucleation in ultrathin films on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapaport, H.; Kuzmenko, I.; Lafont, S.


    The growth of a cholesterol crystalline phase, three molecular layers thick at the air-water interface, was monitored by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. Upon compression, a cholesterol film transforms from a monolayer of trigonal symmetry and low crystallinity...... to a trilayer, composed of a highly crystalline bilayer in a rectangular lattice and a disordered top cholesterol layer. This system undergoes a phase transition into a crystalline trilayer incorporating ordered water between the hydroxyl groups of the top and middle sterol layers in an arrangement akin...... to the triclinic 3-D crystal structure of cholesterol . H(2)O. By comparison, the cholesterol derivative stigmasterol transforms, upon compression, directly into a crystalline trilayer in the rectangular lattice. These results may contribute to an understanding of the onset of cholesterol crystallization...

  9. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor (United States)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana


    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs. PMID:28220900

  10. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Swaney, William P; Ostlund, Richard E


    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid(®). The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P postproduction. CGMP manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies.

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas


    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Development of alimentary cholesterol in the plasma and the plasmatic lipoproteins in man, after ingestion of a meal containing octa-deuterated cholesterol; Devenir du cholesterol alimentaire dans le plasma et les lipoproteines plasmatiques chez l`homme, apres ingestion d`un repas contenant du cholesterol octa-deutere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becue, T.; Ferezou, J.; Simon, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Bernard, P.M.; Portugal, H. [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, 13 - Marseille (France); Dubois, C.; Lairon, D.


    Cholesterol absorbed after a test-meal has two origins with man: the biliary cholesterol and the alimentary cholesterol. In order to understand the mechanism of the modification of cholesterol intestinal absorption by oat bran, the alimentary cholesterol has been labelled with octa-deuterated cholesterol, in test-diets. The kinetics of D-cholesterol in plasma and chylomicrons is described. 1 fig., 6 refs.

  13. Interaction of G protein coupled receptors and cholesterol. (United States)

    Gimpl, Gerald


    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest receptor superfamily in eukaryotic cells. Owing to their seven transmembrane helices, large parts of these proteins are embedded in the cholesterol-rich plasma membrane bilayer. Thus, GPCRs are always in proximity to cholesterol. Some of them are functionally dependent on the specific presence of cholesterol. Over the last years, enormous progress on receptor structures has been achieved. While lipophilic ligands other than cholesterol have been shown to bind either inside the helix bundle or at the receptor-lipid interface, the binding site of cholesterol was either a single transmembrane helix or a groove between two or more transmembrane helices. A clear preference for one of the two membrane leaflets has not been observed. Not surprisingly, many hydrophobic residues (primarily leucine and isoleucine) were found to be involved in cholesterol binding. In most cases, the rough β-face of cholesterol contacted the transmembrane helix bundle rather than the surrounding lipid matrix. The polar hydroxy group of cholesterol was localized near the water-membrane interface with potential hydrogen bonding to residues in receptor loop regions. Although a canonical motif, designated as CCM site, was detected as a specific cholesterol binding site in case of the β2AR, this site was not found to be occupied by cholesterol in other GPCRs possessing the same motif. Cholesterol-receptor interactions can increase the compactness of the receptor structure and are able to enhance the conformational stability towards active or inactive receptor states. Overall, all current data suggest a high plasticity of cholesterol interaction sites in GPCRs.

  14. Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages


    Nan Liu; Chongming Wu; Lizhong Sun; Jun Zheng; Peng Guo


    Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicit...

  15. [Prostate cancer dependance upon cholesterol, statins and diet]. (United States)

    Pilch, Paweł; Radziszewski, Piotr; Maciukiewicz, Piotr


    The aim of the work is to analyze the influence of higher cholesterol and LDL level on risk of prostate cancer. The work is based on the available literature in that field. The metabolism of cholesterol is mainly regulated by the statins, which may thus inhibit prostate cancer growth. Keeping the appropriate body mass and level of cholesterol by proper diet and physical exercises may be the prophylaxis of prostate cancer.

  16. [Plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols: small amounts, big effects]. (United States)

    Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Ikonen, Elina


    Noncholesterol sterols are present in the body in very low concentrations compared with cholesterol. Minor structural changes in sterols give them completely individual biological activities. Steroid hormones are the best known example of this. The knowledge of other relatives of cholesterol, particularly plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols, their properties, physiological effects, significance in disease processes and diagnostic applications has recently undergone a rapid increase.

  17. Studies on PCSK9 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism


    Persson, Lena


    Elevated levels of plasma cholesterol, mainly in low density lipoproteins (LDL), are a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The level of plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is largely dependent on the number of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs). Increased number of LDLRs leads to higher uptake of LDL particles and lower concentration of plasma LDL-C. Proprotein convertase subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel key regulator in cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 reduces the numbe...

  18. Cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue: A case report (United States)

    Unal, Dursun; Kilic, Metin; Oner, Sedat; Erkinuresin, Taskın; Demirbas, Murat; Coban, Soner; Aydos, Mustafa Murat


    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with an enlarging right scrotal mass that had been present for 7 years. Right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed and a histopathological diagnosis confirmed a very rare case of cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue. It can be very difficult to preoperatively distinguish testicular tumours from cholesterol granulomas of the testis or epididymis. Cholesterol granuloma should be kept in mind in patients with large and non-tender scrotal masses. PMID:26225185

  19. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella


    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  20. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal


    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.