Sample records for cholesterol biosynthesis app

  1. Cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis in regulation of the cell cycle.

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    Pushpendra Singh

    Full Text Available The cell cycle is a ubiquitous, multi-step process that is essential for growth and proliferation of cells. The role of membrane lipids in cell cycle regulation is not explored well, although a large number of cytoplasmic and nuclear regulators have been identified. We focus in this work on the role of membrane cholesterol in cell cycle regulation. In particular, we have explored the stringency of the requirement of cholesterol in the regulation of cell cycle progression. For this purpose, we utilized distal and proximal inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis, and monitored their effect on cell cycle progression. We show that cholesterol content increases in S phase and inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis results in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase under certain conditions. Interestingly, G1 arrest mediated by cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors could be reversed upon metabolic replenishment of cholesterol. Importantly, our results show that the requirement of cholesterol for G1 to S transition is absolute, and even immediate biosynthetic precursors of cholesterol, differing with cholesterol merely in a double bond, could not replace cholesterol for reversing the cell cycle arrest. These results are useful in the context of diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease, that are associated with impaired cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis.

  2. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

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    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)


    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA

  3. Cholesterol in mouse retina originates primarily from in situ de novo biosynthesis. (United States)

    Lin, Joseph B; Mast, Natalia; Bederman, Ilya R; Li, Yong; Brunengraber, Henri; Björkhem, Ingemar; Pikuleva, Irina A


    The retina, a thin tissue in the back of the eye, has two apparent sources of cholesterol: in situ biosynthesis and cholesterol available from the systemic circulation. The quantitative contributions of these two cholesterol sources to the retinal cholesterol pool are unknown and have been determined in the present work. A new methodology was used. Mice were given separately deuterium-labeled drinking water and chow containing 0.3% deuterium-labeled cholesterol. In the retina, the rate of total cholesterol input was 21 μg of cholesterol/g retina • day, of which 15 μg of cholesterol/g retina • day was provided by local biosynthesis and 6 μg of cholesterol/g retina • day was uptaken from the systemic circulation. Thus, local cholesterol biosynthesis accounts for the majority (72%) of retinal cholesterol input. We also quantified cholesterol input to mouse brain, the organ sharing important similarities with the retina. The rate of total cerebral cholesterol input was 121 μg of cholesterol/g brain • day with local biosynthesis providing 97% of total cholesterol input. Our work addresses a long-standing question in eye research and adds new knowledge to the potential use of statins (drugs that inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis) as therapeutics for age-related macular degeneration, a common blinding disease.

  4. The biosynthesis, absorption, and origin of cholesterol and plant sterols in the Florida land crab. (United States)

    Douglass, T S; Connor, W E; Lin, D S


    In order to study the biosynthesis, composition, and origin of sterols in the Florida land crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille), we fed 17 male crabs either a cholesterol-free or a high cholesterol diet for 2 to 7 weeks. The origin of sterols in these crabs, whether from biosynthesis or from the diet, was determined by tahree procedures: the incorporation of isotopic mevalonate into the cholesterol when the diet was cholesterol-free; the absorption of isotopic cholesterol and sitosterol from the diet; the cholesterol and plant sterol concentrations of hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle under conditions of cholesterol-free and high cholesterol diets. In addition, the interconversion of cholesterol and sitosterol was investigated. Dietary sterols of plant and animal sources were readily absorbed and provided the major source of sterols for this species of crab. The biosynthesis of cholesterol from mevalonate in this crab was minimal. However, cholesterol was synthesized from dietary sitosterol by dealkylation. Cholesterol and the three plant sterols (24 epsilon-methyl cholesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) were found in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crab. Plant sterols contributed from 9 to 37% of the total sterols in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crabs fed a cholesterol-free diet.

  5. Cholesterol accumulation in Niemann Pick type C (NPC) model cells causes a shift in APP localization to lipid rafts

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    Kosicek, Marko, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Malnar, Martina, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Goate, Alison, E-mail: [Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Hecimovic, Silva, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)


    It has been suggested that cholesterol may modulate amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) formation, a causative factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by regulating distribution of the three key proteins in the pathogenesis of AD ({beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP), {beta}-secretase (BACE1) and/or presenilin 1 (PS1)) within lipid rafts. In this work we tested whether cholesterol accumulation upon NPC1 dysfunction, which causes Niemann Pick type C disease (NPC), causes increased partitioning of APP into lipid rafts leading to increased CTF/A{beta} formation in these cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. To test this we used CHO NPC1{sup -/-} cells (NPC cells) and parental CHOwt cells. By sucrose density gradient centrifugation we observed a shift in fl-APP/CTF compartmentalization into lipid raft fractions upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC vs. wt cells. Furthermore, {gamma}-secretase inhibitor treatment significantly increased fl-APP/CTF distribution in raft fractions in NPC vs. wt cells, suggesting that upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC1-null cells increased formation of APP-CTF and its increased processing towards A{beta} occurs in lipid rafts. Our results support that cholesterol overload, such as in NPC disease, leads to increased partitioning of APP/CTF into lipid rafts resulting in increased amyloidogenic processing of APP in these cholesterol-rich membranes. This work adds to the mechanism of the cholesterol-effect on APP processing and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and supports the role of lipid rafts in these processes.

  6. Cellular cholesterol delivery, intracellular processing and utilization for biosynthesis of steroid hormones

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    Azhar Salman


    Full Text Available Abstract Steroid hormones regulate diverse physiological functions such as reproduction, blood salt balance, maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, response to stress, neuronal function and various metabolic processes. They are synthesized from cholesterol mainly in the adrenal gland and gonads in response to tissue-specific tropic hormones. These steroidogenic tissues are unique in that they require cholesterol not only for membrane biogenesis, maintenance of membrane fluidity and cell signaling, but also as the starting material for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. It is not surprising, then, that cells of steroidogenic tissues have evolved with multiple pathways to assure the constant supply of cholesterol needed to maintain optimum steroid synthesis. The cholesterol utilized for steroidogenesis is derived from a combination of sources: 1 de novo synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; 2 the mobilization of cholesteryl esters (CEs stored in lipid droplets through cholesteryl ester hydrolase; 3 plasma lipoprotein-derived CEs obtained by either LDL receptor-mediated endocytic and/or SR-BI-mediated selective uptake; and 4 in some cultured cell systems from plasma membrane-associated free cholesterol. Here, we focus on recent insights into the molecules and cellular processes that mediate the uptake of plasma lipoprotein-derived cholesterol, events connected with the intracellular cholesterol processing and the role of crucial proteins that mediate cholesterol transport to mitochondria for its utilization for steroid hormone production. In particular, we discuss the structure and function of SR-BI, the importance of the selective cholesterol transport pathway in providing cholesterol substrate for steroid biosynthesis and the role of two key proteins, StAR and PBR/TSO in facilitating cholesterol delivery to inner mitochondrial membrane sites, where P450scc (CYP11A is localized and where the conversion of cholesterol to

  7. Biosynthesis of membrane cholesterol during peripheral nerve development, degeneration and regeneration. (United States)

    Yao, J K


    Biosynthesis of peripheral nerve cholesterol was investigated by the in vivo and in vitro incorporation of [1-14C]-acetate into sciatic endoneurium of normal rats during development, degeneration and regeneration. Labeled sterols were rapidly formed (less than 10 min) within the endoneurial portion of sciatic nerve after [1-14C]acetate administration by intraneural injection. The majority of labeled sterols were initially found in lanosterol and desmosterol. After six hr, the 14C-labeling in both precursors was decreased to minimum, whereas cholesterol became the major labeled product of sterol. As myelination proceeded, the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into endoneurial cholesterol decreased rapidly and reached a minimum after six mo. In mature adult nerve, an increased proportion of biosynthesis of lanosterol and desmosterol also was demonstrated. The in vitro incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into cholesterol was inhibited during Wallerian degeneration. Instead, cholesteryl esters were labeled as the major sterol product. Such inhibition, however, was not observed in the adult Trembler nerve (Brain Res. 325, 21-27, 1985), which is presumed to be due to a primary metabolic disorder of Schwann cells. The cholesterol biosynthesis was gradually resumed in degenerated nerve by either regeneration of crush-injured nerve or reattachment of the transected nerve. These results suggest that cholesterol biosynthesis in peripheral nerve relies on the axon to provide necessary substrates. De novo synthesis appears to be one of the major sources of endoneurial cholesterol that forms and maintains peripheral nerve myelin.

  8. Radiographic features of the skeleton in disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis

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    Rossi, Massimiliano; Edery, Patrick [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Genetic Department, Referral Centre for Developmental Abnormalities, Femme-Mere-Enfant Hospital, Bron (France); INSERM U1028 UMR CNRS 5,292, UCBL, CRNL TIGER Team, CH le Vinater, Bron (France); Hall, Christine M. [Retired from Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Bouvier, Raymonde; Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, CBPE, Bron (France); Le Breton, Frederique [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Pathology, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Lyon (France); Bucourt, Martine [AP-HP, Foetopathology Unit, Jean Verdier Hospital, Bondy (France); Cordier, Marie Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Genetic Department, Referral Centre for Developmental Abnormalities, Femme-Mere-Enfant Hospital, Bron (France); Vianey-Saban, Christine [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Neonatal Screening, CBPE, Bron (France); Parenti, Giancarlo; Andria, Generoso [Federico II University, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, Naples (Italy); Le Merrer, Martine [AP-HP, Genetic Department, Referal Centre for Skeletal Dysplasias, Institut Imagine, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (United Kingdom); Offiah, Amaka C. [Stephenson Wing Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust Western Bank, Radiology Department, Children' s Hospital, Academic Unit of Child Health Room C4, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis are inborn errors of metabolism characterised by multiple congenital abnormalities, including significant skeletal involvement. The most frequent and best-characterised example is the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Nine other disorders are known, namely autosomal-recessive Antley-Bixler syndrome, Greenberg dysplasia, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, X-linked recessive male emopamil-binding protein deficiency, CHILD syndrome, CK syndrome, sterol C4 methyloxidase-like deficiency, desmosterolosis and lathosterolosis. This study provides an overview of the radiologic features observed in these diseases. A common pattern of limb abnormalities is recognisable, including polydactyly, which is typically post-axial and rarely interdigital and can involve all four limbs, and syndactyly of the toes. Chondrodysplasia punctata is specifically associated with a subgroup of disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis (Greenberg dysplasia, CHILD syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, male emopamil-binding protein deficiency). The possible occurrence of epiphyseal stippling in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, initially reported, does not appear to be confirmed. Stippling is also associated with other congenital disorders such as chromosomal abnormalities, brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata, disruptions of vitamin K metabolism, maternal autoimmune diseases), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (peroxisomal disorders) and lysosomal storage disorders. In the differential diagnosis of epiphyseal stippling, a moth-eaten appearance of bones, asymmetry, or presence of a common pattern of limb abnormalities indicate inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis. We highlight the specific differentiating radiologic features of disorders of post-squalene cholesterol biosynthesis. (orig.)

  9. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Melega, Simone; Stöber, Regina; Schug, Markus; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Cadenas, Cristina; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena; Hengstler, Jan G


    The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were chosen that neither induce a decrease in reduced glutathione or ATP depletion. Analysis of the gene array data showed a large overlap of gene expression alterations induced by the four drugs. This 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' included 101 up-regulated and 309 down-regulated probe sets (p cholesterol biosynthesis represented a dominant overrepresented motif. Key enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis up-regulated by all four piperazine drugs include sterol C4-methyloxidase, isopentyl-diphosphate-Δ-isomerase, Cyp51A1, squalene epoxidase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Additionally, glycoprotein transmembrane nmb, which participates in cell adhesion processes, and fatty acid desaturase 1, an enzyme that regulates unsaturation of fatty acids, were also up-regulated by the four piperazine designer drugs. Regarding the down-regulated probe sets, only one gene was common to all four piperazine derivatives, the betaine-homocysteine-S-methyltransferase 2. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites of the 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' identified the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) as strongly overrepresented in the up-regulated genes. SREBP transcription factors are known to regulate multiple genes of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present study shows that piperazine designer drugs act by up-regulating key

  10. Seladin-1/DHCR24: A key protein of cell homeostasis and cholesterol biosynthesis

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    Joanna Drzewińska


    Full Text Available Seladin-1 is a multifunctional protein encoded by DHCR24 gene and due to its enzymatic, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities, it is considered as neuroprotective agent. Seladin-1 was identified as a gene down-regulated in brain regions selectively degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. Mutations of DHCR24 gene result in inhibition of the enzymatic activity of seladin-1, causing an accumulation of desmosterol and leading to a lethal disorder called desmosterolosis. As an enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, seladin-1 enhances the formation of lipid rafts and caveoles. These membrane structures are involved in the maintenance of signaling pathways and metabolic processes, such as the degradation of amyloid precursor protein, which is especially significant in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Independently of its enzymatic activity in cholesterol biosynthesis, seladin-1 acts as a caspase-3 inhibitor, a mediator of response to oxidative and oncogenic stress, and a reactive oxygen species scavenger. However, the effects of these activities seem to be indirectly modulated by membrane cholesterol level, which in turn gives priority to seladin-1’s enzymatic function in cholesterol biosynthesis, among its other functions. Seladin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression level in the brain and adrenal glands. Differences in seladin-1 expression profile were reported in transformed cells originating from many tissue types. Although the mechanisms of the regulation of seladin-1 activity demand further elucidation, it has already been shown that DHCR24 gene was activated by LXRα/RXRα in skin, by ERα in neurons, and by AR in prostate. Apart from estrogens and androgens, thyroid hormones, and IGF-1 also take part in the stimulation of seladin-1 expression.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acyl-coenzyme As are inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish and mice

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    Santhosh Karanth


    Lipid disorders pose therapeutic challenges. Previously we discovered that mutation of the hepatocyte β-hydroxybutyrate transporter Slc16a6a in zebrafish causes hepatic steatosis during fasting, marked by increased hepatic triacylglycerol, but not cholesterol. This selective diversion of trapped ketogenic carbon atoms is surprising because acetate and acetoacetate can exit mitochondria and can be incorporated into both fatty acids and cholesterol in normal hepatocytes. To elucidate the mechanism of this selective diversion of carbon atoms to fatty acids, we fed wild-type and slc16a6a mutant animals high-protein ketogenic diets. We find that slc16a6a mutants have decreased activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, despite increased Hmgcr protein abundance and relative incorporation of mevalonate into cholesterol. These observations suggest the presence of an endogenous Hmgcr inhibitor. We took a candidate approach to identify such inhibitors. First, we found that mutant livers accumulate multiple polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and PUFA-CoAs, and we showed that human HMGCR is inhibited by PUFA-CoAs in vitro. Second, we injected mice with an ethyl ester of the PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and observed an acute decrease in hepatic Hmgcr activity, without alteration in Hmgcr protein abundance. These results elucidate a mechanism for PUFA-mediated cholesterol lowering through direct inhibition of Hmgcr.

  12. Oxysterol-related-binding-protein related Protein-2 (ORP2) regulates cortisol biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis. (United States)

    Escajadillo, Tamara; Wang, Hongxia; Li, Linda; Li, Donghui; Sewer, Marion B


    Oxysterol binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2) is a lipid binding protein that has been implicated in various cellular processes, including lipid sensing, cholesterol efflux, and endocytosis. We recently identified ORP2 as a member of a protein complex that regulates glucocorticoid biosynthesis. Herein, we examine the effect of silencing ORP2 on adrenocortical function and show that the ORP2 knockdown cells exhibit reduced amounts of multiple steroid metabolites, including progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol, but have increased concentrations of androgens, and estrogens. Moreover, silencing ORP2 suppresses the expression of most proteins required for cortisol production and reduces the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). ORP2 silencing also increases cellular cholesterol, concomitant with decreased amounts of 22-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, two molecules that have been shown to bind to ORP2. Further, we show that ORP2 binds to liver X receptor (LXR) and is required for nuclear LXR expression. LXR and ORP2 are recruited to the CYP11B1 promoter in response to cAMP signaling. Additionally, ORP2 is required for the expression of other LXR target genes, including ABCA1 and the LDL receptor (LDLR). In summary, we establish a novel role for ORP2 in regulating steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol homeostasis in the adrenal cortex.

  13. Living with inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis: lessons from adult patients. (United States)

    Cardoso, M L; Barbosa, M; Serra, D; Martins, E; Fortuna, A; Reis-Lima, M; Bandeira, A; Balreira, A; Marques, F


    In the last decades, nine inherited errors of the distal part of cholesterol biosynthesis have been recognized. Affected patients present complex malformation syndromes involving different organs and systems with variable degrees of severity. We report on the phenotype evolution of three patients with enzymatic defects at three distinct steps of such pathway: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata type 2 and congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome. The patients' natural history, from childhood to adulthood, is thoroughly described in order to contribute for a better knowledge of these diseases. Our ultimate goals are to contribute for a better characterization of the long-term course of these metabolic disorders and for the recognition of such diseases in older patients.

  14. Differential control of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in sensitive and multidrug-resistant LoVo tumor cells. (United States)

    Santini, Maria Teresa; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Ferrante, Antonella; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Arancia, Giuseppe; Bravo, Elena


    Multidrug resistance (MDR) describes the decrease in sensitivity of tumor cells to a wide variety of cytotoxic compounds. Although a central role has been ascribed to the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) pump in MDR, lipids also appear to be extremely important. However, their precise role in MDR is not yet fully understood. It was the aim of the present paper to gain a deeper understanding of intracellular lipid equilibrium in both sensitive and MDR tumor cells. In particular, intracellular cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol esterification were examined in LoVo-sensitive and Pgp-overexpressing resistant cells. The data presented seem to suggest that the higher synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride observed in resistant with respect to wild-type cells is due to a greater production of fatty acids in these cells. The results are discussed in view of the possible roles of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and Pgp in these phenomena.

  15. Sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibit hair growth and trigger an innate immune response in cicatricial alopecia.

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    Sreejith P Panicker

    Full Text Available Primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA is a group of inflammatory hair disorders that cause scarring and permanent hair loss. Previous studies have implicated PPARγ, a transcription factor that integrates lipogenic and inflammatory signals, in the pathogenesis of PCA. However, it is unknown what triggers the inflammatory response in these disorders, whether the inflammation is a primary or secondary event in disease pathogenesis, and whether the inflammatory reaction reflects an autoimmune process. In this paper, we show that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in the skin and hair follicles of PCA patients. Treatment of hair follicle cells with BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, or 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, a sterol precursor, stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine genes. Painting of mouse skin with 7-DHC or BM15766 inhibits hair growth, causes follicular plugging and induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interfollicular dermis. Our results demonstrate that cholesterologenic changes within hair follicle cells trigger an innate immune response that is associated with the induction of toll-like receptor (TLR and interferon (IFN gene expression, and the recruitment of macrophages that surround the hair follicles and initiate their destruction. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for cholesterol precursors in PCA pathogenesis and identify a novel link between sterols and inflammation that may prove transformative in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  16. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

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    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen, E-mail:


    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular

  17. Cholesterol-Dependent Energy Transfer between Fluorescent Proteins—Insights into Protein Proximity of APP and BACE1 in Different Membranes in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Cells

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    Bjoern von Einem


    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET -based techniques have recently been applied to study the interactions between β-site APP-cleaving enzyme-GFP (BACE1-GFP and amyloid precursor protein-mRFP (APP-mRFP in U373 glioblastoma cells. In this context, the role of APP-BACE1 proximity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis has been discussed. FRET was found to depend on intracellular cholesterol levels and associated alterations in membrane stiffness. Here, NPC1 null cells (CHO-NPC1−/−, exhibiting increased cholesterol levels and disturbed cholesterol transport similar to that observed in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC, were used to analyze the influence of altered cholesterol levels on APP-BACE1 proximity. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of whole CHO-wild type (WT and CHO-NPC1−/− cells (EPI-illumination microscopy, as well as their plasma membranes (total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, TIRFM, were performed. Additionally, generalized polarization (GP measurements of CHO-WT and CHO-NPC1−/− cells incubated with the fluorescence marker laurdan were performed to determine membrane stiffness of plasma- and intracellular-membranes. CHO-NPC1−/− cells showed higher membrane stiffness at intracellular- but not plasma-membranes, equivalent to cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes/lysosomes. Along with higher membrane stiffness, the FRET efficiency between BACE1-GFP and APP-mRFP was reduced at intracellular membranes, but not within the plasma membrane of CHO-NPC1−/−. Our data show that FRET combined with TIRF is a powerful technique to determine protein proximity and membrane fluidity in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyecdysone in plants: 3β-hydroxy-5β-cholestan-6-one as an intermediate immediately after cholesterol in Ajuga hairy roots. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Maeda, Izumi; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Hikiba, Juri; Kataoka, Hiroshi


    3β-Hydroxy-5β-cholestan-6-one was identified in the EtOAc extract of Ajuga hairy roots by micro-analysis using LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction mode (MRM). Furthermore, administration of (2,2,4,4,7,7-(2)H6)- and (2,2,4,4,6,7,7-(2)H7)-cholesterols to the hairy roots followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the EtOAc extract of the hairy roots indicated that cholesterol was converted to the 5β-ketone with hydrogen migration from the C-6 to the C-5 position. These findings, in conjunction with the previous observation that the ketone was efficiently converted to 20-hydroxyecdysone, strongly suggest that the 5β-ketone is an intermediate immediately formed after cholesterol during 20-hydroxyecdysone biosynthesis in Ajuga sp. In addition, the mechanism of the 5β-ketone formation from cholesterol is discussed.

  19. Sterol Side Chain Reductase 2 Is a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Cholesterol, the Common Precursor of Toxic Steroidal Glycoalkaloids in Potato[W][OPEN (United States)

    Sawai, Satoru; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Yasumoto, Shuhei; Seki, Hikaru; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Toshio; Muranaka, Toshiya; Saito, Kazuki; Umemoto, Naoyuki


    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) contain α-solanine and α-chaconine, two well-known toxic steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). Sprouts and green tubers accumulate especially high levels of SGAs. Although SGAs were proposed to be biosynthesized from cholesterol, the biosynthetic pathway for plant cholesterol is poorly understood. Here, we identify sterol side chain reductase 2 (SSR2) from potato as a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and related SGAs. Using in vitro enzyme activity assays, we determined that potato SSR2 (St SSR2) reduces desmosterol and cycloartenol to cholesterol and cycloartanol, respectively. These reduction steps are branch points in the biosynthetic pathways between C-24 alkylsterols and cholesterol in potato. Similar enzymatic results were also obtained from tomato SSR2. St SSR2-silenced potatoes or St SSR2-disrupted potato generated by targeted genome editing had significantly lower levels of cholesterol and SGAs without affecting plant growth. Our results suggest that St SSR2 is a promising target gene for breeding potatoes with low SGA levels. PMID:25217510

  20. Biosynthesis of polar steroids from the Far Eastern starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. Cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate are converted into polyhydroxylated sterols and monoglycoside asterosaponin P1 in feeding experiments. (United States)

    Ivanchina, Natalia V; Kicha, Alla A; Malyarenko, Timofey V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A


    For the first time, it is experimentally established that the dietary cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate are biosynthetic precursors of polyhydroxysteroids and related low molecular weight glycosides in starfishes. These deuterium labeled precursors were converted into partly deuterated 5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol, 5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15β,16β,26-octaol, and steroid monoside asterosaponin P1 in result of feeding experiments on the Far Eastern starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. The incorporations of deuterium were established by MS and NMR spectroscopy. Scheme of the first stages of biosynthesis of polar steroids in these animals was suggested on the basis of inclusion of three from six deuterium atoms and determination of their positions in biosynthetic products, when [2,2,3,4,4,6-(2)H6]cholesterol 3-sulfate was used as precursor. It was also shown that labeled cholesterol is transformed into Δ(7)-cholesterol (lathosterol) in digestive organs and gonads of the starfish.

  1. App Inventor

    CERN Document Server

    Wolber, David; Spertus, Ellen; Looney, Liz


    Yes, you can create your own apps for Android phones-and it's easy to do. This extraordinary book introduces App Inventor for Android, a powerful visual tool that lets anyone build apps for Android-based devices. Learn the basics of App Inventor with step-by-step instructions for more than a dozen fun projects, such as creating location-aware apps, data storage, and apps that include decision-making logic. The second half of the book features an Inventor's manual to help you understand the fundamentals of app building and computer science. App Inventor makes an excellent textbook for beginne

  2. Innovative Target Therapies Are Able to Block the Inflammation Associated with Dysfunction of the Cholesterol Biosynthesis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marcuzzi


    Full Text Available The cholesterol pathway is an essential biochemical process aimed at the synthesis of bioactive molecules involved in multiple crucial cellular functions. The end products of this pathway are sterols, such as cholesterol, which are essential components of cell membranes, precursors of steroid hormones, bile acids and other molecules such as ubiquinone. Several diseases are caused by defects in this metabolic pathway: the most severe forms of which cause neurological involvement (psychomotor retardation and cerebellar ataxia as a result of a variety of cellular impairments, including mitochondrial dysfunction. These pathologies are induced by convergent mechanisms in which the mitochondrial unit plays a pivotal role contributing to defective apoptosis, autophagy and mitophagy processes. Unraveling these mechanisms would contribute to the development of effective drug treatments for these disorders. In addition, the development of biochemical models could have a substantial impact on the understanding of the mechanism of action of drugs that act on this pathway in multifactor disorders. In this review we will focus in particular on inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, mitochondria-targeted drugs and inhibitors of the inflammasome.

  3. Innovative Target Therapies Are Able to Block the Inflammation Associated with Dysfunction of the Cholesterol Biosynthesis Pathway. (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Piscianz, Elisa; Loganes, Claudia; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Knowles, Alessandra; Bilel, Sabrine; Tommasini, Alberto; Bortul, Roberta; Zweyer, Marina


    The cholesterol pathway is an essential biochemical process aimed at the synthesis of bioactive molecules involved in multiple crucial cellular functions. The end products of this pathway are sterols, such as cholesterol, which are essential components of cell membranes, precursors of steroid hormones, bile acids and other molecules such as ubiquinone. Several diseases are caused by defects in this metabolic pathway: the most severe forms of which cause neurological involvement (psychomotor retardation and cerebellar ataxia) as a result of a variety of cellular impairments, including mitochondrial dysfunction. These pathologies are induced by convergent mechanisms in which the mitochondrial unit plays a pivotal role contributing to defective apoptosis, autophagy and mitophagy processes. Unraveling these mechanisms would contribute to the development of effective drug treatments for these disorders. In addition, the development of biochemical models could have a substantial impact on the understanding of the mechanism of action of drugs that act on this pathway in multifactor disorders. In this review we will focus in particular on inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, mitochondria-targeted drugs and inhibitors of the inflammasome.

  4. Effects of Cholesterol-altering Pharmaceuticals on Cholesterol Metabolism, Steroidogenesis, and Gene Expression in the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals that target cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake are among the most widely prescribed drugs and have been detected in the aquatic environment. Fibrates are a class of pharmaceuticals that indirectly modulate cholesterol biosynthesis through effects on peroxisome pr...

  5. Photo Apps - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Images of various facilities used as a tool to eliminate travel time and for immediate access to concerned areas. App thumbnails images 4 per row and allows the user...

  6. Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Pedrini


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs that act by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent evidence suggests that statin use may be associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer disease, although the mechanisms underlying this apparent risk reduction are poorly understood. One popular hypothesis for statin action is related to the drugs' ability to activate alpha-secretase-type shedding of the alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein ectodomain (sAPP(alpha. Statins also inhibit the isoprenoid pathway, thereby modulating the activities of the Rho family of small GTPases-Rho A, B, and C-as well as the activities of Rac and cdc42. Rho proteins, in turn, exert many of their effects via Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs. Several cell-surface molecules are substrates for activated alpha-secretase-type ectodomain shedding, and regulation of shedding typically occurs via activation of protein kinase C or extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases, or via inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. However, the possibility that these enzymes play a role in statin-stimulated shedding has been excluded, leading us to investigate whether the Rho/ROCK1 protein phosphorylation pathway might be involved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found that both atorvastatin and simvastatin stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding from a neuroblastoma cell line via a subcellular mechanism apparently located upstream of endocytosis. A farnesyl transferase inhibitor also increased sAPP(alpha shedding, as did a dominant negative form of ROCK1. Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding. CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPP(alpha from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1.

  7. Cholesterol Test (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  8. What's Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  9. What's Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  10. About Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  11. Apps Developed by Academics (United States)

    Shing, Sophia; Yuan, Benjamin


    In the days of the digital Wild West, developers from all backgrounds have joined in the gold rush trying to profit from the almost unbridled spending of well-to-do parents on educational products. In 2016, the Apple App Store had over 80,000 educational apps. The proliferation of educational apps has happened at a furious pace and more apps are…

  12. Best Android Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickson, Mike


    You can choose from thousands of apps to make your Android device do just about anything you can think of -- and probably a few things you'd never imagine. There are so many Android apps available, in fact, that it's been difficult to find the best of the bunch -- until now. Best Android Apps leads you beyond the titles in Android Market's "Top Paid" and "Top Free" bins to showcase apps that will truly delight, empower, and entertain you. The authors have tested and handpicked more than 200 apps and games, each listed with a description and details highlighting the app's valuable tips and sp

  13. Cholesterol (image) (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  14. Google Apps zijn leuk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, Franciscus


    Het bericht dat de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen overgaat op de mailvoorziening en agenda van Google Apps for Education bracht een golf van publiciteit teweeg. Mediaberichten naar aanleiding van de overgang naar Google Apps.

  15. Fitter door apps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan; Baart de la Faille-Deutekom, Marije


    In deze presentatie komen de volgende onderwerpen aan bod: wie gebruiken apps en wearables, resultaten onderzoek apps en leefstijl/gezondheid, nieuwe projecten waarin technologie ingezet wordt om bewegen te stimuleren en ideeen voor de toekomst.

  16. Google App Inventor

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Ralph


    This book is written in the Beginner's Guide format that takes the reader through a series of steps to build exciting apps using Google's App Inventor. This book is perfect for people with little or no experience, not just Android developers. No matter your level of experience, you will find plenty of information that you can use to create powerful apps, apps that can be published on Android Market and other places.

  17. Bile acid biosynthesis and its regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areta Hebanowska


    Full Text Available Bile acid biosynthesis is the main pathway of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are more soluble than cholesterol so are easier to excrete. As amphipathic molecules they participate in lipid digestion and absorption in the intestine and they help to excrete free cholesterol with bile. They are also ligands for nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Interconversion of cholesterol into bile acids is an important point of its homeostasis. Seventeen enzymes are engaged in this process and many of them are cytochromes P450. Bile acid synthesis initiation may proceed with the “classical” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C7α position or the “alternative” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C27 position. Two additional pathways are possible, though their quantitative significance is small (initiated with cholesterol hydroxylations of C24 and C25 positions. Oxysterols produced are not only intermediates of bile acid biosynthesis but also important regulators of metabolism. Bile acid biosynthesis takes place in the liver, but some enzymes are also present in other organs, where they participate in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Those enzymes are potential targets for new drugs against cholesterol metabolism disturbances. This article is a brief description of the bile acid biosynthesis pathway and participating enzymes.

  18. Android apps security

    CERN Document Server

    Gunasekera, Sheran


    Android Apps Security provides guiding principles for how to best design and develop Android apps with security in mind. It explores concepts that can be used to secure apps and how developers can use and incorporate these security features into their apps. This book will provide developers with the information they need to design useful, high-performing, and secure apps that expose end-users to as little risk as possible.  Overview of Android OS versions, features, architecture and security.  Detailed examination of areas where attacks on applications can take place and what controls should b

  19. Effects of curcumin on serum total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein contents and expression of ABCA1 and apoA1 in CA1 region of hippocampus in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice%姜黄素对APP/PS1双转基因鼠海马ABCA1、apoA1的表达和血清TC、HDL含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕志朋; 王晨; 张雄; 李昱


    目的:探讨姜黄素对APP/PS1双转基因鼠海马组织中三磷酸腺苷结合盒转运子A1 (ATP binding cassette transport proteinA1,ABCA1)和载脂蛋白A1(apolipoprotein A1,apoA1)的表达及血清中总胆固醇(total cholesterol,TC)和高密度脂蛋白(high-density lipoprotein,HDL)含量的影响.方法:用APP/PS1双转基因鼠建立阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)模型,不同浓度姜黄素饲料喂养6个月.免疫组化SP法检测转基因鼠的海马组织CA1区ABCA1和apoA1的表达变化.胆固醇酶法比色法检测血清中TC和HDL的含量.结果:经过不同浓度姜黄素饲喂转基因鼠后,其海马组织CA1区ABCA1和apoA1的表达增加(P=o.005和0.003; P=0.025和0.001),且血清中HDL的含量也随之增加,TC的含量逐渐减少,其差异均有统计学意义(P=0.041和0.010;P=0.046和0.002).结论:ABCA1在AD的发生发展中起着重要的作用,姜黄素可能是通过增加ABCA1表达和升高apoA1和HDL含量降低胆固醇水平.

  20. Mobile app and app store analysis, testing and optimisation


    Harman, M.; Al-Subaihin, A.; Jia, Y.; Martin, W.; Sarro, F.; Zhang, Y.


    This talk presents results on analysis and testing of mobile apps and app stores, reviewing the work of the UCL App Analysis Group (UCLappA) on App Store Mining and Analysis. The talk also covers the work of the UCL CREST centre on Genetic Improvement, applicable to app improvement and optimisation.

  1. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  2. High Blood Cholesterol (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  3. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan


    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  4. Sencha Architect app development

    CERN Document Server

    Groner, Loiane


    A standard tutorial-based approach for using Sencha Architect to develop applications in Ext JS and Sencha Touch.Sencha Architect App Development is for Ext JS and Sencha Touch developers that are looking to improve their productivity by using Sencha Architect for app development. Basic knowledge of Ext JS and Sencha Touch is required.

  5. Mobile Apps for Librarians (United States)

    Power, June L.


    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  6. Using Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Severance, Charles


    Build exciting, scalable web applications quickly and confidently using Google App Engine and this book, even if you have little or no experience in programming or web development. App Engine is perhaps the most appealing web technology to appear in the last year, providing an easy-to-use application framework with basic web tools. While Google's own tutorial assumes significant experience, Using Google App Engine will help anyone get started with this platform. By the end of this book, you'll know how to build complete, interactive applications and deploy them to the cloud using the same s

  7. Akut ultralyd App

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias; Graumann, Ole; Laursen, Christian B.;


    Denne app indeholder gennemgang af en række standardiserede ultralydsprotokoller, der kan udføres i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af den akutte patient til besvarelse af binære kliniske spørgsmål. App'en er blevet udviklet i et samarbejde mellem Københavns Universitet, Syddansk Universitet og...... Aarhus Universitet. Projektgruppen repræsenterer læger fra forskellige specialer og har alle beskæftiget sig med undervisning og forskning i klinisk ultralyd. App´en er gratis og kan hestes her:

  8. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang


    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  9. Health Apps and How to Market Them


    Hillenbrand, Susanna


    In future health apps may become as popular as mobile games and retail shopping apps. Some consumers even think that health app usage is more valuable than making or receiving calls. This multibillion industry of mobile software applications and especially health apps is relatively new. The main research topic was how to market health apps globally. Health apps like fitness, weight loss and wellness apps are new trend in apps business. Healthcare apps are divided into health- and medical apps...

  10. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer. (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J


    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  11. Designing apps for success developing consistent app design practices

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew


    In 2007, Apple released the iPhone. With this release came tools as revolutionary as the internet was to businesses and individuals back in the mid- and late-nineties: Apps. Much like websites drove (and still drive) business, so too do apps drive sales, efficiencies and communication between people. But also like web design and development, in its early years and iterations, guidelines and best practices for apps are few and far between.Designing Apps for Success provides web/app designers and developers with consistent app design practices that result in timely, appropriate, and efficiently

  12. Cholesterol: a novel regulatory role in myelin formation. (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Quintes, Susanne; Nave, Klaus-Armin


    Myelin consists of tightly compacted membranes that form an insulating sheath around axons. The function of myelin for rapid saltatory nerve conduction is dependent on its unique composition, highly enriched in glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate limiting for the development of CNS and PNS myelin. Experiments with conditional mouse mutants that lack cholesterol biosynthesis in oligodendrocytes revealed that only minimal changes of the CNS myelin lipid composition are tolerated. In Schwann cells of the PNS, protein trafficking and myelin compaction depend on cholesterol. In this review, the authors summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and myelin disease.

  13. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guihot, Hervé


    Today's Android apps developers are often running into the need to refine, improve and optimize their apps performances. As more complex apps can be created, it is even more important for developers to deal with this critical issue. Android allows developers to write apps using Java, C or a combination of both with the Android SDK and the Android NDK. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization reveals how to fine-tune your Android apps, making them more stable and faster. In this book, you'll learn the following: * How to optimize your Java code with the SDK, but also how to write and optimize

  14. Women and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  15. HDL Cholesterol Test (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  16. Cholesterol IQ Quiz (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  17. Cholesterol and Your Child (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  18. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  19. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  20. LDL Cholesterol Test (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  1. GridAPPS-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    GridAPPS-D is an open-source, open architecture, standards based platform for development of advanced electric power system planning and operations applications. GridAPPS-D provides a documented data abstraction for the application developer enabling creation of applications that can be run in any compliant system or platform. This enables development of applications that are platform vendor independent applications and applications that take advantage of the possibility of data rich and data driven applications based on deployment of smart grid devices and systems.

  2. Instant AppFog

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Pau Kiat


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy to follow, hands-on guide shows you how to deploy and manage your application within minutes.Instant AppFog Starter is great for developers who are new to AppFog and who are primarily working on code rather than infrastructure. This book is perfect for those who are looking to publish applications without an in-depth knowledge of servers, firewalls, and networking. It is assumed that you will have some experience of web development as

  3. Security Ads in Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasvi Kalra,


    Full Text Available The apps consist of advertisements to promote their products. Not all of them are appropriate to resume. Therefore various algorithms have been used in order to block those apps from existence but none of them is completely successful. In our app we are using an antivirus which can by default block those spy apps and remove them from the web page. The algorithm which has been used makes use of various ant viruses in the background which detect irrelevant and intimate apps and then our algorithm will demolish them. Certain apps are non-trustworthy where one click can spy all the mobile data. They block those apps and works on security. We are working on secure ads for mobile apps. It can also work as a basic antivirus where it detects the viruses like malwares in any of your installed apps or downloads. It will create a popup of discarding or keeping it. Mobile applications can be downloaded from anywhere like amazon, googleplay, apps store etc. There is no rigorous verification of an application when it is uploaded to the market. One can easily develop a malicious application and upload it to the app market. The user itself is responsible for accepting the risk of an app available from secondary markets. Therefore, we have decided to develop this app to make the market more secure and bounded. In future, It will take the mobile market while consuming minimal additional resources and preserving user privacy.

  4. Quantifying App Store Dynamics: Longitudinal Tracking of Mental Health Apps (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Christensen, Helen


    Background For many mental health conditions, mobile health apps offer the ability to deliver information, support, and intervention outside the clinical setting. However, there are difficulties with the use of a commercial app store to distribute health care resources, including turnover of apps, irrelevance of apps, and discordance with evidence-based practice. Objective The primary aim of this study was to quantify the longevity and rate of turnover of mental health apps within the official Android and iOS app stores. The secondary aim was to quantify the proportion of apps that were clinically relevant and assess whether the longevity of these apps differed from clinically nonrelevant apps. The tertiary aim was to establish the proportion of clinically relevant apps that included claims of clinical effectiveness. We performed additional subgroup analyses using additional data from the app stores, including search result ranking, user ratings, and number of downloads. Methods We searched iTunes (iOS) and the Google Play (Android) app stores each day over a 9-month period for apps related to depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide. We performed additional app-specific searches if an app no longer appeared within the main search Results On the Android platform, 50% of the search results changed after 130 days (depression), 195 days (bipolar disorder), and 115 days (suicide). Search results were more stable on the iOS platform, with 50% of the search results remaining at the end of the study period. Approximately 75% of Android and 90% of iOS apps were still available to download at the end of the study. We identified only 35.3% (347/982) of apps as being clinically relevant for depression, of which 9 (2.6%) claimed clinical effectiveness. Only 3 included a full citation to a published study. Conclusions The mental health app environment is volatile, with a clinically relevant app for depression becoming unavailable to download every 2.9 days. This poses

  5. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders (United States)

    ... Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table ... Center First to Study Minimally Verbal Children / Smartphone App for Voice Disorders / Stop the World from Spinning / ...

  6. CLAS App ML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, Bridget; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Orrego, Carola; Drachsler, Hendrik


    This is a multi-language (ML) update of the CLAS App original design by Bridget Maher from the School of Medicine at University College Cork, Ireland. The current version has an improve counting mechanism and has been translated from English to Spanish, Catalan and German languages within the Europe

  7. There's an App for that! (United States)

    Dutton, Gail


    Important as training the sales force is, mobile training apps are being used for much more. Visual Eyes Inc., for example, has developed training apps for the U.S. military's combat medical teams that detail specific medical procedures, such as controlling hemorrhaging. Other apps, developed for corporations and government agencies, pass along…

  8. Cholesterol suppresses antimicrobial effect of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haeri


    Full Text Available Objective(s:Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins. Materials and Methods: To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli bacteria using gel diffusion assay. Results: Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria. Conclusion: It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.

  9. Regulation of Cerebral Cholesterol Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease


    Reiss, Allison B; Voloshyna, Iryna


    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that manifests as a progressive loss of memory and deterioration of higher cognitive functions. AD is characterized by accumulation in the brain of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Epidemiological studies have linked elevated plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in mid-life with AD development. Cholesterol-fed animal models exhibit neuropathologic...

  10. Limiting Cholesterol Biosynthetic Flux Spontaneously Engages Type I IFN Signaling. (United States)

    York, Autumn G; Williams, Kevin J; Argus, Joseph P; Zhou, Quan D; Brar, Gurpreet; Vergnes, Laurent; Gray, Elizabeth E; Zhen, Anjie; Wu, Nicholas C; Yamada, Douglas H; Cunningham, Cameron R; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Wilks, Moses Q; Casero, David; Gray, David H; Yu, Amy K; Wang, Eric S; Brooks, David G; Sun, Ren; Kitchen, Scott G; Wu, Ting-Ting; Reue, Karen; Stetson, Daniel B; Bensinger, Steven J


    Cellular lipid requirements are achieved through a combination of biosynthesis and import programs. Using isotope tracer analysis, we show that type I interferon (IFN) signaling shifts the balance of these programs by decreasing synthesis and increasing import of cholesterol and long chain fatty acids. Genetically enforcing this metabolic shift in macrophages is sufficient to render mice resistant to viral challenge, demonstrating the importance of reprogramming the balance of these two metabolic pathways in vivo. Unexpectedly, mechanistic studies reveal that limiting flux through the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway spontaneously engages a type I IFN response in a STING-dependent manner. The upregulation of type I IFNs was traced to a decrease in the pool size of synthesized cholesterol and could be inhibited by replenishing cells with free cholesterol. Taken together, these studies delineate a metabolic-inflammatory circuit that links perturbations in cholesterol biosynthesis with activation of innate immunity.

  11. Oyster Fisheries App (United States)

    Perez Guerrero, Geraldo A.; Armstrong, Duane; Underwood, Lauren


    This project is creating a cloud-enabled, HTML 5 web application to help oyster fishermen and state agencies apply Earth science to improve the management of this important natural and economic resource. The Oyster Fisheries app gathers and analyzes environmental and water quality information, and alerts fishermen and resources managers about problems in oyster fishing waters. An intuitive interface based on Google Maps displays the geospatial information and provides familiar interactive controls to the users. Alerts can be tailored to notify users when conditions in specific leases or public fishing areas require attention. The app is hosted on the Amazon Web Services cloud. It is being developed and tested using some of the latest web development tools such as web components and Polymer.

  12. What Is Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  13. What Is Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol A A A What's ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  14. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  15. Get Your Cholesterol Checked (United States)

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  16. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  17. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  18. Cholesterol lowering, low cholesterol, and mortality. (United States)

    LaRosa, J C


    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  19. APP processing in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yun-wu


    Full Text Available Abstract An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/aggregation of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and inhibition of Aβ generation has become a hot topic in AD research. Aβ is generated from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by γ-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by α-secretase within the Aβ domain to release soluble APPα and preclude Aβ generation. Cleavage of APP by caspases may also contribute to AD pathologies. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP is crucial for AD therapeutics. Here we review current knowledge of APP processing regulation as well as the patho/physiological functions of APP and its metabolites.

  20. Amazing Android Apps For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Begun, Daniel A


    Find the Android apps that are right for you so you can have fun and get more done!The popularity of Android apps is exploding and this handy guide helps you sort through the thousands of available applications so you can find the ones that are ideal for you. You'll explore a variety of apps in the areas of entertainment, finance, health, food, music, news, weather, photography, reference, dining out, social networking, sports, travel, and more. Author Daniel Begun helps you navigate through this enormous-and potentially overwhelming-array of Android apps.Holds your hand through the oftentimes

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates cholesterol metabolism for synapse development. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Kiyosue, Kazuyuki; Hazama, Shunsuke; Ogura, Akihiko; Kashihara, Megumi; Hara, Tomoko; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Kojima, Masami


    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts multiple biological functions in the CNS. Although BDNF can control transcription and protein synthesis, it still remains open to question whether BDNF regulates lipid biosynthesis. Here we show that BDNF elicits cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. Importantly, BDNF elicited cholesterol synthesis in neurons, but not in glial cells. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that BDNF stimulated the transcription of enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. BDNF-induced cholesterol increases were blocked by specific inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, mevastatin and zaragozic acid, suggesting that BDNF stimulates de novo synthesis of cholesterol rather than the incorporation of extracellular cholesterol. Because cholesterol is a major component of lipid rafts, we investigated whether BDNF would increase the cholesterol content in lipid rafts or nonraft membrane domains. Interestingly, the BDNF-mediated increase in cholesterol occurred in rafts, but not in nonrafts, suggesting that BDNF promotes the development of neuronal lipid rafts. Consistent with this notion, BDNF raised the level of the lipid raft marker protein caveolin-2 in rafts. Remarkably, BDNF increased the levels of presynaptic proteins in lipid rafts, but not in nonrafts. An electrophysiological study revealed that BDNF-dependent cholesterol biosynthesis plays an important role for the development of a readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. Together, these results suggest a novel role for BDNF in cholesterol metabolism and synapse development.

  2. Pro Java ME Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ovidiu


    Pro Java ME Apps gives you, the developer, the know-how required for writing sophisticated Java ME applications and for taking advantage of this huge potential market. Java ME is the largest mobile software platform in the world, supported by over 80% of all phones. You'll cover what Java ME is and how it compares to other mobile software platforms, how to properly design and structure Java ME applications, how to think like an experienced Java ME developer, what common problems and pitfalls you may run into, how to optimize your code, and many other key topics. Unlike other Java ME books out

  3. The CLAS App - A training app to improve medical handovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, Bridget; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Marcus, Specht


    Maher, B., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012, 16-18 October). The CLAS App - A training app to improve medical handovers. Presentation at the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, Helsinki, Finland. Please see also:

  4. Statins reduce amyloid β-peptide production by modulating amyloid precursor protein maturation and phosphorylation through a cholesterol-independent mechanism in cultured neurons. (United States)

    Hosaka, Ai; Araki, Wataru; Oda, Akiko; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Tamaoka, Akira


    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been reported to attenuate amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) production in various cellular models. However, the mechanisms by which statins affect neuronal Aβ production have not yet been clarified. Here, we investigated this issue in rat primary cortical neurons using two statins, pitavastatin (PV) and atorvastatin (AV). Treatment of neurons with 0.2-2.5 μM PV or AV for 4 days induced a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in the secretion of both Aβ40 and Aβ42. Moreover, Western blot analyses of cell lysates showed that treatment with PV or AV significantly reduced expression levels of the mature form of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Thr668-phosphorylated APP (P-APP), but not immature form of APP; the decreases in P-APP levels were more notable than those of mature APP levels. The statin treatment did not alter expression of BACE1 (β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1) or γ-secretase complex proteins (presenilin 1, nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2). In neurons overexpressing APP via recombinant adenoviruses, PV or AV similarly reduced Aβ secretion and the levels of mature APP and P-APP. Statins also markedly reduced cellular cholesterol content in neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Co-treatment with mevalonate reversed the statin-induced decreases in Aβ secretion and mature APP and P-APP levels, whereas co-treatment with cholesterol did not, despite recovery of cellular cholesterol levels. Finally, cell-surface biotinylation experiments revealed that both statins significantly reduced the levels of cell-surface P-APP without changing those of cell surface mature APP. These results suggest that statins reduce Aβ production by selectively modulating APP maturation and phosphorylation through a mechanism independent of cholesterol reduction in cultured neurons.

  5. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  6. Regulation of neuronal APL-1 expression by cholesterol starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wiese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid plaques composed primarily of the amyloid-β peptide, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP. While mutations in APP lead to the development of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD, sporadic AD has only one clear genetic modifier: the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE gene. Cholesterol starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to molting and arrest phenotypes similar to loss-of-function mutants of the APP ortholog, apl-1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1, and lrp-1 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, suggesting a potential interaction between apl-1 and cholesterol metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously, we found that RNAi knock-down of apl-1 leads to aldicarb hypersensitivity, indicating a defect in synaptic function. Here we find the same defect is recapitulated during lrp-1 knock-down and by cholesterol starvation. A cholesterol-free diet or loss of lrp-1 directly affects APL-1 levels as both lead to loss of APL-1::GFP fluorescence in neurons. However, loss of cholesterol does not affect global transcription or protein levels as seen by qPCR and Western blot. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that cholesterol and lrp-1 are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, similar to apl-1. Both are able to modulate APL-1 protein levels in neurons, however cholesterol changes do not affect global apl-1 transcription or APL-1 protein indicating the changes are specific to neurons. Thus, regulation of synaptic transmission and molting by LRP-1 and cholesterol may be mediated by their ability to control APL-1 neuronal protein expression.

  7. Governance mechanisms for healthcare apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kyng, Morten


    The introduction of the `app store' concept has challenged the way software is distributed and marketed: developers have easier access to customers, while customers have easy access to innovative applications. Apps today are increasingly focusing on more "mission-critical" areas like healthcare w...

  8. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde


    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  9. Best iPhone Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J


    With over 250,000 apps to choose from in Apple's App Store, you can make your iPhone or iPod Touch do just about anything you can imagine -- and almost certainly a few things you would never think of. While it's not hard to find apps, it is frustratingly difficult to find the the best ones. That's where this new edition of Best iPhone Apps comes in. New York Times technology columnist J.D. Biersdorfer has stress-tested hundreds of the App Store's mini-programs and hand-picked more than 200 standouts to help you get work done, play games, stay connected with friends, explore a new city, get i

  10. Your Life in Web Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, Giles


    What is a web app? It's software that you use right in your web browser. Rather than installing an application on your computer, you visit a web site and sign up as a new user of its software. Instead of storing your files on your own hard disk, the web app stores them for you, online. Is it possible to switch entirely to web apps? To run nothing but a browser for an entire day? In this PDF we'll take you through one day in the life of a web apps-only user and chronicle the pros and cons of living by browser. And if the idea of switching, fully or partially, to web apps sounds appealing to

  11. Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Polyketides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiang-Cheng; WANG Qiao-Mei; SHEN Yue-Mao; DU Liang-Cheng; HUFFMAN Justin; GERBER Ryan; LOU Li-Li; XIE Yun-Xuan; LIN Ting; JORGENSON Joel; MARESCH Andrew; VOGELER Chad


    Polyketides are one of the largest groups of natural products produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Many of these metabolites have highly complex chemical structures and very important biological activities, including antibiotic, anticancer, immunosuppressant, and anti-cholesterol activities. In the past two decades, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the molecular mechanisms for polyketide biosynthesis. These efforts have led to the development of various rational approaches toward engineered biosynthesis of new polyketides. More recently, the research efforts have shifted to the elucidation of the three-dimentional structure of the complex enzyme machineries for polyketide biosynthesis and to the exploitation of new sources for polyketide production, such as filamentous fungi and marine microorganisms. This review summarizes our general understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms and the progress in engineered biosynthesis of polyketides.

  12. GPLSI Compendium App


    Jiménez Pérez, Antonio; Lloret, Elena; Gómez Soriano, José Manuel


    GPLSI Compendium App se trata de una aplicación móvil que hará las veces de un sistema de gestión y difusión de contenidos digitales, en la que el usuario podrá realizar resúmenes de textos de diferentes webs, tales como artículos o noticias, y posteriormente compartir esos resúmenes en sus redes sociales o a través del correo. Se le proporcionarán varios métodos de resumen, así como las descripciones y un pequeño tutorial de cómo utilizar la aplicación.

  13. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers (United States)

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne


    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  14. Be smart: Download the app!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    What’s the closest snack point to the CLIC test facility? How do you get from your current location to SM18? How do you enter the CERN Open Days photo contest? Finding out is simple: there’s an app for that!   The CERN Open Days app is your personal guide to the Laboratory. Developed by expert volunteers from the IT Department, the app provides comprehensive practical information on CERN transport, shops, snack points and toilet facilities along with detailed location information and event timetables. You can also favourite the sites, activities and lectures you plan to see, and tick them off as you go along. More information here.

  15. Getting started with Google Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Paul


    First or one of the first books on now Final version (no longer Beta) of Google Apps with coverage of the new Chrome OS. Google Apps is expected to be a leading suite of ""Office-like"" online applications, free for the consumer and only 50 per year for business licenses. Google Apps already has over 1 Million business users and more consumer users, as of mid 2009 - to be showcased on Chrome enabled Netbooks (3-4) and Android Smart phones (up to 20) at Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in January 2010.

  16. Android app development for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Michael


    The updated edition of the bestselling guide to Android app development If you have ambitions to build an Android app, this hands-on guide gives you everything you need to dig into the development process and turn your great idea into a reality! In this new edition of Android App Development For Dummies, you'll find easy-to-follow access to the latest programming techniques that take advantage of the new features of the Android operating system. Plus, two programs are provided: a simple program to get you started and an intermediate program that uses more advanced aspects of the Android plat

  17. Efficiently, Effectively Detecting Mobile App Bugs with AppDoctor (United States)


    most FPs with a new algorithm that selectively switches between approxi- mate and faithful executions. By coupling these two modes of executions...this problem, AppDoctor again embraces approximation, and employs a novel algorithm and action dependency definition to effec- tively slice out many...devices that do not have AppDoctor installed, providing the same level of diagnosis help to developers as Monkey . FP example. Another approach to test

  18. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  19. Smartphone use in neurosurgery? APP-solutely!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zaki


    Conclusions: There are a number of neurosurgery-themed apps available to all audiences. There was a lack of patient information apps for nonspinal procedures. Most apps did not have enough reviews to evaluate their quality. There was also a lack of oversight to validate the accuracy of medical information provided in these apps.

  20. Cholesterol testing and results (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  1. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  2. Cholesterol - drug treatment (United States)

    ... this page: // Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  3. Cholesterol and public policy. (United States)

    LaRosa, J C


    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  4. High blood cholesterol levels (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  5. Een eigen Bibliotheek-app

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, Franciscus; Veldkamp, Jan Herman


    Al enige tijd bestond bij de Bibliotheek RUG het verlangen om de producten en diensten van de bibliotheek op eigentijdse wijze onder de aandacht te brengen van haar gebruikers. Via een app op de mobiele telefoon, dus.

  6. Python for Google app engine

    CERN Document Server

    Pippi, Massimiliano


    If you are a Python developer, whether you have experience in web applications development or not, and want to rapidly deploy a scalable backend service or a modern web application on Google App Engine, then this book is for you.

  7. Instant Citrix XenApp

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a great tool to quickly learn and explore the features offered by XenApp 6.5.Windows system administrators who want a quick lesson on how to install and configure XenApp.

  8. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourgeux Cynthia


    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  9. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato


    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  10. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  11. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  12. New players in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Insect ecdysone steroid hormone regulates major developmental transitions, such as molting and metamorphosis. The production of ecdysone correlates well with the timing of these transitions. Finding out how the ecdysone biosynthesis is regulated is crucial to fully understand these sophisticated developmental switches. Here we summarized recent findings in the regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis from the aspects of cell signaling, key biosynthetic enzymes and substrate cholesterol trafficking.

  13. Bacterial colonization of host cells in the absence of cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey D Gilk


    Full Text Available Reports implicating important roles for cholesterol and cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in host-pathogen interactions have largely employed sterol sequestering agents and biosynthesis inhibitors. Because the pleiotropic effects of these compounds can complicate experimental interpretation, we developed a new model system to investigate cholesterol requirements in pathogen infection utilizing DHCR24(-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. DHCR24(-/- MEFs lack the Δ24 sterol reductase required for the final enzymatic step in cholesterol biosynthesis, and consequently accumulate desmosterol into cellular membranes. Defective lipid raft function by DHCR24(-/- MEFs adapted to growth in cholesterol-free medium was confirmed by showing deficient uptake of cholera-toxin B and impaired signaling by epidermal growth factor. Infection in the absence of cholesterol was then investigated for three intracellular bacterial pathogens: Coxiella burnetii, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Invasion by S. Typhimurium and C. trachomatis was unaltered in DHCR24(-/- MEFs. In contrast, C. burnetii entry was significantly decreased in -cholesterol MEFs, and also in +cholesterol MEFs when lipid raft-associated α(Vβ(3 integrin was blocked, suggesting a role for lipid rafts in C. burnetii uptake. Once internalized, all three pathogens established their respective vacuolar niches and replicated normally. However, the C. burnetii-occupied vacuole within DHCR24(-/- MEFs lacked the CD63-positive material and multilamellar membranes typical of vacuoles formed in wild type cells, indicating cholesterol functions in trafficking of multivesicular bodies to the pathogen vacuole. These data demonstrate that cholesterol is not essential for invasion and intracellular replication by S. Typhimurium and C. trachomatis, but plays a role in C. burnetii-host cell interactions.

  14. Psych-related iPhone apps. (United States)

    Harrison, Anthony Mark; Goozee, Rhianna


    iPhone apps are a widely utilised technology that have recently been identified as a useful medium for health research, clinical interventions and education. While some researchers have discussed advances in app technology, others promote specific apps that are not free to access. To our knowledge, no study has conducted a review of current, free iPhone apps related to psychology, psychiatry and mental health. Therefore, we conducted a pilot, web-based review exploring free iPhone apps using a replicable search strategy within the iTunes Store search function. A selection of apps were selected and subjectively assessed in terms of their usability, utility, graphics, and associated costs for the consumer. We concluded that the apps reviewed, though novel, are limited in their scope and utility. We also note a significant gap in more scientific, evidence-based app technology, and pose some pertinent ethical questions when developing future psych-related apps.

  15. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. (United States)

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  16. APP Snrinn Edition Kicks Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Rong


    When European textile insiders still take delight in talking about the last apparel sourcing show in September 2011, the debut of APP Spring edition bring people back to the Le Bourget Expo Center, with entire passion. The 7th APP Show, sponsored by China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC), organized by the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT TEX), China National Garment Association and Messe Frankfurt French Subsidiary, was on display from Feb 13th to 16th 2012,

  17. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace


    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  18. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  19. MIT App Inventor: Enabling Personal Mobile Computing


    Pokress, Shaileen Crawford; Veiga, José Juan Dominguez


    MIT App Inventor is a drag-and-drop visual programming tool for designing and building fully functional mobile apps for Android. App Inventor promotes a new era of personal mobile computing in which people are empowered to design, create, and use personally meaningful mobile technology solutions for their daily lives, in endlessly unique situations. App Inventor's intuitive programming metaphor and incremental development capabilities allow the developer to focus on the logic for programming ...

  20. The best 100 free apps for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Jim


    Librarian Jim Hahn has carefully culled the over 500,000 available apps down to the 100 that are the absolute best for day-in, day-out library services. The guide covers apps from both Apple and Android devices, including tablets. This guide is intended as an introduction for those with little or no app experience and for those wanting to know more about app uses for information access.

  1. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome produced in rats with AY 9944 treated by intravenous injection of lipoprotein cholesterol. (United States)

    Chambers, C M; McLean, M P; Ness, G C


    A limitation to treating Smith-Lemli-Opitz infants by giving dietary cholesterol is their impaired ability to absorb cholesterol due to a deficiency of bile acids. Since intravenously administered lipoprotein cholesterol should not require bile acids for uptake into tissues, we tested the effects of this form of cholesterol on tissue cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels in an animal model of SLO, created by feeding rats 0.02% AY 9944. Intravenous administration of 15 mg of bovine cholesterol supertrate twice daily increased serum cholesterol levels from 11 to over 250 mg/dl. This treatment increased liver cholesterol levels from 309 to over 900 micrograms/g and lowered hepatic 7-dehydrocholesterol levels from 1546 to 909 micrograms/g. A combination of iv cholesterol and 2% dietary cholesterol was most effective as it raised hepatic cholesterol levels to 1950 micrograms/g, which is 50% above normal. 7-Dehydrocholesterol levels were decreased to 760 micrograms/g. Similar responses were seen for heart, lung, kidney, and testes. Brain sterol levels were not significantly affected. AY 9944 caused a modest increase in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. Administration of dietary cholesterol together with iv cholesterol lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity to barely detectable levels. The data indicate that the combination of iv and dietary cholesterol was most effective in raising cholesterol levels, lowering 7-dehydrocholesterol levels, and inhibiting de novo cholesterol biosynthesis.

  2. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.


    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  3. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht


    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  4. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.


    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  5. Citrix XenApp performance essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dentella, Luca


    A practical hands-on tutorial including multiple examples on application management using Citrix XenApp 6.5.Citrix XenApp Performance Essentials is intended for IT architects and system administrators who work with Citrix XenApp and who need an agile, practical guide to tune and optimize the performance.

  6. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP). (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computers (APP). 740.7 Section 740.7... Computers (APP). (a) Scope—(1) Commodities. License Exception APP authorizes exports and reexports of computers, including “electronic assemblies” and specially designed components therefor controlled by...

  7. App Inventor for Android Build Your Own Apps - No Experience Required!

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, Jason


    Create Android mobile apps, no programming required! Even with limited programming experience, you can easily learn to create apps for the Android platform with this complete guide to App Inventor for Android. App Inventor for Android is a visual language that relies on simple programming blocks that users can drag and drop to create apps. This handy book gives you a series of fully worked-out apps, complete with their programming blocks, which you can customize for your own use or use as a starting point for creating the next killer app. And it's all without writing a single line of code. Don

  8. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  9. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue. (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera


    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  10. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  11. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  12. Office 2010 Web Apps For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter


    Enhance your Microsoft Office 2010 experience with Office 2010 Web Apps!. Office Web Apps complement Office, making it easy to access and edit files from anywhere. It also simplifies collaboration with those who don't have Microsoft Office on their computers. This helpful book shows you the optimum ways you can use Office Web Apps to save time and streamline your work. Veteran For Dummies author Peter Weverka begins with an introduction to Office Web Apps and then goes on to clearly explain how Office Web Apps provide you with easier, faster, more flexible ways to get things done.: Walks you t

  13. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory (United States)

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.


    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  14. Learning System Center App Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Nasir


    This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.

  15. Cholesterol and Women's Health (United States)

    ... can I make to reduce my risk of cardiovascular disease? • Is there medication that can help reduce my cholesterol ... It also helps your body make vitamin D and produces the bile that helps you ...

  16. App Savvy Turning Ideas into iPad and iPhone Apps Customers Really Want

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmosh, Ken


    How can you make your iPad or iPhone app stand out in the highly competitive App Store? While many books simply explore the technical aspects of iPad and iPhone app design and development, App Savvy also focuses on the business, product, and marketing elements critical to pursuing, completing, and selling your app -- the ingredients for turning a great idea into a genuinely successful product. Whether you're a designer, developer, entrepreneur, or just someone with a unique idea, App Savvy explains every step in the process, with guidelines for planning a solid concept, engaging customers ea

  17. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps.

  18. Towards Better Understanding of App Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永昕; 余洁莹; 陈雷


    Apps are attracting more and more attention from both mobile and web platforms. Due to the self-organized nature of the current app marketplaces, the descriptions of apps are not formally written and contain a lot of noisy words and sentences. Thus, for most of the apps, the functions of them are not well documented and thus cannot be captured by app search engines easily. In this paper, we study the problem of inferring the real functions of an app by identifying the most informative words in its description. In order to utilize and integrate the diverse information of the app corpus in a proper way, we propose a probabilistic topic model to discover the latent data structure of the app corpus. The outputs of the topic model are further used to identify the function of an app and its most informative words. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods through extensive experiments on two real app datasets crawled from Google Play and Windows Phone Store, respectively.

  19. MD-2 binds cholesterol. (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I


    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  20. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail:, E-mail:


    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  1. New conception concerning the dynamical state of cholesterol in rat; Conception nouvelle concernant l'etat dynamyque du cholesterol chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    It presents the study of the cholesterol metabolism in rats. This thesis has been divided in three chapters. In a first part, it will discuss about the dynamic state of biological constituents in organism and in particular the dynamic state of cholesterol. This matter will be considered, firstly under its theoretical aspect and secondly under an experimental point of view with isotopic techniques. The current data on the dynamic state of cholesterol will allow to identify the essential points which are the subject of this research. In particular, the full understanding of the different cholesterol origins (diet, biosynthesis or formation of cholesterol from degradation or transformation of precursors as acetate or butyric acid for example) and the different cholesterol disappearance way (excretion, destruction, transformation or esters formation) is necessary to further research. In a second part, the experimental techniques and methods are described. A brief presentation of the methods for the study of the cholesterol transport and synthesis will be given as well as the experimental conditions and in particular the animal diet and cholesterol ingestion, the administration of acetate and {gamma}-phenyl {alpha}-aminobutyric. The different preparations of the {sup 14}C labelled cholesterol are also described as well as the extraction and measuring of the specific {sup 14}C radioactivity in the animal tissues extract, carbon dioxide gas and sodium acetate. Finally, the results will be given and discussed according to the way of intake: a radioactive cholesterol ingestion or an acetate intraperitoneal injection. (M.P.)

  2. Feedback modulation of cholesterol metabolism by the lipid-responsive non-coding RNA LeXis. (United States)

    Sallam, Tamer; Jones, Marius C; Gilliland, Thomas; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiaohui; Eskin, Ascia; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Casero, David; Vallim, Thomas Q de Aguiar; Hong, Cynthia; Katz, Melanie; Lee, Richard; Whitelegge, Julian; Tontonoz, Peter


    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cellular and systemic cholesterol homeostasis. Under conditions of excess cholesterol, LXR activation induces the expression of several genes involved in cholesterol efflux, facilitates cholesterol esterification by promoting fatty acid synthesis, and inhibits cholesterol uptake by the low-density lipoprotein receptor. The fact that sterol content is maintained in a narrow range in most cell types and in the organism as a whole suggests that extensive crosstalk between regulatory pathways must exist. However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate LXRs with other lipid metabolic pathways are incompletely understood. Here we show that ligand activation of LXRs in mouse liver not only promotes cholesterol efflux, but also simultaneously inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis. We further identify the long non-coding RNA LeXis as a mediator of this effect. Hepatic LeXis expression is robustly induced in response to a Western diet (high in fat and cholesterol) or to pharmacological LXR activation. Raising or lowering LeXis levels in the liver affects the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and alters the cholesterol levels in the liver and plasma. LeXis interacts with and affects the DNA interactions of RALY, a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein that acts as a transcriptional cofactor for cholesterol biosynthetic genes in the mouse liver. These findings outline a regulatory role for a non-coding RNA in lipid metabolism and advance our understanding of the mechanisms that coordinate sterol homeostasis.

  3. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico


    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  4. Microbial Exopolysaccharides: Biosynthesis and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Madhuri


    Full Text Available Many bacteria synthesize extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs with commercially significant physiological and therapeutic activities. Microbial polysaccharides have also been reported to have potential therapeutic applications. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs due to their numerous health benefits.EPSs from lactic acid bacteria are reported to possess antitumor effects, immunostimulatory activity, and the ability to lower blood cholesterol. EPSs also offer an alternative class of biothickeners that are widely used in the food and dairy industries and have been proven to provide strong emulsifying activity, which is important in many food formulations. It is also important to understand the mechanism of microbial biosynthesis of EPSs in order to enhance their production by genetic alterations. The potential applications and the mode of microbial biosynthesis of the EPSs have been presented in this article.

  5. Design of Trigonometry Apps for Vocational Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Bjarke; Andersen, Steffen; Majgaard, Gunver


    How can smartphones apps enrich the learning of mathematicsin vocational education? This article examines how mathematics teaching can be enriched by apps using smartphone sensors such as gyroscope, compass, camera, and touch screen in a aming context. An iterative and participatory design proces...... talk about our experience in implementing our design process and subsequently summarize the pros and cons of the application and the smartphone platform and how the app developed contributes to vocational mathematics teaching....

  6. Storybook app creation demystified a cast study

    CERN Document Server

    Friedlander, Amy


    This case study explains how Wasabi Productions created its first app, Lazy Larry Lizard, and provides insight into the development of soon-to-be-released app, Gorilla Band. Inside, you will find notes on how storybook apps are produced from start to finish, including costs, production process, people, technology, pricing, release cycle, marketing and more. You will also find insights on technology, storyboard development and pricing.

  7. Hypnosis--there's an app for that: a systematic review of hypnosis apps. (United States)

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J; Green, Joseph P; Montgomery, Guy H


    This study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%); 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use.

  8. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy


    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  9. Building Web Apps for Google TV

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres; Lee, Daniels; Ohye, Maile; Carff, Paul; Shen, Shawn; Hines, Steven


    By integrating the Web with traditional TV, Google TV offers developers an important new channel for content. But creating apps for Google TV requires learning some new skills-in fact, what you may already know about mobile or desktop web apps isn't entirely applicable. Building Web Apps for Google TV will help you make the transition to Google TV as you learn the tools and techniques necessary to build sophisticated web apps for this platform. This book shows you how Google TV works, how it fits into the web ecosystem, and what the opportunities are for delivering rich content to millions o

  10. Redefining Cheminformatics with Intuitive Collaborative Mobile Apps. (United States)

    Clark, Alex M; Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J


    The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers has recently been extended to include a growing ecosystem of increasingly sophisticated chemistry software packages, commonly known as apps. The capabilities that these apps can offer to the practicing chemist are approaching those of conventional desktop-based software, but apps tend to be focused on a relatively small range of tasks. To overcome this, chemistry apps must be able to seamlessly transfer data to other apps, and through the network to other devices, as well as to other platforms, such as desktops and servers, using documented file formats and protocols whenever possible. This article describes the development and state of the art with regard to chemistry-aware apps that make use of facile data interchange, and some of the scenarios in which these apps can be inserted into a chemical information workflow to increase productivity. A selection of contemporary apps is used to demonstrate their relevance to pharmaceutical research. Mobile apps represent a novel approach for delivery of cheminformatics tools to chemists and other scientists, and indications suggest that mobile devices represent a disruptive technology for drug discovery, as they have been to many other industries.

  11. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice (United States)

    Westmark, Cara J.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A.; Filon, Mikolaj J.; Ray, Brian C.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Wong, Robert K. S.


    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1KO mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1KO mice (Fmr1KO/APPHET mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1KO brain slices. Fmr1KO/APPHET slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1KO increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS. PMID:28018172

  12. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero


    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  13. Mobile App Rating Scale: A New Tool for Assessing the Quality of Health Mobile Apps


    Stoyanov, Stoyan R.; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David John; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan


    Background The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond “star”-ratings. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January ...

  14. A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload (United States)

    Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda


    Mobile technology has transformed the way consumers access and use information. The exponential growth of mobile apps makes finding suitable, easy-to-use nutrition and health-related apps challenging. A guide for consumers helps them ask important questions before downloading apps. The guide can be adapted for other Extension disciplines.

  15. Current Views on Genetics and Epigenetics of Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Di Ciaula


    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease, one of the commonest digestive diseases in western countries, is induced by an imbalance in cholesterol metabolism, which involves intestinal absorption, hepatic biosynthesis, and biliary output of cholesterol, and its conversion to bile acids. Several components of the metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia are also well-known risk factors for gallstones, suggesting the existence of interplay between common pathophysiological pathways influenced by insulin resistance, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Cholesterol gallstones may be enhanced, at least in part, by the abnormal expression of a set of the genes that affect cholesterol homeostasis and lead to insulin resistance. Additionally, epigenetic mechanisms (mainly DNA methylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and noncoding microRNAs may modify gene expression in the absence of an altered DNA sequence, in response to different lithogenic environmental stimuli, such as diet, lifestyle, pollutants, also occurring in utero before birth. In this review, we will comment on various steps of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones and interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The epigenomic approach may offer new options for therapy of gallstones and better possibilities for primary prevention in subjects at risk.

  16. Cholesterol and prostate cancer. (United States)

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R


    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo


    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  18. Expert Involvement Predicts mHealth App Downloads: Multivariate Regression Analysis of Urology Apps (United States)

    Osório, Luís; Cavadas, Vitor; Fraga, Avelino; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J


    Background Urological mobile medical (mHealth) apps are gaining popularity with both clinicians and patients. mHealth is a rapidly evolving and heterogeneous field, with some urology apps being downloaded over 10,000 times and others not at all. The factors that contribute to medical app downloads have yet to be identified, including the hypothetical influence of expert involvement in app development. Objective The objective of our study was to identify predictors of the number of urology app downloads. Methods We reviewed urology apps available in the Google Play Store and collected publicly available data. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression evaluated the effect of publicly available app variables on the number of apps being downloaded. Results Of 129 urology apps eligible for study, only 2 (1.6%) had >10,000 downloads, with half having ≤100 downloads and 4 (3.1%) having none at all. Apps developed with expert urologist involvement (P=.003), optional in-app purchases (P=.01), higher user rating (P<.001), and more user reviews (P<.001) were more likely to be installed. App cost was inversely related to the number of downloads (P<.001). Only data from the Google Play Store and the developers’ websites, but not other platforms, were publicly available for analysis, and the level and nature of expert involvement was not documented. Conclusions The explicit participation of urologists in app development is likely to enhance its chances to have a higher number of downloads. This finding should help in the design of better apps and further promote urologist involvement in mHealth. Official certification processes are required to ensure app quality and user safety. PMID:27421338

  19. Detecting android malicious apps and categorizing benign apps with ensemble of classifiers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei


    Android platform has dominated the markets of smart mobile devices in recent years. The number of Android applications (apps) has seen a massive surge. Unsurprisingly, Android platform has also become the primary target of attackers. The management of the explosively expansive app markets has thus become an important issue. On the one hand, it requires effectively detecting malicious applications (malapps) in order to keep the malapps out of the app market. On the other hand, it needs to automatically categorize a big number of benign apps so as to ease the management, such as correcting an app’s category falsely designated by the app developer. In this work, we propose a framework to effectively and efficiently manage a big app market in terms of detecting malapps and categorizing benign apps. We extract 11 types of static features from each app to characterize the behaviors of the app, and employ the ensemble of multiple classifiers, namely, Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Naive Bayes (NB), Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Random Forest (RF), to detect malapps and to categorize benign apps. An alarm will be triggered if an app is identified as malicious. Otherwise, the benign app will be identified as a specific category. We evaluate the framework on a large app set consisting of 107,327 benign apps as well as 8,701 malapps. The experimental results show that our method achieves the accuracy of 99.39% in the detection of malapps and achieves the best accuracy of 82.93% in the categorization of benign apps.

  20. Orbitofrontal cholesterol granuloma. (United States)

    Chow, L P; McNab, A A


    Cholesterol granuloma of the orbital bones is a rare but readily recognisable condition. It is an osteolytic lesion with a granulomatous reaction surrounding cholesterol crystals, old haemorrhage and a fibrous capsule. There is a male preponderance and it usually occurs in young or middle-aged men. It is treatable with drainage and curettage via an orbitotomy, and craniotomy or wide bone removal is almost never required. Six cases of this condition were reviewed to highlight the typical clinical presentation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance results, and surgical management.

  1. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis. (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael


    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  2. Smartphone-apps som nyt psykiatrisk behandlingstiltag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse


    The number of smartphone apps for people with mental health issues is undergoing a dramatical growth in these years. We review the available literature on the topic, discuss opportunities and theoretical considerations using smartphone apps in psychiatric treatment and provide an overview...

  3. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie


    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  4. Fra app'ernes planet til klasserummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkesgaard Slot, Marie; Gissel, Stig Toke; Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink


    Artiklen udpeger en række kategorier og begreber, som læreren kan anvende i sit arbejde med at analysere og vurdere hvilke handle- og betydningsmuligheder, der er indbygget i hhv. funktionelle, didaktiske og semantiske apps. Med afsæt i disse begreber gives praksisnære bud på, hvordan apps på for...

  5. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus


    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from http://www.medicine20congre

  6. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.


    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  7. Gebruikersdata bij abonnementen in app stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.


    Kranten en tijdschriften bieden tegenwoordig vaak, naast de papieren edities, digitale abonnementen aan. De content wordt in dat geval via een app gelezen op een mobiele device, zoals een smartphone of tablet. Om abonnementen in deze vorm aan te kunnen bieden is het bouwen van een app noodzakelijk.

  8. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App? (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle


    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  9. Cool Apps: Productivity at Your Fingertips (United States)

    Flaherty, Bill


    In addition to listing apps and their value, this article focuses on ways people can be more productive by adopting certain workflows in several ways. Apps listed herein include those useful in calendaring, printing, photo-editing, image-recognition, image scanning, electronic signatures, and making and sharing lists and notes.

  10. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.


    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible anti-atherosc

  11. Convergent Signaling Pathways Controlled by LRP1 (Receptor-related Protein 1) Cytoplasmic and Extracellular Domains Limit Cellular Cholesterol Accumulation. (United States)

    El Asmar, Zeina; Terrand, Jérome; Jenty, Marion; Host, Lionel; Mlih, Mohamed; Zerr, Aurélie; Justiniano, Hélène; Matz, Rachel L; Boudier, Christian; Scholler, Estelle; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Bertaccini, Diego; Thiersé, Danièle; Schaeffer, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Herz, Joachim; Bruban, Véronique; Boucher, Philippe


    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface receptor that protects from intracellular cholesterol accumulation. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that the extracellular (α) chain of LRP1 mediates TGFβ-induced enhancement of Wnt5a, which limits intracellular cholesterol accumulation by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis and by promoting cholesterol export. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic (β) chain of LRP1 suffices to limit cholesterol accumulation in LRP1(-/-) cells. Through binding of Erk2 to the second of its carboxyl-terminal NPXY motifs, LRP1 β-chain positively regulates the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH1). These results highlight the unexpected functions of LRP1 and the canonical Wnt5a pathway and new therapeutic potential in cholesterol-associated disorders including cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal


    Fairburn, Christopher G; Rothwell, Emily R.


    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health‐related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps f...

  13. Popular weight-management apps: Their use and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chen


    Conclusions: While greater popularity of apps was associated with higher quality, the overall quality of commercial dietary weight-management apps remains suboptimal. Popular weight-management apps are useful for self-monitoring, however are lacking in the recognised behavioural change techniques that may facilitate changes in health behaviours. With the majority of these apps designed for self-directed management, strategies to improve the rigour of these apps are warranted and commercial app developers could benefit from collaboration with behavioural researchers.

  14. Cholesterol is essential for mitosis progression and its deficiency induces polyploid cell formation. (United States)

    Fernández, Carlos; Lobo Md, María del Val T; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Lasunción, Miguel A


    As an essential component of mammalian cell membranes, cells require cholesterol for proliferation, which is either obtained from plasma lipoproteins or synthesized intracellularly from acetyl-CoA. In addition to cholesterol, other non-sterol mevalonate derivatives are necessary for DNA synthesis, such as the phosphorylated forms of isopentane, farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and dolichol. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of cholesterol in mitosis. For this, human leukemia cells (HL-60) were incubated in a cholesterol-free medium and treated with SKF 104976, which inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis by blocking sterol 14alpha-demethylase, and the expression of relevant cyclins in the different phases of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Prolonged cholesterol starvation induced the inhibition of cytokinesis and the formation of polyploid cells, which were multinucleated and had mitotic aberrations. Supplementing the medium with cholesterol completely abolished these effects, demonstrating they were specifically due to cholesterol deficiency. This is the first evidence that cholesterol is essential for mitosis completion and that, in the absence of cholesterol, the cells fail to undergo cytokinesis, entered G1 phase at higher DNA ploidy (tetraploidy), and then progressed through S (rereplication) into G2, generating polyploid cells.

  15. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps. (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin


    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented.

  16. Best book on marketing your Android app

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Eddie


    Bestselling Android Dev Eddie Kim Teaches You How To Market Your Android Apps! You've designed the perfect app, and you're wondering why no one is buying it. Our experienced Android developer, Eddie Kim, has been in your shoes, and he knows how stiff the competition can be. Eddie introduces you to the people with the power, your customers, as he walks you through the marketing steps you need to take to make your app stand out from the a sea of similar apps. You're an innovative developer, but when it comes to advertising your app, you don't know how to rally an audience like Billy May

  17. Smart apps for the smart plastic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh Venkataram


    Full Text Available Smartphones have the ability to benefit plastic surgeons in all aspects of patient care and education. With the sheer number of applications available and more being created everyday, it is easy to miss out on apps which could be of great relevance. Moreover, the range of android applications available has not been extensively discussed in the literature. To this end, we have compiled an exhaustive list of android smartphone applications, which we feel can help our day to day functioning. The apps have been extensively reviewed and neatly described along with all their potential uses. In addition, we have made an effort to highlight ′non-medical′ or efficiency apps which can improve departmental functioning. These apps have not been described in prior articles, and their functionality might not be known to all. We believe that the technology savvy plastic surgeon can make maximum use of these apps to his benefit.

  18. Cell biology apps for Apple devices. (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A


    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  19. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.


    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  20. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.


    Purpose of review Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is a complex interplay of a multitude of metabolic pathways situated in different organs. The liver plays a central role and has received most attention of the research community. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the understanding

  1. Cholesterol: Up in Smoke. (United States)

    Raloff, Janet


    Discussed is the contribution cooked meat makes to air pollution. The dozens of compounds, including cholesterol, that are released when a hamburger is grilled are described. The potential effects of these emissions on humans and the urban environment are discussed. (KR)

  2. Cholesterol transport in model membranes (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula


    Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.

  3. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer. (United States)

    Broitman, S A


    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  4. Impact of heme oxygenase-1 on cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol efflux and oxysterol formation in cultured astroglia. (United States)

    Hascalovici, Jacob R; Song, Wei; Vaya, Jacob; Khatib, Soliman; Fuhrman, Bianca; Aviram, Michael; Schipper, Hyman M


    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol (CH) metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased neural tissues. The liver X receptor (LXR) is a molecular sensor of CH homeostasis. In the current study, we determined the effects of HO-1 over-expression and its byproducts iron (Fe(2+)), carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin on CH biosynthesis, CH efflux and oxysterol formation in cultured astroglia. HO-1/LXR interactions were also investigated in the context of CH efflux. hHO-1 over-expression for 3 days ( approximately 2-3-fold increase) resulted in a 30% increase in CH biosynthesis and a two-fold rise in CH efflux. Both effects were abrogated by the competitive HO inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin. CO, released from administered CORM-3, significantly enhanced CH biosynthesis; a combination of CO and iron stimulated CH efflux. Free iron increased oxysterol formation three-fold. Co-treatment with LXR antagonists implicated LXR activation in the modulation of CH homeostasis by heme degradation products. In Alzheimer's disease and other neuropathological states, glial HO-1 induction may transduce ambient noxious stimuli (e.g. beta-amyloid) into altered patterns of glial CH homeostasis. As the latter may impact synaptic plasticity and neuronal repair, modulation of glial HO-1 expression (by pharmacological or other means) may confer neuroprotection in patients with degenerative brain disorders.

  5. Finding a Depression App: A Review and Content Analysis of the Depression App Marketplace (United States)

    Shen, Nelson; Levitan, Michael-Jane; Johnson, Andrew; Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Hamilton-Page, Michelle; Jadad, Alejandro (Alex) R


    Background Depression is highly prevalent and causes considerable suffering and disease burden despite the existence of wide-ranging treatment options. Mobile phone apps offer the potential to help close this treatment gap by confronting key barriers to accessing support for depression. Objectives Our goal was to identify and characterize the different types of mobile phone depression apps available in the marketplace. Methods A search for depression apps was conducted on the app stores of the five major mobile phone platforms: Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Nokia, and Windows. Apps were included if they focused on depression and were available to people who self-identify as having depression. Data were extracted from the app descriptions found in the app stores. Results Of the 1054 apps identified by the search strategy, nearly one-quarter (23.0%, 243/1054) unique depression apps met the inclusion criteria. Over one-quarter (27.7%, 210/758) of the excluded apps failed to mention depression in the title or description. Two-thirds of the apps had as their main purpose providing therapeutic treatment (33.7%, 82/243) or psychoeducation (32.1%, 78/243). The other main purpose categories were medical assessment (16.9%, 41/243), symptom management (8.2%, 20/243), and supportive resources (1.6%, 4/243). A majority of the apps failed to sufficiently describe their organizational affiliation (65.0%, 158/243) and content source (61.7%, 150/243). There was a significant relationship (χ 2 5=50.5, Pbook (20.6%, 50/243), audio therapy (16.9%, 41/243), or screening (16.9%, 41/243) function. Most apps had a dynamic user interface (72.4%, 176/243) and used text as the main type of media (51.9%, 126/243), and over a third (14.4%, 35/243) incorporated more than one form of media. Conclusion Without guidance, finding an appropriate depression app may be challenging, as the search results yielded non-depression–specific apps to depression apps at a 3:1 ratio. Inadequate reporting of

  6. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and catalase on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode. (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Khodadadian, Mehdi


    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and catalase (CAT) were co-immobilized on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GR-IL/GCE) to develop a highly sensitive amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction of ChOx with cholesterol could be reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized CAT to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The direct electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both enzymes showed well-defined redox peaks with quasi-reversible behaviors. An excellent sensitivity of 4.163 mA mM(-1)cm(-2), a response time less than 6s, and a linear range of 0.25-215 μM (R(2)>0.99) have been observed for cholesterol determination using the proposed biosensor. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) was calculated to be 2.32 mM. The bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor showed good reproducibility (RSDsanalytical performance for the determination of free cholesterol in human serum samples.

  7. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol plays a ... factors for heart disease and stroke . How is cholesterol tested? A cholesterol screening measures your level of ...

  8. Pro JavaScript for web apps

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam


    JavaScript is the engine behind every web app, and a solid knowledge of it is essential for all modern web developers. Pro JavaScript for Web Apps gives you all of the information that you need to create professional, optimized, and efficient JavaScript applications that will run across all devices. It takes you through all aspects of modern JavaScript application creation, showing you how to combine JavaScript with the new features of HTML5 and CSS3 to make the most of the new web technologies. The focus of the book is on creating professional web applications, ensuring that your app provides

  9. Creating mobile apps with Appcelerator Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    Brousseau, Christian


    Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium provides a hands-on approach and working examples on creating apps and games as well as embedding them onto a social networking website. Developers can then move on from there to develop their own applications based on the ones they have developed throughout the course of this book.""Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium"" is for developers who have experience with modern languages and development environments. Also, if you are familiar with the concepts of Object-oriented Programming (OOP), reusable components, AJAX closures, and so on

  10. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism) (United States)



    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  11. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan


    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  12. Mitochondrial function is involved in regulation of cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein (apoA-I from murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Anne Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA damage, increased production of reactive oxygen species and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, together with increased deposition of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters, are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial function in regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I, by the addition of established pharmacological modulators of mitochondrial function. Methods Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with a range of concentrations of resveratrol, antimycin, dinitrophenol, nigericin and oligomycin, and changes in viability, cytotoxicity, membrane potential and ATP, compared with efflux of [3H]cholesterol to apolipoprotein (apo A-I. The effect of oligomycin treatment on expression of genes implicated in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, relative to the housekeeping enzyme, Gapdh, and combined with studies of this molecule on cholesterol esterification, de novo lipid biosynthesis, and induction of apoptosis. Significant differences were determined using analysis of variance, and Dunnett’s or Bonferroni post t-tests, as appropriate. Results The positive control, resveratrol (24 h, significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux to apoA-I at concentrations ≥30 μM. By contrast, cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was significantly inhibited by nigericin (45%; ppAbca1 mRNA. Oligomycin treatment did not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, but significantly inhibited cholesterol esterification following exposure to acetylated LDL, and induced apoptosis at ≥30 μM. Finally, oligomycin induced the expression of genes implicated in both cholesterol efflux (Abca1, Abcg4, Stard1 and cholesterol biosynthesis (Hmgr, Mvk, Scap, Srebf2, indicating profound dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Conclusions Acute loss of mitochondrial function, and in particular Δψm, reduces

  13. Plasma cholesterol-lowering and transient liver dysfunction in mice lacking squalene synthase in the liver[S (United States)

    Nagashima, Shuichi; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Tazoe, Fumiko; Takahashi, Manabu; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Yamamuro, Daisuke; Sakai, Kent; Sekiya, Motohiro; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Honda, Akira; Ishibashi, Shun


    Squalene synthase (SS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of squalene, the first specific intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. To test the feasibility of lowering plasma cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic SS, we generated mice in which SS is specifically knocked out in the liver (L-SSKO) using Cre-loxP technology. Hepatic SS activity of L-SSKO mice was reduced by >90%. In addition, cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver slices was almost eliminated. Although the hepatic squalene contents were markedly reduced in L-SSKO mice, the hepatic contents of cholesterol and its precursors distal to squalene were indistinguishable from those of control mice, indicating the presence of sufficient centripetal flow of cholesterol and/or its precursors from the extrahepatic tissues. L-SSKO mice showed a transient liver dysfunction with moderate hepatomegaly presumably secondary to increased farnesol production. In a fed state, the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly reduced in L-SSKO mice, primarily owing to reduced hepatic VLDL secretion. In a fasted state, the hypolipidemic effect was lost. mRNA expression of liver X receptor α target genes was reduced, while that of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 target genes was increased. In conclusion, liver-specific ablation of SS inhibits hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and induces hypolipidemia without increasing significant mortality. PMID:25755092

  14. Cholesterol metabolism: A review of how ageing disrupts the biological mechanisms responsible for its regulation. (United States)

    Morgan, A E; Mooney, K M; Wilkinson, S J; Pickles, N A; Mc Auley, M T


    Cholesterol plays a vital role in the human body as a precursor of steroid hormones and bile acids, in addition to providing structure to cell membranes. Whole body cholesterol metabolism is maintained by a highly coordinated balancing act between cholesterol ingestion, synthesis, absorption, and excretion. The aim of this review is to discuss how ageing interacts with these processes. Firstly, we will present an overview of cholesterol metabolism. Following this, we discuss how the biological mechanisms which underpin cholesterol metabolism are effected by ageing. Included in this discussion are lipoprotein dynamics, cholesterol absorption/synthesis and the enterohepatic circulation/synthesis of bile acids. Moreover, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathological progression of atherosclerosis and also discuss how cholesterol biosynthesis is effected by both the mammalian target of rapamycin and sirtuin pathways. Next, we examine how diet and alterations to the gut microbiome can be used to mitigate the impact ageing has on cholesterol metabolism. We conclude by discussing how mathematical models of cholesterol metabolism can be used to identify therapeutic interventions.

  15. Genotype-induced changes in biophysical properties of frontal cortex lipid raft from APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario L Diaz


    Full Text Available Alterations in the lipid composition of lipid rafts have been demonstrated both in human brain and transgenic mouse models, and it has been postulated that aberrant lipid composition in lipid rafts is partly responsible for neuronal degeneration. In order to assess the impact of lipid changes on lipid raft functional properties, we have aimed at determining relevant physicochemical modifications in lipid rafts purified from frontal cortex of wild type (WT and APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. By means of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy analyses using two lipid soluble fluorescent probes, TMA-DPH (1-[(4-trimethyl-aminophenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, we demonstrate that cortical lipid rafts from WT and APP/PS1 animals exhibit different biophysical behaviours, depending on genotype but also on age. Thus, aged APP/PS1 animals exhibited slightly more liquid-ordered lipid rafts than WT counterparts. Membrane microviscosity napp analyses demonstrate that WT lipid rafts are more fluid than APP/PS1 animals of similar age, both at the aqueous interface and hydrophobic core of the membrane. napp in APP/PS1 animals was higher for DPH than for TMA-DPH under similar experimental conditions, indicating that the internal core of the membrane is more viscous than the raft membrane at the aqueous interface. The most dramatic changes in biophysical properties of lipid rafts were observed when membrane cholesterol was depleted with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Overall, our results indicate that APP/PS1 genotype strongly affects physicochemical properties of lipid raft. Such alterations appear not to be homogeneous across the raft membrane axis, but rather are more prominent at the membrane plane. These changes correlate with aberrant proportions of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, measured in lipid rafts from frontal cortex in this familial model of

  16. NGF controls APP cleavage by downregulating APP phosphorylation at Thr668: relevance for Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Triaca, Viviana; Sposato, Valentina; Bolasco, Giulia; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pelicci, Piergiuseppe; Bruni, Amalia C; Cupidi, Chiara; Maletta, Raffaele; Feligioni, Marco; Nisticò, Robert; Canu, Nadia; Calissano, Pietro


    NGF has been implicated in forebrain neuroprotection from amyloidogenesis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of NGF signalling in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in forebrain neurons using primary cultures of septal neurons and acute septo-hippocampal brain slices. In this study, we show that NGF controls the basal level of APP phosphorylation at Thr668 (T668) by downregulating the activity of the Ser/Thr kinase JNK(p54) through the Tyr kinase signalling adaptor SH2-containing sequence C (ShcC). We also found that the specific NGF receptor, Tyr kinase A (TrkA), which is known to bind to APP, fails to interact with the fraction of APP molecules phosphorylated at T668 (APP(pT668) ). Accordingly, the amount of TrkA bound to APP is significantly reduced in the hippocampus of ShcC KO mice and of patients with AD in which elevated APP(pT668) levels are detected. NGF promotes TrkA binding to APP and APP trafficking to the Golgi, where APP-BACE interaction is hindered, finally resulting in reduced generation of sAPPβ, CTFβ and amyloid-beta (1-42). These results demonstrate that NGF signalling directly controls basal APP phosphorylation, subcellular localization and BACE cleavage, and pave the way for novel approaches specifically targeting ShcC signalling and/or the APP-TrkA interaction in AD therapy.

  17. iOS app development for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Feiler, Jesse


    If you've got incredible iOS ideas, get this book and bring them to life! iOS 7 represents the most significant update to Apple's mobile operating system since the first iPhone was released, and even the most seasoned app developers are looking for information on how to take advantage of the latest iOS 7 features in their app designs. That's where iOS App Development For Dummies comes in! Whether you're a programming hobbyist wanting to build an app for fun or a professional developer looking to expand into the iOS market, this book will walk you through the fundamentals of building a univer

  18. Development of an app for compressible flow “App4Comp”


    Adam Alberdi, Andrés; Gámez Montero, Pedro Javier


    In this paper is discussed the development and operation of a new Android App made through Google’s platform App Inventor 2. This App is focused on solving classic problems related to compressible flow, dealing with the typical cases seen in the subject of Fluid Mechanics of a degree in Aeronautics. It is downloadable from [1], or through the QR code at the end of this paper. The main objective of this project was to bring in a new, useful app about compressible flow to the market, but als...

  19. Airport Surface Access and Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martin-Domingo


    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport Surface Access faces two main opposite issues: (1 cars, being the main transport mode, contribute to the increasing level of congestion and pollution of cities; and (2 simultaneously, parking fees are one important source of airports commercial revenue, creating a dilemma for airports when facing the problem. Following the recent trend of air passengers travelling with Smartphone (78% in 2013, the purpose of this paper is to monitor the adoption of mobile Applications (Apps by airports and to analyze if the information and functions provided in those Apps can help to overcome the above two issues. Design/methodology/approach: 31 iPhone App of some of the largest European airports were evaluated in the lab using the evaluation model of Destinations Mobile Applications (Scolari and Fernández-Cavia 2014 adapted for for the Airport Surface Access on Airport Apps Findings and Originality/value: The Apps evaluated provided a very limited functionality to help passengers to plan and book their trips to/from the airports on public transports and gave high priority to parking information and services. Originality/value: Although Airport Surface Access has been a widely researched, the originality of this paper is the analysis of airport mobile Apps as a potential tool for airports to deal with the surface airport access problems.Access, Airports, Mobile Internet, Commercial Revenues

  20. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao


    Background China’s mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. Objective The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. Methods We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. Conclusions The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients’ demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry. PMID:27573724

  1. Conversion of Exogenous Cholesterol into Glycoalkaloids in Potato Shoots, Using Two Methods for Sterol Solubilisation (United States)

    Petersson, Erik V.; Nahar, Nurun; Dahlin, Paul; Broberg, Anders; Tröger, Rikard; Dutta, Paresh C.; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Sitbon, Folke


    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the potato, as well as in certain other Solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper. To investigate the steroidal origin of SGA biosynthesis, cut potato shoots were fed cholesterol labelled with deuterium (D) in the sterol ring structure (D5- or D6-labelled), or side chain (D7-labelled), and analysed after three or five weeks. The labelled cholesterol and presence of D-labelled SGA were analysed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. When feeding D-labelled cholesterol solubilised in Tween-80, labelled cholesterol in free form became present in both leaves and stems, although the major part was recovered as steryl esters. Minor amounts of D-labelled SGA (α-solanine and α-chaconine) were identified in cholesterol-treated shoots, but not in blank controls, or in shoots fed D6-27-hydroxycholesterol. Solubilising the labelled cholesterol in methyl-β-cyclodextrin instead of Tween-80 increased the levels of labelled SGA up to 100-fold, and about 1 mole% of the labelled cholesterol was recovered as labelled SGA in potato leaves. Both side chain and ring structure D labels were retained in SGA, showing that the entire cholesterol molecule is converted to SGA. However, feeding side chain D7-labelled cholesterol resulted in D5-labelled SGA, indicating that two hydrogen atoms were released during formation of the SGA nitrogen-containing ring system. Feeding with D7-sitosterol did not produce any labelled SGA, indicating that cholesterol is a specific SGA precursor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a superior performance of methyl-β-cyclodextrin for delivery of cholesterol in plant tissue feeding experiments, and given firm evidence for cholesterol as a specific sterol precursor of SGA in potato. PMID:24349406

  2. Conversion of exogenous cholesterol into glycoalkaloids in potato shoots, using two methods for sterol solubilisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik V Petersson

    Full Text Available Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA are toxic secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the potato, as well as in certain other Solanaceous plant species, such as tomato, eggplant and pepper. To investigate the steroidal origin of SGA biosynthesis, cut potato shoots were fed cholesterol labelled with deuterium (D in the sterol ring structure (D5- or D6-labelled, or side chain (D7-labelled, and analysed after three or five weeks. The labelled cholesterol and presence of D-labelled SGA were analysed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. When feeding D-labelled cholesterol solubilised in Tween-80, labelled cholesterol in free form became present in both leaves and stems, although the major part was recovered as steryl esters. Minor amounts of D-labelled SGA (α-solanine and α-chaconine were identified in cholesterol-treated shoots, but not in blank controls, or in shoots fed D6-27-hydroxycholesterol. Solubilising the labelled cholesterol in methyl-β-cyclodextrin instead of Tween-80 increased the levels of labelled SGA up to 100-fold, and about 1 mole% of the labelled cholesterol was recovered as labelled SGA in potato leaves. Both side chain and ring structure D labels were retained in SGA, showing that the entire cholesterol molecule is converted to SGA. However, feeding side chain D7-labelled cholesterol resulted in D5-labelled SGA, indicating that two hydrogen atoms were released during formation of the SGA nitrogen-containing ring system. Feeding with D7-sitosterol did not produce any labelled SGA, indicating that cholesterol is a specific SGA precursor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a superior performance of methyl-β-cyclodextrin for delivery of cholesterol in plant tissue feeding experiments, and given firm evidence for cholesterol as a specific sterol precursor of SGA in potato.

  3. Fish oil replacement in current aquaculture feed: is cholesterol a hidden treasure for fish nutrition? (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Lewis, Michael; Hamid, Noor Khalidah Abdul; Hermon, Karen; Donald, John A; Turchini, Giovanni M


    Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation were recorded, whilst in L-Chol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations.

  4. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris


    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  5. Cholesterol metabolism in Huntington disease. (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; Hayden, Michael R


    The CNS is rich in cholesterol, which is essential for neuronal development and survival, synapse maturation, and optimal synaptic activity. Alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis are linked to neurodegeneration. Studies have demonstrated that Huntington disease (HD), a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting from polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein, is associated with changes in cellular cholesterol metabolism. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies indicates that attenuated brain sterol synthesis and accumulation of cholesterol in neuronal membranes represent two distinct mechanisms occurring in the presence of mutant huntingtin that influence neuronal survival. Increased knowledge of how changes in intraneuronal cholesterol metabolism influence the pathogenesis of HD will provide insights into the potential application of brain cholesterol regulation as a therapeutic strategy for this devastating disease.

  6. PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Xu, Daqian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yuxue; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yi; Song, Bao-Liang; Chen, Yan


    Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis.

  7. Cholesterol Embolism: An Overlooked Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Nihal ESATOĞLU


    Full Text Available Acute renal failure following angiography is usually due to radiocontrast nephropathy; however, cholesterol embolism should be kept in mind when making the differential diagnosis. Cholesterol embolism is a multisystem disease, usually seen in elderly men who have severe atherosclerosis. In this case report, we describe a patient with cholesterol embolism who had a typical clinical history of progressive renal failure. We hope that this case report will emphasize the importance of this overlooked syndrome.

  8. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase



    Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the e...

  9. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers. (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E


    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  10. Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet suppresses the complete pathway of cholesterol synthesis and induces bile acid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Björkhem, Ingemar; Krasnov, Aleksei; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Krogdahl, Åshild


    Plants now supply more than 50 % of protein in Norwegian salmon aquafeeds. The inclusion of plant protein in aquafeeds may be associated with decreased lipid digestibility and cholesterol and bile salt levels, indicating that the replacement of fishmeal with plant protein could result in inadequate supplies of cholesterol in fish. A reduction in feed efficiency, fish growth and pathogen resistance is often observed in parallel to alterations in sterol metabolism. Previous studies have indicated that the negative effects induced by plant components can be attenuated when diets are supplemented with cholesterol. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation (1·5 %) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant-based diet for 77 d. The weights of body, intestines and liver were recorded and blood, tissues, faeces, chyme and bile were sampled for the evaluation of effects on growth, nutrient utilisation and metabolism, and transcriptome and metabolite levels, with particular emphasis on sterol metabolism and organ structure and function. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect the growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but seemed to promote the induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine while suppressing sterol uptake. Cholesterol biosynthesis decreased correspondingly and conversion into bile acids increased. The marked effect of cholesterol supplementation on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to increase bile acid synthesis in fish. The present study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted their metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol. It has also expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover, adding to the existing, rather sparse, knowledge of these processes in fish.

  11. CERN Apps meet in a forum

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    In the fast-evolving world of mobile apps, creativity and usability are key words. For the time being, the number of CERN apps is quite limited but the situation could quickly change. An information-sharing forum set up by the IT Department is a starting point to channel your creativity with the help of experts, best practices and useful guidelines.   The CAPPS (CERN Apps) Forum was set up about a year ago. Its members come from various departments and meet every two or three months to update each other on the apps that are in preparation, share the latest news on the available software, discuss best practices and so on. “The Forum is open to anybody wanting to develop apps at CERN,” explains David Foster, Deputy Department Head and initiator of the CAPPS Forum. “Developers, communication experts and IT infrastructure experts meet and discuss various topics, from branding-related issues to coding and implementation solutions. The aim is to go forward in a coherent way...

  12. Food combinations for cholesterol lowering. (United States)

    Harland, Janice I


    Reducing elevated LDL-cholesterol is a key public health challenge. There is substantial evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that a number of foods and food components can significantly reduce LDL-cholesterol. Data from RCT have been reviewed to determine whether effects are additive when two or more of these components are consumed together. Typically components, such as plant stanols and sterols, soya protein, β-glucans and tree nuts, when consumed individually at their target rate, reduce LDL-cholesterol by 3-9 %. Improved dietary fat quality, achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fat, reduces LDL-cholesterol and can increase HDL-cholesterol, further improving blood lipid profile. It appears that the effect of combining these interventions is largely additive; however, compliance with multiple changes may reduce over time. Food combinations used in ten 'portfolio diet' studies have been reviewed. In clinical efficacy studies of about 1 month where all foods were provided, LDL-cholesterol is reduced by 22-30 %, whereas in community-based studies of >6 months' duration, where dietary advice is the basis of the intervention, reduction in LDL-cholesterol is about 15 %. Inclusion of MUFA into 'portfolio diets' increases HDL-cholesterol, in addition to LDL-cholesterol effects. Compliance with some of these dietary changes can be achieved more easily compared with others. By careful food component selection, appropriate to the individual, the effect of including only two components in the diet with good compliance could be a sustainable 10 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol; this is sufficient to make a substantial impact on cholesterol management and reduce the need for pharmaceutical intervention.

  13. Palmitoylated APP Forms Dimers, Cleaved by BACE1


    Bhattacharyya, Raja; Fenn, Rebecca H.; Barren, Cory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kovacs, Dora M.


    A major rate-limiting step for Aβ generation and deposition in Alzheimer’s disease brains is BACE1-mediated cleavage (β-cleavage) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We previously reported that APP undergoes palmitoylation at two cysteine residues (Cys186 and Cys187) in the E1-ectodomain. 8–10% of total APP is palmitoylated in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylated APP (palAPP) shows greater preference for β-cleavage than total APP in detergent resistant lipid rafts. Protein palmitoylation is k...

  14. The Business of iPhone App Development

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Dave


    The phenomenal success of the iPhone and the iPod touch has ushered in a "gold rush" for developers, but with well over 100,000 apps in the highly competitive App Store, it has become increasingly difficult for new apps to stand out in the crowd. Achieving consumer awareness and sales longevity for your iPhone app requires a lot of organization and some strategic planning. This book will show you how to incorporate marketing and business savvy into every aspect of the design and development process, giving your app the best possible chance of succeeding in the App Store. The Business

  15. iOS app development portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard


    The essential skills and technologies needed for iOS development in one handy guide! The unprecedented popularity of iOS devices, such as the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, has led to a development boom. If you’re eager to become part of the action, then this is the book for you! Packed with must-have information on iOS development, this handy guide covers Objective-C, Xcode, Frameworks, and sound design principles and explains how to upload an app to the app store and integrate apps with the latest advances that Apple offers developers. The featured tips and tricks will get you up and ru

  16. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Frewert, Simon [Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken (Germany); Efferth, Thomas, E-mail: [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)


    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  17. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulates cholesterol synthesis and steroidogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells. (United States)

    Rosati, Fabiana; Sturli, Niccolò; Cungi, Maria Chiara; Morello, Matteo; Villanelli, Fabio; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Finocchi, Claudia; Peri, Alessandro; Serio, Mario; Danza, Giovanna


    Neurosteroids are involved in Central Nervous System development, brain functionality and neuroprotection but little is known about regulators of their biosynthesis. Recently gonadotropins, Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) and their receptors have been localized in different brain regions, such as hippocampus and cortex. Using human neuronal-like cells we found that GnRH up-regulates the expression of key genes of cholesterol and steroid synthesis when used in a narrow range around 1.0 nM. The expression of Hydroxysterol D24-reductase (seladin-1/DHCR24), that catalyzes the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis, is increased by 50% after 90 min of incubation with GnRH. StAR protein and P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) are up-regulated by 3.3 times after 90 min and by 3.5 times after 3 h, respectively. GnRH action is mediated by LH and 1.0 nM GnRH enhances the expression of LHβ as well. A two fold increase of cell cholesterol is induced after 90 min of GnRH incubation and 17β-estradiol (E2) production is increased after 24, 48 and 72 h. These data indicate for the first time that GnRH regulates both cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis in human neuronal-like cells and suggest a new physiological role for GnRH in the brain.

  18. Tapworthy Designing Great iPhone Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh


    So you've got an idea for an iPhone app -- along with everyone else on the planet. Set your app apart with elegant design, efficient usability, and a healthy dose of personality. This accessible, well-written guide shows you how to design exceptional user experiences for the iPhone and iPod Touch through practical principles and a rich collection of visual examples. Whether you're a designer, programmer, manager, or marketer, Tapworthy teaches you to "think iPhone" and helps you ask the right questions -- and get the right answers -- throughout the design process. You'll explore how consider

  19. easyHealthApps: e-Health Apps dynamic generation for smartphones & tablets. (United States)

    Paschou, Mersini; Sakkopoulos, Evangelos; Tsakalidis, Athanasios


    Mobile phones and especially smartphones have been embraced by a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide and this trend is expected to evolve even more in the years to come. There are numerous smartphone Apps that record critical medical data in an effort to solve a particular health issue each time. We studied such applications and not surprisingly, we have found that development and design effort is often repeated. Software patterns have been detected to exist, however re-usability has not been enforced. This leads to lost programming manpower and to increased probability of repeating bugs in Apps. Moreover, at the moment smartphone e-Health Apps demand time, effort and costs for development. Unfortunately even simple data recording Apps are practically impossible to be produced by multiple health domain users who are not developers. In this work, we propose, design and implement a simple and integrated solution which gives healthcare professionals and researchers the ability to create their own data intensive smartphone applications, independent of the desired healthcare domain. The proposed approach applies efficient software techniques that hide development from the users and enable App creation through a simple Web User Interface. The Apps produced are in native format and it is possible to dynamically receive m-Health business logic and the chosen UI. Evaluation of the proposed solution has shown that the generated Apps are functionally and UI equivalent to human-coded Apps according to a number of comparison parameters. Furthermore, e-Health professionals show particular interest in developing Apps on their own for a particular domain they focus on.

  20. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol (United States)

    Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol Lifestyle changes can help reduce cholesterol, keep you off cholesterol-lowering medications or enhance the effect of your medications. Here are five lifestyle ...

  1. Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 LDL (bad) cholesterol is ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol Guidelines: Putting the pieces together Myth vs. Truth – ...

  2. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? High blood cholesterol is treated with lifestyle ... need to follow a heart healthy diet . Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes TLC is a set ...

  3. Review of Tour of the Nile [iPad App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Strudwick


    Full Text Available A review of the iPad app, Tour of the Nile. The app promises 'a virtual journey along the Nile Valley' plus the chance to 'handle' objects through the technology of augmented reality.

  4. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig


    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  5. Data Exchanges in Mobile News Apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske; Wallberg, Filip

    This paper maps the flows of data to and from third-party actors when users access content in mobile news apps. This way, it analyzes the strategic networks of collaboration and data exchange that news organizations engage in in the digital economy, expanding the traditional two-sided model...

  6. 77 FR 12796 - Commerce Business Apps Challenge (United States)


    ... the public to develop, using at least one DOC data set, an application (Web, mobile, PC, etc.) that... Office of the Secretary Commerce Business Apps Challenge AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OS), Department... help U.S. businesses grow and create jobs. Recently, the White House launched the...

  7. Motivating Instruction? There's an App for That! (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; Hirsch, Shanna; Vogelgesang, Kari


    Keeping students engaged in the curriculum is extremely important when attempting to close the achievement gap for students with and at risk for disabilities. This is particularly important for students with learning disabilities or behavior disorders. This article discusses the use of applications (apps) for mobile technologies that may be used…

  8. Fra app'ernes planet til klasserummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Gissel, Stig Toke


    Artiklen henvender sig til lærere og konsulenter, som ønsker at kvalificere deres fagsprog i arbejdet med apps og undervisningsdesign. Med udgangspunkt i læremiddeldidaktikken udpeger vi en række kategorier og begreber, som læreren kan anvende i sit arbejde med at analysere og vurdere hvilke hand...

  9. Fra app'ernes planet til klasserummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Illum; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Gissel, Stig Toke


    Artiklen henvender sig til lærere og konsulenter, som ønsker at kvalificere deres fagsprog i arbejdet med apps og undervisningsdesign. Med udgangspunkt i læremiddeldidaktikken udpeges en række kategorier og begreber, som læreren kan anvende i sit arbejde med at analyserer og vurderer hvilke handl...

  10. Web Content Flexibility through Mobile App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Pathan


    Full Text Available E-commerce is very efficient & effective, but it needs programming knowledge to manage.many small organizations do not have human resource for this task and cannot support cost for hiring programmers or tech-support.thus, many applications providers create CMS apps to enable the e-commerce website to be created and with friendly UI. By developing iOS app WCFMA, it can handle this dynamic nature of content manipulation. WCFMA is specifically designed to enable non-technical users,to modify the existing contents as and when required in an intuitive and real-time fashion.and instead of downloading or capturing product images to be displayed on websites from separate camera devices,take it from the mobile device(iphone itself and edit the image like never before in the app and once done upload it on the web server. The website will fetch this updated images and display i tat an appropriate will efficiently serve to dynamically manage websites of buisness whitch needs to change their web content at regular intervals where the owner or staff of the organization can handle their website from their iphone app.

  11. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy


    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.


    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.


    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  13. Xyloglucan and its biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Zabotina


    Full Text Available The hemicellulosic polysaccharide xyloglucan (XyG, found in the primary cell walls of most plant tissues, is important for structural organization of the cell wall and regulation of growth and development. Significant recent progress in structural characterization of XyGs from different plant species has shed light on the diversification of XyG during plant evolution. Also, identification of XyG biosynthetic enzymes and examination of their interactions suggests the involvement of a multiprotein complex in XyG biosynthesis. This mini-review presents an updated overview of the diversity of XyG structures in plant taxa and recent findings on XyG biosynthesis.

  14. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners (United States)

    Chik, Alice


    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  15. Hippocampal network oscillations in APP/APLP2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zhang

    Full Text Available The physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP and its two homologues APP-like protein 1 (APLP1 and 2 (APLP2 is largely unknown. Previous work suggests that lack of APP or APLP2 impairs synaptic plasticity and spatial learning. There is, however, almost no data on the role of APP or APLP at the network level which forms a critical interface between cellular functions and behavior. We have therefore investigated memory-related synaptic and network functions in hippocampal slices from three lines of transgenic mice: APPsα-KI (mice expressing extracellular fragment of APP, corresponding to the secreted APPsα ectodomain, APLP2-KO, and combined APPsα-KI/APLP2-KO (APPsα-DM for "double mutants". We analyzed two prominent patterns of network activity, gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripple complexes (SPW-R. Both patterns were generally preserved in all strains. We find, however, a significantly reduced frequency of gamma oscillations in CA3 of APLP2-KO mice in comparison to APPsα-KI and WT mice. Network activity, basic synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity were unaltered in the combined mutants (APPsα-DM which showed, however, reduced long-term potentiation (LTP. Together, our data indicate that APLP2 and the intracellular domain of APP are not essential for coherent activity patterns in the hippocampus, but have subtle effects on synaptic plasticity and fine-tuning of network oscillations.

  16. App de Citas Médicas desarrollada en Android


    Cantallops Cifre, Francesc


    App de Citas Médicas desarrollada en Android que consume datos através de un WebService Medical Dating app developed on Android that consumes data through a WebService App de Cites Mèdiques desenvolupat en Android que consumeix dades a través d'un WebService

  17. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps (United States)

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey


    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  18. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects (United States)

    Lowe, Heather


    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  19. Live Speed Analysis, en app til hastighedsmålinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Christensen, Peter Muhlig; Halskov-Sørensen, Asbjørn;


    I et bachelorprojekt har tre studerende udviklet en app, som kan registrere og behandle hastigheder ved den såkaldte spejlmetode. App'en er siden videreudviklet, så registreringerne stedfæstes, tidstemples og uploades til en fæIIes database. App'en er frit tilgængelig. Den kan bruges af...

  20. Using the Modern Technology That Is the "App" (United States)

    Bernardelli, Alessio


    A few years ago, the sight of the letters APP would have made teachers in England think of the Assessing Pupils' Progress assessment approach introduced by the government. Now, when they see those same letters they mostly think about smartphone and tablet applications, shortened to "apps." With the thousands of apps available in the…

  1. Athletic Training Education: There's an App for That (United States)

    Keeley, Kim; Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher D.


    Context: Mobile applications (apps) are growing in popularity due to the increased use of smartphones. Many available apps are educational in nature and may provide both students and educators freedom for learning to occur outside of the typical classroom environment. Objective: To provide a description of relevant apps along with a brief synopsis…

  2. e-Medication met behulp van apps : Gebruik en gebruikerservaringen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kerkhof LWM; van de Laar K; Schooneveldt B; Hegger I; EVG; V& Z


    De afgelopen jaren zijn er veel apps voor het gebruik van medicijnen beschikbaar gekomen, voor zowel professionals als burgers. In hoeverre deze apps worden gewaardeerd, hangt vooral af van het gebruiksgemak. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van het RIVM onder gebruikers van apps die voor diabetici en anest

  3. Low-Budget Apps for Students of All Abilities (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Heath, Julia


    With more than 850,000 apps currently on the market, there are multiple apps that can be used to help all students in music education, particularly those with special needs. This article lists low-budget apps useful for the elementary or secondary general music classroom.

  4. Using Apps to Support Disciplinary Literacy and Science Learning (United States)

    Castek, Jill; Beach, Richard


    Apps, specialized programs used on mobile computers, can be used in innovative ways to enhance science and literacy learning. With the skilled guidance of their teachers, students can exploit app affordances for learning and acquire disciplinary literacies unique to science. This article showcases apps that help students to access information,…

  5. Formation of cholesterol bilayer domains precedes formation of cholesterol crystals in cholesterol/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes: EPR and DSC studies. (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K


    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol %. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogues, it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol % cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol % cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that the formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol % is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol % cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals.

  6. Cholesterol testing on a smartphone. (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Mancuso, Matthew; Erickson, David


    Home self-diagnostic tools for blood cholesterol monitoring have been around for over a decade but their widespread adoption has been limited by the relatively high cost of acquiring a quantitative test-strip reader, complicated procedure for operating the device, and inability to easily store and process results. To address this we have developed a smartphone accessory and software application that allows for the quantification of cholesterol levels in blood. Through a series of human trials we demonstrate that the system can accurately quantify total cholesterol levels in blood within 60 s by imaging standard test strips. In addition, we demonstrate how our accessory is optimized to improve measurement sensitivity and reproducibility across different individual smartphones. With the widespread adoption of smartphones and increasingly sophisticated image processing technology, accessories such as the one presented here will allow cholesterol monitoring to become more accurate and widespread, greatly improving preventive care for cardiovascular disease.

  7. Americans' Cholesterol Levels Keep Falling (United States)

    ... and 2013-2014, the CDC reported. Dr. David Friedman is chief of heart failure services at Long ... for cholesterol treatment, all seem to be working," Friedman said. The study was published online Nov. 30 ...

  8. Feedback modulation of cholesterol metabolism by LeXis, a lipid-responsive non-coding RNA (United States)

    Sallam, Tamer; Jones, Marius; Gilliland, Thomas; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiaohui; Eskin, Ascia; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Casero, David; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas; Hong, Cynthia; Katz, Melanie; Lee, Richard; Whitelegge, Julian; Tontonoz, Peter


    The liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cellular and systemic cholesterol homeostasis. In the setting of cholesterol excess, LXR activation induces the expression of a battery of genes involved in cholesterol efflux 1, facilities cholesterol esterification by promoting fatty acid synthesis 2, and inhibits cholesterol uptake by the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)3. The fact that sterol content is maintained in a narrow range in most cell types and in the organism as a whole suggests that extensive crosstalk between regulatory pathways must exist. However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate LXRs with other lipid metabolic pathways, are incompletely understood. Here we show that ligand activation of LXRs in liver not only promotes cholesterol efflux, but also simultaneously inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis. We further identify the long non-coding RNA LeXis as one mediator of this effect. Hepatic LeXis expression is robustly induced in response to western diet feeding or pharmacologic LXR activation. Raising or lowering the levels of LeXis in liver affects the expression of cholesterol biosynthetic genes, and the levels of cholesterol in the liver and plasma. LeXis interacts with and affects the DNA interactions of Raly, a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein that is required for the maximal expression of cholesterologenic genes in mouse liver. These studies outline a regulatory role for a non-coding RNA in lipid metabolism and advance our understanding of the mechanisms orchestrating sterol homeostasis. PMID:27251289

  9. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal (United States)

    Rothwell, Emily R.


    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health‐related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self‐assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self‐monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. Discussion The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self‐monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:1038–1046) PMID:25728705

  10. Cholesterol Worships a New Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ira G. Schulman


    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R


    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  12. Steroidal Triterpenes of Cholesterol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Rozman


    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts by conversion of acyclic squalene into lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate of the pathway, followed by production of 20 structurally very similar steroidal triterpene molecules in over 11 complex enzyme reactions. Due to the structural similarities of sterol intermediates and the broad substrate specificity of the enzymes involved (especially sterol-Δ24-reductase; DHCR24 the exact sequence of the reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol remains undefined. This article reviews all hitherto known structures of post-squalene steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis, their biological roles and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Furthermore, it summarises kinetic parameters of enzymes (Vmax and Km and sterol intermediate concentrations from various tissues. Due to the complexity of the post-squalene cholesterol synthesis pathway, future studies will require a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pathway to elucidate the exact reaction sequence in different tissues, physiological or disease conditions. A major reason for the standstill of detailed late cholesterol synthesis research was the lack of several steroidal triterpene standards. We aid to this efforts by summarizing commercial and laboratory standards, referring also to chemical syntheses of meiosis-activating sterols.

  13. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  14. App Reviews: Breaking the User and Developer Language Barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Hoon, Leonard


    Apple, Google and third party developers offer apps across over twenty categories for various smart mobile devices. Offered exclusively through the App Store and Google Play, each app allows users to review the app and their experience with it. Current literature offers a general statistical picture of these reviews, and a broad overview of the nature of discontent of apps. However, we do not yet have a good framework to classify user reviews against known software quality attributes like performance or usability. In order to close this gap, in this paper, we develop an ontology encompassing software attributes derived from software quality models. This decomposes into approximately five thousand words that users employ to review apps. By identifying a consistent set of vocabulary that users communicate with, we can sanitise large datasets to extract stakeholder actionable information from reviews. The findings offered in this paper assists future app review analysis by bridging end-user communication and software engineering vocabulary.

  15. APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moore


    Full Text Available Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons.

  16. Apps for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis to Monitor Their Disease Activity: A Review of Apps for Best Practice and Quality (United States)

    Townsley, Hermaleigh; White, Bonnie; Langlotz, Tobias; Taylor, William J


    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis requiring long-term treatment with regular monitoring by a rheumatologist to achieve good health outcomes. Since people with RA may wish to monitor their own disease activity with a smartphone app, it is important to understand the functions and quality of apps for this purpose. Objective The aim of our study was to assess the features and quality of apps to assist people to monitor their RA disease activity by (1) summarizing the available apps, particularly the instruments used for measurement of RA disease activity; (2) comparing the app features with American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatism (ACR and EULAR) guidelines for monitoring of RA disease activity; and (3) rating app quality with the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods Systematic searches of the New Zealand iTunes and Google Play app stores were used to identify all apps for monitoring of RA disease activity that could be used by people with RA. The apps were described by both key metadata and app functionality. App adherence with recommendations for monitoring of RA disease activity in clinical practice was evaluated by identifying whether apps included calculation of a validated composite disease activity measure and recorded results for future retrieval. App quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the MARS. Results The search identified 721 apps in the Google Play store and 216 in the iTunes store, of which 19 unique apps met criteria for inclusion (8 from both app stores, 8 iTunes, and 3 Google Play). In total, 14 apps included at least one validated instrument measuring RA disease activity; 7 of 11 apps that allowed users to enter a joint count used the standard 28 swollen and tender joint count; 8 apps included at least one ACR and EULAR-recommended RA composite disease activity (CDA) measure; and 10 apps included data storage and retrieval. Only 1 app, Arthritis Power, included

  17. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase. (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S


    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C.

  18. The iPhone app design manual create perfect designs for effortless coding and app store success

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Dave


    App creation is now a huge, global business, with hundreds of thousands of developers, entrepreneurs, and companies attracted by the potential rewards. But games, functional apps, and promotional apps alike depend on attractive, intuitive design for their appeal, and most fail to find a significant audience. With this book, you'll be able to turn your great app idea into a functioning design ready for coding, or apply graphic design skills to this exciting new field, and create an app that will stand out in a market that is worth over a billion dollars every year. Understand the design proc

  19. The Business of iPhone and iPad App Development Making and Marketing Apps That Succeed

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Dave


    The phenomenal success of the iPhone, iPad and the iPod touch has ushered in a "gold rush" for developers, but with well over 300,000 apps in the highly competitive App Store, it has become increasingly difficult for new apps to stand out in the crowd. Achieving consumer awareness and sales longevity for your iOS app requires a lot of organization and some strategic planning. Updated and expanded for iOS 4, this bestselling book will show you how to incorporate marketing and business savvy into every aspect of the design and development process, giving your app the best possible chance of

  20. Designing platform independent mobile apps and services

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Rocky


    This book explains how to help create an innovative and future proof architecture for mobile apps by introducing practical approaches to increase the value and flexibility of their service layers and reduce their delivery time. Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services begins by describing the mobile computing landscape and previous attempts at cross platform development. Platform independent mobile technologies and development strategies are described in chapter two and three. Communication protocols, details of a recommended five layer architecture, service layers, and the data abstraction layer are also introduced in these chapters. Cross platform languages and multi-client development tools for the User Interface (UI) layer, as well as message processing patterns and message routing of the Service Int rface (SI) layer are explained in chapter four and five. Ways to design the service layer for mobile computing, using Command Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS) and the Data Abstraction La...

  1. Audio App Brings a Better Nights Sleep (United States)


    Neuroscientist Seth Horowitz was part of a NASA-funded team at State University of New York Stony Brook demonstrating that low-amplitude vestibular stimulation could induce sleep. After recognizing the same stimulation could be applied through sound, Horowitz founded Sleep Genius, located in Park City, Utah, and released a mobile app of the same name that helps people to get a more restful sleep.

  2. No app for that? Make it yourself!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Are you passionate about science? Do you like communicating that passion to the general public? Then come along to the very first CERN Summer Student Webfest kicking off on Friday 3 August! The Webfest is a grassroots initiative by the summer students, seeking to spark new ideas that could innovate the future of web-based education about CERN, the LHC and particle physics.   The CERN Summer Student Webfest is a weekend of online web-based creativity modelled on the gatherings (sometimes called hackfests or hackathons) that energize many open source communities. You can work with like-minded students and CERN staff to design and build demos of the web apps you would like to see online. Prizes will be awarded to the best apps, with a Grand Prize winner receiving a trip to the Mozilla Festival in London! Participants in the CERN Summer Student Webfest will work in teams and design neat web apps that encourage the public to learn more about science and, in particular, CERN, the LHC and particle physi...

  3. Characterization and Transcriptional Profile of Genes Involved in Glycoalkaloid Biosynthesis in New Varieties of Solanum tuberosum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, E.J.; Frazzon, Jeverson


    Before commercial release, new potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties must be evaluated for content of toxic compounds such as glycoalkaloids (GAs), which are potent poisons. GA biosynthesis proceeds via the cholesterol pathway to α-chaconine and α-solanine. The goal of this study was to evaluate t

  4. High glucose promotes Aβ production by inhibiting APP degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    Full Text Available Abnormal deposition of neuriticplaques is the uniqueneuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD.Amyloid β protein (Aβ, the major component of plaques, is generated from sequential cleavage of amyloidβ precursor protein (APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase complex. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia,have increased risk of AD development.However, the role of high blood glucose in APP processing and Aβ generation remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of high glucose on APP metabolism and Aβ generation in cultured human cells. We found that high glucose treatment significantly increased APP protein level in both neuronal-like and non-neuronal cells, and promoted Aβ generation. Furthermore, we found that high glucose-induced increase of APP level was not due to enhancement of APP gene transcription but resulted from inhibition of APP protein degradation. Taken together, our data indicated that hyperglycemia could promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting APP degradation and enhancing Aβ production. More importantly, the elevation of APP level and Aβ generation by high glucose was caused by reduction of APP turnover rate.Thus,our study provides a molecular mechanism of increased risk of developing AD in patients withDMand suggests thatglycemic control might be potentially beneficial for reducing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying the AD progression.

  5. APP as a Protective Factor in Acute Neuronal Insults (United States)

    Hefter, Dimitri; Draguhn, Andreas


    Despite its key role in the molecular pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is unknown. Increasing evidence, however, points towards a neuroprotective role of this membrane protein in situations of metabolic stress. A key observation is the up-regulation of APP following acute (stroke, cardiac arrest) or chronic (cerebrovascular disease) hypoxic-ischemic conditions. While this mechanism may increase the risk or severity of AD, APP by itself or its soluble extracellular fragment APPsα can promote neuronal survival. Indeed, different animal models of acute hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and excitotoxicity have revealed protective effects of APP or APPsα. The underlying mechanisms involve APP-mediated regulation of calcium homeostasis via NMDA receptors (NMDAR), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) or internal calcium stores. In addition, APP affects the expression of survival- or apoptosis-related genes as well as neurotrophic factors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the neuroprotective role of APP and APPsα and possible implications for future research and new therapeutic strategies. PMID:28210211

  6. Popularity Modeling for Mobile Apps: A Sequential Approach. (United States)

    Zhu, Hengshu; Liu, Chuanren; Ge, Yong; Xiong, Hui; Chen, Enhong


    The popularity information in App stores, such as chart rankings, user ratings, and user reviews, provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand user experiences with mobile Apps, learn the process of adoption of mobile Apps, and thus enables better mobile App services. While the importance of popularity information is well recognized in the literature, the use of the popularity information for mobile App services is still fragmented and under-explored. To this end, in this paper, we propose a sequential approach based on hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling the popularity information of mobile Apps toward mobile App services. Specifically, we first propose a popularity based HMM (PHMM) to model the sequences of the heterogeneous popularity observations of mobile Apps. Then, we introduce a bipartite based method to precluster the popularity observations. This can help to learn the parameters and initial values of the PHMM efficiently. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PHMM is a general model and can be applicable for various mobile App services, such as trend based App recommendation, rating and review spam detection, and ranking fraud detection. Finally, we validate our approach on two real-world data sets collected from the Apple Appstore. Experimental results clearly validate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed popularity modeling approach.

  7. Endogenous APP accumulates in synapses after BACE1 inhibition. (United States)

    Nigam, Saket Milind; Xu, Shaohua; Ackermann, Frauke; Gregory, Joshua A; Lundkvist, Johan; Lendahl, Urban; Brodin, Lennart


    BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP is a pivotal step in the production of the Alzheimer related Aβ peptide and inhibitors of BACE1 are currently in clinical development for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). While processing and trafficking of APP has been extensively studied in non-neuronal cells, the fate of APP at neuronal synapses and in response to reduced BACE1 activity has not been fully elucidated. Here we examined the consequence of reduced BACE1 activity on endogenous synaptic APP by monitoring N- and C-terminal APP epitopes by immunocytochemistry. In control rodent primary hippocampal neuron cultures, labeling with antibodies directed to N-terminal APP epitopes showed a significant overlap with synaptic vesicle markers (SV2 or synaptotagmin). In contrast, labeling with antibodies directed to C-terminal epitopes of APP showed only a limited overlap with these proteins. In neurons derived from BACE1-deficient mice, and in control neurons treated with a BACE1 inhibitor, both the N-terminal and the C-terminal APP labeling overlapped significantly with synaptic vesicle markers. Moreover, BACE1 inhibition increased the proximity between the APP C-terminus and SV2 as shown by a proximity ligation assay. These results, together with biochemical observations, indicate that BACE1 can regulate the levels of full-length APP at neuronal synapses.

  8. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  9. Cholesterol metabolism: increasingly complex; El metabolismo del colesterol: cada vez mas complejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza, J.; Valenzuela, R.; Valenzuela, A.


    Cholesterol is an important molecule; it is necessary for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones, bile salts and to maintain the stability of biological membranes in animal cells. However, its excess is negative and is responsible for the development of many diseases involving the heart and brain, or in the generation of some types of cancer. For these reasons, the cellular cholesterol levels must be finely regulated and therefore, an infinite number of mechanisms participate in this regulation, which undertake the organism as a whole. These mechanisms should begin to operate efficiently from the intake of cholesterol from the diet, its incorporation into the enterocytes, where are involved carriers such as ABC and NCP1 transporters, PDZ structural motif, to name a few. It is also necessary an adequate regulation of circulating cholesterol and once inside the body, there should be a perfect harmony between the addition of cholesterol to various tissues, its metabolic use, the mechanisms of its tissue deposition, and the synthesis of this lipid. From this perspective, this review offers a general view of the molecular mechanisms that allow the regulation of extra and intracellular cholesterol levels. (Author) 82 refs.

  10. The Impact of Cholesterol, DHA, and Sphingolipids on Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus O. W. Grimm


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder currently affecting over 35 million people worldwide. Pathological hallmarks of AD are massive amyloidosis, extracellular senile plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Major constituents of senile plaques are 40–42 amino acid long peptides termed β-amyloid (Aβ. Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. APP processing and Aβ production have been one of the central scopes in AD research in the past. In the last years, lipids and lipid-related issues are more frequently discussed to contribute to the AD pathogenesis. This review summarizes lipid alterations found in AD postmortem brains, AD transgenic mouse models, and the current understanding of how lipids influence the molecular mechanisms leading to AD and Aβ generation, focusing especially on cholesterol, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and sphingolipids/glycosphingolipids.

  11. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril


    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  12. Upstream regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis. (United States)

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk


    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants of food and feed products, posing a substantial health risk to humans and animals throughout the world. A plethora of filamentous fungi has been identified as mycotoxin producers and most of these fungal species belong to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the molecular mechanisms of biosynthesis of key mycotoxins and the regulatory cascades controlling toxigenesis. In many cases, the mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are clustered and regulated by one or more pathway-specific transcription factor(s). In addition, as biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites is coordinated with fungal growth and development, there are a number of upstream regulators affecting biosynthesis of mycotoxins in fungi. This review presents a concise summary of the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, focusing on the roles of the upstream regulatory elements governing biosynthesis of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin in Aspergillus.

  13. Alterations in the homeostasis of phospholipids and cholesterol by antitumor alkylphospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segovia Josefa L


    Full Text Available Abstract The alkylphospholipid analog miltefosine (hexadecylphosphocholine is a membrane-directed antitumoral and antileishmanial drug belonging to the alkylphosphocholines, a group of synthetic antiproliferative agents that are promising candidates in anticancer therapy. A variety of mechanisms have been suggested to explain the actions of these compounds, which can induce apoptosis and/or cell growth arrest. In this review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the actions of miltefosine and other alkylphospholipids on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, with a special emphasis on lipid metabolism. Results obtained in our laboratory indicate that miltefosine displays cytostatic activity and causes apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Likewise, treatment with miltefosine produces an interference with the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via both CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine methylation. With regard to sphingolipid metabolism, miltefosine hinders the formation of sphingomyelin, which promotes intracellular accumulation of ceramide. We have demonstrated for the first time that treatment with miltefosine strongly impedes the esterification of cholesterol and that this effect is accompanied by a considerable increase in the synthesis of cholesterol, which leads to higher levels of cholesterol in the cells. Indeed, miltefosine early impairs cholesterol transport from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, causing a deregulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Similar to miltefosine, other clinically-relevant synthetic alkylphospholipids such as edelfosine, erucylphosphocholine and perifosine show growth inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. All the tested alkylphospholipids also inhibit the arrival of plasma-membrane cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum, which induces a significant cholesterogenic response in these cells, involving an increased gene expression and higher levels of several proteins related to the pathway of

  14. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  15. Inhibition of HMG CoA reductase reveals an unexpected role for cholesterol during PGC migration in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewing Andrew G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the embryonic precursors of the sperm and eggs. Environmental or genetic defects that alter PGC development can impair fertility or cause formation of germ cell tumors. Results We demonstrate a novel role for cholesterol during germ cell migration in mice. Cholesterol was measured in living tissue dissected from mouse embryos and was found to accumulate within the developing gonads as germ cells migrate to colonize these structures. Cholesterol synthesis was blocked in culture by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR resulting in germ cell survival and migration defects. These defects were rescued by co-addition of isoprenoids and cholesterol, but neither compound alone was sufficient. In contrast, loss of the last or penultimate enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis did not alter PGC numbers or position in vivo. However embryos that lack these enzymes do not exhibit cholesterol defects at the stage at which PGCs are migrating. This demonstrates that during gestation, the cholesterol required for PGC migration can be supplied maternally. Conclusion In the mouse, cholesterol is required for PGC survival and motility. It may act cell-autonomously by regulating clustering of growth factor receptors within PGCs or non cell-autonomously by controlling release of growth factors required for PGC guidance and survival.

  16. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej;


    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene...... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...... esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota...

  17. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Simpson, Daniel J. (Los Alamos, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Whaley, Thomas W. (Santa Fe, NM)


    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450.sub.scc enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450.sub.scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  18. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, B.L.; Simpson, D.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Whaley, T.W.


    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450[sub scc] enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450[sub scc] catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to prednesolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  19. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Simpson, Daniel J. (Los Alamos, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Whaley, Thomas W. (Santa Fe, NM)


    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450.sub.scc enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450.sub.scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  20. Polarizable multipolar electrostatics for cholesterol (United States)

    Fletcher, Timothy L.; Popelier, Paul L. A.


    FFLUX is a novel force field under development for biomolecular modelling, and is based on topological atoms and the machine learning method kriging. Successful kriging models have been obtained for realistic electrostatics of amino acids, small peptides, and some carbohydrates but here, for the first time, we construct kriging models for a sizeable ligand of great importance, which is cholesterol. Cholesterol's mean total (internal) electrostatic energy prediction error amounts to 3.9 kJ mol-1, which pleasingly falls below the threshold of 1 kcal mol-1 often cited for accurate biomolecular modelling. We present a detailed analysis of the error distributions.

  1. PoliticAPP: Towards a Categorization of Mobile Apps in Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article is an analyze of all mobile apps that are available in the field of Spanish political communication, with the aim to develop a pioneering categorization of these platforms according to various criteria as promoters, aims pursued or areas of performance. It includes also a critical review from which it is concluded that these app reproduce classic communication patterns with the voters. That means that the implementation of these channels seems to have been due more to political marketing than to boost democratic participation or to introduce an horizontal outline of a new relationship between politicians and citizens.

  2. In-Application Payment from Mobile Apps : A study of In-App Payment


    Haines, Jøran Christiansen; Hanssen, Alexander


    The main purpose of this thesis is to evaluate and compare existing serviceproviders of in-app payment solutions and their APIs, and then concludewhat would be the best choice for hobby developers when deciding on whatservice provider to use for their application.We gained hands-on experience by developing a simple Quiz game appthat featured the implementation of in-app purchase. We took a look atthe major service providers; Apple, Google, PayPal and Windows to getrelevant information and eva...

  3. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne


    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol tra

  4. Cholesterol absorption and excretion in ileostomy subjects on high- and low-dietary-cholesterol intakes. (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I


    Six healthy ileostomy subjects were given [3H]cholesterol and [14C]beta-sitosterol in a single meal together with two controlled diets containing 150 or 450 mg cholesterol/d. Each diet was eaten for 3 d. Cholesterol absorption and excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, fat, energy, and nitrogen were analyzed. Fractional cholesterol absorption increased from 44 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) to 61 +/- 3.4% (P effluent, or excretion of energy, nitrogen, fat, and bile acids did not differ between periods. Endogenous cholesterol excretion remained unchanged whereas net cholesterol excretion (output minus intake) was 37% higher (P < 0.05) on low compared with high cholesterol intake.

  5. Engineering stories? A narratological approach to children's book apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadassah Stichnothe


    Full Text Available With the rise of smartphones and tablet pcs, children's book apps have emerged as a new type of children's media. While some of them are based on popular children's books such as Mo Willems’ Pigeon books or Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit, others were specifically designed as apps. This paper focuses on examining book apps under the aspects of implied user strategies and narrative structure. Using a narratological framework that also takes into account the unique characteristics of the medium, a terminology for the analysis of book apps will be sketched out. Furthermore, an exemplary analysis of iOS books apps for pre- and grade school children comes to the conclusion that, far from offering the child users room for individual creativity, a large number of apps rather train their users in following prescribed paths of reading.

  6. Effects of CYP7A1 overexpression on cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis. (United States)

    Pandak, W M; Schwarz, C; Hylemon, P B; Mallonee, D; Valerie, K; Heuman, D M; Fisher, R A; Redford, K; Vlahcevic, Z R


    The initial and rate-limiting step in the classic pathway of bile acid biosynthesis is 7alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterol, a reaction catalyzed by cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). The effect of CYP7A1 overexpression on cholesterol homeostasis in human liver cells has not been examined. The specific aim of this study was to determine the effects of overexpression of CYP7A1 on key regulatory steps involved in hepatocellular cholesterol homeostasis, using primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HepG2 cells. Overexpression of CYP7A1 in HepG2 cells and PHH was accomplished by using a recombinant adenovirus encoding a CYP7A1 cDNA (AdCMV-CYP7A1). CYP7A1 overexpression resulted in a marked activation of the classic pathway of bile acid biosynthesis in both PHH and HepG2 cells. In response, there was decreased HMG-CoA-reductase (HMGR) activity, decreased acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, increased cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) activity, and increased low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression. Changes observed in HMGR, ACAT, and CEH mRNA levels paralleled changes in enzyme specific activities. More specifically, LDLR expression, ACAT activity, and CEH activity appeared responsive to an increase in cholesterol degradation after increased CYP7A1 expression. Conversely, accumulation of the oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol in the microsomes after CYP7A1 overexpression was correlated with a decrease in HMGR activity.

  7. Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes. (United States)

    Schirmer, Andreas; Rude, Mathew A; Li, Xuezhi; Popova, Emanuela; del Cardayre, Stephen B


    Alkanes, the major constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are naturally produced by diverse species; however, the genetics and biochemistry behind this biology have remained elusive. Here we describe the discovery of an alkane biosynthesis pathway from cyanobacteria. The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. The aldehyde decarbonylase is related to the broadly functional nonheme diiron enzymes. Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures of alkanes and alkenes. These genes and enzymes can now be leveraged for the simple and direct conversion of renewable raw materials to fungible hydrocarbon fuels.

  8. Engineering of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Morten Emil; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara Ann


    -efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana...... of glucosinolate biosynthesis, although in planta validation of candidate gene function often is hampered by time-consuming generation of knockout and overexpression lines in Arabidopsis. To better exploit the increasing amount of data available from genomic sequencing, microarray database and RNAseq, time...... benthamiana. Moreover,the lessons learned in the rapid, transient tobacco system are readily translated to our robust, versatile yeast expression platform, where additional genes critical for large-scale microbial production of glucosinolates can be identified. We anticipate that the methodology presented...

  9. Mobile Claims Management : Smartphone Apps in Motor Insurance


    Baecker, Oliver; Ackermann, Lukas; Ackermann, Walter; Fleisch, Elgar


    As of April 2010, several Swiss motor insurers offer mobile apps that enable customers to submit a loss report. This article discusses the emergence of mobile apps in the insurance industry and the impact of mobile technology on claims management in motor insurance. We also present a demonstrator that goes beyond existing solutions by integrating a mobile app with a commercial claims management enterprise system. The technical aspects are complemented by results from expert interviews on mobi...

  10. Small interfering RNA against transcription factor STAT6 leads to increased cholesterol synthesis in lung cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Dubey

    Full Text Available STAT6 transcription factor has become a potential molecule for therapeutic intervention because it regulates broad range of cellular processes in a large variety of cell types. Although some target genes and interacting partners of STAT6 have been identified, its exact mechanism of action needs to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to further characterize the molecular interactions, networks, and functions of STAT6 by profiling the mRNA expression of STAT6 silenced human lung cells (NCI-H460 using microarrays. Our analysis revealed 273 differentially expressed genes after STAT6 silencing. Analysis of the gene expression data with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA software revealed Gene expression, Cell death, Lipid metabolism as the functions associated with highest rated network. Cholesterol biosynthesis was among the most enriched pathways in IPA as well as in PANTHER analysis. These results have been validated by real-time PCR and cholesterol assay using scrambled siRNA as a negative control. Similar findings were also observed with human type II pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells, A549. In the present study we have, for the first time, shown the inverse relationship of STAT6 with the cholesterol biosynthesis in lung cancer cells. The present findings are potentially significant to advance the understanding and design of therapeutics for the pathological conditions where both STAT6 and cholesterol biosynthesis are implicated viz. asthma, atherosclerosis etc.

  11. Designing, developing, and testing an app for parents being discharged early postnatally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Wagner, Lis; Clemensen, Jane


    , and testing of an app as a viable information technology solution. The app was tested with 10 new families. The test results suggest that the new families and the nurses found the app to be viable and the app met the new families' needs for follow-up support. However, the app required refinements and wider...... testing. •We designed, developed, and testet an app for the iPad.•The app was viable, but the app requires refinements and wider testing.•The app met the new families' needs for follow-up support.•There is a potential for ensuring postnatal security with the use of technology....

  12. The ABC of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plösch, Torsten


    Cholesterol fulfills an indispensable role in mammalian physiology. It is an important constituent of all cell membranes. Furthermore, it is the precursor of steroid hormones, which regulate a variety of physiological functions, and of bile salts, which are necessary for the generation of bile flow

  13. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.


    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  14. APP physiological and pathophysiological functions:insights from animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinxi Guo; Zilai Wang; Hongmei Li; Mary Wiese; Hui Zheng


    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been under intensive study in recent years,mainly due to its critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides generated from APP proteolytic cleavage can aggregate,leading to plaque formation in human AD brains.Point mutations of APP affecting Aβ production are found to be causal for hereditary early onset familial AD.It is very likely that elucidating the physiological properties of APP will greatly facilitate the understanding of its role in AD pathogenesis.A number of APP loss- and gainof-function models have been established in model organisms including Caenorhabditis elegans,Drosophila,zebrafish and mouse.These in vivo models provide us valuable insights into APP physiological functions.In addition,several knock-in mouse models expressing mutant APP at a physiological level are available to allow us to study AD pathogenesis without APP overexpression.This article will review the current physiological and pathophysiological animal models of APP.

  15. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Panic Disorder. (United States)

    Van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Khazaal, Yasser


    Quality of smartphone apps related to panic: smartphone apps have a growing role in health care. This study assessed the quality of English-language apps for panic disorder (PD) and compared paid and free apps. Keywords related to PD were entered into the Google Play Store search engine. Apps were assessed using the following quality indicators: accountability, interactivity, self-help score (the potential of smartphone apps to help users in daily life), and evidence-based content quality. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the "Health on the Net" label were also used as content quality indicators as well as the number of downloads. Of 247 apps identified, 52 met all inclusion criteria. The content quality and self-help scores of these PD apps were poor. None of the assessed indicators were associated with payment status or number of downloads. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted the content quality and self-help scores. Poor content quality and self-help scores of PD smartphone apps highlight the gap between their technological potential and the overall quality of available products.

  16. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps


    He, Dongjing; Naveed,Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara


    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Intern...

  17. Apps: a new medium for non-fiction innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Allen


    Full Text Available Apps are now a dominant content medium: in the US people spend more time on apps than they do watching TV. Non-fiction content is being avidly consumed on mobile devices, but in a completely different way to the book model. This article explores three strands of potential that the app medium holds for non-fiction content, putting forward the case that apps have the power to further weave non-fiction into the fabric of society and life.

  18. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards


    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  19. 3rd MeTrApp Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Hüsing, Mathias


    This volume deals with topics such as mechanism and machine design, biomechanics and medical engineering, gears, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and machines, micromechanisms and microactuators, and history of mechanisms and transmissions. Following MeTrApp 2011 and 2013, held under the auspices of the IFToMM, these proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications offer a platform for original research presentations for researchers, scientists, industry experts and students in the fields of mechanisms and transmissions with special emphasis on industrial applications in order to stimulate the exchange of new and innovative ideas.

  20. Leakiness and Creepiness in App Space: User Perceptions of Privacy and Mobile App Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Mainwaring, Scott; Skúladóttir, Halla Hrund


    Mobile devices are playing an increasingly intimate role in everyday life. However, users can be surprised when in- formed of the data collection and distribution activities of apps they install. We report on two studies of smartphone users in western European countries, in which users were confr...

  1. The App Map: A Tool for Systematic Evaluation of Apps for Early Literacy Learning (United States)

    Israelson, Madeleine Heins


    As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…

  2. The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis. (United States)

    Bulley, Sean; Laing, William


    We review the regulation of ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis, focusing on the l-galactose pathway. We discuss the regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis at the level of gene transcription (both repression and enhancement) and translation (feedback inhibition of translation by ascorbate concentration) and discuss the eight proteins that have been demonstrated to date to affect ascorbate concentration in plant tissues. GDP-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and GDP-mannose epimerase are critical steps that regulate ascorbate biosynthesis. These and other biosynthetic genes are controlled at the transcriptional level, while GGP is also controlled at the translational level. Ascorbate feedback on enzyme activity has not been observed unequivocally.

  3. What You Need to Know about Cholesterol (United States)

    ... 164304.html What You Need to Know About Cholesterol Heart expert explains the difference between good and ... 28, 2017 MONDAY, March 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cholesterol plays a vital role in your health, so ...

  4. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  5. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Cholesterol--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Brand Name Generic Name Zetia Ezetimibe ...

  6. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector. (United States)

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L


    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  7. Cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride metabolism intertwined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen


    Hyperlipidemie wordt gekarakteriseerd door verhoogd plasma cholesterol en/of triglyceriden en sterk geassocieerd met het risico op cardiovasculaire aandoeningen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar de regulatie van plasma cholesterol en triglyceriden concentraties en de achterliggende mechani

  8. Construction of Recombinant Plasmid Harboring APP717 Mutation and Preliminary Study of APP Proteolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoqing; XUE Zheng; ZHANG Suming


    In order to investigate the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and study the enzy-matic progress of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the fluorescent eukaryotic expression plasmid of C99 was constructed containing APP717 mutation. The fragment encoding the last 99-aa of APP(which was named C99 containing APP717 mutation), together with the fragment encoding yellow fluorescence protein (which was named YFP) were amplified by PCR. The two fragments (YFP andC99) were inserted into the vector pcDNA3.0. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.0-YFP-C99 was accomplished and its authenticity was confirmed by enzyme digestion and sequencing. Then SH-SY5Y cells were transiently transfected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.0-YFP-C99. The expression of the fusion gene was detected by laser confocalmicroscopy. Amyloid-β (Aβ) was de- tected by both microscopy and immunochemistry. The authenticity of the construct was confirmed by the endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing. The YFP fluorescence could be seen and proved the expression of fusion gene. Aβ labeled by YFP was detected by confocalmicroscopy and confirmed by immunocytochemistry. It was found that Aβ accumulated and deposited in the intracytoplasm, mem-brane and outside of the cell. Furthermore, Aβ accumulated mainly within the cell ahead of the depo-sition in the cell space and the cell shape was rough. It was suggested that Aβ could be generatedwithin the cells. Aβ accumulated in the cell at the early stage before the deposition outside of the cells.Intracellular Aβ accumulation induced the secondary damage to the cells and caused the cell shape rough. Taken together, the recombinant plasmid, pcDNA3.0-YFP-C99 could be a useful tool to fur-ther study the cleavage mechanism of APP and to explore the pathogenesis of AD.

  9. Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain


    Zhang, Juan; Qiang LIU


    Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease (HD)...

  10. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion. (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad


    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  11. Mechanism of Resistance to Dietary Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R. Boone


    Full Text Available Background. Alterations in expression of hepatic genes that could contribute to resistance to dietary cholesterol were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, which are known to be resistant to the serum cholesterol raising action of dietary cholesterol. Methods. Microarray analysis was used to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in rats in response to dietary cholesterol. Changes were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Western blotting was employed to measure changes in hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase protein. Results. Of the 28,000 genes examined using the Affymetrix rat microarray, relatively few were significantly altered. As expected, decreases were observed for several genes that encode enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The largest decreases were seen for squalene epoxidase and lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP 51A1. These changes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. LDL receptor expression was not altered by dietary cholesterol. Critically, the expression of cholesterol 7α hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis, was increased over 4-fold in livers of rats fed diets containing 1% cholesterol. In contrast, mice, which are not resistant to dietary cholesterol, exhibited lower hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1 protein levels, which were not increased in response to diets containing 2% cholesterol.

  12. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.


    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  13. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.


    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  14. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)


    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  15. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation. (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.


    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  16. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis. (United States)

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A


    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  17. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui


    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  18. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia. (United States)

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H


    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux.

  19. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook


    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, P<0.01), peer influence on exercise (subjective norm) (−0.51, P<0.05), peer influence on exercise with apps (subjective norm) (−1.02, P<0.01), perceived difficulties in exercising with apps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, P<0.001), and the expected frequency of exercise with apps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (P<0.0001 in a sign test). Subscale total scores indicated significant decreases in subjective norm regarding exercise (−0.72, P<0.05), subjective norm regarding exercise with apps (−1.72, P<0.01), and perceived behavioral control over exercising with apps (−2.56, P<0.01) between pre and posttest. When comparing app users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total

  20. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam


    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  1. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage (United States)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.


    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  2. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials (United States)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  3. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.


    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originat

  4. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; van Deursen, Jan M; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) cont

  5. 76 FR 49485 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Lifeline Facebook App Challenge” (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Lifeline Facebook App Challenge...: The ``Lifeline Facebook App Challenge'' is a challenge aimed at multidisciplinary teams of technology... Facebook as a platform for connecting individuals together through an application (app) that will...

  6. An Analysis of WhatsApp Forensics in Android Smartphones


    Shubham Sahu


    — WhatsApp is mobile application which allows exchange of messages, videos, audio’s and images via Smartphone. The increased use of IM on Android phones has turned to be goldmine for mobile and computer forensic investigators. This paper focuses on conducting forensic data analysis by extracting useful information from WhatsApp and from similar applications installed on Android platform.

  7. Mobile Apps to Support and Assess Foreign Language Learning (United States)

    Berns, Anke; Palomo-Duarte, Manuel; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Ladrón, Juan Miguel; Márquez, Andrea Calderón


    In the last two decades there have been many attempts to integrate all kinds of mobile devices and apps to support formal as well as informal learning processes. However, most of the available apps still support mainly individual learning, using mobile devices to deliver content rather than providing learners with the opportunity to interact with…

  8. Mobile Distance Learning with Smartphones and Apps in Higher Education (United States)

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban


    In this paper, the results of researcher' ongoing activities regarding the use of smartphones and a specific subject-app used at the Spanish National University of Distance Education (UNED) have been reported. The purpose of this trial is to assess the app's didactic use and potential to enhance student learning in university subjects in…

  9. Citrix XenApp 7.5 desktop virtualization solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Andy


    If you are a Citrix® engineer, a virtualization consultant, or an IT project manager with prior experience of using Citrix XenApp® and related technologies for desktop virtualization and want to further explore the power of XenApp® for flawless desktop virtualization, then this book is for you.

  10. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan


    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  11. WhatsApp in Clinical Practice: A Literature Review. (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E


    Several spontaneous telemedicine services using WhatsApp Messenger have started in South Africa raising issues of confidentiality, data security and storage, record keeping and reporting. This study reviewed the literature on WhatsApp in clinical practice, to determine how it is used, and users' satisfaction.

  12. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies. (United States)

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D


    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy.

  13. Microlearning mApp raises health competence: hybrid service design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, L.P.A.; Foerster, F.; Bruck, P.A.; Motiwalla, L.; Jonker, C.M.


    Work place health support interventions can help support our aging work force, with mApps offering cost-effectiveness opportunities. Previous research shows that health support apps should offer users enough newness and relevance each time they are used. Otherwise the ‘eHealth law of attrition’ appl

  14. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn


    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  15. Examining Preservice Teachers' Criteria for Evaluating Educational Mobile Apps (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Uygun, Erdem; Altan, Tugba


    Recent interest in integrating mobile apps into teaching will continue growing. There remains, however, a pressing need to develop methods and resources to support and educate preservice teachers about the use of these technologies. This case study aimed to examine preservice teachers' criteria for evaluating educational mobile apps. Nineteen…

  16. Validation of a Tool Evaluating Educational Apps for Smart Education (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Wan


    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an evaluation tool of educational apps for smart education. Based on literature reviews, a potential model for evaluating educational apps was suggested. An evaluation tool consisting of 57 survey items was delivered to 156 students in middle and high schools. An exploratory factor analysis was…

  17. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen


    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  18. "Apps"--An Innovative Way to Share Extension Knowledge (United States)

    Dvorak, Joseph S.; Franke-Dvorak, Tanya C.; Price, Randy R.


    Extension professionals across the country are continuously seeking innovative ways to reach clientele and to disseminate timely, educational information. A new avenue to reach clientele includes the use of smartphone "apps." The "Machinery Sizing" app, which was developed to ease the estimation of tractor horsepower to…

  19. Using a Mobile Gaming App to Enhance Accounting Education (United States)

    Seow, Poh-Sun; Wong, Suay-Peng


    The authors describe the first mobile gaming app for learning accounting, Accounting Challenge (ACE). On September 30, 2016, ACE had been downloaded 23,230 times, spanning 90 countries, and had won three international teaching awards. The app was motivated by the aim to empower students to learn accounting in a fun way, outside of the classroom.…

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein APPsα (United States)

    Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.


    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein.

  1. GeoMapApp: A Cross-Platform app for Geophysical Data Exploration and Visualisation (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.


    Apps that provide convenient, integrated access to a range of geophysical data have wide applicability in both research and teaching. GeoMapApp (, a free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory provides casual and specialist users alike with intuitive access to hundreds of built-in geoscience data sets covering geophysics, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and cryospherics. Users can also import their own data tables, spreadsheets, shapefiles, grids, and images. Simple manipulation and analysis tools combined with layering capabilities and engaging visualisations provide a powerful app with which to explore and interrogate geoscience data in its proper geospatial context thus helping users to more easily gain deeper insight and understanding from real-world data. The backbone of GeoMapApp is a regularly-updated multi-resolution elevation base map covering the oceans and continents and includes measurements ranging from Space Shuttle terrestrial data to ultra-high-resolution surveys of coral reefs and seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Examples of built-in geophysical data sets include interactive earthquake locations and focal mechanism (CMT) solutions; underway cruise track profiles; plate tectonic velocities, seafloor crustal age and heat flow; multi-channel seismic reflection profiles; gravity, magnetic, and geoid anomalies; sidescan; subduction zone interface depths; and, EarthScope station locations. Dynamic links point to data sources and additional information. There are dedicated menus for GeoPRISMS, MARGINS, and Ridge2000 data sets. A versatile profiling tool provides instant access to data cross-sections, and contouring and 3-D views are also offered. Tabular data - both imported and built-in - can be displayed in a variety of ways and users can quickly select data points directly from the map. Layer opacity and on/off toggles allow easy data set

  2. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet


    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  3. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel


    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  4. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux (United States)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan


    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  5. Exploring the materiality of literary apps for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist


    With its possibilities of combining text, music, sound effects, stills, animation movies, verbal language, and, not least, interactivity, children’s literature is increasingly being realized in the app-format. This digital and medial literary development calls for new analytical approaches...... of interaction, this article suggests how a materiality approach can shed light on the formation of meaning in literary apps for children. The analysis is founded on three aspects of materiality of literary apps: its manifestation as text, its embedment in a medium, and its manner of being and interacting...... an understanding for literary apps for children and cross-media reading. Keywords Literary apps for children, materiality, digital literature, N. Katherine Hayles, interface...

  6. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps. (United States)

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A; Nahrstedt, Klara


    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data.

  7. Building Android Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Jonathan


    If you know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, you already have the tools you need to develop Android applications. This hands-on book shows you how to use these open source web standards to design and build apps that can be adapted for any Android device -- without having to use Java. You'll learn how to create an Android-friendly web app on the platform of your choice, and then convert it to a native Android app with the free PhoneGap framework. Discover why device-agnostic mobile apps are the wave of the future, and start building apps that offer greater flexibility and a broader reach. Learn the

  8. Flower like Bi structures on Pt surface facilitating effective cholesterol biosensing. (United States)

    V C, Soorya; Berchmans, Sheela


    This work demonstrates effective biosensing of cholesterol with the help of an efficient inorganic H2O2 transducer based on Pt-Bi combined with the organic enzyme platform. It could be shown that the Bi (bismuth) adatoms modified Pt (platinum) surface displays enhanced catalytic oxidation of H2O2 at neutral pH and the catalytic oxidation of H2O2 occurs at a lower potential of 0.25V vs NCE (normal calomel electrode). The sensing platform is highly sensitive and shows linear response towards [H2O2] in the absence of any redox mediator or enzyme. The H2O2 sensing platform, further modified with cholesterol oxidase led to cholesterol biosensing with a sensitivity of 3.41μAmM(-1)cm(-2). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) was calculated to be 0.43mM which indicates high binding affinity with the substrate. The cholesterol biosensor does not suffer from the interferences due to other common electroactive species and is highly stable.

  9. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism. (United States)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K


    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  10. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.


    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  11. Cholesterol metabolism and homeostasis in the brain. (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Qiang


    Cholesterol is an essential component for neuronal physiology not only during development stage but also in the adult life. Cholesterol metabolism in brain is independent from that in peripheral tissues due to blood-brain barrier. The content of cholesterol in brain must be accurately maintained in order to keep brain function well. Defects in brain cholesterol metabolism has been shown to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and some cognitive deficits typical of the old age. The brain contains large amount of cholesterol, but the cholesterol metabolism and its complex homeostasis regulation are currently poorly understood. This review will seek to integrate current knowledge about the brain cholesterol metabolism with molecular mechanisms.

  12. Using Mobile App Development Tools to Build a GIS Application (United States)

    Mital, A.; Catchen, M.; Mital, K.


    Our group designed and built working web, android, and IOS applications using different mapping libraries as bases on which to overlay fire data from NASA. The group originally planned to make app versions for Google Maps, Leaflet, and OpenLayers. However, because the Leaflet library did not properly load on Android, the group focused efforts on the other two mapping libraries. For Google Maps, the group first designed a UI for the web app and made a working version of the app. After updating the source of fire data to one which also provided historical fire data, the design had to be modified to include the extra data. After completing a working version of the web app, the group used webview in android, a built in resource which allowed porting the web app to android without rewriting the code for android. Upon completing this, the group found Apple IOS devices had a similar capability, and so decided to add an IOS app to the project using a function similar to webview. Alongside this effort, the group began implementing an OpenLayers fire map using a simpler UI. This web app was completed fairly quickly relative to Google Maps; however, it did not include functionality such as satellite imagery or searchable locations. The group finished the project with a working android version of the Google Maps based app supporting API levels 14-19 and an OpenLayers based app supporting API levels 8-19, as well as a Google Maps based IOS app supporting both old and new screen formats. This project was implemented by high school and college students under an SGT Inc. STEM internship program

  13. Mobile app versus Web app: a comparison using 2008-2012 "PubMed for Handhelds" server data. (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang


    Recent surveys show that mobile apps are more popular than Web apps. Apple's iTunes Store, now has about 800,000 apps and reported to have about 40 billion downloads. Android apps, although fewer, is available to the most number of smartphones today. About 40,000 apps are medical or health related. We developed a PubMed4Hh mobile app for iPhone/iPad users to search MEDLINE/PubMed with same features as our Web-based search tools, in use since 2002. Five-year (2008-2012) server data for PubMed4Hh and Web app were analyzed. Searches using the mobile app significantly increased compared to the same five-year time period. Month-by-month comparison showed a 3 to 5-fold increase in queries. The six-month total accesses comparison increased 280% from the previous four-year average. A review of 500 randomly selected queries revealed that the majority of queries were clinical questions ((97.8%) and 61% of these queries are searches related to therapy.

  14. Apps and EFL: A Case Study on the Use of Smartphone Apps to Learn English by Four Japanese University Students (United States)

    Mindog, Emily


    This study explores, describes and analyzes the utilization of smartphone apps by four Japanese university students to support learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Findings indicate that intermediate language learners use apps to access content and communicate on SNS and are not keen on studying discrete language parts. Participants…

  15. Instant RubyMotion app development

    CERN Document Server

    Laborde, Gant


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, task-based, step-by-step tutorial that will get you started with using RubyMotion to quickly and efficiently write iOS apps.To make the most of this book, you should understand the basics of programming concepts and have a basic understanding of a language similar to Ruby. If you are an Objective-C programmer, you'll learn the advantages of RubyMotion which can access the benefits of Cocoapods, but takes everything a st

  16. SimApp 1.8.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    System for converting DESIRE (Direct Executing Simulation in Real Time) simulation models to executable code models (C# / C++). These converted models are used as the basis for 2 products, one of which is the focus of this review: an engineering design interface for Fissile Solution Systems. ModelConverter.exe (C#) converts DESIRE model inputs to a C++ plug-in subclass. SimApp.exe (C# / C++) has a C++ dll that is a numerical integration engine that the Converted models plug into. The engineering design interface is a C# GUI that calls on the C++ dll to execute a particular converted model. The GUI allows the user to specify the length of a simulation, run the simulation, view data plots and data tables. Stability plots may also be produced and manipulated. The engineering design interface will be released as source code and executable; the model converter source is also intended for release.

  17. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), a novel mitochondrial cholesterol transporter. (United States)

    Miller, Walter L


    Cholesterol is a vital component of cellular membranes, and is the substrate for biosynthesis of steroids, oxysterols and bile acids. The mechanisms directing the intracellular trafficking of this nearly insoluble molecule have received increased attention through the discovery of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and similar proteins containing StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domains. StAR can transfer cholesterol between synthetic liposomes in vitro, an activity which appears to correspond to the trans-cytoplasmic transport of cholesterol to mitochondria. However, trans-cytoplasmic cholesterol transport in vivo appears to involve the recently-described protein StarD4, which is expressed in most cells. Steroidogenic cells must also move large amounts of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the first steroidogenic enzyme, which lies on the matrix side of the inner membrane; this action requires StAR. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, a rare and severe disorder of human steroidogenesis, results from mutations in StAR, providing a StAR knockout of nature that has provided key insights into its activity. Cell biology experiments show that StAR moves large amounts of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane, but acts exclusively on the outer membrane. Biophysical data show that only the carboxyl-terminal alpha-helix of StAR interacts with the outer membrane. Spectroscopic data and molecular dynamics simulations show that StAR's interactions with protonated phospholipid head groups on the outer mitochondrial membrane induce a conformational change (molten globule transition) needed for StAR's activity. StAR appears to act in concert with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, but the precise itinerary of a cholesterol molecule entering the mitochondrion remains unclear.

  18. [Future trend medical apps. From the apps store directly into medical practice?]. (United States)

    Gehring, H; Pramann, O; Imhoff, M; Albrecht, U-V


    In day to day medical care, patients, nursing staff and doctors currently face a bewildering and rapidly growing number of health-related apps running on various "smart" devices and there are also uncountable possibilities for the use of such technology. Concerning regulation, a risk-based approach is applied for development and use (including safety and security considerations) of medical and health-related apps. Considering safety-related issues as well as organizational matters, this is a sensible approach but requires honest self-assessment as well as a high degree of responsibility, networking and good quality management by all those involved. This cannot be taken for granted. Apart from regulatory aspects it is important to not only consider what is reasonable, helpful or profitable. Quality aspects, safety matters, data protection and privacy as well as liability issues must also be considered but are often not adequately respected. If software quality is compromised, this endangers patient safety as well as data protection, privacy and data integrity. This can for example result in unwanted advertising or unauthorized access to the stored data by third parties; therefore, local, regional and international regulatory measures need to be applied in order to ensure safe use of medical apps in all possible areas, including the operating room (OR) with its highly specialized demands. Lawmakers need to include impulses from all stakeholders in their considerations and this should include input from existing private initiatives that already deal with the use and evaluation of apps in a medical context. Of course, this process needs to respect pre-existing national, European as well as international (harmonized) standards.

  19. Building Android Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript Making Native Apps with Standards-Based Web Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Jonathan


    It's true: if you know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, you already have the tools you need to develop Android applications. Now updated for HTML5, the second edition of this hands-on guide shows you how to use open source web standards to design and build apps that can be adapted for any Android device. You'll learn how to create an Android-friendly web app on the platform of your choice, and then use Adobe's free PhoneGap framework to convert it to a native Android app. Discover why device-agnostic mobile apps are the wave of the future, and start building apps that offer greater flexibility and

  20. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  1. The LibX LibApp Builder


    Vijay, Sony


    LibX is a browser extension that provides direct access to library resources. LibX enables users to add additional features to a webpage, such as placing a tutorial video on a digital library homepage. LibX achieves this ability of enhancing web pages through library applications, called LibApps. A LibApp examines a webpage, extracts and processes information of the page, and modifies the web content. It is possible to build an unlimited number of LibApps and enhance web pages in numerous way...

  2. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Vaqar


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp is a practical, hands-on guide that contains instruction-based examples from basic to advanced level topics. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp will serve as an excellent source of information for Citrix XenApp professionals and novices alike. It is assumed that readers have experience working with Citrix products and have some sort of familiarity with monitoring.

  3. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hu

    Full Text Available Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P < 0.05 and the hepatic content (P < 0.01 of cholesterol. Accordingly, the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMGCR was up-regulated (P < 0.05 for both mRNA and protein, while CYP7A1 which converts cholesterol to bile acids was down-regulated (P < 0.05 for mRNA and P = 0.07 for protein. Moreover, hepatic protein content of the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 which regulates cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, and the mRNA abundance of ATP binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1 which mediates cholesterol counter transport were significantly (P < 0.05 increased in betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P < 0.05, which was associated with global genomic DNA hypermethylation (P < 0.05 and diminished gene repression mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (P < 0.05. Furthermore, CpG methylation level on gene promoters was found to be increased (P < 0.05 for CYP7A1 yet decreased (P < 0.05 for ABCA1. These results indicate that in ovo betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  4. Imbalanced cholesterol metabolism in Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Xue-shan, Zhao; Juan, Peng; Qi, Wu; Zhong, Ren; Li-hong, Pan; Zhi-han, Tang; Zhi-sheng, Jiang; Gui-xue, Wang; Lu-shan, Liu


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that is mainly caused by β-amyloid accumulation. A large number of studies have shown that elevated cholesterol levels may perform a function in AD pathology, and several cholesterol-related gene polymorphisms are associated with this disease. Although numerous studies have shown the important function of cholesterol in AD pathogenesis and development, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To further elucidate cholesterol metabolism disorder and AD, we first, review metabolism and regulation of the cholesterol in the brain. Second, we summarize the literature stating that hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of AD. Third, we discuss the main mechanisms of abnormal cholesterol metabolism that increase the risk of AD. Finally, the relationships between AD and apolipoprotein E, PCSK9, and LRP1 are discussed in this article.

  5. Biophysical studies of cholesterol effects on chromatin. (United States)

    Silva, Isabel T G; Fernandes, Vinicius; Souza, Caio; Treptow, Werner; Santos, Guilherme Martins


    Changes in chromatin structure regulate gene expression and genome maintenance. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Previous work indicated that cholesterol, a ubiquitous cellular lipid, may bind to chromatin in vivo, suggesting a potential function for lipids in modulating chromatin architecture. However, the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol action on chromatin structure have remained unclear. Here, we explored the biophysical impact of cholesterol on nucleosome and chromatin fibers reconstituted in vitro and characterized in silico the cholesterol binding to nucleosome. Our findings support that cholesterol assists 10nm and 30nm chromatin formation and induces folding of long chromatin fibers as a result of direct interaction of the cholesterol to six nucleosomal binding sites.

  6. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms. (United States)

    Korasick, David A; Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C


    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.

  7. Evaluation of COTS Rad Detection Apps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Eric [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)


    Mobile applications are currently under distribution to smart phones utilizing the built-in charge coupled-device (CCD) camera as a radiation detector. The CCD detector has a very low but measurable gamma interaction cross section so the mechanism is feasible, especially for higher dose rate environments. Given that in a large release of radioactive material these ‘crowd sourced’ measurements will be put forth for consideration, a testing and evaluation of the accuracy and uncertainty of the Apps is a critical endeavor. Not only is the accuracy of the reported measurement of concern to the immediate user’s safety, a quantitative uncertainty is required for a government response such as the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) to accept the values for consideration in the determination of regions exceeding protective action guidelines. Already, prompted by the Fukushima nuclear material releases, several repositories of this crowd-sourced data have been created (,, and although the question remains as to the reliability of measurements incorporated into these repositories. In cases of conflict between the real-time published crowd-sourced data and governmental protective actions prepared literature should be on-hand documenting why the difference, if any, exists. Four applications for iOS devices were obtained along with hardware to benchmark their performance. Gamma/X-Ray Detector by Stephan Hotto, Geiger Camera by Senscare, and RadioactivityCounter App by Hotray LTD are all the applications available for distribution within the US that utilize the CCD camera sensor for detection of radiation levels. The CellRad app under development by Idaho National Laboratory for the Android platform was evaluated. In addition, iRad Geiger with the associated hardware accessory was also benchmarked. Radiation fields were generated in a Cs-137 JL Shepherd

  8. The Med AppJam: a model for an interprofessional student-centered mHealth app competition. (United States)

    Youm, Julie; Wiechmann, Warren


    The Med AppJam is a 2-week long competition where students from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine are partnered with students from the University of California, Irvine School of Information and Computer Sciences in interprofessional teams to develop mobile health applications for use by clinicians and patients. The success of the Med AppJam comes from the unique opportunity for students to mutually contribute their content expertise to improve the clinical landscape while expanding their technology literacy and savvy. Since 2012, about 285 computer science students and over 90 medical students have collaborated to design and develop 53 iOS mHealth apps during the event. The Med AppJam model has been replicated in an Autism AppJam, a competition focused on the needs of a specific population, and with high school students in a mini Pre-Med AppJam using a paper prototyping approach. It is proposed that other medical schools consider implementation of a local Med AppJam as a viable model for engaging students in technology for healthcare.

  9. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor in neurosteroid biosynthesis, neuropathology and neurological disorders. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, V; Lecanu, L; Brown, R C; Han, Z; Yao, Z-X


    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a mitochondrial protein expressed at high levels in steroid synthesizing tissues, including the glial cells of the brain. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor binds cholesterol with high affinity and is a key element of the cholesterol mitochondrial import machinery responsible for supplying the substrate cholesterol to the first steroidogenic enzyme, thus initiating and maintaining neurosteroid biosynthesis. Neurosteroid formation and metabolism of steroid intermediates are critical components of normal brain function. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor also binds with high affinity various classes of compounds. Upon ligand activation peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor-dependent cholesterol transport into mitochondria is accelerated leading in increased formation of neuroactive steroids. These steroids, such as allopregnanolone, have been shown to be involved in various neurological disorders, such as anxiety and mood disorders. Thus, peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor drug ligand-induced neuroactive steroid formation offers a means to regulate brain dysfunction. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor basal expression is upregulated in a number of neuropathologies, including gliomas and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in various forms of brain injury and inflammation. In Alzheimer's disease pathology neurosteroid biosynthesis is altered and a decrease in the intermediate 22R-hydroxycholesterol levels is observed. This steroid was found to exert neuroprotective properties against beta-amyloid neurotoxicity. Based on this observation, a stable spirostenol derivative showing to display neuroprotective properties was identified, suggesting that compounds developed based on critical intermediates of neurosteroid biosynthesis could offer novel means for neuroprotection. In conclusion, changes in peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and neurosteroid levels are part of the phenotype seen in

  10. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne; Dikkers; Uwe; JF; Tietge


    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the f inal step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the main pathophys...

  11. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC


    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe JF


    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the ...

  12. 对高校移动图书馆 APP 建设的探讨%Discussion on the Construction of University Mobile Library APP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文从我国移动图书馆 APP 建设现状着手,重点分析了移动图书馆 APP 建设中存在的不足,进而探讨了怎样才能真正做好我国高校移动图书馆 APP 建设。%This article,from the current situation of the mobile library APP construction,focuses on the lack of construction in the presence of APP mobile library,and then discusses how to really do a good job moving APP university library construction in China.

  13. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen


    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  14. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr


    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  15. Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts (United States)

    Toppozini, Laura; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Armstrong, Clare L.; Yamani, Zahra; Kučerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.


    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules, we observe raftlike structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raftlike structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  16. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline. (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter


    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  17. Razvoj dnevnika potovanj s pomočjo AppInventorja in AppInventor Java Bridge-a


    Bezjak, Žan


    V diplomski nalogi smo proučili in analizirali orodje AppInventor, predstavili njegove osnove podatke, njegove prednosti in na drugi strani tudi slabosti. Poglobili smo se tudi v knjižnico AppInventor Java Bridge, ki deluje na principu že omenjenega orodja, ter v diplomskem delu izpostavili prednosti in slabosti te knjižnice. Skozi nalogo smo zgradili dve enaki aplikaciji, po eno v vsakem izmed omenjenih orodij, in na ta način preučili podobnosti oziroma razlike med orodjem AppInventor ter kn...

  18. Leishmania donovani activates SREBP2 to modulate macrophage membrane cholesterol and mitochondrial oxidants for establishment of infection. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Madhuchhanda; Basu Ball, Writoban; Das, Pijush K


    Establishment of infection by an intracellular pathogen depends on successful internalization with a concomitant neutralization of host defense machinery. Leishmania donovani, an intramacrophage pathogen, targets host SREBP2, a critical transcription factor, to regulate macrophage plasma membrane cholesterol and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, favoring parasite invasion and persistence. Leishmania infection triggered membrane-raft reorientation-dependent Lyn-PI3K/Akt pathway activation which in turn deactivated GSK3β to stabilize nuclear SREBP2. Moreover, cells perceiving less available intracellular cholesterol due to its sequestration at the plasma membrane resulted in the deregulation of the ER-residing SCAP-SREBP2-Insig circuit thereby assisting increased nuclear translocation of SREBP2. Both increased nuclear transport and stabilization of SREBP2 caused HMGCR-catalyzed cholesterol biosynthesis-mediated plasma membrane cholesterol enrichment leading to decreased membrane-fluidity and plausibly assisting delay in phagosomal acidification. Parasite survival ensuing entry was further ensured by SREBP2-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of UCP2, which suppressed mitochondrial ROS generation, one of the primary microbicidal molecules in macrophages recognized for its efficacy against Leishmania. Functional knock-down of SREBP2 both in vitro and in vivo was associated with reduction in macrophage plasma membrane cholesterol, increased ROS production and lower parasite survival. To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, reveals that Leishmania exploits macrophage cholesterol-dependent SREBP2 circuit to facilitate its entry and survival within the host.

  19. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Röhrl, Clemens


    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy...... is to use intrinsically fluorescent sterols, as dehydroergosterol (DHE), having minimal chemical alteration compared to cholesterol but giving low fluorescence signals in the UV region of the spectrum. Alternatively, one can use dye-tagged cholesterol analogs and in particular BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol......), whose synthesis and initial characterization was pioneered by Robert Bittman. Here, we give a general overview of the properties and applications but also limitations of BODIPY-tagged cholesterol probes for analyzing intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We describe our own experiences...

  20. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins. (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip


    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  1. [Is there a relationship between cholesterol reduction, low levels of cholesterol and mortality?]. (United States)

    LaRosa, J C


    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  2. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol (United States)

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander


    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  3. Practical Considerations for Use of Mobile Apps at the Tactical Edge (United States)


    early step toward an app store for the DoD was taken. A competition, called Apps for the Army ( A4A ), was held, and 53 apps were developed and... A4A competition—in Marketplace: 7 doctrine and publications, 4 training, 4 geospatial solutions, and 10 others. Clearly, app supply is a major issue

  4. iPad Apps That Promote Mathematical Knowledge? "Yes, They Exist!" (United States)

    Larkin, Kevin


    Having trouble finding the right app? In this article, Kevin Larkin discusses the difficulties teachers encounter when searching the App Store for high quality, appropriate apps that support students' mathematical learning. Kevin provides a useful link to a collection of over 100 app reviews.

  5. Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs. (United States)

    González-Tablas, Ana I; Tapiador, Juan E


    We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user's security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place.

  6. Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. González-Tablas


    Full Text Available We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user’s security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place.

  7. Cost Savings Associated With Pharmacy Student Interventions During APPEs


    Shepler, Brian M.


    Objective. To quantify the impact of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions in terms of number and cost savings throughout advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) using a Web-based documentation program.

  8. CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2011). CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training. Presentation given in Workshop at CELSTEC Learning Lab for Bluetea. February, 21, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  9. 那些神一样的App

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金姬; 刘绮黎


    2013年5月16日,苹果App Store的App下载量突破500亿次,App数量也高达85万。为了庆祝这一历史时刻,苹果公布了App Store成立5年以来25款最畅销应用榜单。有趣的是,榜单上的许多App是早期推出的,这可能与App Store的盈利模式有关——在App Store上,一款新App下载是通常是免费的,但升级该

  10. Appreneur secrets to success in the app store

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Taylor


    You are interested in making an app. You have read all of the stories of successful developers and appreneurs. You are determined to get a piece of the pie. The world of apps is the fastest growing market in the world today, and it is here to stay. The best part is you can get in on it! Now what if I told you that without the knowledge contained in this book the odds of you making a profit are slim to none? What if I also told you that you probably wouldn't break even? There is more to apps than most people think. The average person assumes that if they make an app, they will instantly become

  11. Developing mental health mobile apps: Exploring adolescents' perspectives. (United States)

    Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda


    Mobile applications or 'apps' have significant potential for use in mental health interventions with adolescents. However, there is a lack of research exploring end users' needs from such technologies. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' needs and concerns in relation to mental health mobile apps. Five focus groups were conducted with young people aged 15-16 years (N = 34, 60% male). Participants were asked about their views in relation to the use of mental health mobile technologies and were asked to give their responses to a mental health app prototype. Participants identified (1) safety, (2) engagement, (3) functionality, (4) social interaction, (5) awareness, (6) accessibility, (7) gender and (8) young people in control as important factors. Understanding end users' needs and concerns in relation to this topic will inform the future development of youth-oriented mental health apps that are acceptable to young people.

  12. Melanoma detection using a mobile phone app (United States)

    Diniz, Luciano E.; Ennser, K.


    Mobile phones have had their processing power greatly increased since their invention a few decades ago. As a direct result of Moore's Law, this improvement has made available several applications that were impossible before. The aim of this project is to develop a mobile phone app, integrated with its camera coupled to an amplifying lens, to help distinguish melanoma. The proposed device has the capability of processing skin mole images and suggesting, using a score system, if it is a case of melanoma or not. This score system is based on the ABCDE signs of melanoma, and takes into account the area, the perimeter and the colors present in the nevus. It was calibrated and tested using images from the PH2 Dermoscopic Image Database from Pedro Hispano Hospital. The results show that the system created can be useful, with an accuracy of up to 100% for malign cases and 80% for benign cases (including common and atypical moles), when used in the test group.

  13. Purification and characterization of a novel cholesterol-lowering protein from the seeds of Senna obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "Juemingzi", a source of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been demonstrated to play a role in decreasing serum cholesterol concentration. In this study, a novel protein, which has shown an in-hibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis, was isolated from Senna obtusifolia L. seed by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The novel protein’s molecular mass was 19.7 kD and its pI was 4.80. Both SDS-PAGE and isoelectric-focusing (IEF) revealed a single Coomassie brilliant blue stained band, indicating that the novel protein was a single peptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the pro-tein was IPYISASFPLNIEFLPSE, which had no similarity with any other protein sequences in the NCBI protein database. Circular dichroism (CD) signals indicated that S. obtusifolia seed protein contained 12.5% α-helix, 55.6% β-sheet, and 31.9% random coil.

  14. Desmosterol and DHCR24: unexpected new directions for a terminal step in cholesterol synthesis. (United States)

    Zerenturk, Eser J; Sharpe, Laura J; Ikonen, Elina; Brown, Andrew J


    3β-Hydroxysterol Δ(24)-reductase (DHCR24) catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol. This ultimate step of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be remarkable in its diverse functions and the number of diseases it is implicated in from vascular disease to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to cancer to Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes the present knowledge on the DHCR24 gene, sterol Δ(24)-reductase protein and the regulation of both. In addition, the functions of desmosterol, DHCR24 and their roles in human diseases are discussed. It is apparent that DHCR24 exerts more complex effects than what would be expected based on the enzymatic activity of sterol Δ(24)-reduction alone, such as its influence in modulating oxidative stress. Increasing information about DHCR24 membrane association, processing, enzymatic regulation and interaction partners will provide further fundamental insights into DHCR24 and its many and varied biological roles.

  15. Purification and characterization of a novel cholesterol-lowering protein from the seeds of Senna obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuHuai; LI Mei; CHANG WenRui; GUO BaoJiang


    "Juemingzi", a source of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been demonstrated to play a role in decreasing serum cholesterol concentration. In this study, a novel protein, which has shown an in-hibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis, was isolated from Senna obtusifolia L. seed by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The novel protein's molecular mass was 19.7 kD and its pl was 4.80. Both SDS-PAGE and isoelectric-focusing (IEF) revealed a single Coomassie brilliant blue stained band, indicating that the novel protein was a single peptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the pro-tein was IPYISASFPLNIEFLPSE, which had no similarity with any other protein sequences in the NCBI protein database. Circular dichroism (CD) signals indicated that S. obtusifolia seed protein contained 12.5% α-helix, 55.6% β-sheet, and 31.9% random coil.

  16. Using apps for learning across the curriculum a literacy-based framework and guide

    CERN Document Server

    Beach, Richard


    How can apps be used to foster learning with literacy across the curriculum? This book offers both a theoretical framework for considering app affordances and practical ways to use apps to build students' disciplinary literacies and to foster a wide range of literacy practices.Using Apps for Learning Across the Curriculumpresents a wide range of different apps and also assesses their value features methods for and apps related to planning instruction and assessing student learning identifies favorite apps whose affordances are most likely to foster certain disciplinary literacies includes reso

  17. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko


    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed.

  18. Biosynthesis and transport of terpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ting, H.M.


    Terpenoids are the largest class of natural product that are produced by plants, with functions that range from a role in plant development to direct defence against pathogens and indirect defence against insects through the attraction of natural enemies. While terpene biosynthesis genes have been w

  19. Specialized Binary Analysis for Vetting Android APPS Using GUI Logic (United States)


    effects on employee productivity and happiness . An employee may want to use a newly released app that offers many attractive timesaving features to...boost productivity . Another employee may want to use an email app she is familiar and happy with rather than using the one officially sanctioned. Both...tradeoff productivity and happiness for security. 3 METHODS, ASSUMPTIONS, AND PROCEDURES 3.1 Descriptor-Based Analysis Android uses a permission system

  20. App Store与Android Market下载排行榜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    自从App Store中文界面推出之后,国内的Phone用户可谓异常兴奋,因为App Store带来的不仅仅是时尚,更多的是众多或功能强大,或实用有趣的软件和游戏。

  1. AppServ的安全测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  2. APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis in human cerebral cortex neurons


    Steven Moore; Evans, Lewis D.B.; Therese Andersson; Erik Portelius; James Smith; Tatyana B. Dias; Nathalie Saurat; Amelia McGlade; Peter Kirwan; Kaj Blennow; John Hardy; Henrik Zetterberg; Frederick J. Livesey


    This is the final version. It was first published by Elsevier at Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, a...

  3. iPhone Location Aware Apps by Example - Beginners Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chawdhary, Zeeshan


    Using a By example approach you will master the essentials of location awareness and augmented reality by building five complete apps using easy to follow step by step instructions geared towards newcomers. Novice to professional level iOS programmers who want to master location awareness and augmented reality. Build five practical location-based iOS Apps from scratch, a first for any book, converting learning into actual implementation.

  4. An Analysis of WhatsApp Forensics in Android Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Sahu


    Full Text Available — WhatsApp is mobile application which allows exchange of messages, videos, audio’s and images via Smartphone. The increased use of IM on Android phones has turned to be goldmine for mobile and computer forensic investigators. This paper focuses on conducting forensic data analysis by extracting useful information from WhatsApp and from similar applications installed on Android platform.

  5. From blood to gut : Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.


    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol lowering therapies By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body For a long time this removal via

  6. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.


    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  7. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J


    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  8. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K


    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  9. The Analysis Of Smartphone Apps In Geomatics Education (United States)

    Teo, T.-A.; Wu, H.-M.; Shih, T.-Y.; Tsai, F.


    Geomatics is a discipline of collecting, processing and analysing geospatial data. Data collection is a core process of geomatics which usually adopt precise equipment to measure geospatial data. With the development of technology, a smartphone in this present era is not simply for communication; several low cost measurement devices such as Global Positioning System (GPS), gyro and camera are assembled in a smartphone. Although the devices assembled in a smartphone could not meet the needs of accuracy requirement for many geomatics applications, millions of mobile applications (Apps) can be downloaded and installed from Google Play and Apple Store freely, and a variety of sensors can be chosen for user. Considering that the popularity and convenience of a smartphone, and assuming that the accuracy of those collected data is acceptable for learning purposes, it is expected that a smartphone can be employed in geomatics for hand-on education. For example, Vespucci OSM Editor is an App to edit the OpenStreetMap on Android. The user may have the hand-on experience on GPS positioning, web services and mapping via Vespucci OSM Editor. The aim of this paper is to collect and analyze different Apps for geomatics education. The Apps are classified into four categories, namely, surveying, remote sensing, GPS and Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, more than 20 free Apps are collected and analysed for different hand-on studies in geomatics education. Finally, all the related Apps are listed on a website for updating.

  10. ReadyVax: A new mobile vaccine information app. (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Frew, Paula M; Salmon, Daniel A; Whitney, Ellen; Omer, Saad B


    Vaccine information of varying quality is available through many different sources. We describe the creation, release and utilization of ReadyVax, a new mobile smartphone app providing access to trustworthy, evidence-based vaccine information for a target audience of healthcare providers, pharmacists, and patients (including parents of children). We describe the information content and technical development of ReadyVax. Between the hard launch of the app on February 12, 2015 and October 8, 2016, the app has been downloaded by 5,142 unique users, with 6,841 total app sessions initiated, comprising a total of 15,491 screen views (2.3 screens/session on average). ReadyVax has been downloaded by users in 102 different countries; most users (52%) are from the United States. We are continuing outreach efforts to increase app use, and planning for development of an Android-compatible version of ReadyVax, to increase the available market for the app.

  11. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.


    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  12. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism. (United States)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej; Bäckhed, Fredrik


    The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene expression in the liver. Germ-free and conventionally raised mice were fed a lard or fish oil diet for 11 weeks. We performed lipidomics analysis of the liver and serum and microarray analysis of the liver. As expected, most of the variation in the lipidomics dataset was induced by the diet, and abundance of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota-induced regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism is dependent on dietary lipid composition.

  13. Cholesterol orientation and tilt modulus in DMPC bilayers


    Khelashvili, George; Pabst, Georg; Harries, Daniel


    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrated bilayers containing mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Cholesterol at various ratios, to study the effect of cholesterol concentration on its orientation, and to characterize the link between cholesterol tilt and overall phospholipid membrane organization. The simulations show a substantial probability for cholesterol molecules to transiently orient perpendicular to the bilayer normal, and suggest that cholesterol...

  14. Mobile telephone apps in mental health practice: uses, opportunities and challenges


    Marley, Justin; Farooq, Saeed


    Smartphones are used by patients and clinicians alike. Vast numbers of software applications (apps) run on smartphones and carry out useful functions. Clinician- and patient-oriented mental health apps have been developed. In this article, we provide an overview of apps that are relevant for mental health. We look at clinician-oriented apps that support assessment, diagnosis and treatment as well as patient-oriented apps that support education and self-management. We conclude by looking at th...

  15. mHealth in Urology: A Review of Experts' Involvement in App Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Pereira-Azevedo

    Full Text Available Smartphones are increasingly playing a role in healthcare and previous studies assessing medical applications (apps have raised concerns about lack of expert involvement and low content accuracy. However, there are no such studies in Urology. We reviewed Urology apps with the aim of assessing the level of participation of healthcare professionals (HCP and scientific Urology associations in their development.A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Apple's App Store and Google's Play Store, for Urology apps, available in English. Apps were reviewed by three graders to determine the app's platform, target customer, developer, app type, app category, price and the participation of a HCP or a scientific Urology association in the development.The search yielded 372 apps, of which 150 were specific for Urology. A fifth of all apps had no HCP involvement (20.7% and only a third had been developed with a scientific Urology association (34.7%. The lowest percentage of HCP (13.4% and urological association (1.9% involvement was in apps designed for the general population. Furthermore, there was no contribution from an Urology society in "Electronic Medical Record" nor in "Patient Information" apps. A limitation of the study is that only Android and iOS apps were reviewed.Despite the increasing Mobile Health (mHealth market, this is the first study that demonstrates the lack of expert participation in the design of Urology apps, particularly in apps designed for the general public. Until clear regulation is enforced, the urological community should help regulate app development. Maintaining a register of certified apps or issuing an official scientific seal of approval could improve overall app quality. We propose that urologists become stakeholders in mHealth, shaping future app design and promoting peer-review app validation.

  16. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxfield, F. R.; van Meer, G.


    Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, invo

  17. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K.


    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of chol

  18. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus). (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood


    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  19. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.


    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers...... in a monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves...

  20. The Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    CERN Document Server

    Toppozini, Laura; Armstrong, Clare L; Yamani, Zahra; Kucerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstaedter, Maikel C


    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking and lipid/protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short-lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules we observe raft-like structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to orderin...

  1. Cholesterol in myelin biogenesis and hypomyelinating disorders. (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Stumpf, Sina Kristin


    The largest pool of free cholesterol in mammals resides in myelin membranes. Myelin facilitates rapid saltatory impulse propagation by electrical insulation of axons. This function is achieved by ensheathing axons with a tightly compacted stack of membranes. Cholesterol influences myelination at many steps, from the differentiation of myelinating glial cells, over the process of myelin membrane biogenesis, to the functionality of mature myelin. Cholesterol emerged as the only integral myelin component that is essential and rate-limiting for the development of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system. Moreover, disorders that interfere with sterol synthesis or intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids cause hypomyelination and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes recent results on the roles of cholesterol in CNS myelin biogenesis in normal development and under different pathological conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brain Lipids.

  2. The MapApp Virtual Seabed Explorer (United States)

    Haxby, W. F.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.


    MapApp is a downloadable, open source, prototype client application running in a desktop personal computing environment with the capability to explore two hundred million years of global ocean floor geology and geochemistry. It accomplishes the exploration and discovery in an integrated data environment of bathymetry, gravity, magnetic anomalies, reflection profiles, crustal ages, sediment composition, bedrock petrology and chemistry. Exploration is undertaken in a single visual interface with spawned windowpanes that communicate with each other. These panes provide the viewport for charting subsea landscapes, the spreadsheet for examination and manipulation of data discovered either by direct encounter or by query, the notebook for recording and downloading either original data or derived products, and dialog boxes to set parameters for models. All data are real measurements and their metadata reside in relational databases. The data come from decades of marine geological and geophysical surveys, coring, dredging, deep-sea drilling, and submersible dives. The lessons learned include the importance of rigorous data management, the need for quality-control of data accuracy, the discipline to keep the interface simple and intuitive, and the requirement to be functional over large scales of variable spatial and temporal resolution. A technical challenge is the programming difficulties presented by continuously changing versions of the PC client operating systems. The greatest scientific challenge is cost-effective mining of published textural data and convincing competitive researchers to contribute their data that is often already many years old. To retain and expand the user community of students, educators and researchers, we are discovering that it is equally as important to grow content as to add functionality.

  3. Treatment and Prevention of Breast Cancer Using Multifunctional Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis (United States)


    concentrations as low as 1 nM effectively reduced BT-474 and MCF-7 cell viability in 7-day assays (Fig. 1b). To determine whether RO...146:51–62 53 123 mammary cells . Concentrations of RO up to 10 lM reduced cancer cell viability , but had no effect on normal cells (Fig. 1c). We also...thus Fig. 6 Modulation of ERb activity influences RO-mediated effects on breast cancer cell viability . a BT-474 cells were treated with 10 lM RO ± 1

  4. mHealth in Urology: A Review of Experts’ Involvement in App Development (United States)

    Pereira-Azevedo, Nuno; Carrasquinho, Eduardo; Cardoso de Oliveira, Eduardo; Cavadas, Vitor; Osório, Luís; Fraga, Avelino; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Roobol, Monique J.


    Introduction Smartphones are increasingly playing a role in healthcare and previous studies assessing medical applications (apps) have raised concerns about lack of expert involvement and low content accuracy. However, there are no such studies in Urology. We reviewed Urology apps with the aim of assessing the level of participation of healthcare professionals (HCP) and scientific Urology associations in their development. Material and Methods A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Apple's App Store and Google's Play Store, for Urology apps, available in English. Apps were reviewed by three graders to determine the app’s platform, target customer, developer, app type, app category, price and the participation of a HCP or a scientific Urology association in the development. Results The search yielded 372 apps, of which 150 were specific for Urology. A fifth of all apps had no HCP involvement (20.7%) and only a third had been developed with a scientific Urology association (34.7%). The lowest percentage of HCP (13.4%) and urological association (1.9%) involvement was in apps designed for the general population. Furthermore, there was no contribution from an Urology society in "Electronic Medical Record" nor in "Patient Information" apps. A limitation of the study is that only Android and iOS apps were reviewed. Conclusions Despite the increasing Mobile Health (mHealth) market, this is the first study that demonstrates the lack of expert participation in the design of Urology apps, particularly in apps designed for the general public. Until clear regulation is enforced, the urological community should help regulate app development. Maintaining a register of certified apps or issuing an official scientific seal of approval could improve overall app quality. We propose that urologists become stakeholders in mHealth, shaping future app design and promoting peer-review app validation. PMID:25984916

  5. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  6. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  7. Cholesterol: Top Five Foods to Lower Your Numbers (United States)

    Cholesterol: Top foods to improve your numbers Diet can play an important role in lowering your cholesterol. Here are the top foods to lower your cholesterol and protect your heart. By Mayo Clinic Staff ...

  8. IDEAS and App Development Internship in Hardware and Software Design (United States)

    Alrayes, Rabab D.


    In this report, I will discuss the tasks and projects I have completed while working as an electrical engineering intern during the spring semester of 2016 at NASA Kennedy Space Center. In the field of software development, I completed tasks for the G-O Caching Mobile App and the Asbestos Management Information System (AMIS) Web App. The G-O Caching Mobile App was written in HTML, CSS, and JavaScript on the Cordova framework, while the AMIS Web App is written in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and C# on the AngularJS framework. My goals and objectives on these two projects were to produce an app with an eye-catching and intuitive User Interface (UI), which will attract more employees to participate; to produce a fully-tested, fully functional app which supports workforce engagement and exploration; to produce a fully-tested, fully functional web app that assists technicians working in asbestos management. I also worked in hardware development on the Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) wearable technology project. My tasks on this project were focused in PCB design and camera integration. My goals and objectives for this project were to successfully integrate fully functioning custom hardware extenders on the wearable technology headset to minimize the size of hardware on the smart glasses headset for maximum user comfort; to successfully integrate fully functioning camera onto the headset. By the end of this semester, I was able to successfully develop four extender boards to minimize hardware on the headset, and assisted in integrating a fully-functioning camera into the system.

  9. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.


    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and b

  10. Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberlla fujikuroi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.W.; Coolbaugh, R.C. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA))


    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of plant growth hormones which were first isolated from the fungus Gibberella fujikuori. We have examined the biosynthesis of GAs in this fungus in liquid cultures using HPLC followed by GC-MS. Furthermore we have used cell-free enzyme extracts with {sup 14}C-labeled intermediates to examine the regulation of specific parts of the biosynthetic pathway. GA{sub 3} is the predominant GA in well aerated cultures. GA{sub 4} and GA{sub 7}, intermediates in GA{sub 3} biosynthesis, accumulate in cultures with low levels of dissolved oxygen, but are not detectable in more aerated cultures. Light stimulates GA production in G. fujikuroi cultures grown from young stock. Cell-free enzyme studies indicate that light has no effect on incorporation of mevalonic acid into kaurene, but does significantly stimulate the oxidation of kaurenoic acid.

  11. Pro iOS Geo building apps with location based services

    CERN Document Server

    Andreucci, Giacomo


    Deepen your app development skills with Pro iOS Geo. This book shows you how to use geolocation-based tools to enhance the iOS apps you develop. Author Giacomo Andreucci describes different ways to integrate geo services, depending on the kind of app you're looking to develop: a web app, a hybrid app, or a native app. You'll discover how to use the Google Maps API features to integrate powerful geo capabilities in your apps with a little effort. You'll learn how to: Design geographic features for your apps while respecting usability criteria Design touristic geo apps Use HTML5 and the Google M

  12. Demonstration of diet-induced decoupling of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by combining gene expression array and 2H2O quantification. (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Previs, Stephen F; Zhu, Lei; Herath, Kithsiri; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Bhat, Gowri; Hu, Guanghui; Miller, Paul L; McLaren, David G; Shin, Myung K; Vogt, Thomas F; Wang, Liangsu; Wong, Kenny K; Roddy, Thomas P; Johns, Douglas G; Hubbard, Brian K


    The liver is a crossroad for metabolism of lipid and carbohydrates, with acetyl-CoA serving as an important metabolic intermediate and a precursor for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. A better understanding of the regulation of these pathways requires an experimental approach that provides both quantitative metabolic flux measurements and mechanistic insight. Under conditions of high carbohydrate availability, excess carbon is converted into free fatty acids and triglyceride for storage, but it is not clear how excessive carbohydrate availability affects cholesterol biosynthesis. To address this, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet. At the end of the dietary intervention, the two groups received (2)H(2)O to trace de novo fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, and livers were collected for gene expression analysis. Expression of lipid and glucose metabolism genes was determined using a custom-designed pathway focused PCR-based gene expression array. The expression analysis showed downregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes and upregulation of fatty acid synthesis genes in mice receiving the high-carbohydrate diet compared with the carbohydrate-free diet. In support of these findings, (2)H(2)O tracer data showed that fatty acid synthesis was increased 10-fold and cholesterol synthesis was reduced by 1.6-fold in mice fed the respective diets. In conclusion, by applying gene expression analysis and tracer methodology, we show that fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis are differentially regulated when the carbohydrate intake in mice is altered.

  13. Popular Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps: A Feature Assessment (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Lovegrove, Julie A; Hwang, Faustina


    Background A key challenge in human nutrition is the assessment of usual food intake. This is of particular interest given recent proposals of eHealth personalized interventions. The adoption of mobile phones has created an opportunity for assessing and improving nutrient intake as they can be used for digitalizing dietary assessments and providing feedback. In the last few years, hundreds of nutrition-related mobile apps have been launched and installed by millions of users. Objective This study aims to analyze the main features of the most popular nutrition apps and to compare their strategies and technologies for dietary assessment and user feedback. Methods Apps were selected from the two largest online stores of the most popular mobile operating systems—the Google Play Store for Android and the iTunes App Store for iOS—based on popularity as measured by the number of installs and reviews. The keywords used in the search were as follows: calorie(s), diet, diet tracker, dietician, dietitian, eating, fit, fitness, food, food diary, food tracker, health, lose weight, nutrition, nutritionist, weight, weight loss, weight management, weight watcher, and ww calculator. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, minimum number of installs (1 million for Google Play Store) or reviews (7500 for iTunes App Store), relation to nutrition (ie, diet monitoring or recommendation), and independence from any device (eg, wearable) or subscription. Results A total of 13 apps were classified as popular for inclusion in the analysis. Nine apps offered prospective recording of food intake using a food diary feature. Food selection was available via text search or barcode scanner technologies. Portion size selection was only textual (ie, without images or icons). All nine of these apps were also capable of collecting physical activity (PA) information using self-report, the global positioning system (GPS), or wearable integrations. Their outputs focused

  14. APP Homodimers Transduce an Amyloid-β-Mediated Increase in Release Probability at Excitatory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilla Fogel


    Full Text Available Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ, the proteolytic products of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, induces a variety of synaptic dysfunctions ranging from hyperactivity to depression that are thought to cause cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. While depression of synaptic transmission has been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying synaptic hyperactivity remain unknown. Here, we show that Aβ40 monomers and dimers augment release probability through local fine-tuning of APP-APP interactions at excitatory hippocampal boutons. Aβ40 binds to the APP, increases the APP homodimer fraction at the plasma membrane, and promotes APP-APP interactions. The APP activation induces structural rearrangements in the APP/Gi/o-protein complex, boosting presynaptic calcium flux and vesicle release. The APP growth-factor-like domain (GFLD mediates APP-APP conformational changes and presynaptic enhancement. Thus, the APP homodimer constitutes a presynaptic receptor that transduces signal from Aβ40 to glutamate release. Excessive APP activation may initiate a positive feedback loop, contributing to hippocampal hyperactivity in Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships. (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian


    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

  16. Physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol. (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio


    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling functions. At an organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor for all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones and vitamin D, all of which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the precursor for bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy and glucose metabolic regulation. Importantly, complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the disregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these diseases has been demonstrated by diverse genetic and pharmacologic animal models that are commented in this review.

  17. The challenges of co-developing a behaviour change app that aimed to make physical activity a habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice S Forster


    Developers of behaviour change apps must balance the demands of users that will make using the app a habit, while retaining the ingredients necessary for the app to achieve its purpose. Mixed methods provide a rich data set with which to base app development and greater confidence that the app will meet the needs of users in terms of social networking and privacy.

  18. Developing Smartphone Apps for Education, Outreach, Science, and Engineering (United States)

    Weatherwax, A. T.; Fitzsimmons, Z.; Czajkowski, J.; Breimer, E.; Hellman, S. B.; Hunter, S.; Dematteo, J.; Savery, T.; Melsert, K.; Sneeringer, J.


    The increased popularity of mobile phone apps provide scientists with a new avenue for sharing and distributing data and knowledge with colleagues, while also providing meaningful education and outreach products for consumption by the general public. Our initial development of iPhone and Android apps centered on the distribution of exciting auroral images taken at the South Pole for education and outreach purposes. These portable platforms, with limited resources when compared to computers, presented a unique set of design and implementation challenges that we will discuss in this presentation. For example, the design must account for limited memory; screen size; processing power; battery life; and potentially high data transport costs. Some of these unique requirements created an environment that enabled undergraduate and high-school students to participate in the creation of these apps. Additionally, during development it became apparent that these apps could also serve as data analysis and engineering tools. Our presentation will further discuss our plans to use apps not only for Education and Public Outreach, but for teaching, science and engineering.

  19. Functional Roles of the Interaction of APP and Lipoprotein Receptors (United States)

    Pohlkamp, Theresa; Wasser, Catherine R.; Herz, Joachim


    The biological fates of the key initiator of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and a family of lipoprotein receptors, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs) and their molecular roles in the neurodegenerative disease process are inseparably interwoven. Not only does APP bind tightly to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of several members of the LRP group, their intracellular portions are also connected through scaffolds like the one established by FE65 proteins and through interactions with adaptor proteins such as X11/Mint and Dab1. Moreover, the ECDs of APP and LRPs share common ligands, most notably Reelin, a regulator of neuronal migration during embryonic development and modulator of synaptic transmission in the adult brain, and Agrin, another signaling protein which is essential for the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and which likely also has critical, though at this time less well defined, roles for the regulation of central synapses. Furthermore, the major independent risk factors for AD, Apolipoprotein (Apo) E and ApoJ/Clusterin, are lipoprotein ligands for LRPs. Receptors and ligands mutually influence their intracellular trafficking and thereby the functions and abilities of neurons and the blood-brain-barrier to turn over and remove the pathological product of APP, the amyloid-β peptide. This article will review and summarize the molecular mechanisms that are shared by APP and LRPs and discuss their relative contributions to AD.

  20. Impact of circulating cholesterol levels on growth and intratumoral androgen concentration of prostate tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe A Mostaghel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC. Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R = 0.3957, p = 0.0049 and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R = 0.41, p = 0.0023 in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R = 0.4073, p = 0.025 Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the

  1. A church-based cholesterol education program. (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Flack, J M


    The leading cause of death among black people in the United States is coronary heart disease, accounting for about 25 percent of the deaths. The Task Force on Black and Minority Health formed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in 1985 subsequently recommended increased efforts to reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease in the black population. A stated focus of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's National Cholesterol Education Program has been that of reaching minority groups. This report describes a pilot cholesterol education program conducted in black churches by trained members of those churches. Cholesterol screening, using a Reflotron, and other coronary heart disease risk factor screening was conducted in six churches with predominantly black members and at a neighborhood library. A total of 348 persons with cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dl) or higher were identified. At the time of screening, all were provided brief counseling on lowering their cholesterol and were given a copy of the screening results. Half of those identified, all members of one church, were invited to attend a 6-week nutrition education class of 1 hour each week about techniques to lower blood cholesterol. Information about cholesterol was also mailed to them. They were designated as the education group. Persons in the church were trained to teach the classes. A report of the screening results was sent to the personal physicians of the remaining 174 people in other churches who had cholesterol levels of 200 mg per dl or higher. This group served as a usual care comparison group.Six months after the initial screening, members of both groups were invited for followup screening.Among the 75 percent of the education group who returned for followup screening there was a 23.4 mg per dl (10 percent) decrease in the mean cholesterol level. Thirty-six percent of the usual care group returned for followup screening; their mean cholesterol

  2. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases


    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Urano, Yasuomi


    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as...

  3. Genetic therapies to lower cholesterol. (United States)

    Khoo, Bernard


    This review surveys the state-of-the-art in genetic therapies for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), caused most commonly by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. FH manifests as highly elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and consequently accelerated atherosclerosis. Modern pharmacological therapies for FH are insufficiently efficacious to prevent premature cardiovascular disease, can cause significant adverse effects and can be expensive. Genetic therapies for FH have been mooted since the mid 1990s but gene replacement strategies using viral vectors have so far been unsuccessful. Other strategies involve knocking down the expression of Apolipoprotein B100 (APOB100) and the protease PCSK9 which designates LDLR for degradation. The antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen, which knocks down APOB100, is currently marketed (with restrictions) in the USA, but is not approved in Europe due to its adverse effects. To address this problem, we have devised a novel therapeutic concept, APO-skip, which is based on modulation of APOB splicing, and which has the potential to deliver a cost-effective, efficacious and safe therapy for FH.

  4. Hypocholesterolemic effects of curcumin via up-regulation of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase in rats fed a high fat diet. (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Yangha


    There is an increasing interest in curcumin (Curcuma longa L.) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) protective agent via decreased blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) level. The aim of this study was to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of bile acid from cholesterol, at the mRNA level. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 45% high fat diet or same diet supplemented with curcumin (0.1% wt/wt) for 8 weeks. The curcumin diet significantly decreased serum triglyceride (TG) by 27%, total cholesterol (TC) by 33.8%, and LDL-cholesterol by 56%, respectively as compared to control group. The curcumin-supplemented diet also significantly lowered the atherogenic index (AI) by 48% as compared to control group. Hepatic TG level was significantly reduced by 41% in rats fed with curcumin-supplemented diet in comparison with control group (P curcumin diet significantly increased fecal TG and TC. The curcumin diet up-regulated hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level by 2.16-fold, compared to control group p (P curcumin.

  5. Prenatal detection of the cholesterol biosynthetic defect in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome by the analysis of amniotic fluid sterols. (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Tint, G S; Kelley, R; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G


    The Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO or RSH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of minor facial anomalies, congenital anomalies of many organs, failure to thrive, and mental retardation. Its cause is a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis characterized by abnormally low plasma cholesterol levels and concentrations of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) elevated up to several thousand-fold above normal. We used capillary column gas-chromatography to quantify sterols in amniotic fluid, amniotic cells, plasma, placenta, and breast milk from a heterozygous mother who had previously given birth to an affected son and in cord blood and plasma from her affected newborn daughter. The cholesterol concentration in amniotic fluid at 16 weeks gestation was normal, but 7DHC, normally undetectable, was greatly elevated. In cultured amniocytes, the level of 7DHC was 11% of total cholesterol, similar to cultured fibroblasts from patients with SLO syndrome. At 38 weeks, a girl with phenotype consistent with the syndrome was born. Cholesterol concentrations were abnormally low in cord blood and in the baby's plasma at 12 weeks, while levels of 7DHC were grossly elevated, confirming the prenatal diagnosis. The mother's plasma cholesterol increased steadily during gestation but remained below the lower 95% limit reported for normal control women. We conclude that it is now possible to detect the SLO syndrome at 16 weeks gestation by analyzing amniotic fluid sterols.

  6. The effect of β-sitosterol on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in rats on a diet containing coconut oil (United States)

    Gerson, T.; Shorland, F. B.; Dunckley, G. G.


    1. Intraperitoneal injection of β-sitosterol (5mg./rat/day for 25 days) into 1-year-old male Wistar rats fed on a low-fat diet supplemented with 10% of coconut oil resulted in a lowering of cholesterol and lipid concentrations in the tissues. 2. β-Sitosterol increased the rate of biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids in the tissues, but to an even greater extent enhanced their oxidative degradation. 3. The present results are similar to those previously obtained on a low-fat diet, indicating that the presence of fat had no marked effect on the action of β-sitosterol. PMID:5891218

  7. Expression profiling in APP23 mouse brain: inhibition of Aβ amyloidosis and inflammation in response to LXR agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangelsdorf David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies demonstrate that in addition to its modulatory effect on APP processing, in vivo application of Liver X Receptor agonist T0901317 (T0 to APP transgenic and non-transgenic mice decreases the level of Aβ42. Moreover, in young Tg2576 mice T0 completely reversed contextual memory deficits. Compared to other tissues, the regulatory functions of LXRs in brain remain largely unexplored and our knowledge so far is limited to the cholesterol transporters and apoE. In this study we applied T0 to APP23 mice for various times and examined gene and protein expression. We also performed a series of experiments with primary brain cells derived from wild type and LXR knockout mice subjected to various LXR agonist treatments and inflammatory stimuli. Results We demonstrate an upregulation of genes related to lipid metabolism/transport, metabolism of xenobiotics and detoxification. Downregulated genes are involved in immune response and inflammation, cell death and apoptosis. Additional treatment experiments demonstrated an increase of soluble apolipoproteins E and A-I and a decrease of insoluble Aβ. In primary LXRwt but not in LXRα-/-β-/- microglia and astrocytes LXR agonists suppressed the inflammatory response induced by LPS or fibrillar Aβ. Conclusion The results show that LXR agonists could alleviate AD pathology by acting on amyloid deposition and brain inflammation. An increased understanding of the LXR controlled regulation of Aβ aggregation and clearance systems will lead to the development of more specific and powerful agonists targeting LXR for the treatment of AD.

  8. Building cross-platform apps using Titanium, Alloy, and Appcelerator cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Aaron


    Skip Objective-C and Java to get your app to market faster, using the skills you already have Building Cross-Platform Apps using Titanium, Alloy, and Appcelerator Cloud Services shows you how to build cross-platform iOS and Android apps without learning Objective-C or Java. With detailed guidance given toward using the Titanium Mobile Platform and Appcelerator Cloud Services, you will quickly develop the skills to build real, native apps- not web apps-using existing HTML, CSS, and JavaScript know-how. This guide takes you step-by-step through the creation of a photo-sharing app that leverages

  9. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome


    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  10. Mobile telephone apps in mental health practice: uses, opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Marley, Justin; Farooq, Saeed


    Smartphones are used by patients and clinicians alike. Vast numbers of software applications (apps) run on smartphones and carry out useful functions. Clinician- and patient-oriented mental health apps have been developed. In this article, we provide an overview of apps that are relevant for mental health. We look at clinician-oriented apps that support assessment, diagnosis and treatment as well as patient-oriented apps that support education and self-management. We conclude by looking at the challenges that apps pose with a discussion of possible solutions.

  11. Elucidating steroid alkaloid biosynthesis in Veratrum californicum: production of verazine in Sf9 cells. (United States)

    Augustin, Megan M; Ruzicka, Dan R; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Augustin, Jörg M; Starks, Courtney M; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; McKain, Michael R; Evans, Bradley S; Barrett, Matt D; Smithson, Ann; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Deyholos, Michael K; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mann, David A; Kutchan, Toni M


    Steroid alkaloids have been shown to elicit a wide range of pharmacological effects that include anticancer and antifungal activities. Understanding the biosynthesis of these molecules is essential to bioengineering for sustainable production. Herein, we investigate the biosynthetic pathway to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that shows promising antineoplastic activities. Supply of cyclopamine is limited, as the current source is solely derived from wild collection of the plant Veratrum californicum. To elucidate the early stages of the pathway to cyclopamine, we interrogated a V. californicum RNA-seq dataset using the cyclopamine accumulation profile as a predefined model for gene expression with the pattern-matching algorithm Haystack. Refactoring candidate genes in Sf9 insect cells led to discovery of four enzymes that catalyze the first six steps in steroid alkaloid biosynthesis to produce verazine, a predicted precursor to cyclopamine. Three of the enzymes are cytochromes P450 while the fourth is a γ-aminobutyrate transaminase; together they produce verazine from cholesterol.

  12. Start App: a coding experience between primary and secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Bruni


    Full Text Available The paper presents a coding experience in primary school (“Colozza” in Campobasso. Within the theoretical framework offered by computational thinking, using App Inventor, it was created a calculator for smartphone in the Android environment. High school students (from a technical secondary school guided the pupils in primary school, making an interesting form of cooperation between primary and secondary schools. Start App: una esperienza di coding tra scuola primaria e scuola secondariaIl contributo presenta una esperienza di coding nella scuola primaria dell’Istituto Comprensivo statale “Colozza” di Campobasso. All’interno della cornice teorica offerta dal pensiero computazionale, utilizzando App Inventor, è stata realizzata una calcolatrice per smartphone in ambiente Android. A guidare gli allievi della primaria sono stati gli studenti dell’Istituto Tecnico Industriale “Marconi” di Campobasso realizzando una interessante forma di collaborazione tra istituti scolastici di ordine diverso.

  13. Learning iPhone Programming From Xcode to App Store

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Alasdair


    Get the hands-on experience you need to program for the iPhone and iPod Touch. With this easy-to-follow guide, you'll build several sample applications by learning how to use Xcode tools, the Objective-C programming language, and the core frameworks. Before you know it, you'll not only have the skills to develop your own apps, you'll know how to sail through the process of submitting apps to the iTunes App Store. Whether you're a developer new to Mac programming or an experienced Mac developer ready to tackle the iPhone and iPod Touch, Learning iPhone Programming will give you a head start o

  14. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn


    Full Text Available With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are normally shelved in the starting location but that are currently checked out. Using formative UX methods, grant staff shaped app interface and functionality through early user testing. This paper reports results of UX testing; a redesigned mobile interface, and provides considerations on the future development of personalized recommendation functionality.

  15. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Lee


    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an Internet search for existing rubrics was conducted, only two such rubrics were found, and the evaluation criteria used in those rubrics was not clearly linked to previously conducted research nor were their evaluative dimensions clearly defined. These shortcomings result in reviewers being unable to use those rubrics to provide teachers with a precise analysis of an educational app’s instructional potential. In response, this paper presents a comprehensive rubric with 24-evaluative dimensions tailored specifically to analyze the educational potential of instructional apps.

  16. Realtime Space Weather Forecasts Via Android Phone App (United States)

    Crowley, G.; Haacke, B.; Reynolds, A.


    For the past several years, ASTRA has run a first-principles global 3-D fully coupled thermosphere-ionosphere model in real-time for space weather applications. The model is the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM). ASTRA also runs the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) in real-time. Using AMIE to drive the high latitude inputs to the TIMEGCM produces high fidelity simulations of the global thermosphere and ionosphere. These simulations can be viewed on the Android Phone App developed by ASTRA. The SpaceWeather app for the Android operating system is free and can be downloaded from the Google Marketplace. We present the current status of realtime thermosphere-ionosphere space-weather forcasting and discuss the way forward. We explore some of the issues in maintaining real-time simulations with assimilative data feeds in a quasi-operational setting. We also discuss some of the challenges of presenting large amounts of data on a smartphone. The ASTRA SpaceWeather app includes the broadest and most unique range of space weather data yet to be found on a single smartphone app. This is a one-stop-shop for space weather and the only app where you can get access to ASTRA’s real-time predictions of the global thermosphere and ionosphere, high latitude convection and geomagnetic activity. Because of the phone's GPS capability, users can obtain location specific vertical profiles of electron density, temperature, and time-histories of various parameters from the models. The SpaceWeather app has over 9000 downloads, 30 reviews, and a following of active users. It is clear that real-time space weather on smartphones is here to stay, and must be included in planning for any transition to operational space-weather use.

  17. [Cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Historical considerations and treatment]. (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Basurto, Lourdes; De la Chesnaye, Elsa; Saldívar, Iván


    Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane, however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite, the recognition of historical events for 200 years, starting with Michel Chevreul naming «cholesterol»; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor; as well as the emerging of different drugs, such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs this decade, promising to increase HDL and the most recent ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of LDL receptor, however morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease.

  18. Relationship between inhibition of mevalonate biosynthesis and reduced fertility in laying hens. (United States)

    Elkin, R G; Yan, Z


    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of inhibition of mevalonate biosynthesis on fertility and embryonic survival in laying chickens. White Leghorn hens were fed for 5 weeks with a control diet alone or a diet supplemented with one of two concentrations (0.03 or 0.06%) of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, lovastatin or simvastatin. The hens were artificially inseminated once a week and eggs that were not analysed for cholesterol content were incubated. When averaged across dietary groups and expressed as a percentage of all eggs incubated, the incidence of unfertilized eggs was 1.6% (controls), 29.1% (atorvastatin), 4.4% (lovastatin) and 7.9% (simvastatin). In contrast, with the exception of lower values for birds fed 0.06% atorvastatin, all groups had comparable hatchabilities of fertilized eggs. Hatchability of all eggs incubated was decreased in both atorvastatin groups compared with the other treatments. However, embryonic mortality of fertilized eggs was unaffected (P > 0.05) by diet. Compared with controls, maximum decreases in egg cholesterol of 46, 22 and 7% were obtained with atorvastatin, lovastatin and simvastatin, respectively. Although the overall correlation of egg cholesterol content with hatchability was high (r = 0.82), the hatch rate of eggs containing approximately 105 mg cholesterol ranged from 0 to 67%, indicating that egg cholesterol content was not the only factor influencing embryo survival. This is the first study to indicate that a mevalonate-derived product or products plays an important role in avian fertility. In addition, this work challenges the contention that virtually all of the cholesterol in chicken egg yolk is essential for embryonic development and survival.

  19. Lignin biosynthesis and its molecular regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Lignin biosynthesis has become increasingly highlighted because it plays an important role in the growth and development of plant, in the systematic evolution of plant and in the human life. Due to the progress in the field of lignin studies in recent years, the lignin biosynthesis pathway has been 修订日期:. Here we discuss some genetic engineering approaches on lignin biosynthesis, and conceive strategy to regulate lignin biosynthesis in order to use lignin resource more efficiently in agricultural and industrial productions.

  20. A new framework for reverse cholesterol transport: Non-biliary contributions to reverse cholesterol transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan; E; Temel; J; Mark; Brown


    Reduction of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol through statin therapy has only modestly decreased coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated mortality in developed countries, which has prompted the search for alternative therapeutic strategies for CHD. Major efforts are now focused on therapies that augment high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and ultimately increase the fecal disposal of cholesterol. The process of RCT has long been thought to simply involve HDL-media...

  1. From blood to gut: Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; LJ; Vrins


    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol-lowering therapies. By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body. For a long time this removal via the hepatobiliary secretion was considered to be the sole route involved in the RCT. However, observations from early studies in animals and humans already pointed towards the possibility of another route. In t...

  2. Google Script Adding Functionality to Your Google Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, James


    How can you extend Google Apps to fit your organization's needs? This concise guide shows you how to use Google Scripts, the JavaScript-based language that provides a complete web-based development platform-with no downloads, configuration, or compiling required. You'll learn how to add functionality to Gmail, spreadsheets, and other Google services, or build data-driven apps that run from a spreadsheet, in a browser window, or within a Google Site. If you have some Java experience, getting started with Google Scripts is easy. Through code examples and step-by-step instructions, you'll learn

  3. A Smartphone APP for Health and Tourism Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker-Cheng Lin


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop an APP by integrating GPS to provide the digitized information of local cultural spots to guide tourists for tourism promotion and the digitized information of mountaineering trails to monitor energy expenditure (EE for health promotion. The provided cultural information is also adopted for educational purpose. Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was used to evaluate the usefulness and behavior intention of the provided information and functions in the developed system. Most users agreed that the system is useful for health promotion, tourism promotion, and folk-culture education. They also showed strong intention and positive attitude toward continuous use of the APP.

  4. App Inventor接口开发三例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Google App Inventor是一个基于浏览器的在线Android开发编程环境,抛弃复杂的程式代码而使用积木式的堆叠法来完成了Android程式.编程容易,上手快,适合没有任何开发经验的用户.但在使用的过程中,发现有一些局限性,如数据库,动态组件等,通过3个接口案例,大大扩展了App Inventor的功能.

  5. Field Geologist: An Android App for Measuring Rock Outcroppings (United States)

    Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.


    Field geologist is a mobile Android app that measures, plots, and exports strike and data in the field. When the phone is placed on the steepest part of the rock, it automatically detects dip, string, latitude and longitude. It includes a drop-down menu to record the type of rock. The app's initial screen displays a compass with an interior dip/strike symbol that always points toward the dip direction. Tapping the compass stores a data point in the phone's database. The points can be displayed on a Google map and uploaded to a server, from where they can be retrieved in CSV format and imported into a spreadsheet.

  6. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann


    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  7. Developing a smartphone app to support the nursing community. (United States)

    Colton, Scott; Hunt, Louise


    Healthcare professionals are turning increasingly to the digital sector to access information they need for their work. Mobile technology, such as smartphones and tablets, provides a unique opportunity to place high-quality information directly into users' hands. This article describes the ongoing development of a smartphone app, Preparing for Caring, designed to prepare the future workforce by enabling mentors and nursing students to access supportive material during practice-based learning episodes. The article explores the rationale for designing the app and discusses the challenges and benefits of developing this resource from the perspectives of student, mentor and healthcare manager.

  8. Learn to read and write: app for the literacy learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel GÓMEZ-DÍAZ


    Full Text Available Increasing tablets and educational apps aimed at kids made necessary, besides analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of their use in the classroom, have a better understanding of the applications themselves, their characteristics, business models, etc. The article focuses on the apps intended for literacy learning, and offers, along with a typology, and a selection of some of them. Finally, it includes a list of sources that will help teachers in the task of selecting the most suitable for the needs of pupils’ applications.

  9. Exploring the Materiality of Literary Apps for Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist


    Children’s literature is increasingly being realized in app format, with its possibilities of combining text, music, sound effects, stills, animated movies, verbal language, and, not least, interactivity. This digital and medial literary development calls for new analytical approaches to explore...... its manifestation in children’s literature – its materiality in particular. Exploring and analyzing the app Sofus and the Moonmachine by Burup, Jensen, Skovmand, and Vedel (2016), which integrates various art forms and sensory appeals and prompts different reading paths and types of interaction...

  10. Best book on iOS app marketing

    CERN Document Server

    Amerson, Michael


    Mike Amerson, Co-Founder and President of WET Productions, Inc., learned the hard lesson that many developers face today: just because you built it, doesn't mean they will come. His game ""My Virtual Girlfriend"" went nine months with only modest sales until late in December of 2010, when he gathered what he'd learned about app discoverability and used it to propel the game to the Top 100 list for its category. Furthermore, the game has only gained momentum, sitting in the Top 25 for over a year. Though Mike overcame the challenges of app development, he knows exactly what it's like for a

  11. Best iPad Apps The Guide for Discriminating Downloaders

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Peter


    What really wows iPad fans is when their touchscreen does what's impossible on other gadgets: the finger-painting app that turns a cross-country flight into a moving art class, the mini music studio (two-dozen instruments strong, each with motion-induced warble effects), and the portable fireworks display that you sculpt by swiping. Problem is, with tens of thousands of apps available for your iPad, who knows what to download? You can try to sort through a gazillion customer reviews with a mix of 5- and 1-star ratings, but that's a head-hurting time-waster. The stakes are getting higher, too

  12. Calsyntenin-1 shelters APP from proteolytic processing during anterograde axonal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steuble


    Endocytosis of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP is thought to represent the major source of substrate for the production of the amyloidogenic Aβ peptide by the β-secretase BACE1. The irreversible nature of proteolytic cleavage implies the existence of an efficient replenishment route for APP from its sites of synthesis to the cell surface. We recently found that APP exits the trans-Golgi network in intimate association with calsyntenin-1, a transmembrane cargo-docking protein for Kinesin-1-mediated vesicular transport. Here we characterized the function of calsyntenin-1 in neuronal APP transport using selective immunoisolation of intracellular trafficking organelles, immunocytochemistry, live-imaging, and RNAi. We found that APP is co-transported with calsyntenin-1 along axons to early endosomes in the central region of growth cones in carriers that exclude the α-secretase ADAM10. Intriguingly, calsyntenin-1/APP organelles contained BACE1, suggesting premature cleavage of APP along its anterograde path. However, we found that APP contained in calsyntenin-1/APP organelles was stable. We further analyzed vesicular trafficking of APP in cultured hippocampal neurons, in which calsyntenin-1 was reduced by RNAi. We found a markedly increased co-localization of APP and ADAM10 in axons and growth cones, along with increased proteolytic processing of APP and Aβ secretion in these neurons. This suggested that the reduced capacity for calsyntenin-1-dependent APP transport resulted in mis-sorting of APP into additional axonal carriers and, therefore, the premature encounter of unprotected APP with its ectodomain proteases. In combination, our results characterize calsyntenin-1/APP organelles as carriers for sheltered anterograde axonal transport of APP.

  13. Lost region in amyloid precursor protein (APP) through TALEN-mediated genome editing alters mitochondrial morphology. (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Wu, Fengyi; Pan, Haining; Zheng, Wenzhong; Feng, Chi; Wang, Yunfu; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Shi


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Aβ plaques are produced through sequential β/γ cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), of which there are three main APP isoforms: APP695, APP751 and APP770. KPI-APPs (APP751 and APP770) are known to be elevated in AD, but the reason remains unclear. Transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs) induce mutations with high efficiency at specific genomic loci, and it is thus possible to knock out specific regions using TALENs. In this study, we designed and expressed TALENs specific for the C-terminus of APP in HeLa cells, in which KPI-APPs are predominantly expressed. The KPI-APP mutants lack a 12-aa region that encompasses a 5-aa trans-membrane (TM) region and 7-aa juxta-membrane (JM) region. The mutated KPI-APPs exhibited decreased mitochondrial localization. In addition, mitochondrial morphology was altered, resulting in an increase in spherical mitochondria in the mutant cells through the disruption of the balance between fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased ATP levels, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS generation and impaired mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, was also found. These results suggest that specific regions of KPI-APPs are important for mitochondrial localization and function.

  14. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.


    Law, M. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Wald, N J


    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. DESIGN--Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration....

  15. Cholesterol treatment practices of primary care physicians.


    Hyman, D J; Maibach, E W; Flora, J A; Fortmann, S.P.


    The active involvement of primary care physicians is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated blood cholesterol. Empirical evidence suggests that primary care physicians generally initiate dietary and pharmacological treatment at threshold values higher than is currently recommended. To determine current treatment thresholds and establish factors that distinguish physicians who are more likely to initiate therapy at lower cholesterol values, 119 primary care physicians in four nor...

  16. Tau, APP, NCT and BACE1 in lymphocytes through cognitively normal ageing and neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder, a number of peripheral alterations have been found in these patients; however, little is known about how the key genes involved in the pathophysiology express in peripheral cells such as lymphocytes during normal compared to neuropathological ageing. We analysed the expression of tau, of the amyloid precursor protein, of nicastrin and of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme genes by RT-PCR in lymphocytes from a small group of late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients, from aged patients suffering from neuropsychological conditions different from Alzheimer's and from cognitively healthy subjects divided in four groups by age. We also investigated correlations between gene expression and levels of blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides as risk factors for Alzheimer's. Results show no tau expression in lymphocytes, a lack of detection of nicastrin expression in Alzheimer's patients and correlations between the medical conditions studied and gene expression in lymphocytes. We believe nicastrin gene expression in lymphocytes should be considered of interest for further analyses in a wider population to investigate whether it might represent a potential biomarker to differentiate Alzheimer's from other neuropsychological disorders.

  17. Cholesterol modulates the dimer interface of the β₂-adrenergic receptor via cholesterol occupancy sites. (United States)

    Prasanna, Xavier; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Sengupta, Durba


    The β2-adrenergic receptor is an important member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, whose stability and function are modulated by membrane cholesterol. The recent high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor revealed the presence of possible cholesterol-binding sites in the receptor. However, the functional relevance of cholesterol binding to the receptor remains unexplored. We used MARTINI coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to explore dimerization of the β2-adrenergic receptor in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol. A novel (to our knowledge) aspect of our results is that receptor dimerization is modulated by membrane cholesterol. We show that cholesterol binds to transmembrane helix IV, and cholesterol occupancy at this site restricts its involvement at the dimer interface. With increasing cholesterol concentration, an increased presence of transmembrane helices I and II, but a reduced presence of transmembrane helix IV, is observed at the dimer interface. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to explore the correlation between cholesterol occupancy and GPCR organization. Our results indicate that dimer plasticity is relevant not just as an organizational principle but also as a subtle regulatory principle for GPCR function. We believe these results constitute an important step toward designing better drugs for GPCR dimer targets.

  18. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  19. Obesity, Cholesterol Metabolism and Breast Cancer Pathogenesis (United States)

    McDonnell, Donald P.; Park, Sunghee; Goulet, Matthew T.; Jasper, Jeff; Wardell, Suzanne E.; Chang, Ching-yi; Norris, John D.; Guyton, John R.; Nelson, Erik R.


    Obesity and altered lipid metabolism are risk factors for breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. These pathologic relationships have been attributed in part to the impact of cholesterol on the biophysical properties of cell membranes and to the influence of these changes on signaling events initiated at the membrane. However, more recent studies have indicated that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), and not cholesterol per se, may be the primary biochemical link between lipid metabolism and cancer. The enzyme responsible for production of 27HC from cholesterol, CYP27A1, is expressed primarily in the liver and in macrophages. In addition significantly elevated expression of this enzyme within breast tumors has also been observed. It is believed that 27HC, acting through the liver X receptor (LXR) in macrophages and possibly other cells is involved in maintaining organismal cholesterol homeostasis. It has also been shown recently that 27HC is an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist in breast cancer cells and that it stimulates the growth and metastasis of tumors in several models of breast cancer. These findings provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical approaches that interfere with cholesterol/27HC synthesis as a means to mitigate the impact of cholesterol on breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25060521

  20. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić L.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno


    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  2. Immunocytochemical Characterization of Alzheimer Disease Hallmarks in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Treated with a New Anti-Amyloid-β Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Carrera


    Full Text Available APP/PS1 double-transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which overexpress mutated forms of the gene for human amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin 1 (PS1, have provided robust neuropathological hallmarks of AD-like pattern at early ages. This study characterizes immunocytochemical patterns of AD mouse brain as a model for human AD treated with the EB101 vaccine. In this novel vaccine, a new approach has been taken to circumvent past failures by judiciously selecting an adjuvant consisting of a physiological matrix embedded in liposomes, composed of naturally occurring phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cholesterol. Our findings showed that administration of amyloid-β1−42 (Aβ and sphingosine-1-phosphate emulsified in liposome complex (EB101 to APP/PS1 mice before onset of Aβ deposition (7 weeks of age and/or at an older age (35 weeks of age is effective in halting the progression and clearing the AD-like neuropathological hallmarks. Passive immunization with EB101 did not activate inflammatory responses from the immune system and astrocytes. Consistent with a decreased inflammatory background, the basal immunological interaction between the T cells and the affected areas (hippocampus in the brain of treated mice was notably reduced. These results demonstrate that immunization with EB101 vaccine prevents and attenuates AD neuropathology in this type of double-transgenic mice.

  3. RPR 107393, a potent squalene synthase inhibitor and orally effective cholesterol-lowering agent: comparison with inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. (United States)

    Amin, D; Rutledge, R Z; Needle, S N; Galczenski, H F; Neuenschwander, K; Scotese, A C; Maguire, M P; Bush, R C; Hele, D J; Bilder, G E; Perrone, M H


    Squalene synthase catalyzes the reductive dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate to form squalene and is the first committed step in sterol synthesis. A specific inhibitor of squalene synthase would inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis but not prevent the formation of other products of the isoprenoid pathway, such as dolichol and ubiquinone. RPR 107393 [3-hydroxy-3-[4-(quinolin-6-yl)phenyl]-1-azabicyclo[2-2-2]octane dihydrochloride] and its R and S enantiomers are potent inhibitors of rat liver microsomal squalene synthase, with IC50 values of 0.6 to 0.9 nM. One hour after oral administration to rats, RPR 107393 inhibited de novo [14C]cholesterol biosynthesis from [14C]mevalonate in the liver with an ED50 value of 5 mg/kg. Diacid metabolites of [14C]farnesyl pyrophosphate were identified after acid treatment of the livers of these animals. These results support in vitro data demonstrating that these compounds are inhibitors of squalene synthase. In rats, RPR 107393 (30 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. for 2 days) reduced total serum cholesterol by RPR 107393 (20 mg/kg b.i.d.) reduced plasma cholesterol concentration by 50% after 1 week of administration; this was greater than the reduction observed with lovastatin or pravastatin, neither of which produced > 31% reduction in plasma cholesterol when administered for 1 week at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.i.d. The R and S enantiomers of RPR 107393 (20 mg/kg p.o. q.d. for 7 days) reduced plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 50% and 43%, respectively, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol was unchanged. In summary, RPR 107393 is a potent inhibitor of squalene synthase. It is an orally effective hypocholesterolemic agent in rats and marmosets that has greater efficacy than lovastatin or pravastatin in the marmoset.

  4. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.


    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  5. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) Cryosphere (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) product. APP is a fundamental CDR comprised of calibrated and navigated AVHRR channel...

  6. How to start a home-based mobile app developer business

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Chad


    With the app market exploding, app designers will need a solid how-to guide to help them start their home-based business. This book will guide the reader through all the steps from design to marketing.

  7. The mitochondrial function was impaired in APP knockout mouse embryo fibroblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG BaiYang; NIU Ying; ZHOU Hui; YAN JiaXin; ZHAO NanMing; ZHANG XiuFang; GONG YanDao


    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is recognized as the source of Aβ, which plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease. However, the biological function of APP is obscure. Previous studies showed that mitochondria could be a target of APP. In this work, APP knockout mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells were used to test if APP plays any role in maintaining the mitochondrial function. As the result, APP knockout MEF cells (APP-/- cells) showed the abnormal mitochondrial function, including slower cell proliferation, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, lower intracellular ROS, higher mitochon-drial membrane fluidity and lower cytochrome c oxidase activity than their wild-type counterparts. However, no change was found in the amount of mitochondria in MEF APP-/- cells.

  8. Expert Involvement and Adherence to Medical Evidence in Medical Mobile Phone Apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Bube, Sarah Hjartbro; Rolskov Bojsen, Signe


    BACKGROUND: Both clinicians and patients use medical mobile phone apps. Anyone can publish medical apps, which leads to contents with variable quality that may have a serious impact on human lives. We herein provide an overview of the prevalence of expert involvement in app development and whether...... or not app contents adhere to current medical evidence. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. METHODS: We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE......), and included studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. Two authors performed data extraction independently. Qualitative analysis of the included studies was performed. RESULTS: Based on inclusion criteria, 52 studies were included...

  9. 76 FR 50481 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Lifeline Facebook App Challenge”; Correction (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Lifeline Facebook App Challenge... Facebook App Challenge''. DATES: This correction is effective August 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  10. Tell me your apps and I will tell you your mood: Correlation of apps usage with Bipolar Disorder State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez-Lozano, Jorge; Frost, Mads; Osmani, Venet


    be captured through the analysis of smartphone usage. We have analysed changes in smartphone usage, specifically app usage and how these changes correlate with the self-reported patient state. We also used psychiatric evaluation scores provided by the clinic to understand correlation of the patient smartphone...... behaviour before the psychiatric evaluation and after the psychiatric evaluation. The results show that patients have strong correlation of patterns of app usage with different aspects of their self-reported state including mood, sleep and irritability. While, on the other hand, the patients’ application...... usage shows discernable changes in the period before and after psychiatric evaluation....

  11. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson


    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  12. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification. (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Brewer, Ann C; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B; Dellavalle, Robert P


    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of 'apps as a medical device' and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of 'apps as a medical device'. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers' general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. 'Happtique Health App Certification Program' (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many "similar" quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web, when people

  13. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes. (United States)

    Storey, Stephen M; McIntosh, Avery L; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm


    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-affinity cholesterol-binding proteins present in hepatocyte cytosol, on HDL-mediated free cholesterol uptake were examined using gene-targeted mouse models, cultured primary hepatocytes, and 22-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol). While SCP-2 overexpression enhanced NBD-cholesterol uptake, counterintuitively, SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation also 1) enhanced the rapid molecular phase of free sterol uptake detectable in cholesterol and 2) differentially enhanced free cholesterol uptake mediated by the HDL3, rather than the HDL2, subfraction. The increased HDL free cholesterol uptake was not due to increased expression or distribution of the HDL receptor [scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1)], proteins regulating SRB1 [postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/Drosophila disk large tumor suppressor (dlg)/tight junction protein (ZO1) and 17-kDa membrane-associated protein], or other intracellular cholesterol trafficking proteins (steroidogenic acute response protein D, Niemann Pick C, and oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins). However, expression of L-FABP, the single most prevalent hepatic cytosolic protein that binds cholesterol, was upregulated twofold in SCP-2/SCP-x null hepatocytes. Double-immunogold electron microscopy detected L-FABP sufficiently close to SRB1 for direct interaction, similar to SCP-2. These data suggest a role for L-FABP in HDL cholesterol uptake, a finding confirmed with SCP-2/SCP-x/L-FABP null mice and hepatocytes. Taken together

  14. Increased Human Wildtype Tau Attenuates Axonal Transport Deficits Caused by Loss of APP in Mouse Models


    Smith, Karen D.B.; Erica Peethumnongsin; Han Lin; Hui Zheng; Pautler, Robia G.


    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is implicated in axonal elongation, synaptic plasticity, and axonal transport. However, the role of APP on axonal transport in conjunction with the microtubule associated protein tau continues to be debated. Here we measured in vivo axonal transport in APP knockout mice with Manganese Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to determine whether APP is necessary for maintaining normal axonal transport. We also tested how overexpression and mutations of tau affect axonal transport ...

  15. Making DidFail Succeed: Enhancing the CERT Static Taint Analyzer for Android App Sets (United States)

    analyzer for sets of Android apps . In addition to improving the analyzer itself, the enhancements include a new testing framework new test apps , and test...use the most current version of FlowDroid and Soot, increasing its success rate from 18% to 68% on our test set of real-world apps . Analytical...features were added for more types of components and shared static fields and new apps developed to test these features. The improved DidFail analyzer and

  16. Learning by Doing: How to Develop a Cross-Platform Web App (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Ghimire, Prashant


    As mobile devices become prevalent, there is always a need for apps. How hard is it to develop an app, especially a cross-platform app? The paper shares an experience in a project that involved the development of a student services web app that can be run on cross-platform mobile devices. The paper first describes the background of the project,…

  17. Safe Sex Messages Within Dating and Entertainment Smartphone Apps: A Review


    Huang, Evelyn Tzu-Yen; Williams, Henrietta; Hocking, Jane S; Lim, Megan SC


    Background Smartphone apps provide a new platform for entertainment, information distribution, and health promotion activities, as well as for dating and casual sexual encounters. Previous research has shown high acceptability of sexual health interventions via smartphone apps; however, sexual health promotion apps were infrequently downloaded and underused. Integrating sexual health promotion into established apps might be a more effective method. Objective The objective of our study was to ...

  18. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature


    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Josh; Bernhardt, Jay M.


    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior in...

  19. Designing the online oral language learning environment SpeakApps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Appel, Christine; Ó Ciardubháin, Colm; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on SpeakApps, a major collaborative computer-assisted language learning project, developed based on an open source techno-pedagogical solution to facilitate online oral language production and interaction. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed method

  20. Portable Desktop Apps with GitHub Electron

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Wouldn't it be nice if you could develop applications that work everywhere, regardless of Operating System or Platform? Even better, what if you could employ the same front-end technologies you use for your web/mobile apps? Meet GitHub Electron.