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Sample records for cholera epidemics war

  1. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

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    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  2. The Role of Cyanobacteria Blooms in Cholera Epidemic in Bangladesh

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    Sagir Ahmed, Md.; Raknuzzaman, Md.; Akther, Hafeza; Ahmed, Sumaiya

    A study was conducted on association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton specially emphasis on cyanobacteria in relation to some physico-chemical parameters in the River Buriganga, Dhaka, from January to December 2002. Monthly abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton varied from 457 to 14166 and from 169 to 1055 individual L-1, respectively. Monthly average of faecal coliform in water, zooplankton and phytoplankton samples were 3.99x109, 4.54x103 and 4.28x102 (CFU L-1), respectively. During epidemics, toxigenic V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were isolated from the patients as well as from the surface water. V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were also isolated from plankton samples. More over, it was observed that ctx (cholera toxic) positive in water and phytoplankton samples of the river. A bloom of Oscillatoria sp. (1.6x104 individual L-1) occurred in the upper reaches of the River Buriganga in May 2002. Methanol-water extract of bloom sample was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and Mass Spectrum (MS) detected microcystin-RR. Cyanobacteria are abundant in the aquatic environment of Bangladesh and it was established that V. cholerae maintain a symbiotic relationship with these algae particularly mucilaginous cyanobacteria. During epidemics, patients symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis and in severe cases hemorrhagic diarrhea. So, question has arisen that which is responsible, microcystins or cholera for death of cholera/diarrhea patients in Bangladesh. Future research should be directed to isolate microcystins and cholera toxins from the epidemic areas to clarify the fact.

  3. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates.

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    Sandra Moore

    Full Text Available Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa.In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates.To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates.

  4. On the probability of extinction of the Haiti cholera epidemic

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    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Finger, Flavio; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nearly 3 years after its appearance in Haiti, cholera has already exacted more than 8,200 deaths and 670,000 reported cases and it is feared to become endemic. However, no clear evidence of a stable environmental reservoir of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the infective agent of the disease, has emerged so far, suggesting that the transmission cycle of the disease is being maintained by bacteria freshly shed by infected individuals. Thus in principle cholera could possibly be eradicated from Haiti. Here, we develop a framework for the estimation of the probability of extinction of the epidemic based on current epidemiological dynamics and health-care practice. Cholera spreading is modelled by an individual-based spatially-explicit stochastic model that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. Our results indicate that the probability that the epidemic goes extinct before the end of 2016 is of the order of 1%. This low probability of extinction highlights the need for more targeted and effective interventions to possibly stop cholera in Haiti.

  5. Validation and characterization of a human volunteer challenge model for cholera by using frozen bacteria of the new Vibrio cholerae epidemic serotype, O139

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    Cohen, MB; Giannella, RA; Losonsky, GA; Lang, DR; Parker, S; Hawkins, JA; Gunther, C; Schiff, GA

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, all epidemic strains of Vibrio cholerae were of the O1 serotype. Current epidemics have also been caused by a new serotype, Vibrio cholerae O139. Although the pathogenesis and clinical features of O139 cholera are similar to those of O1 cholera, immunity to serotype O1 does not confe

  6. [On the epidemic of cholera and its prevention and control by the railway authorities in 1932].

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    Huang, H P; Song, M H

    2016-01-28

    In 1932, the epidemic of cholera in China was serious, spreading to all provinces nationwide, causing heavy casualties. In order to prevent cholera epidemics spread along the railway line, the National Government Ministry of Railways and the local railway administration had taken all countermeasures, including the promulgation of epidemic prevention laws and regulations, quarantine, isolated check-up, disinfection, vaccination and even interruption of traffic. The measures of railway authorities had achieved a certain success. In August 1932, cholera epidemic began to subside gradually. PMID:27049743

  7. [On the epidemic of cholera and its prevention and control by the railway authorities in 1932].

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    Huang, H P; Song, M H

    2016-01-28

    In 1932, the epidemic of cholera in China was serious, spreading to all provinces nationwide, causing heavy casualties. In order to prevent cholera epidemics spread along the railway line, the National Government Ministry of Railways and the local railway administration had taken all countermeasures, including the promulgation of epidemic prevention laws and regulations, quarantine, isolated check-up, disinfection, vaccination and even interruption of traffic. The measures of railway authorities had achieved a certain success. In August 1932, cholera epidemic began to subside gradually.

  8. Survivability and molecular variation in Vibrio cholerae from epidemic sites in China.

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    Li, X Q; Wang, M; Deng, Z A; Shen, J C; Zhang, X Q; Liu, Y F; Cai, Y S; Wu, X W; DI, B

    2015-01-01

    The survival behaviour of Vibrio cholerae in cholera epidemics, together with its attributes of virulence-associated genes and molecular fingerprints, are significant for managing cholera epidemics. Here, we selected five strains representative of V. cholerae O1 and O139 involved in cholera events, examined their survival capacity in large volumes of water sampled from epidemic sites of a 2005 cholera outbreak, and determined virulence-associated genes and molecular subtype changes of the surviving isolates recovered. The five strains exhibited different survival capacities varying from 17 to 38 days. The virulence-associated genes of the surviving isolates remained unchanged, while their pulsotypes underwent slight variation. In particular, one waterway-isolated strain maintained virulence-associated genes and evolved to share the same pulsotype as patient strains, highlighting its role in the cholera outbreak. The strong survival capacity and molecular attributes of V. cholerae might account for its persistence in environmental waters and the long duration of the cholera outbreak, allowing effective control measures.

  9. Elevation and cholera: an epidemiological spatial analysis of the cholera epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2008-2009

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    Luque Fernandez Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly populated African urban areas where access to clean water is a challenge, water source contamination is one of the most cited risk factors in a cholera epidemic. During the rainy season, where there is either no sewage disposal or working sewer system, runoff of rains follows the slopes and gets into the lower parts of towns where shallow wells could easily become contaminated by excretes. In cholera endemic areas, spatial information about topographical elevation could help to guide preventive interventions. This study aims to analyze the association between topographic elevation and the distribution of cholera cases in Harare during the cholera epidemic in 2008 and 2009. Methods We developed an ecological study using secondary data. First, we described attack rates by suburb and then calculated rate ratios using whole Harare as reference. We illustrated the average elevation and cholera cases by suburbs using geographical information. Finally, we estimated a generalized linear mixed model (under the assumption of a Poisson distribution with an Empirical Bayesian approach to model the relation between the risk of cholera and the elevation in meters in Harare. We used a random intercept to allow for spatial correlation of neighboring suburbs. Results This study identifies a spatial pattern of the distribution of cholera cases in the Harare epidemic, characterized by a lower cholera risk in the highest elevation suburbs of Harare. The generalized linear mixed model showed that for each 100 meters of increase in the topographical elevation, the cholera risk was 30% lower with a rate ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval=0.66-0.76. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the risk reduction with an overall estimate of the rate ratio between 20% and 40%. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of considering topographical elevation as a geographical and environmental risk factor in order to plan cholera preventive

  10. Bayesian structured additive regression modeling of epidemic data: application to cholera

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    Osei Frank B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant interest in spatial epidemiology lies in identifying associated risk factors which enhances the risk of infection. Most studies, however, make no, or limited use of the spatial structure of the data, as well as possible nonlinear effects of the risk factors. Methods We develop a Bayesian Structured Additive Regression model for cholera epidemic data. Model estimation and inference is based on fully Bayesian approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations. The model is applied to cholera epidemic data in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Proximity to refuse dumps, density of refuse dumps, and proximity to potential cholera reservoirs were modeled as continuous functions; presence of slum settlers and population density were modeled as fixed effects, whereas spatial references to the communities were modeled as structured and unstructured spatial effects. Results We observe that the risk of cholera is associated with slum settlements and high population density. The risk of cholera is equal and lower for communities with fewer refuse dumps, but variable and higher for communities with more refuse dumps. The risk is also lower for communities distant from refuse dumps and potential cholera reservoirs. The results also indicate distinct spatial variation in the risk of cholera infection. Conclusion The study highlights the usefulness of Bayesian semi-parametric regression model analyzing public health data. These findings could serve as novel information to help health planners and policy makers in making effective decisions to control or prevent cholera epidemics.

  11. Worldwide occurrence of integrative conjugative element encoding multidrug resistance determinants in epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1.

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    Marin, Michel A; Fonseca, Erica L; Andrade, Bruno N; Cabral, Adriana C; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, there has been an increase of cholera epidemics caused by multidrug resistant strains. Particularly, the integrative and conjugative element (ICE) seems to play a major role in the emergence of multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae. This study fully characterized, by whole genome sequencing, new ICEs carried by multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1 strains from Nigeria (2010) (ICEVchNig1) and Nepal (1994) (ICEVchNep1). The gene content and gene order of these two ICEs are the same, and identical to ICEVchInd5, ICEVchBan5 and ICEVchHai1 previously identified in multidrug resistant V. cholerae O1. This ICE is characterized by dfrA1, sul2, strAB and floR antimicrobial resistance genes, and by unique gene content in HS4 and HS5 ICE regions. Screening for ICEs, in publicly available V. cholerae genomes, revealed the occurrence and widespread distribution of this ICE among V. cholerae O1. Metagenomic analysis found segments of this ICE in marine environments far from the direct influence of the cholera epidemic. Therefore, this study revealed the epidemiology of a spatio-temporal prevalent ICE in V. cholerae O1. Its occurrence and dispersion in V. cholerae O1 strains from different continents throughout more than two decades can be indicative of its role in the fitness of the current pandemic lineage.

  12. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

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    Paauw, A.; Trip, H.; Niemcewicz, M.; Sellek, R.; Heng, J.M.E.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Jong, A.L. de; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Olsen, J.S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effecti

  13. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

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    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  14. Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) and cholera: the cause of World War II?

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    Spellberg, Brad

    2005-05-01

    Here it is proposed that, by killing Prussian Major General Carl von Clausewitz before he could complete the work on his military text On War, cholera strongly influenced the nature of World War I (1914-18) and, by direct extension, contributed to the cause of World War II (1939-45). PMID:19813314

  15. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cholera during the first year of the epidemic in Haiti.

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    Jean Gaudart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In October 2010, cholera importation in Haiti triggered an epidemic that rapidly proved to be the world's largest epidemic of the seventh cholera pandemic. To establish effective control and elimination policies, strategies rely on the analysis of cholera dynamics. In this report, we describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of cholera and the associated environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholera-associated morbidity and mortality data were prospectively collected at the commune level according to the World Health Organization standard definition. Attack and mortality rates were estimated and mapped to assess epidemic clusters and trends. The relationships between environmental factors were assessed at the commune level using multivariate analysis. The global attack and mortality rates were 488.9 cases/10,000 inhabitants and 6.24 deaths/10,000 inhabitants, respectively. Attack rates displayed a significantly high level of spatial heterogeneity (varying from 64.7 to 3070.9 per 10,000 inhabitants, thereby suggesting disparate outbreak processes. The epidemic course exhibited two principal outbreaks. The first outbreak (October 16, 2010-January 30, 2011 displayed a centrifugal spread of a damping wave that suddenly emerged from Mirebalais. The second outbreak began at the end of May 2011, concomitant with the onset of the rainy season, and displayed a highly fragmented epidemic pattern. Environmental factors (river and rice fields: p<0.003 played a role in disease dynamics exclusively during the early phases of the epidemic. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the epidemic is still evolving, with a changing transmission pattern as time passes. Such an evolution could have hardly been anticipated, especially in a country struck by cholera for the first time. These results argue for the need for control measures involving intense efforts in rapid and exhaustive case tracking.

  16. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings

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    Moore, Sean M.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the r...

  17. Real-time modelling used for outbreak management during a cholera epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

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    Abrams, J Y; Copeland, J R; Tauxe, R V; Date, K A; Belay, E D; Mody, R K; Mintz, E D

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of epidemic cholera in post-earthquake Haiti portended a public health disaster of uncertain magnitude. In order to coordinate relief efforts in an environment with limited healthcare infrastructure and stretched resources, timely and realistic projections of the extent of the cholera outbreak were crucial. Projections were shared with Government and partner organizations beginning 5 days after the first reported case and were updated using progressively more advanced methods as more surveillance data became available. The first projection estimated that 105 000 cholera cases would occur in the first year. Subsequent projections using different methods estimated up to 652 000 cases and 163 000-247 000 hospitalizations during the first year. Current surveillance data show these projections to have provided reasonable approximations of the observed epidemic. Providing the real-time projections allowed Haitian ministries and external aid organizations to better plan and implement response measures during the evolving epidemic.

  18. [Multilocus sequence-typing of vibrio cholerae strains with various epidemic importance].

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    Mironova, L V; Afanas'ev, M V; Goldapel, E G; Balakhonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The allele polymorphism of the housekeeping genes (dnaE, lap, recA, pgm, gyrB, cat, chi, gmd) from the Vibrio cholerae strains with different epidemic importance (n = 41) isolated in Siberia and at the Far East during the cholera pandemic VII was tested. All toxigenic strains isolated at the period of epidemic complications irrespective of time and source of isolation were characterized by the identical allele profile and belonged to the same sequence-type. Nine sequence types were detected in non-epidemic isolates. The dendrogram clustering was associated with the serogroup and in some cases with the territory and time of isolation. The structure heterogeneity of the non-toxigenic V. cholerae housekeeping genes was in most cases caused by the synonymous nucleotide replacements (Dn/Ds < 1) indicating the prevalence of the negative V. cholerae at the analyzed genome sites. The revealed distinctions in the structure of housekeeping genes of the V. cholerae with different epidemic importance can be regarded as evidence of various evolutional directions in these strain groups.

  19. Deciphering the origin of the 2012 cholera epidemic in Guinea by integrating epidemiological and molecular analyses.

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    Stanislas Rebaudet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is typically considered endemic in West Africa, especially in the Republic of Guinea. However, a three-year lull period was observed from 2009 to 2011, before a new epidemic struck the country in 2012, which was officially responsible for 7,350 suspected cases and 133 deaths. To determine whether cholera re-emerged from the aquatic environment or was rather imported due to human migration, a comprehensive epidemiological and molecular survey was conducted. A spatiotemporal analysis of the national case databases established Kaback Island, located off the southern coast of Guinea, as the initial focus of the epidemic in early February. According to the field investigations, the index case was found to be a fisherman who had recently arrived from a coastal district of neighboring Sierra Leone, where a cholera outbreak had recently occurred. MLVA-based genotype mapping of 38 clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates sampled throughout the epidemic demonstrated a progressive genetic diversification of the strains from a single genotype isolated on Kaback Island in February, which correlated with spatial epidemic spread. Whole-genome sequencing characterized this strain as an "atypical" El Tor variant. Furthermore, genome-wide SNP-based phylogeny analysis grouped the Guinean strain into a new clade of the third wave of the seventh pandemic, distinct from previously analyzed African strains and directly related to a Bangladeshi isolate. Overall, these results highly suggest that the Guinean 2012 epidemic was caused by a V. cholerae clone that was likely imported from Sierra Leone by an infected individual. These results indicate the importance of promoting the cross-border identification and surveillance of mobile and vulnerable populations, including fishermen, to prevent, detect and control future epidemics in the region. Comprehensive epidemiological investigations should be expanded to better understand cholera dynamics and improve

  20. Deciphering the origin of the 2012 cholera epidemic in Guinea by integrating epidemiological and molecular analyses.

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    Rebaudet, Stanislas; Mengel, Martin A; Koivogui, Lamine; Moore, Sandra; Mutreja, Ankur; Kande, Yacouba; Yattara, Ousmane; Sarr Keita, Véronique; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Garnotel, Eric; Keita, Sakoba; Piarroux, Renaud

    2014-06-01

    Cholera is typically considered endemic in West Africa, especially in the Republic of Guinea. However, a three-year lull period was observed from 2009 to 2011, before a new epidemic struck the country in 2012, which was officially responsible for 7,350 suspected cases and 133 deaths. To determine whether cholera re-emerged from the aquatic environment or was rather imported due to human migration, a comprehensive epidemiological and molecular survey was conducted. A spatiotemporal analysis of the national case databases established Kaback Island, located off the southern coast of Guinea, as the initial focus of the epidemic in early February. According to the field investigations, the index case was found to be a fisherman who had recently arrived from a coastal district of neighboring Sierra Leone, where a cholera outbreak had recently occurred. MLVA-based genotype mapping of 38 clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates sampled throughout the epidemic demonstrated a progressive genetic diversification of the strains from a single genotype isolated on Kaback Island in February, which correlated with spatial epidemic spread. Whole-genome sequencing characterized this strain as an "atypical" El Tor variant. Furthermore, genome-wide SNP-based phylogeny analysis grouped the Guinean strain into a new clade of the third wave of the seventh pandemic, distinct from previously analyzed African strains and directly related to a Bangladeshi isolate. Overall, these results highly suggest that the Guinean 2012 epidemic was caused by a V. cholerae clone that was likely imported from Sierra Leone by an infected individual. These results indicate the importance of promoting the cross-border identification and surveillance of mobile and vulnerable populations, including fishermen, to prevent, detect and control future epidemics in the region. Comprehensive epidemiological investigations should be expanded to better understand cholera dynamics and improve disease control

  1. Epidemic cholera in rural El Salvador: risk factors in a region covered by a cholera prevention campaign.

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    Quick, R E; Thompson, B L; Zuniga, A; Dominguez, G; De Brizuela, E L; De Palma, O; Almeida, S; Valencia, A; Ries, A A; Bean, N H

    1995-04-01

    In response to the Latin American cholera epidemic, El Salvador began a prevention programme in April 1991. The first case was confirmed in August, and 700 cases were reported within 3 months. A matched case-control study was conducted in rural La Libertad Department in November 1991. Illness was associated with eating cold cooked or raw seafood (odds ratio [OR] = 7.0; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 1.4, 35.0) and with drinking water outside the home (OR = 8.8; 95% CL = 1.7, 44.6). Assertion of knowledge about how to prevent cholera (OR = 0.2; 95% CL = 0.1, 0.8) and eating rice (OR = 0.2; 95% CL = 0.1, 0.8) were protective. More controls than patients regularly used soap (OR = 0.3; 95% CL = 0.1, 1.0). This study demonstrated three important points for cholera prevention: (1) seafood should be eaten cooked and hot; (2) populations at risk should be taught to treat household drinking water and to avoid drinking water outside the home unless it is known to be treated; and (3) education about hygiene can be an important tool in preventing cholera.

  2. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

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    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  3. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

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    Fukui Hiromichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report, published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical, that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  4. Phenotypic Analysis Reveals that the 2010 Haiti Cholera Epidemic Is Linked to a Hypervirulent Strain.

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    Satchell, Karla J F; Jones, Christopher J; Wong, Jennifer; Queen, Jessica; Agarwal, Shivani; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains have been responsible for pandemic cholera since 1961. These strains have evolved over time, spreading globally in three separate waves. Wave 3 is caused by altered El Tor (AET) variant strains, which include the strain with the signature ctxB7 allele that was introduced in 2010 into Haiti, where it caused a devastating epidemic. In this study, we used phenotypic analysis to compare an early isolate from the Haiti epidemic to wave 1 El Tor isolates commonly used for research. It is demonstrated that the Haiti isolate has increased production of cholera toxin (CT) and hemolysin, increased motility, and a reduced ability to form biofilms. This strain also outcompetes common wave 1 El Tor isolates for colonization of infant mice, indicating that it has increased virulence. Monitoring of CT production and motility in additional wave 3 isolates revealed that this phenotypic variation likely evolved over time rather than in a single genetic event. Analysis of available whole-genome sequences and phylogenetic analyses suggested that increased virulence arose from positive selection for mutations found in known and putative regulatory genes, including hns and vieA, diguanylate cyclase genes, and genes belonging to the lysR and gntR regulatory families. Overall, the studies presented here revealed that V. cholerae virulence potential can evolve and that the currently prevalent wave 3 AET strains are both phenotypically distinct from and more virulent than many El Tor isolates. PMID:27297393

  5. Variations in SXT elements in epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains in China.

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    Wang, Ruibai; Yu, Dong; Yue, Junjie; Kan, Biao

    2016-03-09

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains are responsible for three multiyear epidemics of cholera in China during the seventh ongoing pandemic. The presence of the integrative conjugative element SXT is strongly correlated with resistance to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in these strains. Here, we sequenced the conserved genes of the SXT element, including eex, setR, and int, from 59 V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains and extracted and assembled the intact SXT sequences from the 11 genome sequenced strains. These elements had characteristics distinct from those of previously reported integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). They could be clearly divided into two types based on the clustering of conserved genes and gene structures of the elements, showing their possibly independent derivation and evolution. These two types were present before and after 2005, respectively, demonstrating the type substitution that occurred in 2005. Four to six antibiotic-resistant genes were found on the SXT elements, including genes resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and multiple drugs. In summary, our findings demonstrated the roles of the SXT element in the emergence of multidrug resistance in epidemic O1 El Tor V. cholerae strains in China.

  6. Variations in SXT elements in epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains in China.

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    Wang, Ruibai; Yu, Dong; Yue, Junjie; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains are responsible for three multiyear epidemics of cholera in China during the seventh ongoing pandemic. The presence of the integrative conjugative element SXT is strongly correlated with resistance to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in these strains. Here, we sequenced the conserved genes of the SXT element, including eex, setR, and int, from 59 V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains and extracted and assembled the intact SXT sequences from the 11 genome sequenced strains. These elements had characteristics distinct from those of previously reported integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). They could be clearly divided into two types based on the clustering of conserved genes and gene structures of the elements, showing their possibly independent derivation and evolution. These two types were present before and after 2005, respectively, demonstrating the type substitution that occurred in 2005. Four to six antibiotic-resistant genes were found on the SXT elements, including genes resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and multiple drugs. In summary, our findings demonstrated the roles of the SXT element in the emergence of multidrug resistance in epidemic O1 El Tor V. cholerae strains in China. PMID:26956038

  7. Unique Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor with Haitian Type ctxB Allele Implicated in the Recent Cholera Epidemics from Nigeria, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Abiodun, Iwalokun Bamidele; Afolabi, Oluwadun; Kolawole, Olukoya Daniel; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Ramamurthy, Thanadarayan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1, which is responsible for several cholera epidemics in Nigeria, are not reported in detail since 2007. In this study, we screened V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype isolates from cholera cases and water samples from different states to investigate their phenotypic and genetic attributes with special reference to their clonality. Results All the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolates isolated during 2007–2013 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, the drugs currently used in the treatment of cholera cases in Nigeria. Emergence of CT genotype 7 (Haitian type of ctxB allele) was predominantly seen among Ogawa serotype and the CT genotype 1 (classical ctxB allele) was mostly found in Inaba serotype. Overall, V. cholerae O1 from clinical and water samples were found to be closely related as determined by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. V. cholerae isolates from Abia, Kano and Bauchi were found to be genetically distinct from the other states of Nigeria. Conclusion Fecal contamination of the water sources may be the possible source of the cholera infection. Combined prevalence of Haitian and classical ctxB alleles were detected in Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively. This study further demonstrated that V. cholerae O1 with the ctxB has been emerged similar to the isolates reported in Haiti. Our findings suggest that the use of fluoroquinolones or tetracycline/doxycycline may help in the effective management of acute cholera in the affected Nigerian states. In addition, strengthening the existing surveillance in the hospitals of all the states and supply of clean drinking water may control cholera outbreaks in the future. PMID:27479360

  8. Epidemic cholera in Ecuador: multidrug-resistance and transmission by water and seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, J. T.; Mintz, E. D.; Cañizares, R.; Semiglia, A.; Gomez, I.; Sempértegui, R.; Dávila, A.; GREENE, K. D.; Puhr, N D; Cameron, D N; Tenover, F C; Barrett, T. J.; Bean, N. H.; C. Ivey; Tauxe, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    To determine risk factors for cholera in an epidemic-disease area in South America, a case—control investigation was performed in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in July 1991. Residents > 5 years old who were hospitalized for treatment of acute, watery diarrhoea and two matched controls for each were interviewed regarding sources of water and food, and eating, drinking, and hygienic habits. Interviewers inspected homes of case-patients and controls to document water treatment, food-handling, and hygienic...

  9. Cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau (2008: the importance of "place".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Luquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As resources are limited when responding to cholera outbreaks, knowledge about where to orient interventions is crucial. We describe the cholera epidemic affecting Guinea-Bissau in 2008 focusing on the geographical spread in order to guide prevention and control activities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted two studies: 1 a descriptive analysis of the cholera epidemic in Guinea-Bissau focusing on its geographical spread (country level and within the capital; and 2 a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of houses with at least one cholera case in the most affected neighbourhood of the capital (Bairro Bandim to detect clustering of households with cases (cluster analysis. All cholera cases attending the cholera treatment centres in Guinea-Bissau who fulfilled a modified World Health Organization clinical case definition during the epidemic were included in the descriptive study. For the cluster analysis, a sample of houses was selected from a satellite photo (Google Earth™; 140 houses (and the four closest houses were assessed from the 2,202 identified structures. We applied K-functions and Kernel smoothing to detect clustering. We confirmed the clustering using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. A total of 14,222 cases and 225 deaths were reported in the country (AR = 0.94%, CFR = 1.64%. The more affected regions were Biombo, Bijagos and Bissau (the capital. Bairro Bandim was the most affected neighborhood of the capital (AR = 4.0. We found at least one case in 22.7% of the houses (95%CI: 19.5-26.2 in this neighborhood. The cluster analysis identified two areas within Bairro Bandim at highest risk: a market and an intersection where runoff accumulates waste (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis allowed for the identification of the most affected regions in Guinea-Bissau during the 2008 cholera outbreak, and the most affected areas within the capital. This information was essential for making

  10. Seroepidemiologic survey of epidemic cholera in Haiti to assess spectrum of illness and risk factors for severe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R; Talkington, Deborah F; Pruckler, James M; Fouché, M D Bernadette; Lafosse, Elsie; Nygren, Benjamin; Gómez, Gerardo A; Dahourou, Georges A; Archer, W Roodly; Payne, Amanda B; Hooper, W Craig; Tappero, Jordan W; Derado, Gordana; Magloire, Roc; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Mintz, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    To assess the spectrum of illness from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and risk factors for severe cholera in Haiti, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural commune with more than 21,000 residents. During March 22-April 6, 2011, we interviewed 2,622 residents ≥ 2 years of age and tested serum specimens from 2,527 (96%) participants for vibriocidal and antibodies against cholera toxin; 18% of participants reported a cholera diagnosis, 39% had vibriocidal titers ≥ 320, and 64% had vibriocidal titers ≥ 80, suggesting widespread infection. Among seropositive participants (vibriocidal titers ≥ 320), 74.5% reported no diarrhea and 9.0% had severe cholera (reported receiving intravenous fluids and overnight hospitalization). This high burden of severe cholera is likely explained by the lack of pre-existing immunity in this population, although the virulence of the atypical El Tor strain causing the epidemic and other factors might also play a role.

  11. Epidemic cholera in Mali: high mortality and multiple routes of transmission in a famine area.

    OpenAIRE

    Tauxe, R. V.; Holmberg, S D; Dodin, A.; Wells, J. V.; Blake, P A

    1988-01-01

    During the 1984 cholera epidemic in Mali, 1793 cases and 406 deaths were reported, a death-to-case ratio of 23%. In four affected villages, the mean clinical attack rate was 1.5 and 29% of affected persons died. In 66% of cases the illness began more than 48 h after the village outbreak began, when supplies from outside the village were potentially available. Deaths occurred because patients failed to seek care or received only limited rehydration therapy when they did. Case-control studies i...

  12. Epidemic cholera in Ecuador: multidrug-resistance and transmission by water and seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J T; Mintz, E D; Cañizares, R; Semiglia, A; Gomez, I; Sempértegui, R; Dávila, A; Greene, K D; Puhr, N D; Cameron, D N

    1994-02-01

    To determine risk factors for cholera in an epidemic-disease area in South America, a case-control investigation was performed in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in July 1991. Residents > 5 years old who were hospitalized for treatment of acute, watery diarrhoea and two matched controls for each were interviewed regarding sources of water and food, and eating, drinking, and hygienic habits. Interviewers inspected homes of case-patients and controls to document water treatment, food-handling, and hygienic practices. Faecal specimens and shellfish were cultured for Vibrio cholerae O 1. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to a variety of antimicrobial agents. Drinking unboiled water (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-7.5), drinking a beverage from a street vendor (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.3-5.9), eating raw seafood (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.4-11.5), and eating cooked crab (OR = 5.1, CI = 1.4-19.2) were associated with illness. Always boiling drinking water at home (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.2-0.9) was protective against illness. The presence of soap in either the kitchen (OR = 0.3, CI = 0.2-0.8) or bathroom (OR = 0.4, CI = 0.2-0.9) at home was also protective. V. cholerae O 1 was recovered from a pooled sample of a bivalve mollusc and from 68% of stool samples from case-patients. Thirty-six percent of the isolates from stool specimens were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. Specific prevention measures may prevent transmission through these vehicles in the future. The appearance of antimicrobial resistance suggests the need for changes in current methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:8119348

  13. Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in various settings, either in the form of reactive campaigns in areas experiencing an outbreak or pre- ... to: support the design and implementation of global strategies to contribute to capacity development for cholera prevention ...

  14. Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has it), do not offer them. previous continue Prevention Some countries have cholera vaccines that can help ... ON THIS TOPIC Staying Healthy While You Travel Dengue Fever Malaria Typhoid Fever Ebola First Aid: Diarrhea ...

  15. Use of a Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test during a Mass Vaccination Campaign in Response to an Epidemic in Guinea, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pino, Isabel; Luquero, Francisco J.; Sakoba, Kéïta; Sylla, Souleymane; Haile, Melatwork; Grais, Rebecca F.; Ciglenecki, Iza; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Page, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2012 cholera outbreak in the Republic of Guinea, the Ministry of Health, supported by Médecins Sans Frontières - Operational Center Geneva, used the oral cholera vaccine Shanchol as a part of the emergency response. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) Crystal VC, widely used during outbreaks, detects lipopolysaccharide antigens of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, both included in Shanchol. In the context of reactive use of a whole-cell cholera vaccine in a region where cholera cases have been reported, it is essential to know what proportion of vaccinated individuals would be reactive to the RDT and for how long after vaccination. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 108 vaccinated individuals, selected systematically among all persons older than one year, were included at vaccination sites and 106 were included in the analysis. Stools samples of this cohort of vaccinated participants were collected and tested with the RDT every day until the test was negative for two consecutive visits or for a maximum of 7 days. A total of 94.3% of cholera vaccine recipients had a positive test after vaccination; all except one of these positive results were reactive only with the O139 antigen. The mean time to become negative in those with an initial positive result after vaccination was 3.8 days, standard deviation 1.1 days. Conclusions/Significance The RDT Crystal VC becomes positive in persons recently vaccinated against cholera, although almost exclusively to the O139 antigen. This reactivity largely disappeared within five days after vaccination. These results suggest that the test can be used normally as soon as 24 hours after vaccination in a context of O1 epidemics, which represent the vast majority of cases, and after a period of five days in areas where V. cholerae O139 is present. The reason why only O139 test line became positive remains to be investigated. PMID:23967359

  16. Access to Safe Water in Rural Artibonite, Haiti 16 Months after the Onset of the Cholera Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Murphy, Jennifer; Bertrand, Fabienne; Husain, Farah; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Haiti has the lowest improved water and sanitation coverage in the Western Hemisphere and is suffering from the largest cholera epidemic on record. In May of 2012, an assessment was conducted in rural areas of the Artibonite Department to describe the type and quality of water sources and determine knowledge, access, and use of household water treatment products to inform future programs. It was conducted after emergency response was scaled back but before longer-term water, sanitation, and h...

  17. Disease and Democracy: The Practice of Governance and the Cholera Epidemics of Northwestern Argentina, 1865-1905

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas, Carlos Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the effect of the arrival of cholera to the far northwestern province of Tucumán. This project participates in a relatively new historigraphical approach that has emerged within Latin American studies in the last decade: "sociocultural history of disease." I study the interaction between politics and culture, within the epidemics, in order to foreground the political agency of marginalized people and regions. The project determines the role that provincial politicia...

  18. [The characteristics of cholera prevalence and of the performance of epidemic-control measures in small settlements of Dagestan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terent'ev, A N; Lomov, Iu M; Karbyshev, G L; Gasaev, D G; Golubev, B P; Fetsaĭlova, O P; Bespalov, A I; Tagirov, A S; Ivanova, N G; Pasiukov, V V

    1995-01-01

    The present work deals with summarizing the experience obtained by the specialized antiepidemic brigade of the Rostov-on-Don Research Institute for Plague Control in the work on the liquidation of cholera in some regions of Daghestan with a view to discussing the problems of improvement of anticholera measures. The characteristic features of the epidemic process were its explosive character, sparseness of the foci of infection, the prevalence of its transmission through everyday contacts (family contacts and intensive tribal contacts) and essential delays in taking anticholera measures due to sudden appearance of outbreaks, remoteness of small settlements and the lack of manpower and means for carrying out anticholera measures at a given place and time, as well as delays in epidemiological analysis carried out by local health service bodies. Delays in carrying out such measures led to the spread of infection both within settlements and in the whole region and further in the republic. The epidemic process was complicated by the antibiotic resistance of V.cholerae strains circulating on this territory. All these factors formed specific epidemic situation which introduced amendments into the organization of anticholera measures.

  19. An Ecosocial Approach to the Epidemic of Cholera in the Marshall Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Palmer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A cholera outbreak occurred in the Marshall Islands in December 2000 to January 2001 with over 400 cases and six deaths. Within Kwajalein Atoll, cholera occurred on Ebeye Island, while it did not occur on Kwajalein Island, three miles away. We apply Krieger’s ecosocial approach in order to explicate the reasons for this dichotomy. We first examine how Marshallese people came to embody cholera as a disease state. Secondly, we examine the (a arrangements of power, property, production, and consumption in the Ebeye-Kwajalein complex, as well as (b human biology as it has been shaped by the ecological context in order to elucidate the pathways to the embodiment of cholera. Thirdly, we examine the cumulative interplay between exposure to cholera, as well as susceptibility and resistance to the disease at the level of individuals and the island-wide level. Fourthly, we examine who is responsible for the cholera outbreak and who describes the phenomena. We conclude that the outbreak of cholera in the Marshall Islands can be considered the biologic embodiment of disparate political and economic conditions and ecological imbalance. We suggest courses of action for those interested in addressing the inequalities and working towards health.

  20. [Antibiotic sensitivity to epidemic strains of Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae 1 isolated in Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J D; Niel, L; Talarmin, A; Dubrous, P

    1995-01-01

    Multiresistance or epidemic enteric bacteria to antibiotics greatly complicates treatment, and in some cases prophylaxis, of severe invasive gastroenteritis. During the summer of 1994, two epidemics of diarrhea, one due to Vibrio cholerae and the other to Shigella dysenteriae 1 isolated from the Goma and Bukavu camps was determined by measurement of the Agar Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. Multiresistance to tetracyclins, aminopenicillins, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and nifuroxazide was observed. After intensive treatment mutant forms of both bacteria resistant to nalidixic acid rapidly appeared. Only fluoroquinolones remained active on these mutant strains, but the availability of this agent in Africa is restricted due to cost. The most effective way of preventing resistance is to limit the spread of enteric infections by health education and improvement of hygiene. This can be difficult during wartime. PMID:8830219

  1. A cholera epidemic among the Nicobarese tribe of Nancowry, Andaman, and Nicobar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunan, Attayoor P; Ghosh, Asit R; Roy, Subarna; Gupte, Mohan D; Sehgal, Subhash C

    2004-12-01

    Cholera has not been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India. In October 2002, an outbreak of diarrhea occurred among the Nicobarese tribe of the Nancowry group of islands. The outbreak affected 16 of the 45 inhabited villages of three islands with an attack rate of 12.8% and a case fatality ratio of 1.3%. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor was isolated from 18 of the 67 patients tested. A study conducted in one of the villages indicated that the outbreak was started there by a person who traveled to a nearby village where an outbreak was occurring. No specific water source could be identified as the source of infection because persons consuming water from all wells were affected. Water samples from 55 sources were tested and 38 of them were contaminated with Escherichia coli. The possible sources of V. cholerae are effluents from ships or poachers from neighboring countries where cholera is endemic. PMID:15642977

  2. Assessing clonal correlation of epidemic Vibrio cholerae isolates during 2011 in 16 provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajia, Massoud; Rahbar, Mohamad; Farzami, Marjan Rahnamye; Asl, Hossein Masoumi; Dolatyar, Alireza; Imani, Mohsen; Saburian, Roghieh; Mafi, Moharam; Bakhshi, Bita

    2015-03-01

    A total of 1,187 Vibrio cholerae isolates were received during 2011 cholera outbreaks from 16 provinces in different geographical location to Iranian reference Health laboratory. A random selection was performed, and 61 isolates were subjected to further investigations. Cholera cases were come up from May with nine cases and reached to its maximum rate at August (57 cases) and continued to October after which a fall occurred in September. All of the isolates were susceptible to three antimicrobial agents including ciprofloxacin, cefixime, and ampicillin. The highest rate of resistance was seen to nalidixic acid (96.7 %) and co-trimoxazole (91.8 %). Clonality of isolates was investigated through genotyping by PFGE method. A total of seven pulsotypes were obtained from 61 isolates under study. The pulsotypes were highly related with only 1-3 bands differences. Three pulsotypes (PT5, PT6, and PT7) constituted 93.4 % of total isolates. One environmentally isolated strain showed distinct pattern from clinical specimens. This strain although had no any evidence in identified cholera infections, highlighted selecting more environmental specimens in any future outbreaks as long as human samples. In conclusion, emergence and dominance of Ogawa serotypes after about 7 years in Iran are alarming due to fear of import of new V. cholerae clones from out of the country. Approximately, one third of patients in 2011 cholera outbreak in Iran were of Afghan or Pakistani nationality which makes the hypothesis of import of Ogawa serotype strains from neighboring countries more documented and signifies the need to monitor and protect the boundaries.

  3. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Strains Isolated from the Cholera Epidemic in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Mohammad S.; Mahmud, Zahid H.; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Faruque, Shah M.; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Shafiqul; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Mazumder, Ramendra N.; Khan, Azharul I.; Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Iqbal, Anwarul; Chitsatso, Owen; Mudzori, James; Patel, Sheetal; Midzi, Stanley M.; Charimari, Lincoln; Endtz, Hubert P.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper details the phenotypic, genotypic, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 88 Vibrio cholerae strains from Zimbabwe. Of the 88 strains, 83 were classified as "altered El Tor" and 5 as "hybrid El Tor" strains. All of the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin,

  4. [The analysis of possibility to apply new preparations in serologic diagnostic of agent of cholera in working activity of specialized anti-epidemic brigades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Tatarenko, O A; Alekseyeva, L P; Agafonova, V V; Shaly, O A; Pisanov, R V; Aiydinov, G V; Stupina, N A

    2013-05-01

    The approbation of diagnostic preparations on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies developed in the institute was carried out during tactical specialized exercise with building up of units on the basis of mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. It is established that diagnostic agglutinating and fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulins by their sensitivity are equal to polyclonal commercial preparations and can be used at the stages of laboratory diagnostic of cholera both in conditions of stationary laboratory and mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. The method of dot immunoanalysis on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies can, on a par with such common methods as immunofluorescence, slide-agglutination and polymerase chain reaction, be applied in complex of methods of express-diagnostic of cholera.

  5. Epidemic tvpe and antibiotic resistance of cholera strains isolated%霍乱疫情分离株流行菌型及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少玲; 吴捷; 刁保卫; 崔志刚; 王衍德; 朱建华; 黄昌和; 马焱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the epidemic type and antibiotic resistance of cholere strains isolated and to provide basis for clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. Methods Six samples from an outbreak of cholera epidemic were collected in Hainan province in June 2008 and analyzed by serotyping and phage-biotyping. The cholera toxin gene was detected with PCR according to the " Manual for the Prevention and Control of Cholera" (version 5). Pulsed field gel electro-phoresis( PFGE) was used for subtyping of the isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the 6 strains to 17 kinds of antibacterial was determined with improved K-B method recommended by WHO. Results The 6 strains were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype, with 5 strains of 01 group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc and 1 strains was Vibrio cholerae Ogawa( lc). The cholera toxin gene was identified in all 6 strains. The mapping of the strains were belonged to two pattern by PFGE and the similarity was 100 %. The 6 strains were all resistant to streptomycin,sulphamethoxazole/trim-ethoprim, sulphafurazole, and polymyxin B. High drug susceptibility of the samples was found to 9 kinds of antibiotics such as norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cephalothin(53% ,9/17). Conclusion The bacterium type of Vibrio cholerae causing the epidemic outbreak of cholera was Ol group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc. Norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cepha-lothin could be the choice of clinical treatment for the cases and carriers of Vibrio cholerae in Hainan province. But streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim,sulphafurazole,and polymyxin B could not be used.%目的 了解霍乱疫情分离株的流行菌型及其耐药性,为霍乱疫情的快速有效控制和临床治疗提供科学依据.方法 对2008年6月海南省某地霍乱疫情采集的6株霍乱弧菌分离株进行血清学分型、噬菌体-生物分型、霍乱毒素基因检测、脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分子分型

  6. Access to safe water in rural Artibonite, Haiti 16 months after the onset of the cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Murphy, Jennifer; Bertrand, Fabienne; Husain, Farah; Handzel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Haiti has the lowest improved water and sanitation coverage in the Western Hemisphere and is suffering from the largest cholera epidemic on record. In May of 2012, an assessment was conducted in rural areas of the Artibonite Department to describe the type and quality of water sources and determine knowledge, access, and use of household water treatment products to inform future programs. It was conducted after emergency response was scaled back but before longer-term water, sanitation, and hygiene activities were initiated. The household survey and source water quality analysis documented low access to safe water, with only 42.3% of households using an improved drinking water source. One-half (50.9%) of the improved water sources tested positive for Escherichia coli. Of households with water to test, 12.7% had positive chlorine residual. The assessment reinforces the identified need for major investments in safe water and sanitation infrastructure and the importance of household water treatment to improve access to safe water in the near term. PMID:24106191

  7. Virulence Gene PCR and PFGE Genotyping analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010%湖南省2005年-2010年霍乱疫情分离株的毒力基因PCR及PFGE分型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏昕; 湛志飞; 覃迪; 刘运芝; 高立冬; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 张红

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To understand the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010; to study the colone relations among the strains. Methods: K - B method was employed to test drug sensitivity; ctxAB virulence gene was tested by PCR, and finally molecular typing was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) for representative strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics. Results; 33 Vibrio cholerae 0139 stains presented a higher drug resistance rate against doxycycline and sulphame -thoxazole of 39. 39% and 75.76% , while a sensitivity of 100% to ciprofloxacin, nor-floxacin and amikacin; The virulence gene PCR results showed all the Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains were cholera toxin genes ctxAB - positive; 24 Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in 2005 and 2010 showed 3 PFGE banding types,and all the strains were homology of 83% - 100% by cluster analysis. Conclusion; Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from cholera epidemic in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010 were all ctxAB positive. The strains from different years and regions were found the closely related epidemic clone group strains of cholera; Resistance monitoring and further molecular typing analysis of Cholera strains contribute to the efficient surveillance of cholera and infectious source tracking.%目的:了解2005年-2010年湖南省霍乱疫情分离到的O139群霍乱弧菌菌株的病原学特征,研究疫情分离株之间的克隆相关性.方法:采用K-B法进行药敏试验;聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测ctxAB毒力基因;脉冲场凝胶电泳对疫情分离代表株进行PFGE分型分析.结果:33株霍乱弧菌对强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率较高,分别为39.39%和75.76%,对环丙沙星、诺氟沙星以及丁胺卡那100%敏感;毒力基因的PCR结果显示为所有疫情分离的O139霍乱弧菌均为产毒株,即

  8. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions. PMID:27487957

  9. Reporte histórico: Primer Aislamiento de Vibrio cholera serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba durante la epidemia de cólera en el Perú ‑ 1991 Historical report: first isolation of Vibrio cholera serogroup O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba during the cholerae epidemic in Perú ‑ 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Bravo Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hace 20 años apareció una enfermedad diarreica nueva en el Perú y el Laboratorio de Referencia de Enteropatógenos del Instituto Nacional de Salud, cumplió una labor destacada en el aislamiento e identificación rápida y oportuna del Vibrio cholerae. La enfermedad del cólera no se había presentado anteriormente, pero en la última semana de enero de 1991 se detectó un brote epidémico de diarrea aguda con deshidratación intensa y algunos casos de fallecidos. La epidemia afectó, al comienzo, varias localidades del litoral peruano. Equipos de trabajo de la Oficina General de Epidemiología y de los laboratorios del Instituto Nacional de Salud obtuvieron muestras fecales de pacientes con diarrea aguda procedentes de las ciudades de Chancay, Chimbote, Piura y algunos hospitales de Lima. Las muestras colectadas en el medio de transporte de Cary y Blair fueron procesadas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Enteropatógenos (LANARE del Instituto Nacional de Salud. De todas las muestras se aisló e identificó Vibrio cholerae serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba que mostró ser sensible a la tetraciclina y a otros antibióticos. Esta investigación confirmó el primer brote epidémico de cólera en el Perú.20 years ago, a new diarrheal disease was introduced in Peru and the Enteropathogens Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Salud had an outstanding role in the isolation and rapid and timely identification of Vibrio cholerae. Cholera had not been seen before, but during the last week of January 1991 an outbreak of acute diarrhea was detected, presenting intense dehydration and some deaths. The epidemic affected, in the beginning, many locations of the peruvian coast. Some working teams of the General Office of Epidemiology and of the Instituto Nacional de Salud obtained fecal samples from patients with acute diarrhea coming from the cities of Chancay, Chimbote, Piura and some hospitals in Lima. The collected samples

  10. Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation-driven persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; McDougald, D.; Moreno, A.M.;

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments is the principal cause for seasonal occurrence of cholera epidemics. This causality has been explained by postulating that V. cholerae forms biofilms in association with animate and inanimate surfaces...

  11. Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to Granular Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Gancz, Hanan; Niderman-Meyer, Orly; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-01-01

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to

  12. Vibrio cholerae O1 lineages driving cholera outbreaks during seventh cholera pandemic in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Freitas, Fernanda S; Marin, Michel A; Fonseca, Erica L; Okeke, Iruka N; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency of cholera epidemics across Africa has increased significantly with thousands of people dying each year. However, there still exists a lack of information concerning the Vibrio cholerae O1 lineages driving early and contemporary epidemics since the seventh cholera pandemic started in the continent. This compromises the understanding of the forces determining the epidemiology of cholera in Africa and its control. This study aimed to analyze a collection of V. cholerae O1 strains from the beginning of the seventh cholera pandemic in Ghana and to compare them with recent isolates to understand the evolution of the cholera epidemic in Ghana. V. cholerae O1 strains were characterized by means of Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA), genes from the virulence core genome (VCG), and genes related to the choleragenic phenotype. Our results revealed two major clusters of Ghanaian V. cholerae O1 strains, El Tor and Amazonia/Ghana. Concerning the virulence genes, all strains harbored the set of VCG and most were positive for VSP-II genomic island. The ctxB gene of the contemporary strains was characterized as Altered El Tor. The strains from 1970 to 1980 were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, except for the Amazonia/Ghana cluster that was resistant to aminoglycosides and carried the class 2 integron with the sat2-aadA1 arrangement. This study showed that distinct V. cholerae O1 were the determinants of cholera outbreaks in Ghana. Thus, in endemic regions, such as Africa, cholera can be caused by various V. cholerae O1 genotypes. PMID:21896336

  13. The politics of underdevelopment: metered to death-how a water experiment caused riots and a cholera epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Water privatization programs in South Africa, part of a government policy aimed at making people pay for the full cost of running water ("total cost recovery"), was developed by private water companies and the World Bank to finance improved water supplies and build the country's economy. Instead the programs are causing more misery than development. Millions of poor people have had their water supply cut off because of inability to pay, forcing them to get their water from polluted rivers and lakes and leading to South Africa's worst cholera outbreak--which the government paid millions of dollars to control. Residents in some townships are rebelling, and many of the private multinational water companies are reassessing their involvement in South Africa.

  14. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Physician during the typhoid epidemic in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2014-02-01

    When the Anglo-Boer War broke out in October 1899, Arthur Conan Doyle, a retired ophthalmologist, was already famous as the creator of Sherlock Holmes. Motivated by patriotism and adventure, Doyle joined the medical staff of a private field hospital endowed by philanthropist John Langman (1846-1928). Langman Hospital opened in Bloemfontein, South Africa, at the height of that city's typhoid fever epidemic which raged from April to June 1900. There were nearly 5000 cases of typhoid and 1000 deaths but official statistics do not truly reflect the magnitude of the suffering. Doyle argued that the British Army had made a major mistake by not making antityphoid inoculation compulsory. Because of the new vaccine's side effects, 95% of the soldiers refused immunization. Despite his strong opinions, Doyle failed to press the issue of compulsory inoculation when he testified before two Royal Commissions investigating the medical and military management of the war in South Africa. One can only imagine how the army might have benefited from the new idea of prophylactic vaccination in preventive medicine if Doyle had not let these opportunities slip away. As a consequence, antityphoid inoculation was still voluntary when Great Britain entered World War I in August 1914.

  15. Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930): Physician during the typhoid epidemic in the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2014-02-01

    When the Anglo-Boer War broke out in October 1899, Arthur Conan Doyle, a retired ophthalmologist, was already famous as the creator of Sherlock Holmes. Motivated by patriotism and adventure, Doyle joined the medical staff of a private field hospital endowed by philanthropist John Langman (1846-1928). Langman Hospital opened in Bloemfontein, South Africa, at the height of that city's typhoid fever epidemic which raged from April to June 1900. There were nearly 5000 cases of typhoid and 1000 deaths but official statistics do not truly reflect the magnitude of the suffering. Doyle argued that the British Army had made a major mistake by not making antityphoid inoculation compulsory. Because of the new vaccine's side effects, 95% of the soldiers refused immunization. Despite his strong opinions, Doyle failed to press the issue of compulsory inoculation when he testified before two Royal Commissions investigating the medical and military management of the war in South Africa. One can only imagine how the army might have benefited from the new idea of prophylactic vaccination in preventive medicine if Doyle had not let these opportunities slip away. As a consequence, antityphoid inoculation was still voluntary when Great Britain entered World War I in August 1914. PMID:24585840

  16. Cholera: foodborne transmission and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-García, T; Mintz, E D

    1996-10-01

    The last several years have witnessed a tremendous increase in reported cholera cases across the globe. The explosive arrival of the seventh cholera pandemic in Latin American in 1991, dramatic epidemics of cholera on the Indian subcontinent and in Southeast Asia due to the newly recognized Vibrio cholerae O139 strain, and the often deadly presence of cholera among populations affected by political and social upheaval in Africa and Eastern Europe are evidence that many countries have failed to adopt effective measures for cholera prevention and control. Foodborne transmission of cholera has been well documented by epidemiologic investigations in nearly every continent, and its interruption is a critical component to any integrated programme for cholera prevention and control. We emphasize clear and effective guidelines for the prevention of foodborne cholera transmission that are drawn from a comprehensive review of relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data. PMID:8905306

  17. [The determinants of the low case fatality rate of the cholera epidemic in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Sossou, Roch Aristide; Dossou, Jean-Paul; Mongbo, Virginie; Massougbodji, Achille

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 cholera outbreak in Benin was characterized by a low case fatality rate (0.39 p.100) in the Littoral department, where 502 cases were recorded between July and December. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors associated with the low case fatality rate within the department. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted as part of this research used 404 patient records, focus group discussions with ten former patients, in-depth interviews with 8 health authorities involved in the response and structured face-to-face interviews with 12 health personnel involved in the treatment of patients. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis based on EPIINFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007 software. The results from several sources were cross-checked through triangulation. The mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 14.8 years. 39.35% patients were admitted with severe dehydration. Oral rehydration, intravenous rehydration and antibiotic therapy were given to 99.5%, 85% and 97.77% of patients, respectively. Only one hospital death was noted. The low case fatality rate was mainly due to the following factors: the high quality of care provided in a center with qualified personnel and available and free of charge treatment kits, protocols based on massive rehydration and appropriate hygiene measures, and patient compliance with the treatment plan. The response was also characterized by good coordination, wide mass and local health promotion, and selective antibiotic prophylaxis, which contributed significantly to reducing the spread of the infection. PMID:22177702

  18. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  19. Genomic epidemiology of the haitian cholera outbreak: a single introduction followed by rapid, extensive, and continued spread characterized the onset of the epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppinger, Mark; Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    collection and provides strong molecular evidence that points to a nonindigenous source of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak and refines epidemiological standards used in outbreak investigations for outbreak inclusion/exclusion following the concept of genomic epidemiology. The generated phylogenomic data...... have major public health relevance in translating sequence-based information to assist in future diagnostic, epidemiological, surveillance, and forensic studies of cholera....

  20. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  1. Vibrios among patients of good socioeconomic conditions during the cholera epidemic in Recife, Brazil Vibriões coléricos e não coléricos entre pacientes de boas condições sódo-econômicas durante a epidemia de coléra no Recife, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Magalhães

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Between March and July, 1992, we screened for Vibrio all fecal samples submitted for bacteriologic diagnosis at a private clinical laboratory in Recife. Of 1435 cultures examined only 1 (0.07% was positive for V.cholerae 01, biovar Eltor, serovar Inaba, but 17 (1.2% yielded non-cholera Vibrio (V.cholerae non-01; V.fluvialis; V.furnissii, V.parahaemolyticus and Vibrio spp. Thus, V.cholerae 01, differently of other enteropathogenic vibrios, spared individuals of good socioeconomic conditions even during the cholera epidemic, which made hundreds of victims in the neighboring slums.Entre março e julho de 1992, pesquisou-se Vibrio em todos os espécimes fecais enviados para diagnóstico bacteriológico a um laboratório clínico privado do Recife. De 1435 culturas examinadas apenas 1 (0.07% foi positiva para V.cholerae 01, biovar Eltor, sorovar Inaba, porém 17 (1,2% forneceram outras espécies de Vibrio (V.cholerae nao-01; V.fluvialis; V.furnissii; V.parahaemolyticus e Vibrio spp. Portanto, V.cholerae 01, diferentemente de outros vibriões entero patogênicos, poupou indivíduos de boas condições sócio-econômicas, mesmo durante uma epidemia de cólera que atingiu centenas de pessoas nas favelas vizinhas.

  2. [The flu epidemic after World War I and homeopathy--an international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" began in 1918 and was the most devastating pandemic in human history that had ever been, claiming more lives than World War I. The flu virus had not yet been discovered, and the usual therapy measures were merely symptomatic. In many parts of the world the pandemic was treated by homeopaths. At the time, homeopathic medical practices, out-patient clinics and hospitals existed in various countries. To this day homeopaths refer to the successful homeopathic treatment of the "Spanish Flu". The following paper looks at what this treatment consisted in and whether it was based on a particular concept. It also examines contemporary evaluations and figures, as well as the question as to whether homeopathy experienced a rise in demand as a consequence of its success during the pandemic.

  3. Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, M; Mori, K.; Kaviti, J N

    1982-01-01

    Biological and serological analyses of 272 isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 from six epidemics and from a few sporadic cases in Kenya were carried out. All of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae biotype E1 Tor, and 210 out of 272 isolates were hemolytic as examined by Feeley's method.

  4. Of cabbages and chlorine: cholera in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The low case fatality rates (1%) from the 1991 cholera epidemic in Peru was more a result of including diarrheas of a less virulent etiology than that of cholera. In fact, a study during the early phases of the cholera epidemic in Trujillo, Peru revealed that only 79% of suspected cholera cases were infected with vibrio cholera 01. Further other people contended that the government of Peru did not chlorinate many water supplies because studies by the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested that chlorine increases the cancer risk. It reacts with organic matter to make trihalomethanes. 1 study noted that this risk may explain as many as 700 cases of cancer/year in the US, yet cholera was responsible for nearly 40009 deaths in Latin America the 1st year. Besides in Trujillo, Peru the reason for not chlorinating the water supply was not due to a conscious decision to not do so on the part of the government, but because no funds had been made available to purchase chlorinators and chlorine. This is typical of many towns in developing countries. Further raw fish also played a role in transmitting cholera in Peru. Moreover the study in Trujillo indicated that water stored in containers in the home, and not the water supply, was the most important vehicle of transmission. Nevertheless chlorination of both the water supply and stored water would have prevented cholera transmission. In addition, cabbage irrigated with raw wastewater contributed to cholera transmission in Trujillo. But a concern arises if developing countries follow the advice of WHO of 1st treating wastewater in stabilization ponds. Aquatic blue green algae, other zooplankton, and phytoplankton from a microhabitat suitable for V. cholera. In fact, a study in Peru identified a seasonal pattern of the cholera epidemic with the seasonality of V. cholera non-01 from sewage lagoons in Lima. PMID:1351603

  5. Enzymatic electrochemical detection of epidemic-causing Vibrio cholerae with a disposable oligonucleotide-modified screen-printed bisensor coupled to a dry-reagent-based nucleic acid amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Choo Yee; Ang, Geik Yong; Chan, Kok Gan; Banga Singh, Kirnpal Kaur; Chan, Yean Yean

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we developed a nucleic acid-sensing platform in which a simple, dry-reagent-based nucleic acid amplification assay is combined with a portable multiplex electrochemical genosensor. Preparation of an amplification reaction mix targeting multiple DNA regions of interest is greatly simplified because the lyophilized reagents need only be reconstituted with ultrapure water before the DNA sample is added. The presence of single or multiple target DNAs causes the corresponding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) amplicons to be generated and tagged with a fluorescein label. The fluorescein-labeled ssDNA amplicons are then analyzed using capture probe-modified screen-printed gold electrode bisensors. Enzymatic amplification of the hybridization event is achieved through the catalytic production of electroactive α-naphthol by anti-fluorescein-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. The applicability of this platform as a diagnostic tool is demonstrated with the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, which are associated with cholera epidemics and pandemics. The platform showed excellent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (100%) when challenged with 168 spiked stool samples. The limit of detection was low (10 colony-forming units/ml) for both toxigenic V. cholerae serogroups. A heat stability assay revealed that the dry-reagent amplification reaction mix was stable at temperatures of 4-56 °C, with an estimated shelf life of seven months. The findings of this study highlight the potential of combining a dry-reagent-based nucleic acid amplification assay with an electrochemical genosensor in a more convenient, sensitive, and sequence-specific detection strategy for multiple target nucleic acids.

  6. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  7. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J.; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6th and 7th pandemic lineages, and diverge from “modern” cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532–1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ. PMID:27786291

  8. Drinking cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh andexplore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility oflinking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water. Me...

  9. Genetic Studies of Vibrio cholerae in South West Cameroon—A Phylogenetic Analysis of Isolates from the 2010-2011 Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise C.; Masalla, Thomas; Esemu, Seraphine; Fumoloh, Foche Francis; Kracalik, Ian; Cella, Eleonora; Alam, Meer Taifur; Akoachere, Jane-Francis; Liang, Song; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Ndip, Lucy M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: During the cholera outbreak from 2010 to 2011 in Cameroon, 33,192 cases with 1,440 deaths (case fatality ratio 4.34%) were reported to the World Health Organization. Of these, the South West Region reported 3,120 clinical cases. This region is in the Equatorial Monsoon climatic subzone of Cameroon, close to the coast, raising questions as to whether cases were linked with development of environmental reservoirs. Methods: In an investigation conducted by the Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Buea, toxigenic V. cholerae O1 were isolated from diarrheal stool samples from 18 patients, with ages ranging from <3 to 70 years. Coordinates for clinical centers at which cases were identified were obtained using a handheld GPS, and were mapped using ArcGIS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby ‘Bauer agar disc diffusion method. The full genomes of these strains were sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. De novo assembly of cholera genomes and multiple sequence alignment were carried out using the bioinformatics pipeline developed in the Emerging Pathogens Institute laboratory at the University of Florida. Results/Discussion: Genetic comparisons showed that isolates were closely related, with pairwise p-distances ranging from 2.25 to 14.52 10-5 nt substitutions per site, and no statistically significant correlation between the pairwise genetic distances and the geographic distances among sampling locations. Indeed, the phylogeny of the Cameroonian strains displays the typical star-like topology and intermixing of strains from different locations that are characteristic of an exponential outbreak localized around a relatively restricted area with occasional spillover to other parts of the country, likely mediated by direct human contact and human movement. Findings highlight the utility of whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis in understanding transmission patterns at the local level. PMID

  10. 安徽省淮南市首起0139霍乱弧菌疫情检测分析%Experimental analysis the first cases of cholera epidemic detection of 0139 of Huainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余寿杰; 刘笑梅; 曹敏; 胡守奎; 胡万富

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the first cases of cholera in Huainan,0139 epidemic causes and biological properties. Methods Conventional methods of serological and bacteriological methods of the strains were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect cholera virulence genes, susceptibility testing modified KB.Results 1 ,was isolated and serum agglutination results,2 patients were all positive stool samples,6 were in close contact with all the negative rectal swab;turtle pond-like 18,5 were positive;turtle egg in battle were like 9,2 were positive ; turtle eggs 7, the positive three copies; turtle waste 11, were negative. 2, or more positive culture drug sensitivity test of the pioneer B, doxycycline resistant; to ampicillin, tetracycline in sensitive;on norfloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin sensitive. 3,or more positive cultures gene DNA PCR test results,cholera toxin(CT) ,toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) all were positive. Conclusion From the outbreak of cholera 0139 is water pollution caused by turtle ponds,The trip types of 0139 Vibrio cholera were highly homologous with that isolated from green turtle;the bacteria of the pioneer B, doxycycline resistance and carrying cta, tcpa virulence genes.%目的 探讨淮南市首起0139霍乱弧菌疫情的发生原因和生物学特性。方法 血清学及常规细菌学方法对菌株进行鉴定,聚合酶链式反应(PCR)检测霍乱毒力基因,改良K-B药敏实验。结果 (1)培养分离及血清凝集试验结果,2例患者粪便标本全部阳性,密切接触者6人肛拭子全部阴性;甲鱼塘水样18份,阳性5份;甲鱼产蛋沙场样9份,2份阳性;甲鱼蛋7份,阳性3份;甲鱼排泄物11份,均为阴性。(2)血清凝集试验阳性培养物对头孢哌酮、强力霉素耐药;对氨苄西林、四环素中敏;对氟哌酸、庆大霉素、环丙沙星等敏感。(3)血清凝集试验阳性培养物霍乱毒素(CT)、毒素协同调节菌毛(TCP)全部阳性。结论

  11. [The struggle against malaria in the Ottoman Empire during World War I and the legal regulations made to this end].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koylu, Zafer; Doğan, Nihal

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important disadvantages of war environmental is infectious diseases. The Ottoman Empire combated infectious diseases in addition to the war because of Balkan wars and afterwards first world war. Because of increasing migrations to Anatolia after Balkan wars spread some epidemic diseases, such as cholera, typhoid fever, plaque, dysentery, syphilis. With the start of the First World War, malaria began to spread within civilian population as well as the military. The population fell from power because of illness and therefore could not process the land tax failed to pay taxes. Founded in 1914 with the fight against epidemic diseases was initiated by the Sıhhiye ministry. Quinine was formed as tablets which was imported from Germany by legal regulation and was distributed to the public by Ziraat Bank. However, malaria epidemic could not be prevented because of long war years, lack of population, insufficiency of the preventive methods and lack of quinine, and about three quarters of the population caught malaria and in four years 412.000 soldiers had malaria and 20.000 of them died despite of measures.

  12. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  13. Vibrio Cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae adalah salah satu bakteri yang masuk dalam family Vibrionaceae selain dari Aeromonas dan Plesiomonas, dan merupakan bagian dari genus Vibrio. Bakteri ini pertama kali ditemukan oleh Robert Koch pada tahun 1884 dan sangat penting dalam dunia kedokteran karena menyebabkan penyakit kolera, oleh Sri Amelia

  14. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahima Chowdhury

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere.Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup.Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups.These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs.

  15. "A wild and wondrous ride": CDC field epidemiologists in the east Pakistan smallpox and cholera epidemics of 1958 "Uma louca e maravilhosa jornada": epidemiologistas de campo do CDC nas epidemias de varíola e cólera do Paquistão Oriental em 1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Greenough

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In mid-April of 1958 the Government of Pakistan summoned the press to announce a grave need for international aid to cope with smallpox and cholera epidemics in East Pakistan. In response, and with the backing of the US State Department, Dr. Alexander D. Langmuir, chief epidemiologist of the CDC, led a team of epidemiologists to assist authorities in Dacca strengthen their immunization programs. Langmuir's superiors hoped for a Cold War advantage, but he saw an opportunity for trainees in the Epidemic Intelligence Service to learn about public health in a developing country. Langmuir later described the episode as a "wild and wondrous ride," but it had been more like a nightmare: the East Pakistan health department had collapsed; a popular movement had taken over vaccination and squandered vaccine supplies; hostile journalists had questioned the Americans' deeper motives; and a professional rivalry opened between the Americans and a British epidemiologist named Aidan Cockburn. By the time the epidemic subsided in July 1958, 30 million Bengalis had been vaccinated for smallpox but another 20,000 had succumbed to the disease. This episode was CDC's first sustained foreign intervention, a precursor to its extensive role in the 1970s helping WHO eradicate smallpox from Bangladesh.Em meados de abril de 1958, o Governo do Paquistão convocou a imprensa para anunciar a urgente necessidade de auxílio internacional para lidar com epidemias de varíola e cólera no Paquistão Oriental. Em resposta, e com o apoio do Departamento de Estado dos Estados Unidos, Dr. Alexander D. Langmuir, chefe de epidemiologia do CDC em Atlanta, liderou um time de epidemiologistas para auxiliar as autoridades em Dacca a reforçar seus programas de imunização. Os superiores de Langmuir ansiavam por demonstrações de capacidade dos EUA na Guerra Fria, mas ele vislumbrou uma chance para o Serviço de Inteligência Epidemiológica aprender sobre saúde pública em países em

  16. The role of Vibrio cholerae genotyping in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rituparna; Ghosh, Jayeeta Banerjee; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Nair, G Balakrish

    2013-11-01

    Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is prevalent in the African continent from the 1970s when the seventh pandemic spread from Asia to Africa. In the past decade, cholera has caused devastating outbreaks in much of Africa, illustrated by the recent cholera epidemics in Zimbabwe and regions of central Africa. Given the extent of cholera in Africa, a robust and efficient surveillance system should be in place to prevent and control the disease in this continent. Such a surveillance system would be greatly bolstered by use of molecular typing techniques to identify genetic subtypes. In this review, we highlight the role that modern molecular typing techniques can play in tracking and aborting the spread of cholera. PMID:24101642

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Nepal by southern hybridization with a cholera toxin gene probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Shrestha, J; Iida, T; Yoh, M; Honda, T

    1995-06-01

    A cholera epidemic broke out in 1992 due to Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in the eastern and southern belt of Nepal mainly among the Bhutanese refugees. Restriction fragment profiles (RFP) of DNA fragments of V. cholerae O1 isolates hybridized with an enzyme-labelled oligonucleotide probe for cholera toxin gene (ctx) by Southern Hybridization were compared. The probe hybridized with the 13- and 8-kb fragments of PstI-digested total DNA in all isolates observed in the epidemic. This RFP in the Nepalese strain was not observed in the strains isolated during other epidemics but was observed in the strains isolated from the exported marine products from Taiwan and Thailand. PMID:7594311

  18. Environmental surveillance for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in surface waters of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Amy M; Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Mull, Bonnie J; Tarr, Cheryl L; Turnsek, Maryann; Katz, Lee S; Humphrys, Michael S; Derado, Gordana; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. Toxigenic V. cholerae was isolated from river water in 2011 and 2013. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these isolates were a match to the outbreak strain. The DFA-DVC tests were positive for V. cholerae O1 in plankton samples collected from multiple sites. Results of this survey show that toxigenic V. cholerae could be recovered from surface waters in Haiti more than 2 years after the onset of the epidemic.

  19. Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuet Aumatell C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Masuet Aumatell1, JM Ramon Torrell1, Jane N Zuckerman21International Health Centre, Preventive Medicine Department, Bellvitge Hospital, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference, Research and Training in Travel Medicine, University College London Medical School, London, UKBackground: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation.Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children.Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms “oral cholera vaccines,” “children,” and “efficacy,” limited to “clinical trials” and “human studies”.Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization.Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit.Keywords: efficacy, oral cholera vaccine, children

  20. Cholera in Ecuador: Current relevance of past lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Malavade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report analyses the trends in the cholera epidemic that hit Ecuador in 1991. The study is based on personal experiences and analysis of epidemiological databases from the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador. The number of cases and initial attack rates in an immunologically naive population are described by province. An analysis of the Andean and coastal cholera patterns of transmission are described along with its associated risk factors. The logistical, environmental, and socio-cultural risk factors prevalent during the epidemic and the control measures implemented are also reviewed. Also, the role of the epidemic in the development of the public health and healthcare resources in Ecuador is discussed here. Current data indicate favorable conditions for another outbreak of cholera in Ecuador. In view of the existing risk factors, new strategies are proposed to prevent such an epidemic in the future.

  1. What is cholera?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Tulsiani, Suhella; Siddique, A.;

    2016-01-01

    a third ofthe respondents did not associate diarrhea with cholera or mentioned symptoms that could not be caused by cholera (29%). Approximately half of the respondents associated water with the cause of cholera (56%) and only 8% associated cholera with sanitation or hygiene. Shame and stigma (54%) were...

  2. Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Constantin de Magny

    Full Text Available Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region.

  3. Cholera Outbreak in Senegal in 2005: Was Climate a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Thiaw, Wassila; Kumar, Vadlamani; Manga, Noël M.; Diop, Bernard M.; Gueye, Lamine; Kamara, Mamina; Roche, Benjamin; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region. PMID:22952995

  4. Monitoring water sources for environmental reservoirs of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Meer T; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Weber, Chad D; Johnson, Judith A; Rashid, Mohammad H; Birch, Catherine S; Brumback, Babette A; Beau de Rochars, Valery E Madsen; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2014-03-01

    An epidemic of cholera infections was documented in Haiti for the first time in more than 100 years during October 2010. Cases have continued to occur, raising the question of whether the microorganism has established environmental reservoirs in Haiti. We monitored 14 environmental sites near the towns of Gressier and Leogane during April 2012-March 2013. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains were isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 179 water samples; nontoxigenic O1 V. cholerae was isolated from an additional 3 samples. All samples containing V. cholerae O1 also contained non-O1 V. cholerae. V. cholerae O1 was isolated only when water temperatures were ≥31°C. Our data substantiate the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment in Haiti. These isolations may reflect establishment of long-term environmental reservoirs in Haiti, which may complicate eradication of cholera from this coastal country.

  5. Haiti’s progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured

    OpenAIRE

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Paul E Farmer; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawi...

  6. Low detection of Vibrio cholerae carriage in healthcare workers returning to 12 Latin American countries from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, R; Somarriba, L; Hernández, G; Bardaji, Y; Aguila, A; Mazumder, R N

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This investigation was undertaken to characterize the prevalence of intestinal Vibrio cholerae in healthcare workers (HCWs) returning from Haiti due to the ongoing cholera epidemic. Eight hundred and fifty asymptomatic HCWs of the Cuban Medical Brigade, who planned to leave Haiti, were studied by laboratory screening of stool culture for V. cholerae. A very low percentage (0.23%) of toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa was found. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest reported screening study for V. cholerae infection in asymptomatic HCWs returning from a cholera-affected country. Cholera transmission to health personnel highlights a possible risk of transmitting cholera during mobilization of the population for emergency response. Aid workers are encouraged to take precautions to reduce their risk for acquiring cholera and special care should be taken by consuming safe water and food and practising regular hand washing.

  7. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions. (author)

  8. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions.

  9. Cholera in Ecuador: Current relevance of past lessons learnt

    OpenAIRE

    S S Malavade; A Narvaez; A. Mitra; Ochoa, T; Naik, E.; Sharma, M.; S Galwankar; M D Breglia; Izurieta, R

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the trends in the cholera epidemic that hit Ecuador in 1991. The study is based on personal experiences and analysis of epidemiological databases from the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador. The number of cases and initial attack rates in an immunologically naive population are described by province. An analysis of the Andean and coastal cholera patterns of transmission are described along with its associated risk factors. The logistical, environmental, and socio-cultur...

  10. Predictive modeling of cholera using GRACE and TRMM satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cholera outbreaks can be classified in three forms- epidemic (sudden or seasonal outbreaks), endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years) and mixed-mode endemic (combination of certain epidemic and endemic conditions) with significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Endemic cholera is related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data obtained from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), understanding dynamics of river discharge is now feasible. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during the spring and autumn season, two separate models, between TWS and disease time series (2002 to 2010) were developed. TWS, hence water availability, showed an asymmetrical, strong association with spring (τ=-0.53; p<0.001) and autumn (τ=0.45; p<0.001) cholera prevalence up to five to six months in advance. One unit (cm of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% [confidence interval (CI) 20-31%; p<0.05] in the spring season, while an increase in regional water by one unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% [CI:22-33%; p<0.05]. Epidemic cholera is related with warm temperatures and heavy rainfall. Using TRMM data for several locations in Asia and Africa, probability of cholera increases 18% [CI:15-23%; p<0.05] after heavy precipitation resulted in a societal conditions where access to safe water and sanitation was disrupted. Results from mechanistic modeling framework using systems approach that include satellite based hydroclimatic information with tradition disease transmission models will also be presented.

  11. Molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉起

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Shandong province.Methods A total of 13 strains of V.cholerae O139(9 clinical strains and 4 environmental strains)isolated from cholera epidemics in Shandong province since 1997 were recovered and confirmed with serum agglutination and biochemical reaction.Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE)was carried out for molecular subtyping.Virulence genes and

  12. Linkage of Global Water Resources, Climate, and Human Health: A Conundrum for Which Cholera Offers a Paradigm (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R.

    2010-12-01

    An environmental source of cholera was hypothesized as early as the late nineteenth century by Robert Koch. Standard bacteriological procedures for isolation of vibrios from environmental samples, including water, between epidemics generally were unsuccessful because Vibrio cholerae, a marine vibrio, enters into a dormant, "viable but nonculturable stage," when conditions are unfavorable for growth and reproduction. An association of Vibrio cholerae with zooplankton, notably copepods, has been established. Furthermore, the sporadicity and erraticity of cholera epidemics have been correlated with El Niño. Since zooplankton harbor the bacterium and zooplankton blooms follow phytoplankton blooms, remote sensing can be employed to predict cholera epidemics from sea surface temperature (SST), ocean height (OH), chlorophyll, and turbidity data. Cholera occurs seasonally in Bangladesh, with two annual peaks in the number of cases. From clinical remote sensing data, it has been found that SST, OH, and blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton are correlated with cholera epidemics. Thus, selected climatological factors and incidence of V. cholerae can be recorded, bringing the potential of predicting conditions conducive to cholera outbreaks to reality. A simple filtration intervention takes into account the association of V. cholerae with plankton, and has proven to be a simple solution to the age-old problem of controlling this waterborne disease for villagers in remote regions of Bangladesh.

  13. The Zymovars of Vibrio cholerae: Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Zymovars analysis also known as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is applied here to investigate the genetic variation of Vibrio cholerae strains and characterise strains or group of strains of medical and epidemiological interest. Fourteen loci were analyzed in 171 strains of non-O1 non-O139, 32 classical and 61 El Tor from America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The mean genetic diversity was 0.339. It is shown that the same O antigen (both O1 and non-O1 may be present in several geneticaly diverse (different zymovars strains. Conversely the same zymovar may contain more than one serogroup. It is confirmed that the South American epidemic strain differs from the 7th pandemic El Tor strain in locus LAP (leucyl leucyl aminopeptidase. Here it is shown that this rare allele is present in 1 V. mimicus and 4 non-O1 V. cholerae. Non toxigenic O1 strains from South India epidemic share zymovar 14A with the epidemic El Tor from the 7th pandemic, while another group have diverse zymovars. The sucrose negative epidemic strains isolated in French Guiana and Brazil have the same zymovar of the current American epidemic V. cholerae.

  14. Pathogeny of an epidemic of Vibrio cholerae in Jinzhou of Hubei Province in 2012%2012年湖北省荆州地区一起霍乱弧菌疫情分离株的病原学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 杨红梅; 陈婷; 李国明

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解2012年湖北省荆州地区一起霍乱弧菌疫情分离株的菌群分型.方法 共获得6株分离株,用传统方法(生化、制动、粘丝、血清学实验)进行鉴定.对确认的霍乱弧菌菌株进行毒力基因(霍乱肠毒素)PCR检验;用限制性内切酶Not Ⅰ、SfiⅠ分别进行酶切和脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE),并对电泳酶切指纹图谱进行聚类分析.结果 6株分离株经传统方法鉴定均为霍乱弧菌0139群;全部具有霍乱肠毒素;NotⅠ、SfiⅠ酶切PFGE电泳图谱条带全部一致;聚类分析结果显示,6株分离株的相似系数为100%.结论 湖北省荆州地区发生的霍乱弧菌疫情由霍乱弧菌0139群感染所致,且为相同的病原菌.%Objective To test the pathogeny of Vibrio cholerae strains of the epidemic in Jinzhou of Hubei Province.Methods Traditional methods of biochemistry,immobihzation test,string test and typing of blood serum were used to test the 6 strains isolated.The virulence gene which was cholera enterotoxin (ct) was detected by PCR.The whole genome DNA finger print of confirmed strains was analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion respectively with two enzymes Not Ⅰ and Sfi Ⅰ.The DNA fingerprints were analyzed for clusters.Results The 6 strains of Vibrio cholerae were all O139 by traditional laboratory tests;virulence gene was detected in all 6 strains.The banding pattern was the same in the two maps of PFGE.The results of cluster analysis showed that the similarity coefficient of the six strains was 100%.Conclusion The epidemic of Vibrio cholerae is caused by the same pathogenic bacterium which is O139.

  15. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; A.C.P. Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized.

  16. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C.; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004–2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004–2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  18. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  19. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe.

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    Antarpreet Jutla

    Full Text Available Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008.Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began.Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives.

  20. Formation of Medical Units in Response to Epidemics in the Australian Imperial Force in Palestine 1918

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    Prof. G Dennis Shanks MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the closing days of the First World War, British cavalry operations defeated the Turkish Armies in Palestine. Australian Light Horse Regiments as part of the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF were prominent in the capture of Amman, Beirut and Damascus. Epidemic infectious diseases were part of the severe desert environment faced by soldiers in the Middle East. Cholera and dysentery epidemics required reformation of medical units to emphasize mobility in an austere environment. A large epidemic of falciparum malaria coinciding with pandemic influenza shut down military operations and caused many deaths in late 1918. Three separate military medical units were formed in Egypt to address epidemic infectious diseases during mobile operations in the desert: ANZAC Field Laboratory, 5th Malaria Diagnosis Station and 7th Mobile Sanitary Section. Laboratory and preventive medicine units were critical to the military’s ability to conduct operations in the Middle East in 1918 and are likely to become vital for future missions in developing countries. As was the case in 1918, military medical units may have to be acutely restructured to control infectious disease outbreaks

  1. [Design and implementation of Geographical Information System on prevention and control of cholera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-jun; Fang, Li-qun; Wang, Duo-chun; Wang, Lu-xi; Li, Ya-pin; Li, Yan-li; Yang, Hong; Kan, Biao; Cao, Wu-chun

    2012-04-01

    To build the Geographical Information System (GIS) database for prevention and control of cholera programs as well as using management analysis and function demonstration to show the spatial attribute of cholera. Data from case reporting system regarding diarrhoea, vibrio cholerae, serotypes of vibrio cholerae at the surveillance spots and seafoods, as well as surveillance data on ambient environment and climate were collected. All the data were imported to system database to show the incidence of vibrio cholerae in different provinces, regions and counties to support the spatial analysis through the spatial analysis of GIS. The epidemic trends of cholera, seasonal characteristics of the cholera and the variation of the vibrio cholerae with times were better understood. Information on hotspots, regions and time of epidemics was collected, and helpful in providing risk prediction on the incidence of vibrio cholerae. The exploitation of the software can predict and simulate the spatio-temporal risks, so as to provide guidance for the prevention and control of the disease.

  2. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

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    Anisia J Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  3. 广州海珠地区非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌流行状况调查及生物学特征研究%Epidemic condition and biological characteristics of non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae in Haizhu District of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少洪; 李映霞; 李少彤; 吴琪; 孙凤琪; 黄芳; 曾爱芳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemic condition, distribution and biological characteristics of non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae from 2001 to 2009 in Haizhu District, to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of acute diarrhea. Methods Referring to the detecting method written in "Cholera control handbook"in the fifth edition,764 specimens from outside environment (including the water in the Pearl River, drinking water, water for breeding fish, aquatic products and delicatessen foods), 189 specimens of healthy population and 3398 intestinal samples of patients with diarrhea, summing up to 4351 specimens for non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae test. Results 4351 speciments were detected of 101 strains of non O1/non O139 vibrio cholerae, the total detection rate was 2. 32%;66 strains were identified by serotyping and grouped into 26 different serotypes, the typing rate was 65.3%. The strains VBO9,VBO38 and VBO76 were the dominant bacteria. Nine strains of the same type of non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae were found from external environments also from patients with diarrhea, suggesting that there might be a correlation between the two. Conclusion Non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae have diversified serotypes, causing certain infection rate among the population in this region. These bacteria exist extensively in external environment and they are the potential hazard to the citizens.%目的 了解广州海珠地区2001-2009年非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌的流行、分布状况及生物学特征,为防控该类病原菌引起的急性腹泻病提供科学依据.方法 参照(第5版)中的检测方法,对本区珠江河水、饮用水、养殖水、各种海(水)产品、市售熟食等外环境标本764份、健康人群标本189份及肠道门诊腹泻患者标本3398份,共计4351份标本进行非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌的检定.结果 4351份标本共检出非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌101株,总检出率为2.32%;其中有66株可分型,分属于26

  4. The role of socioeconomic status in longitudinal trends of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993-2007.

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    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ(01) = -0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α(01) = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high

  5. Model of Cholera Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network in Chabahar City, Iran

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    Pezeshki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cholera as an endemic disease remains a health issue in Iran despite decrease in incidence. Since forecasting epidemic diseases provides appropriate preventive actions in disease spread, different forecasting methods including artificial neural networks have been developed to study parameters involved in incidence and spread of epidemic diseases such as cholera. Objectives In this study, cholera in rural area of Chabahar, Iran was investigated to achieve a proper forecasting model. Materials and Methods Data of cholera was gathered from 465 villages, of which 104 reported cholera during ten years period of study. Logistic regression modeling and correlate bivariate were used to determine risk factors and achieve possible predictive model one-hidden-layer perception neural network with backpropagation training algorithm and the sigmoid activation function was trained and tested between the two groups of infected and non-infected villages after preprocessing. For determining validity of prediction, the ROC diagram was used. The study variables included climate conditions and geographical parameters. Results After determining significant variables of cholera incidence, the described artificial neural network model was capable of forecasting cholera event among villages of test group with accuracy up to 80%. The highest accuracy was achieved when model was trained with variables that were significant in statistical analysis describing that the two methods confirm the result of each other. Conclusions Application of artificial neural networking assists forecasting cholera for adopting protective measures. For a more accurate prediction, comprehensive information is required including data on hygienic, social and demographic parameters.

  6. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  7. Sustained Local Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotypes in a Previously Cholera-Free Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V. cholerae monitoring from environmental and clinical sources in Mexico (S. Y. Choi et al., mBio 7:e02160-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02160-15). It reveals that multiple V. cholerae variants, including classical strains from the previous pandemic, as well as completely novel biotypes, have been circulating in Mexico. This discovery has important implications for the epidemiology and evolution of V. cholerae. PMID:27143391

  8. Sustained Local Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotypes in a Previously Cholera-Free Country

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    Yan Boucher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V. cholerae monitoring from environmental and clinical sources in Mexico (S. Y. Choi et al., mBio 7:e02160-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02160-15. It reveals that multiple V. cholerae variants, including classical strains from the previous pandemic, as well as completely novel biotypes, have been circulating in Mexico. This discovery has important implications for the epidemiology and evolution of V. cholerae.

  9. "I'm not dog, no!": cries of resistance against cholera control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Monte, C M

    1996-09-01

    Popular reactions toward government efforts to control the recent cholera epidemic in Northeast Brazil are evaluated. Intensive ethnographic interviews and participant-observation in two urban slums (favelas), reveal a high level of resistance on the part of impoverished residents towards official cholera control interventions and mass media campaigns. "Non-compliance" with recommended regimens is described more as a revolt against accusatory attitudes and actions of the elite than as an outright rejection of care by the poor. "Hidden transcripts" about "The Dog's Disease," as cholera is popularly called, voices a history of social and economic inequity and domination in Northeast Brazil. Here, cholera is encumbered by the trappings of metaphor. Two lurid cultural stereotypes, pessoa imunda (filthy, dirty person) and vira lata (stray mutt dog) are used, it is believed, to equate the poor with cholera. The morally disgracing and disempowering imagery of cholera is used to blame and punish the poor and to collectively taint and separate their communities from wealthy neighborhoods. The authors argue that metaphoric trappings have tragic consequences: they deform the experience of having cholera and inhibit the sick and dying from seeking treatment early enough. Controlling cholera requires eliminating "blaming the victim" rhetoric while attacking the social roots of cholera: poverty, low earning power, female illiteracy, sexism, lack of basic sanitation and clean water supplies, medical hegemony, etc. For health interventions to be effective, it is necessary to take into account people's "hidden transcripts" when designing action programs. PMID:8888470

  10. Improved laboratory capacity is required to respond better to future cholera outbreaks in Papua New Guinea

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    Paul Horwood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera was first detected in Papua New Guinea in July 2009, caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa. By late 2011, 15 500 cases had been reported throughout lowland Papua New Guinea with a case fatality rate of 3.2%. The epidemic has since slowed, with only sporadic cases reported in Western Province and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB. Accurate and timely diagnosis is a critical element of the public health response to cholera, yet in low-income countries where the burden of cholera is the greatest, diagnostic services are often limited. Here we report on the diagnostic challenges and the logistical factors that impacted on diagnosis during the first reported outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea.

  11. Predictors of disease severity in patients admitted to a cholera treatment center in urban Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcin, Claude-Lyne; Severe, Karine; Riche, Claudia T; Anglade, Benedict S; Moise, Colette Guiteau; Woodworth, Michael; Charles, Macarthur; Li, Zhongze; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Wright, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    Cholera, previously unrecognized in Haiti, spread through the country in the fall of 2010. An analysis was performed to understand the epidemiological characteristics, clinical management, and risk factors for disease severity in a population seen at the GHESKIO Cholera Treatment Center in Port-au-Prince. A comprehensive review of the medical records of patients admitted during the period of October 28, 2010-July 10, 2011 was conducted. Disease severity on admission was directly correlated with older age, more prolonged length of stay, and presentation during the two epidemic waves seen in the observation period. Although there was a high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severity of cholera was not greater with HIV infection. This study documents the correlation of cholera waves with rainfall and its reduction in settings with improved sanitary conditions and potable water when newly introduced cholera affects all ages equally so that interventions must be directed throughout the population.

  12. Cholera in Azov area

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    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  13. Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

    2011-06-01

    The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper.

  14. Risk factors for cholera transmission in Haiti during inter-peak periods: insights to improve current control strategies from two case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Grandesso, F; M Allan; Jean-Simon, P S J; Boncy, J; Blake, A.; Pierre, R; Alberti, K P; Munger, A; Elder, G; Olson, D; Porten, K; F. J. Luquero

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Two community-based density case-control studies were performed to assess risk factors for cholera transmission during inter-peak periods of the ongoing epidemic in two Haitian urban settings, Gonaives and Carrefour. The strongest associations were: close contact with cholera patients (sharing latrines, visiting cholera patients, helping someone with diarrhoea), eating food from street vendors and washing dishes with untreated water. Protective factors were: drinking chlorinated water...

  15. The El Tor Biotype of Vibrio cholerae Exhibits a Growth Advantage in the Stationary Phase in Mixed Cultures with the Classical Biotype▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Subhra; Baidya, Amit K.; Ghosh, Amalendu; Paul, Kalidas; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae strains of the O1 serogroup that typically cause epidemic cholera can be classified into two biotypes, classical and El Tor. The El Tor biotype emerged in 1961 and subsequently displaced the classical biotype as a cause of cholera throughout the world. In this study we demonstrate that when strains of the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard LB medium, the El Tor strains clearly had a competitive growth advantage over the classical biotype starting from th...

  16. Virulence factors in environmental and clinical Vibrio cholerae from endemic areas in Kenya

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    Racheal W. Kimani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1971, Kenya has had repeated cholera outbreaks. However, the cause of seasonal epidemics of cholera is not fully understood and neither are the factors that drive epidemics, both in Kenya and globally.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae during an interepidemic period in Kenya and to characterise their virulence factors.Methods: One hundred (50 clinical, 50 environmental samples were tested for V. cholerae isolates using both simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.Results: Both sediments and algae from fishing and landing bays yielded isolates of V. cholerae. Clinical strains were characterised along with the environmental strains for comparison. All clinical strains harboured ctxA, tcpA (El Tor, ompU, zot, ace, toxR, hylA (El Tor and tcpI genes. Prevalence for virulence genes in environmental strains was hylA (El Tor (10%, toxR (24%, zot (22%, ctxA (12%,tcpI (8%, hylA (26% and tcpA (12%.Conclusion: The study sites, including landing bays and beaches, contained environmental V. cholerae, suggesting that these may be reservoirs for frequent epidemics. Improved hygiene and fish-handling techniques will be important in reducing the persistence of reservoirs.

  17. Historical epidemiology of the second cholera pandemic: relevance to present day disease dynamics.

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    Christina H Chan

    Full Text Available Despite nearly two centuries of study, the fundamental transmission dynamic properties of cholera remain incompletely characterized. We used historical time-series data on the spread of cholera in twelve European and North American cities during the second cholera pandemic, as reported in Amariah Brigham's 1832 A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera, to parameterize simple mathematical models of cholera transmission. Richards growth models were used to derive estimates of the basic reproductive number (R0 (median: 16.0, range: 1.9 to 550.9 and the proportion of unrecognized cases (mean: 96.3%, SD: 0.04%. Heterogeneity in model-generated R0 estimates was consistent with variability in cholera dynamics described by contemporary investigators and may represent differences in the nature of cholera spread. While subject to limitations associated with measurement and the absence of microbiological diagnosis, historical epidemic data are a potentially rich source for understanding pathogen dynamics in the absence of control measures, particularly when used in conjunction with simple and readily interpretable mathematical models.

  18. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

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    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  19. CHOLERA EL-TOR EN IRAN

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    M. Ghodssi

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological analysis shows that we have been confronted with the ELTor type, and only that type, until the end of the epidemic.The clinical study presents the symptoms of the real cholera with all its grievous consequences.The epidemiological supertnisicn stales that the El..Tor cholera is not agressiveat all in town areas whereas it presents its usual aspect in country areas, because of a lack of hygiene. there.That disease can be completely cured if the balance between the electrolytesis quickly restored.The disease was all the more dreadful since it came as a surprise and spread from one province to the other.L'examen bacteriologique montrc qu'il s'agit du type EI_ Tor et uniquement du meme type jusqu'a la fin de l'epldemie.La surveillance epidemiologique constate que Ie cholera EI_Tor n'cst nullement agressif dans Ie milieu urbain; mais qu'H revet l'aspect classique dans les milieuxruraux, depourvus d'hyglene.La maludic est totalement guerissablc a condition que l'equilibre des electrolytes so it rapidement retabli. L'evenement a tHe maladie se repandit d'une12

  20. Stabile kloningsvektorer til Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Malene; Jakobsen, Henrik; Larsen, Marie B.; Rasmussen, Maria H; Schrøder, Nanna B.

    2005-01-01

    Vi har forsøgt at konstruere stabile, plasmidbaserede ekspressions-/kloningsvektorer til Vibrio cholerae. Ideelt burde sådanne vektorer baseres på naturlige plasmider fra Vibrio cholerae, men idet Vibrio cholerae sjældent indeholder plasmider, tog vi i stedet udgangspunkt i velkarakteriserede kloningsvektorer fra Escherichia coli. I projektet undersøges fire kloningsvektorer med hver deres karakteristika. Det lykkedes at indføre dem i Vibrio cholerae. Med udgangspunkt i den ene vektor vises, ...

  1. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are diffe...

  2. CHOLERA IN BIDAR DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

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    Pramod S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate cholera from 2008 August to 2009 August, and create public health importance, in acute diarrhea diseases. Epidemic of cholera have been reported from various parts of our country. (1(2 A total fecal specimen 562 were collected, isolation and identification of pathogen was done according to standard methodology. (3 Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates were studied, and picked up randomly positive 25 isolates and were sent to national institute of cholera and enteric diseases (NICED Kolkata for confirmation and Phage typing. RESULTS: Of the 562 of patients 57 (10.142% isolates were found to be positive for vibrio. Cholera o1 and non 01/non-0139, out of 25 isolates 19 (76%. The vibrio Cholera 01 ogawa serotype, biotype Eltor and phage type T 27, T 24, T 21, T 13, along with 6 isolates (24% of Non- 0139 was also noticeable as per the report of the (NICED Kolkata. Majority of the clinical isolate were found to be resistant to more than one drug. (1(2

  3. Biochemical and full genome sequence analyses of clinical Vibrio cholerae isolates in Mexico reveals the presence of novel V. cholerae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma Angélica; Moreno-Pérez, María Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana Guadalupe; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ortíz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    The first week of September 2013, the National Epidemiological Surveillance System identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. The cultures of both samples were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Initial analyses by PFGE and by PCR-amplification of the virulence genes, suggested that both strains were similar, but different from those previously reported in Mexico. The following week, four more cases were identified in a community in the state of Hidalgo, located 121 km northeast of Mexico City. Thereafter a cholera outbreak started in the region of La Huasteca. Genomic analyses of the four strains obtained in this study confirmed the presence of Pathogenicity Islands VPI-1 and -2, VSP-1 and -2, and of the integrative element SXT. The genomic structure of the 4 isolates was similar to that of V. cholerae strain 2010 EL-1786, identified during the epidemic in Haiti in 2010. PMID:26828665

  4. Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marisa C; Kujbida, Gregory; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Fisman, David N; Tien, Joseph H

    2013-12-01

    Haiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings (including urban, rural, and displaced person camps) and spatial scales, using a combination of statistical and dynamic models. Statistical analysis of the lagged relationship between rainfall and cholera incidence was conducted using case crossover analysis and distributed lag nonlinear models. Dynamic models consisted of compartmental differential equation models including direct (fast) and indirect (delayed) disease transmission, where indirect transmission was forced by empirical rainfall data. Data sources include cholera case and hospitalization time series from the Haitian Ministry of Public Health, the United Nations Water, Sanitation and Health Cluster, International Organization for Migration, and Hôpital Albert Schweitzer. Rainfall data was obtained from rain gauges from the U.S. Geological Survey and Haiti Regeneration Initiative, and remote sensing rainfall data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. A strong relationship between rainfall and cholera was found for all spatial scales and locations examined. Increased rainfall was significantly correlated with increased cholera incidence 4-7 days later. Forcing the dynamic models with rainfall data resulted in good fits to the cholera case data, and rainfall-based predictions from the dynamic models closely matched observed cholera cases. These models provide a tool for planning and managing the epidemic as it continues.

  5. Strategies to Prevent Cholera Introduction during International Personnel Deployments: A Computational Modeling Analysis Based on the 2010 Haiti Outbreak.

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    Joseph A Lewnard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Vibrio cholerae to Haiti during the deployment of United Nations (UN peacekeepers in 2010 resulted in one of the largest cholera epidemics of the modern era. Following the outbreak, a UN-commissioned independent panel recommended three pre-deployment intervention strategies to minimize the risk of cholera introduction in future peacekeeping operations: screening for V. cholerae carriage, administering prophylactic antimicrobial chemotherapies, or immunizing with oral cholera vaccines. However, uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these approaches has forestalled their implementation by the UN. We assessed how the interventions would have impacted the likelihood of the Haiti cholera epidemic.We developed a stochastic model for cholera importation and transmission, fitted to reported cases during the first weeks of the 2010 outbreak in Haiti. Using this model, we estimated that diagnostic screening reduces the probability of cases occurring by 82% (95% credible interval: 75%, 85%; however, false-positive test outcomes may hamper this approach. Antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis at time of departure and oral cholera vaccination reduce the probability of cases by 50% (41%, 57% and by up to 61% (58%, 63%, respectively. Chemoprophylaxis beginning 1 wk before departure confers a 91% (78%, 96% reduction independently, and up to a 98% reduction (94%, 99% if coupled with vaccination. These results are not sensitive to assumptions about the background cholera incidence rate in the endemic troop-sending country. Further research is needed to (1 validate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid test approaches for detecting asymptomatic carriage, (2 compare prophylactic efficacy across antimicrobial regimens, and (3 quantify the impact of oral cholera vaccine on transmission from asymptomatic carriers.Screening, chemoprophylaxis, and vaccination are all effective strategies to prevent cholera introduction during large-scale personnel

  6. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

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    Mustafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R phenotype, 80 (46.5% of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010 were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  7. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Jubair, Mohammad; Alam, Meer T; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Azarian, Taj; Salemi, Marco; Sakharuk, Ilya A; Rashid, Mohammed H; Johnson, Judith A; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar

    2014-01-01

    In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R) phenotype, 80 (46.5%) of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010) were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R) differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R) by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental) strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  8. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required.

  9. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

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    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  10. Modeling the Epidemiology of Cholera to Prevent Disease Transmission in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUKANDAVIRE, ZINDOGA; MORRIS, J. GLENN

    2015-01-01

    Cholera remains an important global cause of morbidity and mortality, which is capable of causing periodic epidemic disease. A number of mathematical models have been developed to help in understanding the dynamics of cholera outbreaks and for use as a tool in planning interventions, including vaccination campaigns. We have explored the utility of models in assessing the spread of cholera in the recent epidemics in Zimbabwe and Haiti. In both instances, a mathematical model was formulated and fitted to cumulative cholera cases to estimate the basic reproductive number ℜ0, and the partial reproductive numbers reflecting potential differences in environmental-to-human versus human-to-human transmission were quantified. In Zimbabwe, estimated ℜ0 for the epidemic using aggregated data at the national level was 1.15; in Haiti, it was 1.55. However, when calculated at a provincial/departmental level, estimated basic reproductive numbers were highly heterogeneous, with a range of 1.11 to 2.72 in Zimbabwe and 1.06 to 2.63 in Haiti. Our models suggest that the underlying patterns of cholera transmission varied widely from region to region, with a corresponding variation in the amenability of outbreaks to control measures such as immunization. These data underscore the heterogeneity of transmission dynamics, potentially linked to differences in environment, socio-economic conditions, and cultural practices. They also highlight the potential utility of these types of models in guiding development of public health intervention strategies. PMID:26185087

  11. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; Huq, A.; Wood, B.; Fuchs, G.; Faruque, A. S.; Colwell, R.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.

  12. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  13. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  14. High-resolution spatial analysis of cholera patients reported in Artibonite department, Haiti in 2010–2011

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    Maya Allan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion/significance: These findings demonstrate the value of high-resolution mapping for pinpointing locations most affected by cholera, and in the future could help prioritize the places in need of interventions such as improvement of sanitation and vaccination. The findings also describe spatio-temporal transmission patterns of the epidemic in a cholera-naïve country such as Haiti. By identifying transmission hubs, it is possible to target prevention strategies that, over time, could reduce transmission of the disease and eventually eliminate cholera in Haiti.

  15. Evidence of a dominant lineage of Vibrio cholerae-specific lytic bacteriophages shed by cholera patients over a 10-year period in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Kimberley D; Bodi, Kip L; Kropinski, Andrew M; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are hypothesized to contribute to the seasonality and duration of cholera epidemics in Bangladesh. However, the bacteriophages contributing to this phenomenon have yet to be characterized at a molecular genetic level. In this study, we isolated and sequenced the genomes of 15 bacteriophages from stool samples from cholera patients spanning a 10-year surveillance period in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Our results indicate that a single novel bacteriophage type, designated ICP1 (for the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh cholera phage 1) is present in all stool samples from cholera patients, while two other bacteriophage types, one novel (ICP2) and one T7-like (ICP3), are transient. ICP1 is a member of the Myoviridae family and has a 126-kilobase genome comprising 230 open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of ICP1 and related isolates from this time period indicates a high level of genetic conservation. The ubiquitous presence of ICP1 in cholera patients and the finding that the O1 antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serves as the ICP1 receptor suggest that ICP1 is extremely well adapted to predation of human-pathogenic V. cholerae O1.

  16. Understanding impacts of climatic extremes on diarrheal disease epidemics: Insights from mechanistic disease propagation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    An epidemic outbreak of diarrheal diseases (primarily cholera) in Haiti in 2010 is a reminder that our understanding on disease triggers, transmission and spreading mechanisms is incomplete. Cholera can occur in two forms - epidemic (defined as sudden outbreak in a historically disease free region) and endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years). Examples of countries with epidemic cholera include Pakistan (2008), Congo (2008), and most recently Haiti (2010). A significant difference between endemic and epidemic regions is the mortality rate, i.e., 1% or lower in an endemic regions versus 3-7% during recent epidemic outbreaks. A fundamentally transformational approach - a warning system with several months prediction lead time - is needed to prevent disease outbreak and minimize its impact on population. Lack of information on spatial and temporal variability of disease incidence as well as transmission in human population continues to be significant challenge in the development of early-warning systems for cholera. Using satellite data on regional hydroclimatic processes, water and sanitation infrastructure indices, and biological pathogen growth information, here we present a Simple, Mechanistic, Adaptive, Remote sensing based Regional Transmission or SMART model to (i) identify regions of potential cholera outbreaks and (ii) quantify mechanism of spread of the disease in previously disease free region. Our results indicate that epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for the growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. We discuss the above findings in light of

  17. Reduced Susceptibility to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactams in Vibrio cholerae Isolated in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Alam, Munirul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2016-01-01

    β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh. Although appropriate oral or intravenous rehydration is the therapy of choice for cholera, severe infections and V. cholerae-associated septicemia are treated with antimicrobial drugs, including doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and/or third-generation cephalosporins. In the years after the introduction of antibiotics in clinical practice, V. cholerae developed resistance to commonly used drugs worldwide mostly through gene acquisition via horizontal gene transfer. Reduced susceptibility of V. cholerae to third-generation cephalosporins has been occasionally documented. However, carbapenemase-producing V. cholerae has been reported at higher rates than resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams, mainly associated with blaNDM-1 emergence and successful plasmid dissemination. Recent findings suggest limited β-lactam resistance is present in V. cholerae O1 isolates collected during ecological and epidemiological surveillance in Bangladesh. However, a trend to intermediate-susceptibility insurgence was observed. Horizontal gene transfer of β-lactam resistance from enteric pathogens to environmental microorganisms should not be underrated, given the ability of V. cholerae to acquire new genetic information.

  18. Critical analysis of compositions and protective efficacies of oral killed cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    2014-09-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and the latter contains V. cholerae O1 cells with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin. In a field trial in Kolkata (India), Shanchol, the preferred vaccine, protected 45% of the test subjects in all of the age groups and only 17% of the children under 5 years of age during the first year of surveillance. In a field trial in Peru, two spaced doses of Dukoral offered negative protection in children under 5 years of age and little protection (15%) in vaccinees over 6 years of age during the first year of surveillance. Little is known about Dukoral's long-term protective efficacy. Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. Immunological studies revealed Dukoral's reduced and short-lived efficacy, as measured by several immunological endpoints. Various factors, such as the necessity for multiple doses, poor protection of children under 5 years of age, the requirement of a cold supply chain, production costs, and complex logistics of vaccine delivery, greatly reduce the suitability of either of these vaccines for endemic or epidemic cholera control in resource-poor settings. PMID:25056361

  19. Active surveillance of the aquatic environment for potential prediction, prevention and spread of water borne disease: the cholera paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A.; Colwell, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of ecological and epidemiological studies, occurrence and spread of certain diseases are more fully understood. Cholera is a major waterborne disease, that is relatively easily treatable and clearly preventable, yet tens of thousands die each year worldwide. A dose dependent disease, the infectious dose can vary from 103-106, depending on health status of the victim. Historically, cholera has been shown to spread from person to person. Furthermore, the disease is caused predominantly via ingestion of contaminated water and most of the outbreaks that have been recorded worldwide originated in a coastal region. Using appropriate detection methods, Vibrio cholerae can be isolated from samples collected from ponds, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters globally. The populations of V. cholerae may vary in numbers during different seasons of the year. It is important to have a clear understanding of the distribution of the causative agent in the environment as such information can assist public health officials in taking action to prevent outbreaks of cholera. Thus an effective monitoring program is critical, particularly in light of climate change with temperature extremes more likely to be occurring. Based on a predictive model and results of ground truth data, temperature has been found to be a factor in the increase of V. cholerae in the environment. Correlation was observed with occurrence of cholera and both temperature and salinity. More recent research indicates additional factors need to be considered in predicting cholera epidemics, including the hydrology and disease dynamics.

  20. [Epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Lvov and Cracow during and after World War I (until the year 1922)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922.

  1. Cholera vaccination campaign contributes to improved knowledge regarding cholera and improved practice relevant to waterborne disease in rural Haiti.

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    Omowunmi Aibana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Haiti's cholera epidemic has been devastating partly due to underlying weak infrastructure and limited clean water and sanitation. A comprehensive approach to cholera control is crucial, yet some have argued that oral cholera vaccination (OCV might result in reduced hygiene practice among recipients. We evaluated the impact of an OCV campaign on knowledge and health practice in rural Haiti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We administered baseline surveys on knowledge and practice relevant to cholera and waterborne disease to every 10th household during a census in rural Haiti in February 2012 (N = 811. An OCV campaign occurred from May-June 2012 after which we administered identical surveys to 518 households randomly chosen from the same region in September 2012. We compared responses pre- and post-OCV campaign. Post-vaccination, there was improved knowledge with significant increase in percentage of respondents with ≥ 3 correct responses on cholera transmission mechanisms (odds ratio[OR] 1.91; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.52-2.40, preventive methods (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.46-2.30, and water treatment modalities (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.16-3.50. Relative to pre-vaccination, participants were more likely post-OCV to report always treating water (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.28-2.05. Respondents were also more likely to report hand washing with soap and water >4 times daily post-vaccine (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.64. Knowledge of treating water as a cholera prevention measure was associated with practice of always treating water (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89. Post-vaccination, knowledge was associated with frequent hand washing (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.35-4.51. CONCLUSION: An OCV campaign in rural Haiti was associated with significant improvement in cholera knowledge and practices related to waterborne disease. OCV can be part of comprehensive cholera control and reinforce, not detract from, other control efforts in Haiti.

  2. Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Smith, David L.; Morris, J. Glenn, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an () disease control in Haiti.

  3. Glucose- but not rice-based oral rehydration therapy enhances the production of virulence determinants in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

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    Juliane Kühn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite major attempts to prevent cholera transmission, millions of people worldwide still must address this devastating disease. Cholera research has so far mainly focused on the causative agent, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or on disease treatment, but rarely were results from both fields interconnected. Indeed, the treatment of this severe diarrheal disease is mostly accomplished by oral rehydration therapy (ORT, whereby water and electrolytes are replenished. Commonly distributed oral rehydration salts also contain glucose. Here, we analyzed the effects of glucose and alternative carbon sources on the production of virulence determinants in the causative agent of cholera, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae during in vitro experimentation. We demonstrate that virulence gene expression and the production of cholera toxin are enhanced in the presence of glucose or similarly transported sugars in a ToxR-, TcpP- and ToxT-dependent manner. The virulence genes were significantly less expressed if alternative non-PTS carbon sources, including rice-based starch, were utilized. Notably, even though glucose-based ORT is commonly used, field studies indicated that rice-based ORT performs better. We therefore used a spatially explicit epidemiological model to demonstrate that the better performing rice-based ORT could have a significant impact on epidemic progression based on the recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti. Our results strongly support a change of carbon source for the treatment of cholera, especially in epidemic settings.

  4. Cholera in 1994. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-14

    In 1994, Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the agent responsible for the seventh cholera pandemic which began in 1961, continued to spread in all regions of the world (Map 1). In all, 384,403 cholera cases were officially reported to WHO in 1994 (a 2% increase over 1993), reversing the downward trend which started in 1992. A total of 10,692 deaths were reported in 1994, increasing the reported global case-fatality ratio (CFR) to 2.8% from 1.8% in 1993. Cholera cases were notified from 94 countries/areas, the highest number ever reporting in one year. (Table 1 and Fig. 1). The year was marked by the dramatic cholera outbreak that devastated the Rwandan refugee camps in Goma, Zaire in July. Major outbreaks also affected Afghanistan, Brazil, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau and Somalia. Africa reported a rise in the number of cholera cases, and was the continent accounting for the largest proportion of all reported cases. The incidence of cholera cases in the Americas continued to fall and reported CFR was the lowest recorded since the disease reached Latin America in 1991. Asia reported a 17% increase in cholera cases compared with 1993. Europe, which usually reports only imported cases, registered a significant increase in the number of indigenous cholera cases. Oceania reported 6 cases, 5 of which were imported, and no deaths (Figs. 2 and 3). The new V. cholerae strain O139 (Bengal) has affected 10 countries in Asia since it was first detected in India at PMID:7544150

  5. Re-emergence of cholera in the Americas: Risks, susceptibility, and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu JP Poirier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The re-emergence of cholera in Haiti has established a new reservoir for the seventh cholera pandemic which threatens to spread to other countries in the Americas. Materials and Methods: Statistics from this new epidemic are compared to the 1991 Peru epidemic, which demonstrated the speed and complexity with which this disease can spread from country to country. Environmental factors implicated in the spread of Vibrio cholerae such as ocean currents and temperatures, as well as biotic factors from zooplankton to waterfowl pose a risk for many countries in the Americas. Results: The movement of people and goods from Hispaniola are mostly destined for North America, but occur to some degree throughout the Americas. These modes of transmission, and the probability of uncontrolled community spread beyond Hispaniola, however, are completely dependent upon risk factors within these countries such as water quality and availability of sanitation. Although North America has excellent coverage of these deterrents to the spread of infectious gastrointestinal diseases, many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean lack these basic services and infrastructures. Conclusions : In order to curb the immediate spread of cholera in Hispaniola, treatment availability should be expanded to all parts of the island and phase II epidemic management initiatives must be developed.

  6. Increased isolation frequency of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from environmental monitoring sites in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer T Alam

    Full Text Available Since the identification of the first cholera case in 2010, the disease has spread in epidemic form throughout the island nation of Haiti; as of 2014, about 700,000 cholera cases have been reported, with over 8,000 deaths. While case numbers have declined, the more fundamental question of whether the causative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae has established an environmental reservoir in the surface waters of Haiti remains to be elucidated. In a previous study conducted between April 2012 and March 2013, we reported the isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department. After a second year of surveillance (April 2013 to March 2014 using identical methodology, we observed a more than five-fold increase in the number of water samples containing culturable V. cholerae O1 compared to the previous year (1.7% vs 8.6%, with double the number of sites having at least one positive sample (58% vs 20%. Both seasonal water temperatures and precipitation were significantly related to the frequency of isolation. Our data suggest that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 are becoming more common in surface waters in Haiti; while the basis for this increase is uncertain, our findings raise concerns that environmental reservoirs are being established.

  7. Review of two decades of cholera diagnostics--how far have we really come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal H Dick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholera, an ancient scourge, continues to inflict high rates of mortality today. The rising incidence of epidemics in areas of poor sanitation and crowding highlight the need for better epidemic prevention and early response. Such interventions require the availability of rapid and accurate diagnostic techniques to trigger timely response and mitigate the scale of the outbreak. The current gold standard of bacterial culture is inadequate for rapid diagnosis, highlighting the overarching neglect of field diagnostic needs. This paper was written to support the World Health Organisation's Global Task Force on Cholera Control mandated Cholera and diarrhoeal disease laboratory Network (CholdiNet in devising a protocol for the validation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs for Vibrio cholerae. The status of diagnostic tools for Vibrio cholerae is assessed, describing products that have been commercialised over the last two decades and discussing their peer-reviewed evaluation. METHOD: Review of post-1990 peer-reviewed and grey literature on rapid diagnostic tests for Vibrio cholerae. RESULTS: Since 1990, twenty four diagnostic tests have been developed for the detection of Vibrio cholerae in human faecal samples. Fourteen of these have also been described in the literature, with rapid chromatographic-immuno assays (CIA featuring strongly. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays maintain the ability to detect the lowest amount of bacteria; however CIAs achieve both low detection thresholds and high sensitivity and specificity, making them possible candidates for use in field conditions. Field and laboratory studies were performed in a wide range of settings demonstrating variability in performance, however only a few of these studies were sufficiently stringent, highlighting five RDTs that showed promise in field conditions; COAT, IP cholera dipstick, SMART, IP dipstick and Medicos. In light of non-independent reporting, the authors would like to

  8. Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

  9. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    International audience 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities...

  10. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which have been establish...

  11. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  12. [Epidemics return and new ones are added].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A

    1991-12-01

    Cholera asiatic is an acute infection of the intestinal tract through Vibrio cholerae bacteria causing diarrhea, dehydration, and kidney failure. It was discovered by Robert Koch in 1883 on his study trip in Egypt. Transmission is mostly through drinking of contaminated water and sometimes by consumption of infected food such as seafood. Cholera originates from southeast Asia, mainly India where it already appeared in ancient times. It spread from India in pandemic waves in the last few centuries throughout the world up to 1923 in Europe. Epidemics were nonetheless registered in India, China, Japan, Iran, and Egypt (1947). There was a pandemic in Peru in 1991 (caused by hyperinflation-induced malnutrition, contaminated water, and untreated sewage pouring into the sea) that also affected the neighboring countries, and small epidemics among Kurdish refugees and Bangladeshi catastrophe victims. On June 5, 1981 the deaths by atypical pneumonia of 5 homosexual men were reported to the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, which was the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic caused by HIV. WHO's latest figures indicated a total of 366,455 AIDS patients in 162 countries, but a higher estimate of 1.4 million was more likely. As of April 1991 and estimated 8-10 million adults were infected with HIV, 6 million of them in Africa, south of the Sahel. In the next century 15-20% of the working population will die of AIDS leaving behind 10 million orphans. Tuberculosis has also been activated as an opportunistic disease of HIV infection. Up to 55% of African TB patients were also infected with HIV. Some predict that the AIDS pandemic will equalize the population growth by an average of 300,000 deaths/year. PMID:1786218

  13. Social epidemics in the aftermath of disasters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzermans, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Issue/problem: After disasters, terrorist attacks and wars social epidemics of medically unexplained physical symptoms/syndromes (ups) are often seen. In modern times people feel more vulnerable and especially under pressure of those incidents, everyday symptoms are interpreted as disease and causal

  14. Pandemic spread of cholera: genetic diversity and relationships within the seventh pandemic clone of Vibrio cholerae determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruiting; Reeves, Peter R

    2002-01-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic started in 1961 and continues today. A collection of 45 seventh pandemic isolates of V. cholerae sampled over a 33-year period were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. All but four pairs and one set of three isolates were distinguished. AFLP revealed far more variation than ribotyping, which was until now the most useful method of revealing variation within the pandemic clone. Unfortunately, the ribotype variation observed is mainly due to recombination between the multiple copies of the rrn genes (R. Lan and P. R. Reeves, Microbiology 144:1213-1221, 1998), which makes changes susceptible to repeat occurrences and reversion. This AFLP study shows that particularly for the common ribotypes G and H, such events have indeed occurred. AFLP grouped most of the 45 isolates into two clusters. Cluster I consists mainly of strains from the 1960s and 1970s, while cluster II contains mainly strains from the 1980s and 1990s, revealing a temporal pattern of change in the clone. This is best seen in the relationships of the strains from Africa, which correlate with the epidemiology of epidemics on that continent. The data confirm independent introductions to Africa during the 1970s outbreak and reveal several other African introductions. In the 1991 cholera upsurge, isolates from the Southern and Eastern African epidemic focus are markedly different from those from the West African epidemic focus. An isolate from 1987 in Algeria was identical to the West epidemic isolates, suggesting that the strain was present in Africa at least 3 years before causing large outbreaks. These observations have major implications for our understanding of cholera epidemiology. PMID:11773113

  15. Flexibility of oral cholera vaccine dosing-a randomized controlled trial measuring immune responses following alternative vaccination schedules in a cholera hyper-endemic zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kanungo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine has been found to be safe and efficacious for five years in the cholera endemic setting of Kolkata, India, when given in a two dose schedule, two weeks apart. A randomized controlled trial revealed that the immune response was not significantly increased following the second dose compared to that after the first dose. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an extended four week dosing schedule on vibriocidal response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this double blind randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, 356 Indian, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year or older were randomized to receive two doses of oral cholera vaccine at 14 and 28 day intervals. We compared vibriocidal immune responses between these schedules. Among adults, no significant differences were noted when comparing the rates of seroconversion for V. cholerae O1 Inaba following two dose regimens administered at a 14 day interval (55% vs the 28 day interval (58%. Similarly, no differences in seroconversion were demonstrated in children comparing the 14 (80% and 28 day intervals (77%. Following 14 and 28 day dosing intervals, vibriocidal response rates against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were 45% and 49% in adults and 73% and 72% in children respectively. Responses were lower for V. cholerae O139, but similar between dosing schedules for adults (20%, 20% and children (28%, 20%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Comparable immune responses and safety profiles between the two dosing schedules support the option for increased flexibility of current OCV dosing. Further operational research using a longer dosing regimen will provide answers to improve implementation and delivery of cholera vaccination in endemic and epidemic outbreak scenarios.

  16. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly;

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its...... importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae...

  17. Risk factors for cholera transmission in Haiti during inter-peak periods: insights to improve current control strategies from two case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandesso, F; Allan, M; Jean-Simon, P S J; Boncy, J; Blake, A; Pierre, R; Alberti, K P; Munger, A; Elder, G; Olson, D; Porten, K; Luquero, F J

    2014-08-01

    Two community-based density case-control studies were performed to assess risk factors for cholera transmission during inter-peak periods of the ongoing epidemic in two Haitian urban settings, Gonaives and Carrefour. The strongest associations were: close contact with cholera patients (sharing latrines, visiting cholera patients, helping someone with diarrhoea), eating food from street vendors and washing dishes with untreated water. Protective factors were: drinking chlorinated water, receiving prevention messages via television, church or training sessions, and high household socioeconomic level. These findings suggest that, in addition to contaminated water, factors related to direct and indirect inter-human contact play an important role in cholera transmission during inter-peak periods. In order to reduce cholera transmission in Haiti intensive preventive measures such as hygiene promotion and awareness campaigns should be implemented during inter-peak lulls, when prevention activities are typically scaled back. PMID:24112364

  18. NAD metabolism in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. W.; Brestel, C

    1982-01-01

    Extracts of Vibrio cholerae were assayed for various enzymatic activities associated with pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism. The activities measured include NAD glycohydrolase, nicotinamide deamidase, nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase, and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. The results obtained demonstrate the existence in V. cholerae of the five-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle and the potential for a four-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle. The data presented also suggest th...

  19. The Role Of The Aquatic Reservoir In Long-Term Cholera Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetto, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A novel class of models for Cholera epidemics is described, where the dynamics of the water volume defining the aquatic reservoir of pathogens accessible to a given local community is explicitly considered. In particular, we study how the hydrologic dynamics affects the fluctuations of Vibrio cholerae concentrations in the local reservoir thus driving the evolution of the epidemics at local scales. The novelty of the approach lies in the coupling of an input-output hydrologic dynamics with an epidemiological model which tracks susceptibles, infected and recovered individuals, jointly with bacterial concentrations. Reservoir volumes fluctuating over time indeed control the concentrations of Vibrio cholerae: one of the most common mechanisms of cholera insurgence in endemic regions is, in fact, spring water drought. Here we consider a spatially implicit framework, in order to distinguish the contribution of local dynamics to cholera insurgence at community scales. Our main goal is to investigate the relation between yearly water volume oscillations and long-term trajectories of cholera infection. To this end we take into account a monsoonal fluctuation, with one summer peak in the water input. This simple addition allows us to derive relationships between hydrologic regimes and the epidemiological behavior of the system. Since most of the numerical values of model parameters can be reliably drawn from the literature on the subject, this method allows us to concentrate on significant but still uncertain quantities and associate different ranges of parameter values to different model behaviors which need to be clearly differentiated . Our analysis provides information on the characteristic value of the model parameters for real case studies, comparing simulations and real time series. The model can be very useful in particular for the inference of the intensity of the disease, expressed in terms of the basic reproductive number.

  20. Distribution and molecular characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates recovered in Guangdong Province, China, 1961-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baisheng; Chen, Rongfeng; Wang, Duochun; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    China's Guangdong Province is located along the same latitude as Kolkata, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh, and is also considered a source of epidemic cholera. However, molecular description and the genetic relationships between Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates in Guangdong remain unclear. In this study, 381 clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates recovered from cholera cases presenting in Guangdong between 1961 and 2013 were investigated by PCR, amplicon sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). During this time frame, four distinct epidemic periods (1-4) were observed based on the different dominant serotype leading its epidemic, correspond to years; or time periods from/to 1961-1969, 1978-1989, 1990-2000, 2001-2013, respectively. Molecular analysis of representative isolates indicated that a single dominating clone was associated with each epidemic stage. All isolates from periods 1 and 2 carried the typical El Tor ctxB; this allele was displaced by classical ctxB beginning in 1993. However all isolates carried the El Tor-specific toxin-coregulated pili subunit A (tcpA). Isolates were grouped into five clusters on the basis of Not I enzyme digested PFGE, and the first four clusters were associated with specific periods, cluster I (period 1), II (period 3), III (period 2) and IV (period 4), respectively. While cluster V consisted of isolates from all four epidemic periods, but was most heterogeneous in appearance. Our data indicate genetic variations that shape the relationship among emerging isolates of V. cholerae O1 in Guangdong Province contribute to the 7th global pandemic.

  1. Urban Cholera and Water Sustainability Challenges under Climatic and Anthropogenic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Huq, A.; Faruque, A. G.; Colwell, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    The last three decades of surveillance data shows a drastic increase of cholera prevalence in the largest cholera-endemic city of the world - Dhaka, Bangladesh. Emerging megacities in the developing world, especially those located in coastal regions of the tropics remain vulnerable to similar. However, there has not been any systematic study on linking the long-term disease trends with changes in related climatic, environmental, or societal variables. Here, we analyze the 30-year dynamics of urban cholera prevalence in Dhaka with changes in climatic or societal factors: regional hydrology, flooding, water usage, changes in distribution systems, population growth and density in urban settlements, as well as shifting climate patterns. An interesting change is observed in the seasonal trends of cholera incidence; while an endemic upward trend is seen in the dry season, the post-monsoon trend seem to be more epidemic in nature. Evidence points to growing urbanization and rising population in unplanned settlements that have negligible to poor water and sanitation systems compounded by increasing frequency of record flood events. Growing water scarcity in the dry season and lack of sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for urban settlements have increased endemicity of spring outbreaks, while record flood events and prolonged post-monsoon inundation have contributed to increased epidemic outbreaks in fall. We analyze our findings with the World Health Organization recommended guidelines and investigate water sustainability challenges in the context of climatic and anthropogenic changes in the region.

  2. Why treatment centres failed to prevent cholera deaths among Rwandan refugees in Goma, Zaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, A K; Salam, A; Islam, M S; Akram, K; Majumdar, R N; Zaman, K; Fronczak, N; Laston, S

    1995-02-11

    In July, 1994, in one of the worst cholera outbreaks in recent times, an estimated 12,000 Rwandan refugees died in Goma in eastern Zaire. The Vibrio cholerae strains were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, the commonly used drugs for cholera treatment. Despite the efforts of international organisations, which provided medical relief by establishing treatment centres in Goma, mortality from the disease was much higher than expected. In the area of Muganga camp, which had the largest concentration of refugees and where most of the medical aid organisations were active, the highest reported case-fatality ratio for a single day was 48%. The slow rate of rehydration, inadequate use of oral rehydration therapy, use of inappropriate intravenous fluids, and inadequate experience of health workers in management of severe cholera are thought to be some of the factors associated with the failure to prevent so many deaths during the epidemic. In one of the temporary treatment centres with the worst case-fatality record, our team showed that improvement of these factors could increase the odds of survival of cholera patients even in a disaster setting.

  3. Toxin-coregulated pilus-loaded microparticles as a vaccine against Vibrio cholerae O139

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳; 贾文祥; 刘莉

    2004-01-01

    @@ The cholera epidemics is an important public health problem in many developing countries. Highly effective and preventive vaccines against cholera are under investigation as alternatives to the one available presently. Much of the vaccine research focuses on colonization factors. Colonization of a human by the Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae Ol strain is mediated by toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), 1 which was shown to play a role in the infant mouse cholera model and subsequently in human volunteers. 2 TCP-loaded vaccines could potentially provide cross-protection among experimental strains. Data have indicated that poly (D,L-lactide)-polyethylene glycol copolymer (PELA)microparticles loaded antigens were strongly immunogenic, 3 and that these microparticles served as an effective delivery system for a single dose of vaccine. 4Microparticle formulation could represent the next generation of vaccines, as they are highly effective at delivery of vaccines, thus requiring fewer doses. 5 We prepared PELA microparticles loaded with TCP for testing as a vaccine; their targeting distributions were identified and related immune responses were analyzed.

  4. Urban Cholera transmission hotspots and their implications for Reactive Vaccination: evidence from Bissau city, Guinea Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, Andrew S.; Francisco J Luquero; Amabelia Rodrigues; Pedro Pablo Palma; Grais, Rebecca F.; Cunhate Na Banga; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Justin Lessler

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of cholera vaccines in response to epidemics (reactive vaccination) may provide an effective supplement to traditional control measures. In Haiti, reactive vaccination was considered but, until recently, rejected in part due to limited global supply of vaccine. Using Bissau City, Guinea-Bissau as a case study, we explore neighborhood-level transmission dynamics to understand if, with limited vaccine and likely delays, reactive vaccination can significantly change the course of...

  5. [German nurses during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  6. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  7. Revisiting Cholera-Climate Teleconnections in the Native Homeland: ENSO and other Extremes through the Regional Hydroclimatic Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Cholera is a global disease, with significantly large outbreaks occurring since the 1990s, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and recently in Haiti, in the Caribbean. Critical knowledge gaps remain in the understanding of the annual recurrence in endemic areas and the nature of epidemic outbreaks, especially those that follow extreme hydroclimatic events. Teleconnections with large-scale climate phenomena affecting regional scale hydroclimatic drivers of cholera dynamics remain largely unexplained. For centuries, the Bengal delta region has been strongly influenced by the asymmetric availability of water in the rivers Ganges and the Brahmaputra. As these two major rivers are known to have strong contrasting affects on local cholera dynamics in the region, we argue that the role of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), or other phenomena needs to be interpreted in the context of the seasonal role of individual rivers and subsequent impact on local environmental processes, not as a teleconnection having a remote and unified effect. We present a modified hypothesis that the influences of large-scale climate phenomena such as ENSO and IOD on Bengal cholera can be explicitly identified and incorporated through regional scale hydroclimatic drivers. Here, we provide an analytical review of the literature addressing cholera and climate linkages and present hypotheses, based on recent evidence, and quantification on the role of regional scale hydroclimatic drivers of cholera. We argue that the seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature, and resulting river discharge in the GBM basin region during ENSO and IOD events have a dominant combined effect on the endemic persistence and the epidemic vulnerability to cholera outbreaks in spring and fall seasons, respectively, that is stronger than the effect of localized hydrological and socio-economic sensitivities in Bangladesh. In addition, systematic identification of underlying seasonal

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae associated with flood in Brahamputra River valley, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soubhagya K; Vairale, Mohan G; Arya, Neha; Yadav, Priti; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Yadava, Pramod K; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    Cholera is often caused when drinking water is contaminated through environmental sources. In recent years, the drastic cholera epidemics in Odisha (2007) and Haiti (2010) were associated with natural disasters (flood and Earthquake). Almost every year the state of Assam India witnesses flood in Brahamputra River valley during reversal of wind system (monsoon). This is often followed by outbreak of diarrheal diseases including cholera. Beside the incidence of cholera outbreaks, there is lack of experimental evidence for prevalence of the bacterium in aquatic environment and its association with cholera during/after flood in the state. A molecular surveillance during 2012-14 was carried out to study prevalence, strain differentiation, and clonality of Vibrio cholerae in inland aquatic reservoirs flooded by Brahamputra River in Assam. Water samples were collected, filtered, enriched in alkaline peptone water followed by selective culturing on thiosulfate bile salt sucrose agar. Environmental isolates were identified as V. cholerae, based on biochemical assays followed by sero-grouping and detailed molecular characterization. The incidence of the presence of the bacterium in potable water sources was higher after flood. Except one O1 isolate, all of the strains were broadly grouped under non-O1/non-O139 whereas some of them did have cholera toxin (CT). Surprisingly, we have noticed Haitian ctxB in two non-O1/non-O139 strains. MLST analyses based on pyrH, recA and rpoA genes revealed clonality in the environmental strains. The isolates showed varying degree of antimicrobial resistance including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The strains harbored the genetic elements SXT constins and integrons responsible for multidrug resistance. Genetic characterization is useful as phenotypic characters alone have proven to be unsatisfactory for strain discrimination. An assurance to safe drinking water, sanitation and monitoring of the aquatic reservoirs is of utmost importance for

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae associated with flood in Brahamputra River valley, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soubhagya K; Vairale, Mohan G; Arya, Neha; Yadav, Priti; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Yadava, Pramod K; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    Cholera is often caused when drinking water is contaminated through environmental sources. In recent years, the drastic cholera epidemics in Odisha (2007) and Haiti (2010) were associated with natural disasters (flood and Earthquake). Almost every year the state of Assam India witnesses flood in Brahamputra River valley during reversal of wind system (monsoon). This is often followed by outbreak of diarrheal diseases including cholera. Beside the incidence of cholera outbreaks, there is lack of experimental evidence for prevalence of the bacterium in aquatic environment and its association with cholera during/after flood in the state. A molecular surveillance during 2012-14 was carried out to study prevalence, strain differentiation, and clonality of Vibrio cholerae in inland aquatic reservoirs flooded by Brahamputra River in Assam. Water samples were collected, filtered, enriched in alkaline peptone water followed by selective culturing on thiosulfate bile salt sucrose agar. Environmental isolates were identified as V. cholerae, based on biochemical assays followed by sero-grouping and detailed molecular characterization. The incidence of the presence of the bacterium in potable water sources was higher after flood. Except one O1 isolate, all of the strains were broadly grouped under non-O1/non-O139 whereas some of them did have cholera toxin (CT). Surprisingly, we have noticed Haitian ctxB in two non-O1/non-O139 strains. MLST analyses based on pyrH, recA and rpoA genes revealed clonality in the environmental strains. The isolates showed varying degree of antimicrobial resistance including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The strains harbored the genetic elements SXT constins and integrons responsible for multidrug resistance. Genetic characterization is useful as phenotypic characters alone have proven to be unsatisfactory for strain discrimination. An assurance to safe drinking water, sanitation and monitoring of the aquatic reservoirs is of utmost importance for

  10. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  11. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses the...

  12. Laboratory-confirmed cholera and rotavirus among patients with acute diarrhea in four hospitals in Haiti, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Maria W; Joseph, Gerard A; Lucien, Mentor Ali Ber; Freeman, Nicole; Hast, Marisa; Nygren, Benjamin L; Leshem, Eyal; Juin, Stanley; Parsons, Michele B; Talkington, Deborah F; Mintz, Eric D; Vertefeuille, John; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Boncy, Jacques; Katz, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of cholera began in Haiti in October of 2010. To understand the progression of epidemic cholera in Haiti, in April of 2012, we initiated laboratory-enhanced surveillance for diarrheal disease in four Haitian hospitals in three departments. At each site, we sampled up to 10 hospitalized patients each week with acute watery diarrhea. We tested 1,616 specimens collected from April 2, 2012 to March 28, 2013; 1,030 (63.7%) specimens yielded Vibrio cholerae, 13 (0.8%) specimens yielded Shigella, 6 (0.4%) specimens yielded Salmonella, and 63 (3.9%) specimens tested positive for rotavirus. Additionally, 13.5% of children < 5 years old tested positive for rotavirus. Of 1,030 V. cholerae isolates, 1,020 (99.0%) isolates were serotype Ogawa, 9 (0.9%) isolates were serotype Inaba, and 1 isolate was non-toxigenic V. cholerae O139. During 1 year of surveillance, toxigenic cholera continued to be the main cause of acute diarrhea in hospitalized patients, and rotavirus was an important cause of diarrhea-related hospitalizations in children.

  13. Risk factors for cholera in Pohnpei during an outbreak in 2000: lessons for Pacific countries and territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Kiedrzynski, Tom; Johnson, Eliaser; Elymore, Amato; Wainiqolo, Iris

    2005-09-01

    In April 2000, a large outbreak of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa biotype El Tor affected the Island of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. A Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network team conducted a case control study in the middle of the epidemic. The aims of the study were to identify individual and household level risk factors for cholera, and to evaluate public health interventions aimed at controlling the outbreak. A case was a person admitted to the Pohnpei hospital with acute watery diarrhoea in the months of June and July 2000. We used a pre-tested questionnaire to interview cases about exposures in the five days prior to illness and visited their house to collect water samples, observe hygiene, and assess uptake of health education. 100 mL water samples were filtered and cultured for V. cholerae. We randomly selected neighbouring houses to identify a control that was similar age and sex for each case. Identical observations were made for eligible controls where their household members had not had diarrhoea since the beginning of the epidemic. We stored and analysed data using an Epi Info version 6.04. 53 case control pairs were enrolled into the study. The study identified that storing food outside uncovered, and having a pit latrine as the main toilet were risk factors for cholera infection. There were also several factors that protected against cholera infection, including washing hands after using the toilet and before eating, having a container to store safe water, the presence of soap in kitchen and bathroom, the presence of chlorine bleach and two or more hand washing buckets, a working refrigerator/ice box, and toilet inside or near the house and having a flush toilet. In multivariate analysis, having a working refrigerator/ice box (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.70) and Clorox present in the house (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.81) were strongly protective against illness. Only 13% (14/106) of case households reported disinfecting

  14. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  15. Maladi Kolera PSA (:60) (Cholera)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about ways you can prevent the spread of cholera. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  16. Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains.

  17. Spatial clustering in the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic cholera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emch Michael

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spatio-temporal patterns of infectious diseases that are environmentally driven reflect the combined effects of transmission dynamics and environmental heterogeneity. They contain important information on different routes of transmission, including the role of environmental reservoirs. Consideration of the spatial component in infectious disease dynamics has led to insights on the propagation of fronts at the level of counties in rabies in the US, and the metapopulation behavior at the level of cities in childhood diseases such as measles in the UK, both at relatively coarse scales. As epidemiological data on individual infections become available, spatio-temporal patterns can be examined at higher resolutions. Methods The extensive spatio-temporal data set for cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, maps the individual location of cases from 1983 to 2003. This unique record allows us to examine the spatial structure of cholera outbreaks, to address the role of primary transmission, occurring from an aquatic reservoir to the human host, and that of secondary transmission, involving a feedback between current and past levels of infection. We use Ripley's K and L indices and bootstrapping methods to evaluate the occurrence of spatial clustering in the cases during outbreaks using different temporal windows. The spatial location of cases was also confronted against the spatial location of water sources. Results Spatial clustering of cholera cases was detected at different temporal and spatial scales. Cases relative to water sources also exhibit spatial clustering. Conclusions The clustering of cases supports an important role of secondary transmission in the dynamics of cholera epidemics in Matlab, Bangladesh. The spatial clustering of cases relative to water sources, and its timing, suggests an effective role of water reservoirs during the onset of cholera outbreaks. Once primary transmission has initiated an outbreak, secondary

  18. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  19. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  20. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia

  1. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  2. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera.

  3. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  4. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... reveals how personalized political communication is profoundly influencing electoral outcomes and transforming American democracy. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen is research fellow at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford and assistant professor at Roskilde University...

  5. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  6. Vibrio cholerae bacteremia associated with gastrectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Toeg, A; Berger, S A; Battat, A; Hoffman, M.; Yust, I

    1990-01-01

    Bacteremia due to Vibrio cholerae is rare. Each of 15 cases previously reported in the English language literature occurred in the setting of immune deficiency. We describe an instance of non-serogroup O1 V. cholerae septicemia in an otherwise healthy patient. Susceptibility to such infection may have been enhanced by a prior gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer.

  7. [Various aspects of the seventh cholera pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladnyĭ, I D

    1976-07-01

    Problems on epidemiological surveillance over cholera are elucidated; recommendations elaborated at the meeting in Madrid in 1975 are given. Data on cholera morbidity on different continent in 1961-1975, with indication of the number of countries which sent their reports to the WHO, are presented. PMID:1007738

  8. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  9. Presence of CTX gene cluster in environmental non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae and its potential clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological linkage of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae and to determine their genotypes and virulence genes content. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 V. cholerae strains obtained from clinical specimens (n = 40 and surface waters (n = 20 were subjected to genotyping using PFGE and determination of their virulence-associated gene clusters. Result: PCR analysis showed the presence of chromosomally located hly and RTX genetic elements in 100% and 90% of the environmental isolates, respectively. The phage-mediated genetic elements such as CTX, TLC and VPI were detected in 5% of the environmental isolates suggesting that the environmental isolates cannot acquire certain mobile gene clusters. A total of 4 and 18 pulsotypes were obtained among the clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolates, respectively. Non-pathogenic environmentally isolated V. cholerae constituted a distinct cluster with one single non-O1, non-O139 strain (EP6 carrying the virulence genes similar to the epidemic strains. This may suggest the possible potential of conversion of non-pathogenic to a pathogenic environmental strain. Conclusions: The emergence of a single environmental isolate in our study containing the pathogenicity genes amongst the diverse non-pathogenic environmental isolates needs to be further studied in the context of V. cholerae pathogenicity sero-coversion.

  10. Tainted commons, public health: the politico-moral significance of cholera in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Martha L

    2014-09-01

    In October 2007, a series of cholera epidemics broke out in Hanoi, interrupting a moment of economic triumphalism in post-transition Vietnam. In seeking the source of a refractory disease associated with poverty and underdevelopment, officials, media, and citizens not only identified scapegoats and proposed solutions, they also endorsed particular visions of moral conduct, social order, and public health. Controversy over cholera, a potent politico-moral symbol, expressed an imaginary of "tainted commons" (i.e., an emergent space of civil society and small-scale entrepreneurship from which the state has partially withdrawn, while still exercising some measure of scrutiny and control). The ambiguities of this situation permitted the state to assume moral postures, evade responsibility, and deflect criticism to convenient targets. Prevalent outbreak narratives thus played on anxieties regarding specifically classed and gendered social groups, whose behavior was imagined to contravene ideals of public health and order. PMID:24474525

  11. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2014-11-01

    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1.

  12. The Curse of Frybread: The Diabetes Epidemic in Indian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes among American Indians has become epidemic since World War II, due to dietary changes and a possible genetic predisposition. Innovative community-based programs teach prevention and management of diabetes through exercise, diet, and blood sugar monitoring. Traditional American Indian lifestyles and diets prevented diabetes. Sidebars…

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Environmental Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 with Similarities to the V. cholerae O1 Classical Biotype

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Lee S.; Turnsek, Maryann; Kahler, Amy; Hill, Vincent R.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Tarr, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 is an environmental isolate from Haiti that was recovered in 2012 during a cholera outbreak. The genomic backbone is similar to that of the prototypical V. cholerae O1 classical biotype strain O395, and it carries the Vibrio pathogenicity islands (VPI-1 and VPI-2) and a cholera toxin (CTX) prephage.

  14. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  15. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  16. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der e...

  17. Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles

    OpenAIRE

    StefanPukatzki; DanieleProvenzano

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and ...

  18. Prediction of the spatial evolution and effects of control measures for the unfolding Haiti cholera outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Blokesch, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-03-01

    Here we propose spatially explicit predictions of the residual progression of the current Haiti cholera outbreak accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities, and for the redistribution among them of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease. Spreading mechanisms include the diffusion of pathogens in the aquatic environment and their dissemination due to the movement of human carriers. The model reproduces the spatiotemporal features of the outbreak to date, thus suggesting the robustness of predicted future developments of the epidemic. We estimate that, under unchanged conditions, the number of new cases in the whole country should start to decrease in January. During this month the epidemic should mainly involve the Ouest department (Port-au-Prince) while fading out in northern regions. Our spatially explicit model allows also the analysis of the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. To that end our results show that mass vaccinations would have a negligible impact at this stage of the epidemic. We also show that targeted sanitation strategies, providing clean drinking water supply and/or staging educational campaigns aimed at reducing exposure, may weaken the strength of the residual evolution of the infection.

  19. Seasonal and Interannual Trends in Largest Cholera Endemic Megacity: Water Sustainability - Climate - Health Challenges in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Ali S.; Jutla, Antarpreet; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-05-01

    The last three decades of surveillance data shows a drastic increase of cholera prevalence in the largest cholera-endemic city in the world - Dhaka, Bangladesh. Emerging megacities in the region, especially those located in coastal areas also remain vulnerable to large scale drivers of cholera outbreaks. However, there has not been any systematic study on linking long-term disease trends with related changes in natural or societal variables. Here, we analyze the 30-year dynamics of urban cholera prevalence in Dhaka with changes in climatic or anthropogenic forcings: regional hydrology, flooding, water usage, changes in distribution systems, population growth and density in urban settlements, as well as shifting climate patterns and frequency of natural disasters. An interesting change is observed in the seasonal trends of cholera prevalence; while an endemic upward trend is seen in the dry season, the post-monsoon trend is epidemic in nature. In addition, the trend in the pre-monsoon dry season is significantly stronger than the post-monsoon wet season; and thus spring is becoming the dominant cholera season of the year. Evidence points to growing urbanization and rising population in unplanned settlements along the city peripheries. The rapid pressure of growth has led to an unsustainable and potentially disastrous situation with negligible-to-poor water and sanitation systems compounded by changing climatic patterns and increasing number of extreme weather events. Growing water scarcity in the dry season and lack of sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for urban settlements have increased endemicity of cholera outbreaks in spring, while record flood events and prolonged post-monsoon inundation have contributed to increased epidemic outbreaks in fall. We analyze our findings with the World Health Organization recommended guidelines and investigate large scale water sustainability challenges in the context of climatic and anthropogenic changes in the

  20. Cholera and shigellosis: different epidemiology but similar responses to climate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Cash

    Full Text Available Comparative studies of the associations between different infectious diseases and climate variability, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, are lacking. Diarrheal illnesses, particularly cholera and shigellosis, provide an important opportunity to apply a comparative approach. Cholera and shigellosis have significant global mortality and morbidity burden, pronounced differences in transmission pathways and pathogen ecologies, and there is an established climate link with cholera. In particular, the specific ecology of Vibrio cholerae is often invoked to explain the sensitivity of that disease to climate.The extensive surveillance data of the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh are used here to revisit the known associations between cholera and climate, and to address their similarity to previously unexplored patterns for shigellosis. Monthly case data for both the city of Dhaka and a rural area known as Matlab are analyzed with respect to their association with El Niño and flooding. Linear correlations are examined between flooding and cumulative cases, as well as for flooding and El Niño. Rank-correlation maps are also computed between disease cases in the post-monsoon epidemic season and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific. Similar climate associations are found for both diseases and both locations. Increased cases follow increased monsoon flooding and increased sea surface temperatures in the preceding winter corresponding to an El Niño event.The similarity in association patterns suggests a systemic breakdown in population health with changing environmental conditions, in which climate variability acts primarily through increasing the exposure risk of the human population. We discuss these results in the context of the on-going debate on the relative importance of the environmental reservoir vs. secondary transmission, as well as the implications for the use of El Niño as an early indicator of

  1. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly;

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae...

  2. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M

    1996-01-01

    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  3. Modeling Epidemic Network Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a failure propagation model for transport networks when multiple failures occur resulting in an epidemic. We model the Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model and validate it by comparing it to analytical solutions. Furthermore, we evaluate...... the SID model’s behavior and impact on the network performance, as well as the severity of the infection spreading. The simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler. The model provides an important input to epidemic connection recovery mechanisms, and can due to its flexibility and versatility be used...... to evaluate multiple epidemic scenarios in various network types....

  4. Production of Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksis, M; Conn, T L; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B

    1997-01-01

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is a recently identified toxin of Vibrio cholerae. Preliminary studies using crude toxin extracts in animal models indicate that Ace increases transcellular ion transport, which is proposed to contribute to diarrhea in cholera. The lack of purified toxin has hindered elucidation of the mechanism of action of Ace. In this study, ace was cloned and was expressed in and secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Secreted toxin constituted 50% of the...

  5. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    OpenAIRE

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11,...

  6. Currency Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Bird; THOMAS D. WILLETT

    2011-01-01

    More than a dozen countries, including Brazil, China, India, Japan, and Korea, have been intervening in the foreign exchange market to prevent their currencies from appreciating. There are fears that the second dose of quantitative easing in the United States (dubbed QE2) may worsen currency appreciation. These developments raise the prospect of a currency war, which the Group of Twenty (G-20) fears is gathering steam. Because many countries are simultaneously seeking to improve their balance...

  7. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski-Karell V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Koski-Karell,1,2 Paul E Farmer,2–4 Benito Isaac,5 Elizabeth M Campa,5 Loune Viaud,5 Paul C Namphy,6 Ralph Ternier,5 Louise C Ivers2–4 1Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, and University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Partners In Health, 3Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 5Zanmi Lasante, Cange, 6Direction Nationale de l'Eau Potable et de l'Assainissement, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Abstract: Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge, policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of

  8. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md. Sazzadul I.; Sharif, Mohsena B.; Rahman, Sabita R.; Sack, David A.; Sack, R. Bradley; George, Christine M.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city.

  9. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERA INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association or modification of antecedent growth conditions. uring the course of investigating a major waterborne V. Cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA investigat...

  10. FOWL CHOLERA IN A BREEDER FLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Parveen, A. A. Nasir, K.Tasneem and A. Shah

    2003-01-01

    During January, 2003 Pasteurella multocida the causative agent of fowl cholera was isolated from a breeder flock in Lahore District. The age of the flock was 245 days. Increased mortality, swollen wattles and lameness were the clinical findings present in almost all the affected birds, while gross lesions were typical of fowl cholera. To prove the virulence of the organism, mice and six-week old cockerals were infected and P. multocida was reisolated.

  11. Haiti’s progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation’s 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government’s capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors – not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners’ capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  12. Introduction on molecular biological techniques for Vibrio cholerae%霍乱弧菌分子生物学检测技术介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊长辉

    2012-01-01

    随着医学分子生物学的迅速发展,大量的分子生物学技术被用于霍乱弧菌的研究,为霍乱弧菌快速检测及分型提供了重要依据,也进一步从分子水平阐明了霍乱弧菌的变异和不同菌株之间的遗传关系,以及霍乱疫情的溯源、菌株类型和流行性质.%Molecular biological techniques provide an important basis for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae with the rapid development of Medical Molecular Biology, increasing number of molecular biology techniques were used to detect Vibrio cholerae variation and genetic relationships between different strains, the origin, strain type and nature of the epidemic cholera.

  13. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K; Smiley, Sarah L; Yen, Minmin; Camilli, Andrew; Alam, Meer Taifur; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-02-03

    The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results "of interest" (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional "of interest" positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the "of interest" water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens.

  14. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Curtis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results “of interest” (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional “of interest” positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the “of interest” water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens.

  15. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard; Seeberg, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...

  16. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  17. Enhancement of enterotoxin production by carbon dioxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, T; Watanabe, S; Sasaki, S.

    1985-01-01

    We found that Vibrio cholerae 569B produced much more cholera enterotoxin in the presence of added carbon dioxide than in its absence. An atmosphere of 10% carbon dioxide was optimal for maximal enterotoxin production.

  18. Phylogeny of Vibrio cholerae Based on recA Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Stine, O. Colin; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gou, Qing; Zheng, Siqen; Morris, J. Glenn; Johnson, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced a 705-bp fragment of the recA gene from 113 Vibrio cholerae strains and closely related species. One hundred eighty-seven nucleotides were phylogenetically informative, 55 were phylogenetically uninformative, and 463 were invariant. Not unexpectedly, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus strains formed out-groups; we also identified isolates which resembled V. cholerae biochemically but which did not cluster with V. cholerae. In many instances, V. cholerae serogroup desig...

  19. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  20. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  1. Highly Potent, Chemically Stable Quorum Sensing Agonists for Vibrio Cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Lark J; Karagounis, Theodora K.; Hurley, Amanda; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Vibrio cholerae pathogen, initiation of bacterial quorum sensing pathways serves to suppress virulence. We describe herein a potent and chemically stable small molecule agonist of V. cholerae quorum sensing, which was identified through rational drug design based on the native quorum sensing signal. This novel agonist may serve as a useful lead compound for the control of virulence in V. cholerae.

  2. Phage specific for Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, M J; Bhuiyan, N A; Rahman, A; Ghosh, A. N.; Hultenby, K; Weintraub, A; Nahar, S; Kibriya, A K; Ansaruzzaman, M; Shimada, T

    1996-01-01

    From the stool of a Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal-infected patient, a phage that specifically lysed capsulated V. cholerae O139 strains only was isolated. The phage is useful for the confirmatory diagnosis of V. cholerae O139 infection and for the differentiation of variants that lack the capsule.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930... cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification. Vibrio cholerae serological reagents are devices that are used in the agglutination (an antigen-antibody clumping reaction) test to identify Vibrio...

  4. Designing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine against Vibrio cholerae via combined immunoinformatics and protein interaction based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafat, Navid; Karimi, Zeinab; Eslami, Mahboobeh; Mohkam, Milad; Zandian, Sanam; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health concern. Among different Vibrio cholerae strains, only O1 and O139 cause acute diarrheal diseases that are related to epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. The currently available cholera vaccines are mainly lived and attenuated vaccines consisting of V. cholerae virulence factors such as toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), outer membrane proteins (Omps), and nontoxic cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Nowadays, there is a great interest in designing an efficient epitope vaccine against cholera. Epitope vaccines consisting of immunodominant epitopes and adjuvant molecules enhance the possibility of inciting potent protective immunity. In this study, V. cholerae protective antigens (OmpW, OmpU, TcpA and TcpF) and the CTB, which is broadly used as an immunostimulatory adjuvant, were analyzed using different bioinformatics and immunoinformatics tools. The common regions between promiscuous epitopes, binding to various HLA-II supertype alleles, and B-cell epitopes were defined based upon the aforementioned protective antigens. The ultimately selected epitopes and CTB adjuvant were fused together using proper GPGPG linkers to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. A three-dimensional model of the thus constructed vaccine was generated using I-TASSER. The model was structurally validated using the ProSA-web error-detection software and the Ramachandran plot. The validation results indicated that the initial 3D model needed refinement. Subsequently, a high-quality model obtained after various refinement cycles was used for defining conformational B-cell epitopes. Several linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were determined within the epitope vaccine, suggesting likely antibody triggering features of our designed vaccine. Next, molecular docking was performed between the 3D vaccine model and the tertiary structure of the toll like receptor 2 (TLR2). To gain further insight into the interaction between vaccine and TLR2, molecular dynamics

  5. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China. PMID:27305977

  6. Isolation frequency and susceptibility pattern of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a tertiary health care laboratory, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, S; Fasih, N; Ghanchi, N K; Khan, E

    2016-02-01

    In the past decade the importance of non-O1 and non-O139 strains of Vibrio cholerae has been highlighted globally. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae in Pakistan. Data of stool specimens yielding growth of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae isolated at a national referral laboratory from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed and evaluated for resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and ofloxacin. A total of 95 800 stool samples submitted over 1999-2012 yielded 3668 strains of V. cholerae, of which 6% were non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae. A high isolation rate was found in the summer season, with a peak in the year 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility data revealed increasing resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin, but strains remained highly susceptible to ofloxacin. Active surveillance of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility is essential to predict future epidemics and define measures to curtail the disease. PMID:27180742

  7. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.

  8. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Endemic Cholera in Mexico from 1991 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Young Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997. Nontoxigenic (CTX− V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX+ strains (2001 to 2003, but V. cholerae CTX+ variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX−V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V. cholerae. Three were CTX+ El Tor, two were CTX− El Tor, and the remaining strain was a CTX+ classical isolate. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed the six isolates belonged to five distinct phylogenetic clades. One CTX− isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX+V. cholerae isolates. The other CTX− isolate joined with CTX− non-O1/O139 isolates from Haiti and seroconverted O1 isolates from Brazil and Amazonia. One CTX+ isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. Two CTX+ El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. The third CTX+ El Tor isolate contained West African-South American (WASA recombination in VSP-II and showed relatedness to isolates from Peru and Brazil. Except for one isolate, all Mexican isolates lack SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs and sensitivity to selected antibiotics, with one isolate resistant to streptomycin. No isolates were related to contemporary isolates from Asia, Africa, or Haiti, indicating phylogenetic diversity.

  10. Cross-Border Cholera Outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Mystery behind the Silent Illness: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    affected age groups. To successfully prevent and control these outbreaks, guidelines and strategies should be reviewed to assign clear roles and responsibilities to cholera actors on collaboration, prevention, detection, monitoring and control of these epidemics.

  11. The Second World Cholera Pandemic (1826-1849) in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies with Special Reference to the Towns of San Prisco and Forio d'Ischia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2015-12-01

    The second world cholera pandemic in Europe (1829-1849) was significant because of its geographic extent and the enormous numbers of people who fell ill or died. It was also singularly important because it demonstrated the profound levels of ignorance in both Europe and North America concerning the cause, modes of transmission, and treatment of cholera. This paper discusses the pandemic in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in great detail. Even though medical and public health authorities in this kingdom had several years to prepare for cholera's eventual arrival in 1836-1837, their elaborate preventive and therapeutic measures proved no more successful than elsewhere. Despite their efforts, it was estimated that there were 32,145 cases of cholera in the city of Naples by July 1837. Some 19,470 people were estimated to have died among the city's then 357,283 population. This amounted to a cholera-specific mortality rate of 54.5/1000 population. Sicily was also severely affected by the epidemic. It was estimated that 69,000 people died of cholera in Sicily, 24,000 of them in the city of Palermo. Two rural towns in the kingdom, San Prisco and Forio d'Ischia, were selected for in-depth epidemiologic study. The former had a population of 3700 in 1836-1837, while the latter had a population of 5500. The economic basis of both towns was agriculture. However, because Forio is located on an island, fishing and sea transport were then also important industries. Cholera appeared in San Prisco in July 1837 and quickly swept through the population. By August, the epidemic was essentially over. It is estimated that some 109 people died from cholera in San Prisco for a disease-specific mortality rate of 29.5/1000 population. The age range of those who died from cholera was 1 to 90 years. The majority of deaths (60.6 %) were among women. The first cases of cholera appeared in Forio d'Ischia in June 1837. The epidemic then peaked in July. It is estimated that approximately 316

  12. Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePukatzki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and exits the human host in vast numbers during diarrheal purges. How V. cholerae rapidly reaches such high numbers during each purge is not clearly understood. We propose that V. cholerae employs its bactericidal type VI secretion system to engage in intraspecies and intraguild predation for nutrient acquisition to support rapid growth and multiplication.

  13. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations.

  14. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Pathophysiological mechanisms of diarrhea caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant: an in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitsri, Saravut; Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2016-10-01

    Cholera is caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of diarrhea caused by the V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant (EL), a major epidemic strain causing severe diarrhea in several regions. In the ligated ileal loop model of EL-induced diarrhea in the ICR mice, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor and a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitor similarly inhibited intestinal fluid secretion. In addition, barrier disruption and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses, e.g., iNOS and COX-2 expression, were observed in the infected ileal loops. Interestingly, intestinal fluid secretion and barrier disruption were suppressed by NF-κB and COX-2 inhibitors, whereas an iNOS inhibitor suppressed barrier disruption without affecting fluid secretion. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 PGE2 receptor antagonists ameliorated the fluid secretion in the infected ileal loops. The amount of cholera toxin (CT) produced in the ileal loops by the EL was ∼2.4-fold of the classical biotype. The CT transcription inhibitor virstatin, a toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) antibody and a CT antibody suppressed the EL-induced intestinal fluid secretion, barrier disruption and COX-2 expression. The CT at levels detected during EL infection induced mild intestinal barrier disruption without inducing inflammatory responses in mouse intestine. Collectively, this study indicates that CT-induced intestinal barrier disruption and subsequent TLR-4-NF-κB-mediated COX-2 expression are involved in the pathogenesis of EL-induced diarrhea and represent promising novel therapeutic targets of cholera.

  16. Pathophysiological mechanisms of diarrhea caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant: an in vivo study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitsri, Saravut; Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2016-10-01

    Cholera is caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of diarrhea caused by the V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant (EL), a major epidemic strain causing severe diarrhea in several regions. In the ligated ileal loop model of EL-induced diarrhea in the ICR mice, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor and a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitor similarly inhibited intestinal fluid secretion. In addition, barrier disruption and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses, e.g., iNOS and COX-2 expression, were observed in the infected ileal loops. Interestingly, intestinal fluid secretion and barrier disruption were suppressed by NF-κB and COX-2 inhibitors, whereas an iNOS inhibitor suppressed barrier disruption without affecting fluid secretion. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 PGE2 receptor antagonists ameliorated the fluid secretion in the infected ileal loops. The amount of cholera toxin (CT) produced in the ileal loops by the EL was ∼2.4-fold of the classical biotype. The CT transcription inhibitor virstatin, a toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) antibody and a CT antibody suppressed the EL-induced intestinal fluid secretion, barrier disruption and COX-2 expression. The CT at levels detected during EL infection induced mild intestinal barrier disruption without inducing inflammatory responses in mouse intestine. Collectively, this study indicates that CT-induced intestinal barrier disruption and subsequent TLR-4-NF-κB-mediated COX-2 expression are involved in the pathogenesis of EL-induced diarrhea and represent promising novel therapeutic targets of cholera. PMID:27222028

  17. Pulmonary Cholera Due to Infection with a Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Jack D.; Kimbrough, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 cases of primary pulmonary non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infection. We believe that these are the first documented cases of primary pulmonary infection due to this organism from a freshwater source.

  18. The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Reyburn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs. In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. METHODS: Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity--Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India, and Zanzibar (Tanzania--were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. FINDINGS: The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40% cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40% could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not

  19. Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Amir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 infect humans, causing the diarrheal and waterborne disease cholera, which is a worldwide health problem. V. cholerae and the free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba species are present in aquatic environments, including drinking water and it has shown that Acanthamoebae support bacterial growth and survival. Recently it has shown that Acanthamoeba species enhanced growth and survival of V. cholerae O1 and O139. Water samples from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan were collected with the aim to detect both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Findings For the first time both V. cholerae and Acanthamoeba species were detected in same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. 89% of detected V. cholerae was found with Acanthamoeba in same water samples. Conclusions The current findings disclose Acanthamoedae as a biological factor enhancing survival of V. cholerae in nature.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of the cholera enterotoxin operon of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    We report a set of oligonucleotide primers and amplification conditions for the polymerase chain reaction to detect the ctx operon of Vibrio cholerae. The results of this assay on strains of V. cholerae and related organisms were identical with those obtained by the DNA colony hybridization test with the polynucleotide probe. The detection limit of this system was 1 pg of chromosomal DNA or broth culture containing three viable cells. The polymerase chain reaction method could directly detect...

  1. The Oral Cancer Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer is increasing every year. The issues that this epidemic brings are as wide ranging as changes in patient/community education, dental practice systems/ protocols, risk management and investigating new technologies for enhanced detection. The dentist, along with the entire dental team, must continually make every effort to save lives through early detection along with educating patients and our communities about the risk factors for oral cancer. With everyone's efforts, we can stop the growth of this terrible epidemic. PMID:27220177

  2. Controversy Total War

    OpenAIRE

    Segesser, Daniel Marc

    2014-01-01

    Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French politicians during the First World War in a time of severe crisis (1916/17), it has become a term used by historians and other academics to cover a wide array of elements when looking at wars of the past. A real total war was and is impossible. Elements of total war – total war aims, total methods of...

  3. Epidemiological analysis of cholera O139 in Nantong from 1999 to 2011%南通市1999~2011年O139霍乱疫情流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烽; 朱平; 马平

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析南通市O139霍乱流行特征,为制定防控策略提供依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对南通市1999~2011年O139霍乱疫情资料进行分析.结果 南通市1999~2011年共报告O139霍乱72例,以散发疫情为主;流行高峰在7~10月;职业分布以农民为主,发病年龄有老年化的倾向;病例临床分型以中重型为主;大部分发病与聚餐或食用不洁食物有关.结论 针对南通市O139霍乱流行特点,应落实“三管一灭”,开展卫生宣教,加强疫情监测,坚持“早、小、严、实”的原则开展疫点处理,防止疫情扩散蔓延.%OBJECTIVE To provide strategies for prevention and control of cholera O139 through analyzing the epidemic characteristics of cholera O139 in Nantong.METHODS Analysis of cholera O139 was carried out with descriptive epidemiological method in Nantong from 1999 to 2011.RESULTS Altogether 72 cholera O139 cases were reported in Nantong from 1999 to 2011,sporadic disease was the major form of occurrence; the epidemic peak was from July to October; the patients were mainly farmers and getting older gradually; most of them were moderate or severe cases; mostly were relate to participating dinners or eating contaminated foods.CONCLUSION According to the epidemic characteristics of cholera O139 in Nantong,comprehensive prevention and control measures such as clean water and foods supply,proper feces disposal,flies elimination and education should be adopted.Supervision of cholera O139 epidemic should be strengthened.It should take strict treatment in the epidemic regions earlier to prevent the spread of cholera O139.

  4. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  5. Maladi Kolera 1 PSA (:30) (Cholera 1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about cholera symptoms and ways you can prevent the spread of disease. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  6. Maladi Kolera 2 PSA (:30) (Cholera 2)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about cholera prevention and food preparation tips you can use to prevent the spread of disease. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  7. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  8. A Natural Vaccine Candidate Strain Against Cholera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYAN-QING; QIGUO-MING; 等

    1995-01-01

    El Tor Vibrio cholerae(EVC)strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic(EEVC)strains and non-epidemigenic(NEEVC)strains-based on a phage-biotyping system.A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes.One such naturally occurring strain(designated IEM101)has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin(CT),accessory cholera enterotoxin(ACE),zonula occludens toxin(ZOT),but possesses RS1 sequences and toixn-coregulated pilus A gene(tcpA)although tcpA is poorly expressed.It expresses type B pili but does not posses type C pili.It is an El Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loop tests.Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V.cholerae Ol.Oral administration cased no side effects in 15 human volunteers.colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  9. Preventing Maritime Transfer of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Douglas D.; Marano, Nina; Tappero, Jordan W.; Wellman, Michael; Albert, Ryan J.; Hill, Vincent R.; Espey, David; Handzel, Thomas; Henry, Ariel; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms, including Vibrio cholerae, can be transferred between harbors in the ballast water of ships. Zones in the Caribbean region where distance from shore and water depth meet International Maritime Organization guidelines for ballast water exchange are extremely limited. Use of ballast water treatment systems could mitigate the risk for organism transfer. PMID:23017338

  10. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  11. Cyber Epidemic Models with Dependences

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Maochao; Da, Gaofeng; Xu, Shouhuai

    2016-01-01

    Studying models of cyber epidemics over arbitrary complex networks can deepen our understanding of cyber security from a whole-system perspective. In this paper, we initiate the investigation of cyber epidemic models that accommodate the {\\em dependences} between the cyber attack events. Due to the notorious difficulty in dealing with such dependences, essentially all existing cyber epidemic models have assumed them away. Specifically, we introduce the idea of Copulas into cyber epidemic mode...

  12. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  13. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae G4222, a South African Clinical Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    le Roux, Wouter J.; Chan, Wai Yin; De Maayer, Pieter; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative pathogen autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae G4222, a clinical isolate from South Africa.

  14. [The role of food in cholera transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosch, D; Gomez Zavaglia, A; Kuljich, A

    1995-01-01

    The spreading of cholera, from Peru to other Latinoamerican countries in 1991, raised questions regarding food safety, food transportation and handling. Control, prevention and risks implied in food import-export were also matters of concern. We deemed it interesting to determine the viability of Vibrio cholerae in wide consumption food locally. Selected food had different intrinsic characteristics such as: acidity (pH), water activity (aw), chemical composition, indigenous flora and other biologic and physic parameters. Twenty food products were contaminated with V. cholerae O1, Ogawa, toxigenic and not toxigenic strains: yoghurt, cream cheese, apricot marmelade, hip rose marmelade, mayonnaise, italian pasta for "empanadas", "dulce de leche", meat sausage, meat and spinach ravioli, margarine, milk dessert (made with cocoa, milk confiture, starch and additives), lettuce, tuna fish, ricotta and sterilized milk. Table I shows the viability of V. cholerae in tested foods, its pH and the reasons why the experiments were ended: 75% of the products studied could tolerate the development of the microorganism for a period ranging from one day (pasta for "empanadas") to ninety days (sterilized milk). Foods with acredity higher than pH 5.5 did not favor the growth of Vibrio. When pH was neutral or slightly acid, viability persisted independently from aw, microbial antagonisms and other physic, chemical or biologic parameters. Nevertheless, other factors such as: surface adherence, amino acids, magnesium and environmental influences not yet well determined, could eventually modify the persistence of V. cholerae in food. According to this study, most food products could tolerate growth and persistence of the infectant agent, up for three months in some cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7565031

  15. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  16. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  17. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  18. Clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa of 2009 from Kolkata, India: preponderance of SXT element and presence of Haitian ctxB variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braj M R N S Kutar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increase in the number of multidrug resistant pathogens and the accompanied rise in case fatality rates has hampered the treatment of many infectious diseases including cholera. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in the clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae would help in understanding evolution of these pathogenic bacteria and their epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify genetic factors responsible for multiple drug resistance in clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor isolated from the patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India, in 2009. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of V. cholerae were analysed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Antibiogram analysis revealed that majority of the isolates showed resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymixin B and streptomycin. In PCR, SXT integrase was detected in 117 isolates and its sequence showed 99% identity notably to ICEVchInd5 from Sevagram, India, ICEVchBan5 from Bangladesh and VC1786ICE sequence from Haiti outbreak among others. Antibiotic resistance traits corresponding to SXT element were transferred from the parent Vibrio isolate to the recipient E. coli XL-1 Blue cells during conjugation. Double-mismatch-amplification mutation assay (DMAMA revealed the presence of Haitian type ctxB allele of genotype 7 in 55 isolates and the classical ctxB allele of genotype 1 in 59 isolates. Analysis of topoisomerase sequences revealed the presence of mutation Ser83 → Ile in gyrA and Ser85→ Leu in parC. This clearly showed the circulation of SXT-containing V. cholerae as causative agent for cholera in Kolkata. CONCLUSIONS: There was predominance of SXT element in these clinical isolates from Kolkata region which also accounted for their antibiotic resistance phenotype typical of this element. DMAMA PCR showed them to be a mixture

  19. Resilience of epidemics on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dan; Zhang, Jiaquan; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic propagation on complex networks has been widely investigated, mostly with invariant parameters. However, the process of epidemic propagation is not always constant. Epidemics can be affected by various perturbations, and may bounce back to its original state, which is considered resilient. Here, we study the resilience of epidemics on networks, by introducing a different infection rate ${\\lambda_{2}}$ during SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation to model perturbations (control state), whereas the infection rate is ${\\lambda_{1}}$ in the rest of time. Through simulations and theoretical analysis, we find that even for ${\\lambda_{2}<\\lambda_{c}}$, epidemics eventually could bounce back if control duration is below a threshold. This critical control time for epidemic resilience, i.e., ${cd_{max}}$ can be predicted by the diameter (${d}$) of the underlying network, with the quantitative relation ${cd_{max}\\sim d^{\\alpha}}$. Our findings can help to design a better mitigation stra...

  20. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Toroczkai, Z

    2007-01-01

    Disease spread in most biological populations requires the proximity of agents. In populations where the individuals have spatial mobility, the contact graph is generated by the "collision dynamics" of the agents, and thus the evolution of epidemics couples directly to the spatial dynamics of the population. We first briefly review the properties and the methodology of an agent-based simulation (EPISIMS) to model disease spread in realistic urban dynamic contact networks. Using the data generated by this simulation, we introduce the notion of dynamic proximity networks which takes into account the relevant time scales for disease spread: contact duration, infectivity period and rate of contact creation. This approach promises to be a good candidate for a unified treatment of epidemic types that are driven by agent collision dynamics. In particular, using a simple model, we show that it can can account for the observed qualitative differences between the degree distributions of contact graphs of diseases with ...

  1. Critical care during epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinson, Lewis; O'Toole, Tara

    2005-01-01

    We recommend several actions that could improve hospitals' abilities to deliver critical care during epidemics involving large numbers of victims. In the absence of careful pre-event planning, demand for critical care services may quickly exceed available intensive care unit (ICU) staff, beds and equipment, leaving the bulk of the infected populace without benefit of potentially lifesaving critical care. The toll of death may be inversely proportional to the ability to augment critical care c...

  2. Influenza: Epidemics and Pandemics

    OpenAIRE

    Markovski, Velo

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a viral, pandemic and respiratory disease with high morbidity particular and significant mortality rate amongst humans. WHO has counted that each outbreak of epidemic is costing between 10-60 million dollars to one million citizens and each year there are between 250.000 to 500.000 deaths caused by flu. Eight RNA segments of influenza A and B viruses and seven segments of the C viruses are independently encapsulated by viral nucleoprotein. The heamagglutinin is the most important...

  3. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Krushelnitsky, A. D.; Ogorodniychuk, I. V.; Ivanko, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers  the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  4. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Krushelnitsky A.D.; Ogorodniychuk I.V.; Ivanko O.M.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  5. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  6. Globalizing Contemporary War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008.These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ presents a stigma and encourages a dichotomy between good and bad; when in fact these ‘wars’ as they are presented do not have an attainable end in which a winner is declared. The definition of war is, “a state of usually open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations” or “a state of hostility, conflict, or antagonism; a struggle or competition between opposing forces or for aparticular end” (War, 2008. This successful attempt to downplay war has produced detrimental effects around the world. The most recent, War on Terror, is perhaps the most misleading of them all. I will examine the semantics behind this struggle, the War on Terror. I will identify key components of how this ‘war’ began. Finally, I will analyze the effects of this struggle in the international arena with respect to several nations’ policies. It is allegedthat several state governments have used this ‘war’ as an opportunity to advance their own ideologies or goals.

  7. 江苏省霍乱病例病原学特征及与外环境污染间的关系%PATHOGENIC CHARACTERISTIC OF CHOLERAE CASES AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VIBIRO CHOLERAE POLLUTION IN JIANGSU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄菱; 张雪峰; 钱慧敏; 朱凤才; 汤奋扬

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解江苏省外环境中霍乱弧菌的污染现状,探讨其与病例发生、疾病流行问的关系.[方法]检测水体、水产品和熟食中霍乱弧菌的携带情况,比较外环境来源株与病例株在血清型、耐药性及毒索基因等方面的差异,应用PFGE分型技术分析不同来源菌株的遗传相关性.[结果]株外环境来源株均为不带毒力、对抗生素敏感的O1群非流行株,病人来源株为具有ctxA、zot、ace、tcpA毒力基因的O139群.11株O139群被分成7种PFGE带型,与O1群相似性系数为76.14%.[结论] 外环境来源株在表型及基因水平上与病例株差异较大,不是病例发生的原因.目前霍乱在江苏省处于低频的高度散发状态,近期大规模暴发和流行的可能性较小.%[Objective]To explore the environmental vibrio cholerae pollution situation and its correlation with the occurrence and epidemic of cholera in Jiangsu province.[Methods]Examined vibrio cholerae from water, aquatic products and cooked food.Compared serum type, drug-resistance and virulence genes between strains from environment and patients.Analyzed the genetical correlation among strains from different resources by PFGE.[Results]3 isolates from environment were non-epidemic strains without virulence genes and not sensitive to antibiotics.The strains from patients were 0139 with toxic genes ctxA, zot, ace, tcpA.11 strains of 0139 were classified into 7 PFGE types, and the similarity coefficient was 76.14% with 01 strains.[Conclusion]The strains from environment are different from those from patients on the level of phenotype and gene.The cases are not caused by the strains from environment.At present, the epidemic intensity of cholera in jiangsu province is low and highly sporadic, and the chance of outbreak and prevalent is small.

  8. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  9. [Fighting cholera in shanty-town. Successful experience of a Quebec project adapted to Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, L; Peralta, M

    1994-12-01

    Originally designed in Quebec, the MOI project was a collaboration between two professors of social work from Quebec and two members of the Peruvian NGO called SUR in Villa de Salvador, one of poorest slum areas on the outskirts of Lima. The approach is founded on the notion that the body is the primary instrument through which a person can interact with the world around him or her, and that the physical and mental health of an individual exists within the context of healthy conditions of life that must include at least a basic social and health infrastructure as well as healthy hygiene practices on the part of individuals, families and the local community. Preschool children (ages 4-6), study a different part of the body and its proper care each week through classroom observation games. Parents' help is requested to modify unhealthy conditions, at the same time to enrich the children's experience and to mobilize the community to improve health conditions. During the 1991 cholera epidemic, not a single case was counted in the experimental district, despite its clearly socio-economically impoverished status, and despite the fact that the Ministry of Health recorded 86,650 cases in the Lima-Callao district, accounting for about 40% of the total number of cases in the Peru. The prior work made it easier to explain how cholera is spread and what special new measures needed to be taken in addition to the hygiene habits already taught.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7820377

  10. The Transmission and Antibiotic Resistance Variation in a Multiple Drug Resistance Clade of Vibrio cholerae Circulating in Multiple Countries in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Du, Pengcheng; Zhou, Zhemin; Diao, Baowei; Cui, Zhigang; Zhou, Haijian; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has caused massive outbreaks and even trans-continental epidemics. In 2008 and 2010, at least 3 remarkable cholera outbreaks occurred in Hainan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China. To address the possible transmissions and the relationships to the 7th pandemic strains of those 3 outbreaks, we sequenced the whole genomes of the outbreak isolates and compared with the global isolates from the 7th pandemic. The three outbreaks in this study were caused by a cluster of V. cholerae in clade 3.B which is parallel to the clade 3.C that was transmitted from Nepal to Haiti and caused an outbreak in 2010. Pan-genome analysis provided additional evolution information on the mobile element and acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes. We suggested that clade 3.B should be monitored because the multiple antibiotic resistant characteristics of this clade and the 'amplifier' function of China in the global transmission of current Cholera pandemic. We also show that dedicated whole genome sequencing analysis provided more information than the previous techniques and should be applied in the disease surveillance networks.

  11. The Transmission and Antibiotic Resistance Variation in a Multiple Drug Resistance Clade of Vibrio cholerae Circulating in Multiple Countries in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pang

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae has caused massive outbreaks and even trans-continental epidemics. In 2008 and 2010, at least 3 remarkable cholera outbreaks occurred in Hainan, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces of China. To address the possible transmissions and the relationships to the 7th pandemic strains of those 3 outbreaks, we sequenced the whole genomes of the outbreak isolates and compared with the global isolates from the 7th pandemic. The three outbreaks in this study were caused by a cluster of V. cholerae in clade 3.B which is parallel to the clade 3.C that was transmitted from Nepal to Haiti and caused an outbreak in 2010. Pan-genome analysis provided additional evolution information on the mobile element and acquired multiple antibiotic resistance genes. We suggested that clade 3.B should be monitored because the multiple antibiotic resistant characteristics of this clade and the 'amplifier' function of China in the global transmission of current Cholera pandemic. We also show that dedicated whole genome sequencing analysis provided more information than the previous techniques and should be applied in the disease surveillance networks.

  12. A localized outbreak of cholera due to vibrio cholerae, ogawa resistant to tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinical and laboratory parameters of a localized Cholera outbreak and determine the sensitivity pattern of the subtype involved. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore. Duration of Study: Two weeks. Patients and Methods: The study is about a localized outbreak of cholera in a group of soldiers, who consumed water from a single contaminated source of water. We are presenting here an account of the clinical and laboratory parameters of 39 hospitalized cases of cholera, who presented with profuse watery diarrhoea and vomiting. There vital signs, hydration status and systemic examination findings were recorded. Stool samples were sent for routine and microscopic examination and bacteriological culture. Blood samples were taken for complete blood count, serum sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine examination. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis of the results. Results: The average age of thirty nine men studied in this outbreak was 24.9 ± 6.9 years. There was no statistically significant difference between confirmed and suspected cholera cases on descriptive analysis of the clinical and laboratory parameters. Majority of patients showed pre-renal azotemia which improved within 48 to 72 hours of hospitalization. Stool cultures isolated Vibrio cholerae, subtype Ogawa, which was resistant to tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid but sensitive to fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins. The outbreak was controlled when the contaminated water source was sealed and rectified. Conclusion: Multiple drug resistance strains of Vibrio cholera are causing large outbreaks which should be controlled by prevention of the disease and avoiding inappropriate use of antibiotics. (author)

  13. The Vaccine Candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 Is Protective against Cholera in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Luis; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; García, Hilda; Rodríguez, Boris L.; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Suzarte, Edith; Ramírez, Margarita; Pino, Yadira; Campos, Javier; Menéndez, Jorge; Valera, Rodrigo; González, Daniel; González, Irma; Pérez, Oliver; Serrano, Teresita; Lastre, Miriam; Miralles, Fernando; del Campo, Judith; Maestre, Jorge Luis; Pérez, José Luis; Talavera, Arturo; Pérez, Antonio; Marrero, Karen; Ledón, Talena; Fando, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 638 is a living candidate cholera vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the CTXΦ prophage from C7258 (O1, El Tor Ogawa) and by insertion of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A gene into the hemagglutinin/protease coding sequence. This vaccine candidate was previously found to be well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers. This article reports a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to test short-term protection conferred by 638 against subsequent V. cholerae infection and disease in volunteers in Cuba. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. The vaccine contained 109 CFU of freshly harvested 638 buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3, while the placebo was buffer alone. After vaccine but not after placebo intake, 96% of volunteers had at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers, and 50% showed a doubling of at least the lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A titers in serum. At 1 month after vaccination, five volunteers from the vaccine group and five from the placebo group underwent an exploratory challenge study with 109 CFU of ΔCTXΦ attenuated mutant strain V. cholerae 81. Only two volunteers from the vaccine group shed strain 81 in their feces, but none of them experienced diarrhea; in the placebo group, all volunteers excreted the challenge strain, and three had reactogenic diarrhea. An additional 12 vaccinees and 9 placebo recipients underwent challenge with 7 × 105 CFU of virulent strain V. cholerae 3008 freshly harvested from a brain heart infusion agar plate and buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3. Three volunteers (25%) from the vaccine group and all from the placebo group shed the challenge agent in their feces. None of the 12 vaccinees but 7 volunteers from the placebo group had diarrhea, and 2 of the latter exhibited severe cholera (>5,000 g of diarrheal stool). These results indicate that at 1 month after ingestion of a single oral dose (109 CFU) of strain

  14. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  15. Genetic traits of Vibrio cholerae O1 Haitian isolates that are absent in contemporary strains from Kolkata, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Ghosh

    Full Text Available The world's worst cholera epidemic in Haiti (2010 coerced to trace the origin and dissemination of the causative agent Vibrio cholerae O1 for proper management of cholera. Sequence analysis of the Haitian strain showed several variations in the genes encoding cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB; toxin-co-regulated pilus (tcpA, repeat in toxins (rtxA, quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR of gyrase A (gyrA, rstB of RS element along with the change in the number of repeat sequences at the promoter region of ctxAB. Our earlier studies showed that variant tcpA (tcpA CIRS and ctxB (ctxB7 first appeared in Kolkata during 2003 and 2006, respectively. The present study revealed that a variant rtxA was first isolated in Kolkata during 2004 and probably formed the genetic background for the emergence of the ctxB7 allele as we were unable to detect a single strain with the combination of El Tor rtxA and ctxB7. The variant gyrA was first time detected in Kolkata during 1994. The Kolkata strains contained four heptad repeats (TTTTGAT in their CT promoter regions whereas Haitian strains carried 5 heptad repeats. Haitian strains had 3 nucleotide deletions at the rstB gene, which is a unique feature of the classical biotype strains. But the Kolkata strains did not have such deletion mutations in the rstB. Our study demonstrated the existence of some Haitian genetic traits in Kolkata isolates along with the dissimilarities in genomic content with respect to rstB and ctxAB promoter region. Finally, we conclude that Haitian variant strain may be evolved due to sequential event in the Indian subcontinent strain with some cryptic modification in the genome.

  16. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  17. Modeling the Influence of Environment and Intervention onCholera in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Tennenbaum

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model with two infective classes in order to model the cholera epidemic in Haiti. We include the impact of environmental events (rainfall, temperature and tidal range on the epidemic in the Artibonite and Ouest regions by introducing terms in the transmission rate that vary with environmental conditions. We fit the model on weekly data from the beginning of the epidemic until December 2013, including the vaccination programs that were recently undertaken in the Ouest and Artibonite regions. We then modified these projections excluding vaccination to assess the programs’ effectiveness. Using real-time daily rainfall, we found lag times between precipitation events and new cases that range from 3:4 to 8:4 weeks in Artibonite and 5:1 to 7:4 in Ouest. In addition, it appears that, in the Ouest region, tidal influences play a significant role in the dynamics of the disease. Intervention efforts of all types have reduced case numbers in both regions; however, persistent outbreaks continue. In Ouest, where the population at risk seems particularly besieged and the overall population is larger, vaccination efforts seem to be taking hold more slowly than in Artibonite, where a smaller core population was vaccinated. The models including the vaccination programs predicted that a year and six months later, the mean number of cases in Artibonite would be reduced by about two thousand cases, and in Ouest by twenty four hundred cases below that predicted by the models without vaccination. We also found that vaccination is best when done in the early spring, and as early as possible in the epidemic. Comparing vaccination between the first spring and the second, there is a drop of about 40% in the case reduction due to the vaccine and about 10% per year after that.

  18. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Thailand in 1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodhidatta, L.; Echeverria, P; Hoge, C W; Pitarangsi, C; Serichantalergs, O; Henprasert-Tae, N.; Harikul, S.; Kitpoka, P.

    1995-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 first appeared in India and Bangladesh in 1992. Surveillance for O139 was started at three hospitals in Thailand in 1993. By 1994 all three hospitals surveyed in Thailand had experienced an increase in Vibrio cholerae O139 infections.

  19. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in [3H] leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of [35S] methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed

  20. Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae Septicemia in an Immunocompromised Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Kadkhoda; Heather Adam; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Hammond, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    We report a recent case of non-O1, non-O139, nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae septicemia in a post-liver-transplant immunocompromised patient associated with prior seafood consumption. Non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae strains have been reported in several cases of extraintestinal infections and seem to be emerging infectious agents especially in patients with immunocompromising conditions.

  1. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  2. Characterisation of cholera toxin by liquid chromatography - Electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Wils, E.R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera toxin, one of the toxins that may be generated by various strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, can be considered as a substance possibly used in biological warfare. The possibilities of characterising the toxin by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS) were inve

  3. Malonate inhibits virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that inhibition of the TCA cycle, either through mutations or chemical inhibition, increased toxT transcription in Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we found that the addition of malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), decreased toxT transcription in V. cholerae, an observation inconsistent with the previous pattern observed. Unlike another SDH inhibitor, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which increased toxT transcription and slightly inhibited V. cholerae growth, malonate inhibited toxT transcription in both the wild-type strain and TCA cycle mutants, suggesting malonate-mediated inhibition of virulence gene expression is independent to TCA cycle activity. Addition of malonate also inhibited ctxB and tcpA expressions but did not affect aphA, aphB, tcpP and toxR expressions. Malonate inhibited cholera toxin (CT) production in both V. cholerae classical biotype strains O395N1 and CA401, and El Tor biotype strain, N16961. Consistent with previous reports, we confirmed that these strains of V. cholerae did not utilize malonate as a primary carbon source. However, we found that the addition of malonate to the growth medium stimulated V. cholerae growth. All together, these results suggest that metabolizing malonate as a nutrient source negatively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae.

  4. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan;

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth...

  5. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  6. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  7. epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 28 cases of Cholera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The data of 35 246 patients with intestinal diseases were retrospectively analyzed, 28 cases of cholera patients were screened in 17 years, of which 23 cases had suspicious unclean food history, 10 cases were migrant workers, 8 cases had history of coastal city tour in one week. All of the 28 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae culture, 19 cases were identiifed as O1 serotype Ogawa and 6 were identiifed as O1 serotype Inaba, 3 were identified as O139. Twenty-three patients were mild, five cases were moderate, patients with severe diseases were not found. It was found in this study that O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae was still dominant, 82%of cholera patients were mild cases. Tourists who had a incompletely heated seafood intake history and migrant people are susceptible to cholera.

  8. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    The role of in-house transmission on the incidence of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly waterborne pathogen, is still not developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate possible contamination routes in household domain for effective cholera control in Bangladesh. To examine the prevalence...... and water supply may be the reason behind this relatively high presence of virulence factors in food plates and water pots. Direct exposure routes of disease transmission should be a major consideration in cholera prevention policies. Investigation of household contamination of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh........ Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305215719_Investigation_of_household_contamination_of_Vibrio_cholerae_in_Bangladesh [accessed Oct 14, 2016]....

  9. USE OF MODIFIED CAMP TEST FOR PRELIMINARY NONSEROLOGIC IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  10. Psychogenic epidemics and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkinuora, M

    1984-12-01

    Psychogenic epidemics cover various forms of collective behavior and include mass hysteria, mass psychogenic illness, and hysterical contagion for which no physical explanation can be found. The typical course of a psychogenic epidemic at a workplace progresses from sudden onset, often with dramatic symptoms, to a rapidly attained peak that draws much publicity and is followed by quick disappearance of the symptoms. Over 90% of the affected persons are women, and the symptoms range from dizziness, vomiting, nausea, and fainting to epileptic-type seizures, hyperventilation, and skin disorders. The background mechanisms are thought to be generalized beliefs and triggering events which create a sense of threat that leads to a physiological state of arousal. This state, in turn, creates new beliefs which give meaning to the sense of arousal. The new belief spreads through sociometric channels. Predisposing factors include boredom, pressure to produce, physical stressors, poor labor-management relations, and impaired interpersonal communications, and lack of social support. It is important that a thorough investigation be carried out in all instances. Investigation is not only necessary for diagnosis, but it also reassures the management, the employees, and the press that physical factors are unlikely to be responsible for the disease. PMID:6535252

  11. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 2012 to 2013 cholera outbreaks in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, R; Sadeghy, J; Shokri Moghadam, M; Bakhshi, B

    2016-08-01

    Cholera remains to be an international threat, with high rates of illness and death. In 2012 and 2013, two cholera outbreak happened in Iran, affecting lots of people. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source identification and controlling the spread of the cholera disease are two critical approaches in cholera outbreaks. In this study, thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates were selected and has been evaluated for antimicrobial resistant as well as molecular typing by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates were sero-grouped as El Tor (one isolate was classical) and 100% were related to Inaba serotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin. On the other hand, 60% of the isolates were MDR (resistant to 3 or more classes). There were three resistance patterns. The most prevalent pattern was resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ST-SXT-E-T) which was seen in 50% of isolates. Using MLVA method 14 MLVA types were identified. MLVA type 2 (5-7-7-16-15) accounted for 43% of isolates. Isolates with the same genotype often did not have the same antibiogram. Overall, the data indicate that the Iranian V. cholerae were MDR and clonaly related. Furthermore, the results of this study shows that MLVA can be used as useful method for V. cholerae genotyping in epidemiological investigations. PMID:27247094

  12. Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics Analysis of a Vibrio cholerae O1 Strain Isolated from a Cholera Patient in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Abdulrazak; Gan, Han Ming; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Kien-Pong

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence analysis of a clinical Vibrio cholerae VC35 strain from an outbreak case in Malaysia indicates multiple genes involved in host adaptation and a novel Na+-driven multidrug efflux pump-coding gene in the genome of Vibrio cholerae with the highest similarity to VMA_001754 of Vibrio mimicus VMA223. PMID:23209200

  13. Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics Analysis of a Vibrio cholerae O1 Strain Isolated from a Cholera Patient in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Osama, Abdulrazak; Gan, Han Ming; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Kien-Pong; Thong, Kwai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence analysis of a clinical Vibrio cholerae VC35 strain from an outbreak case in Malaysia indicates multiple genes involved in host adaptation and a novel Na+-driven multidrug efflux pump-coding gene in the genome of Vibrio cholerae with the highest similarity to VMA_001754 of Vibrio mimicus VMA223.

  14. Whole genome PCR scanning reveals the syntenic genome structure of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains in the O1/O139 population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Pang

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is commonly found in estuarine water systems. Toxigenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains have caused cholera epidemics and pandemics, whereas the nontoxigenic strains within these serogroups only occasionally lead to disease. To understand the differences in the genome and clonality between the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, we employed a whole genome PCR scanning (WGPScanning method, an rrn operon-mediated fragment rearrangement analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to analyze the genome structure of different strains. WGPScanning in conjunction with CGH revealed that the genomic contents of the toxigenic strains were conservative, except for a few indels located mainly in mobile elements. Minor nucleotide variation in orthologous genes appeared to be the major difference between the toxigenic strains. rrn operon-mediated rearrangements were infrequent in El Tor toxigenic strains tested using I-CeuI digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis and PCR analysis based on flanking sequence of rrn operons. Using these methods, we found that the genomic structures of toxigenic El Tor and O139 strains were syntenic. The nontoxigenic strains exhibited more extensive sequence variations, but toxin coregulated pilus positive (TCP+ strains had a similar structure. TCP+ nontoxigenic strains could be subdivided into multiple lineages according to the TCP type, suggesting the existence of complex intermediates in the evolution of toxigenic strains. The data indicate that toxigenic O1 El Tor and O139 strains were derived from a single lineage of intermediates from complex clones in the environment. The nontoxigenic strains with non-El Tor type TCP may yet evolve into new epidemic clones after attaining toxigenic attributes.

  15. Spatially selective colonization of the arthropod intestine through activation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and the human pathogen responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera. In the environment, arthropods are proposed to be carriers and reservoirs of V. cholerae. However, the molecular basis of the association between V. cholerae and viable arthropods has not been elucidated previously. Here, we show that the V. cholerae Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS)-dependent biofilm is highly activated upon entry into the arthropod intestine and is specifically required...

  16. A Metalloprotease Secreted by the Type II Secretion System Links Vibrio cholerae with Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Bo R.; Ryszard A Zielke; Wierzbicki, Igor H.; Mitchell, Kristie C.; Withey, Jeffrey H.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to various aquatic niches and is the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. The persistence of V. cholerae in natural habitats is a crucial factor in the epidemiology of cholera. In contrast to the well-studied V. cholerae-chitin connection, scarce information is available about the factors employed by the bacteria for the interaction with collagens. Collagens might serve as biologically relevant substrates, because they are the m...

  17. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Price

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN, IP, and subcutaneously (SC. Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival. Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  18. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...

  19. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  20. Terrorism, war, and peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÜRGEN STOLZENBER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tries first to analyse the different use of the concept of war made by George W. Bush with reference to the terrorist attack of 09/11 and to the invasion of Afghanistan. In order to do this, the paper will start from an analysis of the concept of terrorism itself and from the question whether terrorist acts can be designed as acts of war. It turns secondly to the more philosophical aspects of the question of terrorism, war and peace, starting from questions about the applicability of just war theories to the so called “war on terrorism” and discussing finally what is called “The Kantian Project”, that is the Kantian arguments for the establishment of “eternal peace” among the states of the world.

  1. Synergistic effect of various virulence factors leading to high toxicity of environmental V. cholerae non-O1/ non-O139 isolates lacking ctx gene : comparative study with clinical strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Rajpara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae non-O1/ non-O139 serogroups have been reported to cause sporadic diarrhoea in humans. Cholera toxins have been mostly implicated for hypersecretion of ions and water into the small intestine. Though most of the V. cholerae non-O1/ non-O139 strains lack these cholera toxins, several other innate virulence factors contribute towards their pathogenicity. The environmental isolates may thus act as reservoirs for potential spreading of these virulence genes in the natural environment which may cause the emergence of epidemic-causing organisms. RESULTS: The environmental isolates of vibrios were obtained from water samples, zooplanktons and phytoplanktons, from a village pond in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. They were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae non-O1/ non-O139 using standard biochemical and serotyping tests. PCR experiments revealed that the isolates lacked ctxA, ctxB, tcpA, zot and ace genes whereas other pathogenicity genes like toxR, rtxC, hlyA, hapA and prtV were detected in these isolates. Compared with epidemic strain V. cholerae O1 El Tor N16961, culture supernatants from most of these isolates caused higher cytotoxicity to HT29 cells and higher hemolytic, hemagglutinin and protease activities. In rabbit ileal loop assays, the environmental isolates showed only 2-4 folds lesser fluid accumulation in comparison to N16961 and a V. cholerae clinical isolate IDH02365 of 2009. Pulsed Field Gel electrophoresis and Random amplification of Polymorphic DNA indicated that these isolates showed considerable diversity and did not share the same clonal lineage even though they were derived from the same water source. All the isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Though these environmental isolates lacked the cholera toxins, they seem to have adopted other survival strategies by optimally utilising a diverse array of several other toxins. The current findings indicate the possibility that these

  2. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi A. O. Meriluoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103 and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583, to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used.

  3. Molecular tools in understanding the evolution of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Habibur; Islam, Tarequl; Colwell, Rita R; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, has been a scourge for centuries. Cholera remains a serious health threat for developing countries and has been responsible for millions of deaths globally over the past 200 years. Identification of V. cholerae has been accomplished using a variety of methods, ranging from phenotypic strategies to DNA based molecular typing and currently whole genomic approaches. This array of methods has been adopted in epidemiological investigations, either singly or in the aggregate, and more recently for evolutionary analyses of V. cholerae. Because the new technologies have been developed at an ever increasing pace, this review of the range of fingerprinting strategies, their relative advantages and limitations, and cholera case studies was undertaken. The task was challenging, considering the vast amount of the information available. To assist the study, key references representative of several areas of research are provided with the intent to provide readers with a comprehensive view of recent advances in the molecular epidemiology of V. cholerae. Suggestions for ways to obviate many of the current limitations of typing techniques are also provided. In summary, a comparative report has been prepared that includes the range from traditional typing to whole genomic strategies.

  4. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Begum, Anowara

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost culturability within one hour after inoculation but remained culturable on cloth and wood for up to four hours. VBNC V. cholerae on dry fomite surfaces was detected and quantified by EMA-qPCR even 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the prolonged survival of V. cholerae on various household fomites may play vital role in cholera transmission and needs to be further investigated.

  5. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Begum, Anowara

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost culturability within one hour after inoculation but remained culturable on cloth and wood for up to four hours. VBNC V. cholerae on dry fomite surfaces was detected and quantified by EMA-qPCR even 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the prolonged survival of V. cholerae on various household fomites may play vital role in cholera transmission and needs to be further investigated. PMID:27430513

  6. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Pappu Kumar; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Bhandari, Ramkrishna; Shrestha, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering ...

  7. New developments in the understanding of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T

    2001-08-01

    Recent advances in prevention and treatment of cholera have occurred in the areas of vaccine testing, modifications of oral-rehydration solutions (ORS), and antimicrobial treatment. Oral vaccines consisting of killed whole bacterial cells (WC) with and without the B-subunit of cholera toxin (BS) were shown to be effective in large trials in Bangladesh, Peru, and Vietnam. However, the trials did not resolve whether two or three doses of vaccine are required and whether BS adds significantly to the immune protection of WC. Live, attenuated bacterial vaccines that are immunogenic and have been shown protective in human volunteer studies are candidates for future field trials. Rehydration of patients is a life- saving effort. The best ORS contains rice powder in place of glucose, and solutions with reduced osmolarity (245 mOsm/L, sodium 75 mEq/L) are as effective as standard ORS. Ciprofloxacin in a single dose is effective in adults, and erythromycin or ampicillin in multiple doses is effective in children. PMID:11470000

  8. Stochastic epidemic models: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a survey paper on stochastic epidemic models. A simple stochastic epidemic model is defined and exact and asymptotic model properties (relying on a large community) are presented. The purpose of modelling is illustrated by studying effects of vaccination and also in terms of inference procedures for important parameters, such as the basic reproduction number and the critical vaccination coverage. Several generalizations towards realism, e.g. multitype and household epidemic models, are also presented, as is a model for endemic diseases.

  9. Epidemic dynamics on complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tao; FU Zhongqian; WANG Binghong

    2006-01-01

    Recently, motivated by the pioneer work in revealing the small-world effect and scale-free property of various real-life networks, many scientists devote themselves to studying complex networks. One of the ultimate goals is to understand how the topological structures affect the dynamics upon networks. In this paper, we give a brief review on the studies of epidemic dynamics on complex networks, including the description of classical epidemic models, the epidemic spread on small-world and scale-free networks, and network immunization. Finally, perspectives and some interesting problems are proposed.

  10. Epidemic Diffusion on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-Yan; LIU Zong-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Boyh diffusion and epidemic are well studied in the stochastic systems and complex networks,respetively.Here we combine these two fields and study epidemic diffusion in complex networks.Instead of studying the threshold of infection,which was focused on in previous works,we focus on the diffusion.behaviour.We find that the epidemic diffusion in a complex network is an anomalous superdiffusion with varyingg diffusion exponext γand that γ is influenced seriously by the network structure,such as the clustering coefficient and the degree distribution.Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  11. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  12. The new epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeanne V; Mellin, Grace C

    2014-03-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the November 1982 issue, is the first AJN article published on AIDS. It was early in the epidemic; only 608 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infections had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-a mere trickle in the flood that was to come. Reading it now, aware of all we've learned since, we have a sense of how much we were fumbling around in the dark in those early days, searching for a cause and a cure, often going in wrong directions. The closest we had come to the true nature of the syndrome was an understanding that "life-style factors seem to be involved and the agent appears to be infectious." To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/1iswhZe. PMID:24572536

  13. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and socio-technical systems. The complex properties of real world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. Here we present a coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, epidemiologists, computer and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and...

  14. Epidemic Synchronization in Robotic Swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Ngo, Trung Dung

    2009-01-01

    Clock synchronization in swarms of networked mobile robots is studied in a probabilistic, epidemic framework. In this setting communication and synchonization is considered to be a randomized process, taking place at unplanned instants of geographical rendezvous between robots. In combination...

  15. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...... epidemic failure resolution is proposed. The results provide important input to service recovery mechanisms under epidemic failures....

  16. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  17. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  18. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  19. Epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Zong-hua LIU

    2008-01-01

    The study of epidemic spreading in complex networks is currently a hot topic and a large body of results have been achieved.In this paper,we briefly review our contributions to this field,which includes the underlying mechanism of rumor propagation,the epidemic spreading in community networks,the influence of varying topology,and the influence of mobility of agents.Also,some future directions are pointed out.

  20. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan J. Baldauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT, which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA and the B subunit (CTB. CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  1. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  2. Trade Globalization and Price Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Mbum, Patrick Awok; Nnabuko, Justie O; Odama, Abraham O

    2012-01-01

    This is a library survey of trade globalization and price wars which examine the deepening role trade globalization and the devastations price wars can degenerate. The study went through time, space and contributions of trade to globalization and enlisted a few examples of price wars andproffer solutions. Price wars were identified as plagues that do the nations, industries and individuals no good. Price wars were seen in the Chinese home appliances industry, Brazilian bananas industry, e-boo...

  3. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Vibrio cholerae, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Jharna; Sangeetha, Vilwanathan; Ganesan, Vithiya; Parveen, Mohamudha; Preethi, Venkatesan; Harish, Belgode Narasimha; Srinivasan, Sampath; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2012-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is rarely reported. We detected a strain that was negative for extended-spectrum β-lactamase and positive for the AmpC disk test, modified Hodge test, and EDTA disk synergy test and harbored the blaDHA-1 and blaNDM-1 genes. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile of V. cholerae should be monitored. PMID:22840562

  4. Community health facility preparedness for a cholera surge in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobula, Linda Meta; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Weinhauer, Kristin; Alcidas, Gladys; Thomas, Hans-Muller; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    With increasing population displacement and worsening water insecurity after the 2010 earthquake, Haiti experienced a large cholera outbreak. Our goal was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of seven community health facilities' ability to respond to a surge in cholera cases. Since 2010, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with a number of public and private donors has been working with seven health facilities in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cholera infection. In November 2012, CRS through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s support, asked the Johns Hopkins Center for Refugee and Disaster Response to conduct a cholera surge simulation tabletop exercise at these health facilities to improve each facility's response in the event of a cholera surge. Using simulation development guidelines from the Pan American Health Organization and others, a simulation scenario script was produced that included situations of differing severity, supply chain, as well as a surge of patients. A total of 119 hospital staff from seven sites participated in the simulation exercise including community health workers, clinicians, managers, pharmacists, cleaners, and security guards. Clinics that had challenges during the simulated clinical care of patients were those that did not appropriately treat all cholera patients according to protocol, particularly those that were vulnerable, those that would need additional staff to properly treat patients during a surge of cholera, and those that required a better inventory of supplies. Simulation-based activities have the potential to identify healthcare delivery system vulnerabilities that are amenable to intervention prior to a cholera surge. PMID:24481887

  5. Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We f...

  6. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  7. THE TRANSFORMATION OF WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Mnyandu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "A ghost is stalking the corridors of general staffs and defence departments all over the 'developed' world - the fear of military impotence, even irrelevance. ...As new forms of armed conflict multiply and spread, they will cause the lines between public and private, government and people, military and civilian to become as blurred as they were before 1648. ...One very important way in which men can attain joy, freedom, happiness is (through war." (Van Creveld, 1991: 1,226,227 These are the words that open and conclude this book whose stated objective is to provide a non-Clausewitzian perspective to 'modern' warfare (p ix. In the first two chapters, Van Creveld perceptively addresses the bankruptcy of nuclear weapons and strategy, the declining utility of conventional armed forces and the resurgence of low intensity conflict as well as the resounding political outcomes accrued through such conflicts. Acknowledging Karl von Clausewitz as an outstanding military theoretician, Van Creveld not only delineates the historical context in which Clausewitz's writings were most relevant, but goes on to evoke the works of Colmar von der Goltz (Das Volk in Waffen, 1883 and Erich Ludendorf (Der Totale Krieg, 1936 in order to clearly distinguish the concept of a trinitarian war in comparison to those of a total war and nontrinitarian war (p 35, 42, 45, 49. "Involving the surgical separation of the state, society and the military, the trinitarian war is compatible with the Clausewitzian prescription and primary notion of war as a continuation of politics" (p 63. While total war appears to be an extreme and perverted form of trinitarian war - it plays a vital role in as far as it nearly obliterated society, facilitated the rise of totalitarian governments and even precipitated the Second World War. This openened the flood gates for the resurgence of nontrinitarian conflict in which individuals and individual societies (not established armies acting on behalf

  8. Hybrid microarray based on double biomolecular markers of DNA and carbohydrate for simultaneous genotypic and phenotypic detection of cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Hui; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-05-15

    Life-threatening diarrheal cholera is usually caused by water or food contaminated with cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae. For the prevention and surveillance of cholera, it is crucial to rapidly and precisely detect and identify the etiological causes, such as V. cholerae and/or its toxin. In the present work, we propose the use of a hybrid double biomolecular marker (DBM) microarray containing 16S rRNA-based DNA capture probe to genotypically identify V. cholerae and GM1 pentasaccharide capture probe to phenotypically detect cholera toxin. We employed a simple sample preparation method to directly obtain genomic DNA and secreted cholera toxin as target materials from bacterial cells. By utilizing the constructed DBM microarray and prepared samples, V. cholerae and cholera toxin were detected successfully, selectively, and simultaneously; the DBM microarray was able to analyze the pathogenicity of the identified V. cholerae regardless of whether the bacteria produces toxin. Therefore, our proposed DBM microarray is a new effective platform for identifying bacteria and analyzing bacterial pathogenicity simultaneously. PMID:26735874

  9. Epidemic neuropathy in Cuba: a plea to end the United States economic embargo on a humanitarian basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, G C

    1994-10-01

    During 1992-1993, an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba affected 50,862 patients with optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy, and dorsolateral myelopathy. The clinical syndromes were identical to those of prisoners of war subjected to nutritional restriction in tropical prison camps during World War II (Strachan's disease). A dietary deficiency of group B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids appears to have been the primary cause of the epidemic. This was a consequence of economic and political events in Cuba linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union and socialist countries. The recently toughened 30-year-old US economic embargo on Cuba contributed to these problems and hampered the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the epidemic. A plea is made to the neurologic community to request the lifting of the trade blockade on a humanitarian basis. PMID:7936221

  10. Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Benjamin L.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Eric D Mintz

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of...

  11. Characterization of tryptophanase from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Tansila, Natta; Chomchuen, Piraporn; Phattaranit, Phattiphong; Eangchuan, Supachok; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophanase (Trpase) is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme responsible for the production of indole, an important intra- and interspecies signaling molecule in bacteria. In this study, the tnaA gene of Vibrio cholerae coding for VcTrpase was cloned into the pET-20b(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) tn5:tnaA. Using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) chromatography, VcTrpase was purified, and it possessed a molecular mass of ∼49 kDa with specific absorption peaks at 330 and 435 nm and a specific activity of 3 U/mg protein. The VcTrpase had an 80 % homology to the Trpase of Haemophilus influenzae and E. coli, but only around 50 % identity to the Trpase of Proteus vulgaris and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The optimum conditions for the enzyme were at pH 9.0 and 45 °C. Recombinant VcTrpase exhibited analogous kinetic reactivity to the EcTrpase with K m and k cat values of 0.612 × 10(-3) M and 5.252 s(-1), respectively. The enzyme catalyzed S-methyl-L-cysteine and S-benzyl-L-cysteine degradation, but not L-phenylalanine and L-serine. Using a site-directed mutagenesis technique, eight residues (Thr52, Tyr74, Arg103, Asp137, Arg230, Lys269, Lys270, and His463) were conserved for maintaining enzyme catalysis. All amino acid substitutions at these sites either eliminated or remarkably diminished Trpase activity. These sites are thus potential targets for the design of drugs to control the V. cholerae Trpase and to further investigate its functions.

  12. Community-based assessment of safety and immunogenicity of the whole cell plus recombinant B subunit (WC/rBS) oral cholera vaccine in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begue, R E; Castellares, G; Ruiz, R; Hayashi, K E; Sanchez, J L; Gotuzzo, E; Oberst, R B; Taylor, D N; Svennerholm, A M

    1995-05-01

    Every year since its introduction in 1991, there have been epidemics of cholera in Lima, Peru. Vaccination is one approach to the control of cholera. A pilot study was conducted to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a whole cell plus recombinant B subunit (WC/rBS) cholrea vaccine in Lima, Peru. Five hundred and forty-one volunteers aged 2-65 years received two doses two weeks apart of WC/rBS vaccine or Escherichia coli K12 placebo administered in bicarbonate buffered water. Symptoms were monitored on all subjects and blood was collected from 102 persons before the first dose and two weeks after the second dose. Mild post-vaccination gastrointestinal symptoms were reported with equal frequency for both the vaccine and placebo recipients. Among 51 vaccines, 49% had a twofold or greater increase in serum vibriocidal titers (GMT = 78; range < 1:10 to 1:5120); and 92% and 82% developed a twofold or greater serum anti-cholera toxin IgG and IgA response, respectively. Persons with elevated prevaccination vibriocidal titers had a decreased response to the WC/rBS. Age and blood group did not affect the immune response. The WC/rBS vaccine was safe and immunogenic in a group of native Peruvians.

  13. FK phage for differentiating the classical and El T or groups of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Takeya, K; Otohuji, T; Tokiwa, H

    1981-01-01

    A new vibrio-infecting phage (FK phage) isolated from sewage lysed all strains of Vibrio cholerae biovar cholerae, whereas all strains of V. cholerae biovar El Tor were resistant to it. FK phage was entirely different from Mukerjee group IV phage in morphology and antigenicity. In addition to group IV phage, the use of FK phage will be useful in the examination and typing of V. cholerae.

  14. Time series analysis of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, during 1988-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Deok Ryun; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The study examined the impact of in-situ climatic and marine environmental variability on cholera incidence in an endemic area of Bangladesh and developed a forecasting model for understanding the magnitude of incidence. Diarrhoea surveillance data collected between 1988 and 2001 were obtained from a field research site in Matlab, Bangladesh. Cholera cases were defined as Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from faecal specimens of patients who sought care at treatment centres serving the Matlab population. Cholera incidence for 168 months was correlated with remotely-sensed sea-surface temperature (SST) and in-situ environmental data, including rainfall and ambient temperature. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was used for determining the impact of climatic and environmental variability on cholera incidence and evaluating the ability of the model to forecast the magnitude of cholera. There were 4,157 cholera cases during the study period, with an average of 1.4 cases per 1,000 people. Since monthly cholera cases varied significantly by month, it was necessary to stabilize the variance of cholera incidence by computing the natural logarithm to conduct the analysis. The SARIMA model shows temporal clustering of cholera at one- and 12-month lags. There was a 6% increase in cholera incidence with a minimum temperature increase of one degree celsius in the current month. For increase of SST by one degree celsius, there was a 25% increase in the cholera incidence at currrent month and 18% increase in the cholera incidence at two months. Rainfall did not influenc to cause variation in cholera incidence during the study period. The model forecast the fluctuation of cholera incidence in Matlab reasonably well (Root mean square error, RMSE: 0.108). Thus, the ambient and sea-surface temperature-based model could be used in forecasting cholera outbreaks in Matlab.

  15. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  16. Understanding Ebola: the 2014 epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Jolie; Schaack, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Near the end of 2013, an outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) began in Guinea, subsequently spreading to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone. As this epidemic grew, important public health questions emerged about how and why this outbreak was so different from previous episodes. This review provides a synthetic synopsis of the 2014-15 outbreak, with the aim of understanding its unprecedented spread. We present a summary of the history of previous epidemics, describe the structure and genetics of the ebolavirus, and review our current understanding of viral vectors and the latest treatment practices. We conclude with an analysis of the public health challenges epidemic responders faced and some of the lessons that could be applied to future outbreaks of Ebola or other viruses. PMID:27624088

  17. Vampire,Cholera and Imperial Maladies---the Disease Construction in Dracula from the Perspective of Medical Sociology%吸血鬼、霍乱与帝国顽疾--医学社会学视角看《德库拉》的疾病建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亭亭; 蒋天平

    2014-01-01

    19世纪四次大规模的霍乱爆发给维多利亚时代的英国带来了巨大的灾难,也对其社会文化产生了深远的影响。文章从医学社会学视角出发,结合霍乱疫情分析了布拉姆·斯托克的哥特小说《德库拉》中对霍乱从想象到认知的疾病建构过程,并对大英帝国在霍乱疫情中所暴露出的诸多问题进行了讨论。%The four large-scale outbreaks of cholera in the 19th century brought great suffering to the Victorian Britain and profound influence to its society and culture as well .From the perspec-tive of medical sociology and based on the cholera epidemic situation ,this paper analyses the dis-ease construction process from imagination to cognition of cholera in Bram Stoker ’s Gothic fiction Dracula and discusses the various problems exposed by the cholera epidemic situation in the Great Britain .

  18. Outbreak-associated Vibrio cholerae genotypes with identical pulsotypes, Malaysia, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Suhaili, Zarizal; Lim, King Ting; Khamaruddin, Muhamad Afif; Yahya, Fariha; Sajili, Mohd Hailmi; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2012-07-01

    A cholera outbreak in Terengganu, Malaysia, in November 2009 was caused by 2 El Tor Vibrio cholerae variants resistant to typical antimicrobial drugs. Evidence of replacement of treatable V. cholerae infection in the region with antimicrobial-resistant strains calls for increased surveillance and prevention measures.

  19. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  20. Evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera made from Vibrio cholerae O1 (Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Murshid Alam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protective immunity against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity in Vibrio cholerae is determined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Generally, polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic, especially in young children. METHODOLOGY: Here we report the evaluation in mice of a conjugate vaccine for cholera (OSP:TThc made from V. cholerae O1 Ogawa O-Specific Polysaccharide-core (OSP and recombinant tetanus toxoid heavy chain fragment (TThc. We immunized mice intramuscularly on days 0, 21, and 42 with OSP:TThc or OSP only, with or without dmLT, a non-toxigenic immunoadjuvant derived from heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detected significant serum IgG antibody responses targeting OSP following a single immunization in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without adjuvant. Anti-LPS IgG responses were detected following a second immunization in these cohorts. No anti-OSP or anti-LPS IgG responses were detected at any time in animals receiving un-conjugated OSP with or without immunoadjuvant, and in animals receiving immunoadjuvant alone. Responses were highest following immunization with adjuvant. Serum anti-OSP IgM responses were detected in mice receiving OSP:TThc with or without immunoadjuvant, and in mice receiving unconjugated OSP. Serum anti-LPS IgM and vibriocidal responses were detected in all vaccine cohorts except in mice receiving immunoadjuvant alone. No significant IgA anti-OSP or anti-LPS responses developed in any group. Administration of OSP:TThc and adjuvant also induced memory B cell responses targeting OSP and resulted in 95% protective efficacy in a mouse lethality cholera challenge model. CONCLUSION: We describe a protectively immunogenic cholera conjugate in mice. Development of a cholera conjugate vaccine could assist in inducing long-term protective immunity, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  1. Cyclo(valine-valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M; Bina, X Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu; Bina, James E

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine-valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment.

  2. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzios, Stavroula K; Abel, Sören; Martell, Julianne; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T; Davis, Brigid M; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-04-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human choleric stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, and genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance of intelectin, an intestinal lectin, and its binding to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting that it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialog in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  3. Nonredundant Roles of Iron Acquisition Systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eric D; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Fisher, Carolyn R; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-12-07

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, thrives in both marine environments and the human host. To do so, it must encode the tools necessary to acquire essential nutrients, including iron, under these vastly different conditions. A number of V. cholerae iron acquisition systems have been identified; however, the precise role of each system is not fully understood. To test the roles of individual systems, we generated a series of mutants in which only one of the four systems that support iron acquisition on unsupplemented LB agar, Feo, Fbp, Vct, and Vib, remains functional. Analysis of these mutants under different growth conditions showed that these systems are not redundant. The strain carrying only the ferrous iron transporter Feo grew well at acidic, but not alkaline, pH, whereas the ferric iron transporter Fbp promoted better growth at alkaline than at acidic pH. A strain defective in all four systems (null mutant) had a severe growth defect under aerobic conditions but accumulated iron and grew as well as the wild type in the absence of oxygen, suggesting the presence of an additional, unidentified iron transporter in V. cholerae. In support of this, the null mutant was only moderately attenuated in an infant mouse model of infection. While the null mutant used heme as an iron source in vitro, we demonstrate that heme is not available to V. cholerae in the infant mouse intestine.

  4. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLutz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium could be detected in areas where it had not been isolated from before, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium rather than specifically within regions where cholera is endemic. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of the bacterium in the sometimes hostile environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists.

  5. A New Algorithm for Identifying Possible Epidemic Sources with Application to the German Escherichia coli Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a recently developed algorithm called Topological Weighted Centroid (TWC. TWC takes locations of an event of interest and analyzes the possible associated dynamics using the ideas of free energy and entropy. This novel mathematical tool has been applied to a real world example, the epidemic outbreak caused by Escherichia coli that occurred in Germany in 2011, to point out the real source of the outbreak. Other four examples of application to other epidemic spreads are described: Chikungunya fever of 2007 in Italy; Foot and mouth disease of 1967 in England; Cholera of 1854 in London; and the Russian influenza of 1889–1890 in Sweden. Comparisons have been made with other already published algorithms: Rossmo Algorithm, NES, LVM, Mexican Prob. The TWC results are significantly superior in comparison with other algorithms according to four independent indexes: distance from the peak, sensitivity, specificity and searching area. They are consistent with the idea that the spread of infectious disease is not random but follows a progression based on inherent, but as yet undiscovered, mathematical laws. The TWC method could provide an additional powerful tool for the investigation of the early stages of an epidemic and novel simulation methods for understanding the process through which a disease is spread.

  6. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  7. The Great War: Online Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  8. In Defence of New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kaldor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on ‘new wars’. It argues that ‘new wars’ should be understood not as an empirical category but rather as a way of elucidating the logic of contemporary war that can offer both a research strategy and a guide to policy. It addresses four components of the debate: whether new wars are ‘new’; whether new wars are war or crime; whether the data supports the claims about new wars; and whether new wars are ‘post-Clausewitzean’. It argues that the obsession with the ‘newness’ of wars misses the point about the logic of new wars; that there is a blurring of war and crime but it is important to address the political elements of new wars; that, although the data should be used with caution, it does seem to offer support for some elements of the new war thesis; and that the argument is indeed post-Clausewitzean because new wars are not ‘contests of wills’ but more similar to a mutual enterprise. It concludes that the debate has greatly enriched the overall argument.

  9. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  10. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  11. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. ...

  12. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    in the future. The “extreme 20th century” will have another history and another impact. Its extremes will be narrated as more extreme, and its temporal bindings become easier to observe. The much celebrated “revolutions in military affairs” will not dominate future war systems. Unipolarity is fading away...

  13. The War Against Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  14. Cold War Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  15. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  16. Cities of War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI; LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai of the 1930s had particular appeal for Japan, being a large international metropolis in its immediate vicinity. After World War I, Japan concentrated all its China trade, shipping and manufacturing in Shanghai, and by 1930, 30,000 of the 50,000 foreigners living in Shanghai were Japanese.

  17. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  18. Ecología de Vibrio cholerae en relación al Fitoplancton y variables fisicoquímicas en ríos de Tucumán (Argentina Ecology of Vibrio cholerae in relation to phytoplankton and physico-chemical variables in rivers of Tucumán (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mirande

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae muestra gran diversidad serológica en base a su antígeno somático O, conociéndose al menos 200 serogrupos. De éstos, solamente O1 y O139 son causantes de epidemias o pandemias. En Latinoamérica el serogrupo O1 reapareció en 1991, tras cien años de no presentar brotes en el continente. Esta bacteria sobrevive y se multiplica asociada al plancton, independientemente de la aparición de infecciones humanas. Desde la década del noventa, en Tucumán, se detectaron casos esporádicos de diarrea por Vibrio cholerae no-O1. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la posible relación entre la presencia de especímenes de fitoplancton, variables fisicoquímicas y aislamientos de Vibrio cholerae en ríos de Tucumán. Se realizaron 18 campañas en los ríos Lules y Salí entre 2003-2005. Se estudiaron las variables fisicoquímicas del agua (pH, temperatura, conductividad y oxígeno disuelto, el fitoplancton (riqueza y frecuencia relativa y las cepas aisladas de V. cholerae. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias en la calidad del agua, observándose períodos de anoxia en el río Salí. Las diatomeas sobresalieron en la mayoría de los meses y generalmente estuvieron en porcentajes superiores al 85 %. Sólo se aisló Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139, detectándose más frecuentemente en los meses cálidos, con pH alcalino, aún con baja concentración de oxígeno.Vibrio cholerae shows a great serologic diversity in relation to his O somatic antigen and we know at least 200 serogroups. About these, only O1 and O139 are responsible of epidemics and pandemics. The serogroup O1 reemerged in Latin America in 1991 after being absent from the continent for nearly a century. This bacterium survives and grows up associated to plankton, independently of appearance of human infections. From 90 th decade, there were sporadic cases of diarrhea because of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Tucumán. The aims of this paper were to study the possible

  19. Infant mortality and epidemic diseases. Wartime Finnmark in a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Planting Mølmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of war on the health of the population have never been systematically studied. The article explores the impact of war on the general health condition of Finnmark’s population during the war years. The indicators chosen are infant mortality and the epidemic diseases diphtheria, scabies and acute gastroenteritis. The development of the indicators in Finnmark is compared with the averages in Norway and Finnish Lapland. The findings deserve attention. The article discusses the statistical indicators and findings in a social and historical context with a range of sources. The article is a broad as well as penetrating analysis of the war’s impact on the health of the civilian population of Finnmark and on their everyday living and survival.

  20. Visual Mining of Epidemic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi; 10.1007/978-3-642-21498-1_35

    2012-01-01

    We show how an interactive graph visualization method based on maximal modularity clustering can be used to explore a large epidemic network. The visual representation is used to display statistical tests results that expose the relations between the propagation of HIV in a sexual contact network and the sexual orientation of the patients.

  1. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Wang, H.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional lin

  2. Epidemic Spread in Human Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sahneh, Faryad Darabi

    2011-01-01

    One of the popular dynamics on complex networks is the epidemic spreading. An epidemic model describes how infections spread throughout a network. Among the compartmental models used to describe epidemics, the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model has been widely used. In the SIS model, each node can be susceptible, become infected with a given infection rate, and become again susceptible with a given curing rate. In this paper, we add a new compartment to the classic SIS model to account for human response to epidemic spread. Each individual can be infected, susceptible, or alert. Susceptible individuals can become alert with an alerting rate if infected individuals exist in their neighborhood. An individual in the alert state is less probable to become infected than an individual in the susceptible state; due to a newly adopted cautious behavior. The problem is formulated as a continuous-time Markov process on a general static graph and then modeled into a set of ordinary differential equations using...

  3. Stochastic Processes in Epidemic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, Claude; Picard, Philippe

    1990-01-01

    This collection of papers gives a representative cross-selectional view of recent developments in the field. After a survey paper by C. Lefèvre, 17 other research papers look at stochastic modeling of epidemics, both from a theoretical and a statistical point of view. Some look more specifically at a particular disease such as AIDS, malaria, schistosomiasis and diabetes.

  4. An epidemic outbreak of cryptosporidiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Højlyng, Niels; Ingholt, Liselotte;

    1990-01-01

    significantly associated with diarrhea (OR = 2.79, P = 0.0006). The seasonal distribution was striking, with a peak prevalence in the beginning of the rainy season (May 17.6%) when an epidemic outbreak of diarrhea started. The prevalence was highest in children younger than 18 months, an age at which...

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival.

  6. Epidemics spreading in interconnected complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Xiao, G., E-mail: egxxiao@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2012-09-03

    We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. It is found that in our model the epidemic threshold of the interconnected network is always lower than that in any of the two component networks. Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that, generally speaking, the epidemic size is not significantly affected by the inter-network correlation. In interdependent networks which can be viewed as a special case of interconnected networks, however, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant. -- Highlights: ► We study epidemic spreading in two interconnected complex networks. ► The epidemic threshold is lower than that in any of the two networks. And Interconnection correlation has impacts on threshold and average outbreak size. ► Detailed theoretical analysis is proposed which allows quick and accurate calculations of epidemic threshold and average outbreak/epidemic size. ► We demonstrated and proved that Interconnection correlation does not affect epidemic size significantly. ► In interdependent networks, impacts of inter-network correlation on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size are more significant.

  7. Arkady Babchenko, Voina / Tlom [War

    OpenAIRE

    Mélat, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    War is not an exhausted topic in contemporary Russian literature. World War II, Afghan War and, of course, the Chechen Wars have continued to inspire young and less young writers in post-Soviet Russia. Whether in longer fiction, as in the novels of Andrey Gelasimov—Thirst, recounting the difficult return from Chechnya of a badly disfigured soldier, and The Gods of the Steppe, focusing on the friendship between a Japanese prisoner and a Russian boy during World War II; or narratives close to d...

  8. Spatial and environmental connectivity analysis in a cholera vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Root, Elisabeth D; Yunus, Mohammad

    2009-02-01

    This paper develops theory and methods for vaccine trials that utilize spatial and environmental information. Satellite imagery is used to identify whether households are connected to one another via water bodies in a study area in rural Bangladesh. Then relationships between neighborhood-level cholera vaccine coverage and placebo incidence and neighborhood-level spatial variables are measured. The study hypothesis is that unvaccinated people who are environmentally connected to people who have been vaccinated will be at lower risk compared to unvaccinated people who are environmentally connected to people who have not been vaccinated. We use four datasets including: a cholera vaccine trial database, a longitudinal demographic database of the rural population from which the vaccine trial participants were selected, a household-level geographic information system (GIS) database of the same study area, and high resolution Quickbird satellite imagery. An environmental connectivity metric was constructed by integrating the satellite imagery with the vaccine and demographic databases linked with GIS. The results show that there is a relationship between neighborhood rates of cholera vaccination and placebo incidence. Thus, people are indirectly protected when more people in their environmentally connected neighborhood are vaccinated. This result is similar to our previous work that used a simpler Euclidean distance neighborhood to measure neighborhood vaccine coverage [Ali, M., Emch, M., von Seidlein, L., Yunus, M., Sack, D. A., Holmgren, J., et al. (2005). Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh. Lancet, 366(9479), 44-49]. Our new method of measuring environmental connectivity is more precise since it takes into account the transmission mode of cholera and therefore this study validates our assertion that the oral cholera vaccine provides indirect protection in addition to direct protection.

  9. Influence of climate factors on Vibrio cholerae dynamics in the Pearl River estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yujuan; Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao; Li, Baisheng; Ke, Changwen

    2014-06-01

    Current research has seldom focused on the quantitative relationships between Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and climate factors owing to the complexities and high cost of field observation in the aquatic environment. This study has focused on the relationships between V. cholerae and climate factors based on linear regression method and data partition method. Data gathered from 2008 to 2009 in the Pearl River estuary, South China, were adopted. Positive rate of V. cholerae was correlated closely with monthly climate factors of water temperature and air temperature, respectively in 2009. Quarterly data analysis from 2008 to 2009 showed that there existed seasonal characteristic for V. cholerae. Positive rate of V. cholerae was correlated positively with quarterly climate factors of land surface temperature, pH, water temperature, air temperature and rainfall, respectively and negatively with quarterly air pressure. Partition data analysis in 2009 showed that there existed geography region characteristic for V. cholerae. V. cholerae dynamics was closely correlated to climate factors in the downstream area. However, it was more greatly affected by human geography factors in the urban area. Positive annual rate of V. cholerae was higher in the downstream area than in the urban area both in 2008 and 2009. At last, a cellular automaton model was used to simulate V. cholerae diffusion downstream, and the distribution of V. cholerae obtained from this model was similar to that obtained from the field observations.

  10. LESSONS FROM THE BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. De Jong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Jay Stone and Erwin A. Schmidl, The Boer War and Military reforms, Volume 28 of the series "War and Society of East Central Europe", University Press of America, Lanham: New York - London, 1988, 345 pp. Numerous studies exist of the lessons to be learnt from the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 by students of 20th Century Warfare. These studies date back from the days of that war up to the present. In many cases these studies are titled "Lessons from the Boer War". In the book under review Jay Stone examines the War's impact on Britain and Erwin Schmidl its effect in Austria-Hungary. I shall confine this review to Stone's findings. According to him Britain entered the war full of self-confidence in the hope of terminating the conflict within a few weeks, but was totally unprepared. The reason was that the last war she waged against a European power was as long ago as 1855-56. That was the Crimean War against Russia. Thereafter she had fought only local, colonial wars against badly drilled, little disciplined and primitively armed non-European armies. Some of these used to attack in large hordes and were shot or ridden down en masse. This had happened recently at Omdurman in 1898 where Kitchener defeated the Sudanese. The British ultimately were victorious in all the colonial wars.

  11. An intracellular replication niche for Vibrio cholerae in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Henst, Charles; Scrignari, Tiziana; Maclachlan, Catherine; Blokesch, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a human pathogen and the causative agent of cholera. The persistence of this bacterium in aquatic environments is a key epidemiological concern, as cholera is transmitted through contaminated water. Predatory protists, such as amoebae, are major regulators of bacterial populations in such environments. Therefore, we investigated the interaction between V. cholerae and the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii at the single-cell level. We observed that V. cholerae can resist intracellular killing. The non-digested bacteria were either released or, alternatively, established a replication niche within the contractile vacuole of A. castellanii. V. cholerae was maintained within this compartment even upon encystment. The pathogen ultimately returned to its aquatic habitat through lysis of A. castellanii, a process that was dependent on the production of extracellular polysaccharide by the pathogen. This study reinforces the concept that V. cholerae is a facultative intracellular bacterium and describes a new host-pathogen interaction.

  12. War and the Mythological Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an interesting ambiguity that marks any discussion on war in much of modern political theory. While it is acknowledged that war entails enormous human suffering, considerable latitude is conceded for moral judgements about the right to wage war, on the grounds that the suffering imposed upon self and others due to war, is an unfortunate necessity for the future good of a national community. The legality (as distinct from the legitimacy of modern wars is directly tied to the notion of contractual violence, such that state entities are granted the right to declare war and to conduct it within the constraints (in theory if not in practice of agreed covenants that place restrictions on what is justifiable violence in war and against whom it may be directed.

  13. Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurin, J C; Alvero, M

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

  14. Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurin, J. C.; Alvero, M.

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

  15. Clinical manifestations of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholera are uncommon. The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections. METHODS: The clinical charts of all patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections and who were treated in two hospitals in Taiwan were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: From July 2009 to June 2014, a total of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections were identified based on the databank of the bacteriology laboratories of two hospitals. The overall mean age was 53.3 years, and men comprised 53 (63.9% of the patients. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus were the two most common underlying diseases, followed by malignancy. The most common type of infection was acute gastroenteritis (n = 45, 54.2%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 12, 14.5% and primary bacteremia (n = 11, 13.3%. Other types of infection, such as peritonitis (n = 5, 6.0%, skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI (n = 5, 6.0%, urinary tract infection (n = 3, 3.6% and pneumonia (2, 2.4%, were rare. July and June were the most common months of occurrence of V. cholera infections. The overall in-hospital mortality of 83 patients with V. cholera infections was 7.2%, but it was significantly higher for patients with primary bacteremia, hemorrhage bullae, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, or admission to an ICU. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with acute respiratory failure (odds ratio, 60.47; 95% CI, 4.79-763.90, P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Non-O1 V. cholera infections can cause protean disease, especially in patients with risk factors and during warm-weather months. The overall mortality of 83 patients with non-O1 V. cholera infections was only 7.2%; however, this value varied among different types of infection.

  16. Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations.

  17. Mobile phone data highlights the role of mass gatherings in the spreading of cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Flavio; Genolet, Tina; Mari, Lorenzo; de Magny, Guillaume Constantin; Manga, Noël Magloire; Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of human mobility and the related fluctuations of population density are known to be key drivers of the dynamics of infectious disease outbreaks. These factors are particularly relevant in the case of mass gatherings, which may act as hotspots of disease transmission and spread. Understanding these dynamics, however, is usually limited by the lack of accurate data, especially in developing countries. Mobile phone call data provide a new, first-order source of information that allows the tracking of the evolution of mobility fluxes with high resolution in space and time. Here, we analyze a dataset of mobile phone records of ∼150,000 users in Senegal to extract human mobility fluxes and directly incorporate them into a spatially explicit, dynamic epidemiological framework. Our model, which also takes into account other drivers of disease transmission such as rainfall, is applied to the 2005 cholera outbreak in Senegal, which totaled more than 30,000 reported cases. Our findings highlight the major influence that a mass gathering, which took place during the initial phase of the outbreak, had on the course of the epidemic. Such an effect could not be explained by classic, static approaches describing human mobility. Model results also show how concentrated efforts toward disease control in a transmission hotspot could have an important effect on the large-scale progression of an outbreak. PMID:27217564

  18. Mobile phone data highlights the role of mass gatherings in the spreading of cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Flavio; Genolet, Tina; Mari, Lorenzo; de Magny, Guillaume Constantin; Manga, Noël Magloire; Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of human mobility and the related fluctuations of population density are known to be key drivers of the dynamics of infectious disease outbreaks. These factors are particularly relevant in the case of mass gatherings, which may act as hotspots of disease transmission and spread. Understanding these dynamics, however, is usually limited by the lack of accurate data, especially in developing countries. Mobile phone call data provide a new, first-order source of information that allows the tracking of the evolution of mobility fluxes with high resolution in space and time. Here, we analyze a dataset of mobile phone records of ∼150,000 users in Senegal to extract human mobility fluxes and directly incorporate them into a spatially explicit, dynamic epidemiological framework. Our model, which also takes into account other drivers of disease transmission such as rainfall, is applied to the 2005 cholera outbreak in Senegal, which totaled more than 30,000 reported cases. Our findings highlight the major influence that a mass gathering, which took place during the initial phase of the outbreak, had on the course of the epidemic. Such an effect could not be explained by classic, static approaches describing human mobility. Model results also show how concentrated efforts toward disease control in a transmission hotspot could have an important effect on the large-scale progression of an outbreak.

  19. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-12-16

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  20. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  1. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  2. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dawei [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, Lixiang [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng, E-mail: penghaipeng@bupt.edu.cn [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-02-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  3. Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Marius; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Hammes, Frederik; Egli, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor was studied with a growth assay in which autoclaved and filtered (0.22 microm) freshwater was inoculated at low cell density (5 x 10(3) cells ml(-1)) and proliferation was followed with flow cytometry. Against the common view, V. cholerae was able to grow extensively in different kinds of freshwater. The bacterium multiplied in river water, lake water and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant up to a cell density of 1.55 x 10(6) cells ml(-1). In these samples, apparent assimilable organic carbon (AOC(app)) concentrations ranged from 52 up to 800 microg l(-1) and the results demonstrate a positive trend between the AOC(app) concentration and final cell concentration, suggesting that AOC was a key parameter governing growth of V. cholerae. No growth was observed in waters (tap and bottled drinking water) containing less than approximately 60 microg AOC(app) l(-1). When pure cultures of V. cholerae were grown on identical lake water at different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 degrees C) the maximum specific growth rates (micromax) achieved were 0.22 h(-1), 0.32 h(-1) and 0.45 h(-1), respectively. In addition, growth was characterized in lake water samples amended with different concentrations of NaCl. The highest micromax of V. cholerae was recorded at moderate salinity levels (5 g NaCl l(-1), micromax=0.84 h(-1)), whereas at 30 g NaCl l(-1) (micromax=0.30 h(-1)) or 0 g NaCl l(-1) (micromax)=0.40 h(-1)) specific growth rates were significantly reduced. In the water tested here, micro(max) of V. cholerae was always around 50 % of that exhibited by a freshwater community of indigenous bacteria enriched from the water sampling site. Direct batch competition experiments between V. cholerae and the lake water bacterial community were performed at different temperatures in which V. cholerae was enumerated in the total community using fluorescent-surface antibodies. In all cases V. cholerae was able to grow and constituted around 10

  4. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  5. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  6. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner)

  7. Edit wars in Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, Róbert; Rung, András; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2011-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for automatically detecting severe conflicts `edit wars' in Wikipedia and evaluate this method on six different language WPs. We discuss how the number of edits, reverts, the length of discussions, the burstiness of edits and reverts deviate in such pages from those following the general workflow, and argue that earlier work has significantly over-estimated the contentiousness of the Wikipedia editing process.

  8. The Economics of Epidemic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic, infectious, diseases affect a large number of individuals across developing as well as developed countries. With reference to some very simple diffusion models, in this paper we consider how available economic resources could be optimally allocated by health authorities to mitigate, possibly eradicate, the disease. Optimality was defined as the minimization of the long run number of infected people. The main goal of the work has been to introduce a methodology for deciding if it would be best to concentrate resources to prevent contact between individuals and with an external source, or to develop a new treatment for curing the disease, or both. The analysis suggests that this depends on the cost functions, that is the available technology, for controlling the relevant parameters underlying the epidemics as well as on the available financial resources. In the case of the recent Ebola outbreak, the suggestions of the model have been consistent with the policies adopted.

  9. The Zika epidemics and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Fernanda P; Campos, Silvia V

    2016-05-01

    In the last few months an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) has affected several countries, and it continues to spread rapidly. This virus was initially thought to cause only a mild febrile illness; however, the current epidemic has shown that it is associated with serious complications. Increasing reports are linking ZIKV to devastating conditions such as microcephaly in newborns and important neurologic syndromes. Although ZIKV infection has not yet been reported in transplant recipients, it is likely that it will be reported soon because of the number of transplants performed in affected areas and global travel. We discuss the effect of ZIKV in transplantation and propose recommendations to prevent donor-derived infections. PMID:27197772

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alain Braillon; Gérard Dubois

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored.

  11. Fluctuating epidemics on adaptive networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Leah B

    2008-01-01

    A model for epidemics on an adaptive network is considered. Nodes follow an SIRS (susceptible-infective-recovered-susceptible) pattern. Connections are rewired to break links from non-infected nodes to infected nodes and are reformed to connect to other non-infected nodes, as the nodes that are not infected try to avoid the infection. Monte Carlo simulation and numerical solution of a mean field model are employed. The introduction of rewiring affects both the network structure and the epidemic dynamics. Degree distributions are altered, and the average distance from a node to the nearest infective increases. The rewiring leads to regions of bistability where either an endemic or a disease-free steady state can exist. Fluctuations around the endemic state and the lifetime of the endemic state are considered. The fluctuations are found to exhibit power law behavior.

  12. Epidemic Spreading with External Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Siddhartha; Gopalan, Aditya; Das, Abhik Kumar; Shakkottai, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    We study epidemic spreading processes in large networks, when the spread is assisted by a small number of external agents: infection sources with bounded spreading power, but whose movement is unrestricted vis-\\`a-vis the underlying network topology. For networks which are `spatially constrained', we show that the spread of infection can be significantly speeded up even by a few such external agents infecting randomly. Moreover, for general networks, we derive upper-bounds on the order of the...

  13. Networked SIS Epidemics with Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Paarporn, Keith; Weitz, Joshua S; Shamma, Jeff S

    2016-01-01

    We study an SIS epidemic process over a static contact network where the nodes have partial information about the epidemic state. They react by limiting their interactions with their neighbors when they believe the epidemic is currently prevalent. A node's awareness is weighted by the fraction of infected neighbors in their social network, and a global broadcast of the fraction of infected nodes in the entire network. The dynamics of the benchmark (no awareness) and awareness models are described by discrete-time Markov chains, from which mean-field approximations (MFA) are derived. The states of the MFA are interpreted as the nodes' probabilities of being infected. We show a sufficient condition for existence of a "metastable", or endemic, state of the awareness model coincides with that of the benchmark model. Furthermore, we use a coupling technique to give a full stochastic comparison analysis between the two chains, which serves as a probabilistic analogue to the MFA analysis. In particular, we show that...

  14. The Finitude of War or the Infinite War

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Muriel Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the difference between M. Foucault and Th. Hobbes regarding war as a principle and foundation of power, the article shows the importance of this conceptual difference for contemporary political analyses. Foucault argues that in modern Western societies, the political community and, more specifically, politics itself, has been the space of a war waged by other means. By extension, this thesis entails the inversion of von Clausewitz’s principle, namely, that war is the continuat...

  15. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Spagat, M; Johnson, N.; Restrepo, J; Bohórquez, J; Suárez, N.; Restrepo, E.; Zarama, R.

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1968-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80(9) 2 . Global terrrist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71(3) for G7 countries and 2.5(...

  16. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, N.; Spagat, M; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J.; Suarez, N; Restrepo, E.; Zarama, R.

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-...

  17. Vibrio cholerae non-serogroup O1 cystitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumler, J.S.; Osterhout, G J; Spangler, J G; Dick, J D

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who developed cystitis caused by non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae after swimming in the Chesapeake Bay. Treatment was empirical, with complete symptomatic resolution. Genitourinary tract infections by Vibrio spp. are uncommon but should be considered when cystitis occurs after saltwater exposure in appropriate geographic regions.

  18. Invariant recognition of polychromatic images of Vibrio cholerae 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Cristobal, Gabriel; Pech-Pacheco, Jose L.

    2002-04-01

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease. It has claimed many lives throughout history, and it continues to be a global health threat. Cholera is considered one of the most important emergence diseases due its relation with global climate changes. Automated methods such as optical systems represent a new trend to make more accurate measurements of the presence and quantity of this microorganism in its natural environment. Automatic systems eliminate observer bias and reduce the analysis time. We evaluate the utility of coherent optical systems with invariant correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1. Images of scenes are recorded with a CCD camera and decomposed in three RGB channels. A numeric simulation is developed to identify the bacteria in the different samples through an invariant correlation technique. There is no variation when we repeat the correlation and the variation between images correlation is minimum. The position-, scale-, and rotation-invariant recognition is made with a scale transform through the Mellin transform. The algorithm to recognize Vibrio cholerae O1 is the presence of correlation peaks in the green channel output and their absence in red and blue channels. The discrimination criterion is the presence of correlation peaks in red, green, and blue channels.

  19. Experimental study on administration of microeneapsulated vibrio cholera vaccine.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of biodegradable microspheres as a vaccine delivery system for V. cholera antigen. Methods: The outer membrane protein (OMP, 41KDa) was obtained from the strain Enaba 569B, and the OMP was encapsulated in the biodegrad-

  20. Biofilm recruitment of Vibrio cholerae by matrix proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperthuy, Marylise; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2015-11-01

    The appearance of bacterial biofilms involves secretion of polysaccharides and proteins that form an extracellular matrix embedding the bacteria. Proteases have also been observed, but their role has remained unclear. Smith and co-workers have now found that proteolysis can contribute to further recruitment of bacteria to Vibrio cholerae biofilms.

  1. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

  2. HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS: A cholera surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-02-22

    Bacterial pathogen-secreted proteases may play a key role in inhibiting a potentially widespread host-pathogen interaction. Activity-based protein profiling enabled the identification of a major Vibrio cholerae serine protease that limits the ability of a host-derived intestinal lectin to bind to the bacterial pathogen in vivo.

  3. Social and cultural determinants of oral cholera vaccine uptake in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M; Hutubessy, Raymond; Khatib, Ahmed M; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2012-09-01

    Effectiveness of mass cholera vaccination campaigns requires not only technical and financial capacity but also consideration of social and cultural factors affecting vaccine acceptance. This study examined the influence of local community views of cholera on oral cholera vaccine (OCV) uptake in a mass vaccination campaign in 2009 in peri-urban and rural areas of Zanzibar. It used data from interviews conducted before the campaign and followed previous research assessing determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance. OCV uptake was lower than the reported anticipated acceptance. Less than half of the 356 adult respondents (49.7%) drank the required two doses of OCV. Variables referring to socio-cultural features of diarrheal illness that respondents identified with a cholera case vignette explained uptake better than analysis only of socio-demographic characteristics. Somatic features of illness not specific for cholera were negative determinants. Recognition of unconsciousness as a serious sign of dehydration and concern that cholera outbreaks would overwhelm the local healthcare system in the rural area were positive determinants of acceptance. Female gender, rural residence and older age were also positive determinants of OCV uptake. For further vaccine action with OCVs, cholera as a cause of severe dehydration should be distinguished from other causes of diarrhea. Planning should acknowledge rural concern about the relationship of limited capacity of the healthcare system to cope with cholera outbreaks and the priority of a cholera vaccine. Findings recommend particular efforts to increase cholera immunization coverage among young adults, in peri-urban areas and for men. PMID:22894965

  4. Critique of the War Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    This paper is a summary of my 700 pages very academic thesis, in Danish, to be published at Aarhus University Press. A shorter booklet is published at AUP too (nov. 2014, 250 pages) and a number of shorter articles are published in English, French and German. In Luhmann’s systems theory......, and in social theory and sociology as well, there is a missing link in the lack of a sociology of war. A number of German systems theoreticians use Luhmann’s theory to fulfil that gap (Gertrud Brücher; Krysztof Matuszek; Rasmus Beckmann; Barbara Kuchler; Tobias Kohl; Klaus Dammann) Luhmann (born 1927), who...... as a conflict system – to be distinct from a military organisational system. This, I do initially with a reconceptualization of Carl von Clausewitz’ form analysis and self-description of war from Vom Kriege (1832). The central point, then, is to observe the self-reference of war, or how war became war about war...

  5. Physicists in times of war

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  6. 广东省2007年霍乱监测的病原特征分析%The etiologic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae in Guangdong province in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小玲; 李柏生; 谭海玲; 孙立梅; 柯碧霞; 柯昌文; 王多春; 阚飙; 钟豪杰

    2008-01-01

    analysis showed that the similarity among Inaba phage 1d strains from different areas were from 94.5% to 100%.However.16 isolates were collected from environment surveillance programs and the predominated biotype could not be found.Additionally,the biotype distribution of cases isolates was not consistent with those isolates through surveillance.High phylogenetic diversity was observed for the same biotypes isolates from cases and surveillance samples.Conclusion Our data showed that V.cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba phage 1d was the predominated biotype with multi-clone coexisting and circulating in Guangdong province in 2007.It also appeared to be the characteristics of cholera in the non-epidemic period,suggesting that it was necessary to enhance the alert surveillance programs for cholera epidemic based on the molecular typing techniques.

  7. New wars and permanent liminality

    OpenAIRE

    Szakolczai, Árpád

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an anthropological and historical background analysis of the new type of wars characteristic of our times. It will start from the point that ‘new wars’ are not a recent phenomena; rather, the modern world can be characterized by an entire series of puzzling ‘new type of wars’, moving backwards through the ‘Cold War’ and the two World Wars, up to the Napoleonic Wars, and probably even the civil and religious wars of the 16th century. This leads to a genuine inte...

  8. Book review: Women and wars

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvester, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In traditional historical and scholarly accounts of the making and fighting of wars, women are often nowhere to be seen. With few exceptions, war stories are told as if men were the only ones who plan, fight, are injured by, and negotiate ends to wars. As the pages of this book aim to tell, though, those accounts are far from complete. Christine Sylvester concludes that Women and Wars is a valuable collection for anyone interested in learning some of the ways feminist analysis is ...

  9. Fighting Cholera One-on-One: The Development and Efficacy of Multivalent Cholera-Toxin-Binding Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilhof, H.

    2016-01-01

    A series of diseases, ranging from cholera via travelers’ diarrhea to hamburger disease, are caused by bacterially produced toxic proteins. In particular, a toxic protein unit is brought into the host cell upon binding to specific membrane-bound oligosaccharides on the host cell membrane. For exampl

  10. Childhood leukaemia and ordnance factories in west Cumbria during the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Kinlen, L

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated that childhood leukaemia (CL) is a rare response to a common, but unidentified, infection and in particular that situations involving the unusual mixing of urban and rural groups (approximating to, respectively, groups infected with, and susceptible to, the relevant microorganism) can produce localised epidemics with consequent increases of the infrequent leukaemic complication. During the Second World War, explosives production factories were built and operated ...

  11. Competing activation mechanisms in epidemics on networks

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In stark contrast to previous common wisdom that epidemic activity and thresholds in heterogeneous networks are dominated by the elements with the largest number of connections (the hubs), recent research has pointed out the role of the most efficient spreaders, located at the innermost, dense core of the network, in sustaining epidemic processes. Here we show that the mechanism responsible of epidemic spreading depends on the dynamical pattern of the epidemic process. For epidemics with a transient state, activity is essentially boosted by the innermost core of the network. On the contrary, epidemics allowing a steady state present a dual scenario, where either the vertex with the largest connectivity independently sustains activity and propagates it to the rest of the system, or, alternatively, the innermost core of the network collectively turns into the active state, maintaining it on a global scale. Which one of these two mechanisms actually governs the dynamics depends on the network features. In uncorr...

  12. A Confused War

    OpenAIRE

    Waloff, Mariel Antonia; Waldholz, Rachel Mary

    2013-01-01

    A Confused War A film by Rachel Waldholz and Mariel Waloff Synopsis: You want to talk about the significant drop in crime? Talk to these young people. They control the flow. So if they’re the ones controlling the flow, let’s make sure they know that we care about them. The city, the community, we care about you. And the way we show you that we care about you is we’re willing to invest in you. – Kevin Muccular, Richmond Office of Neighborhood Safety ...

  13. Exception in Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  14. A Game of War

    OpenAIRE

    Lycett, Robert; Hales, Derek

    2015-01-01

    We will perform a version of the Game of War as authored by Alice Becker-Ho and Guy Debord, using a map and pieces designed and hand-made by artist Rob Lycett, using a game concept and ruleset originally developed in 1965 by Guy Debord (1931-1994) and as most recently published by Atlas Press in 2006. Debord was a film-maker, essayist and the founder of the Situationist International, a movement in which the ludic and the revolutionary were indivisible. Key concepts of Debord’s Game of Wa...

  15. War, Violence and Development

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Women's Feature Service looks at the increasing scale of violence against women globally with case studies from around the world and two focused studies on The Philippines and China. The authors look at the rising incidence of sexual and physical abuse within the family environment among men chosen to protect the law and order, issues of violence against women in war and armed conflict and how the rapid transformation in Chinese society and economy in the past 20 years has failed to addre...

  16. LEGO STAR WARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    去年有一款游戏以惊人的销量。让人们印象深刻,它就是《乐高星球大战》,经过一番传言过后,LucasArts终于发表了《乐高星球大战》的续作《乐高星球大战2:首部曲》(Lego Star Wars Ⅱ:The Original Trilog),而且登陆的平台还包括了任天堂的DS和GBA主机。

  17. Online war memorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Stage, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish,...... generation’ inevitably implies. Assembling different kinds of memorials that represent different positions of authority and power in the same analysis, I argue, provides a unique insight into how Denmark’s recent military adventures are ascribed meaning, contested, and negotiated....

  18. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E; Zarama, R

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-G7 countries. Here we analyze two ongoing, high-profile wars on opposite sides of the globe - Colombia and Iraq. Our analysis uses our own unique dataset for killings and injuries in Colombia, plus publicly available data for civilians killed in Iraq. We show strong evidence for power-law behavior within each war. Despite substantial differences in contexts and data coverage, the power-law coefficients for both wars are tending toward 2.5, which is a value characteristic of non-G7 terrorism as opposed to old wars. We prop...

  19. Optimal control of epidemics in metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Rowthorn, Robert E.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how best to deploy scarce resources for disease control when epidemics occur in different but interconnected regions. We use a combination of optimal control methods and epidemiological theory for metapopulations to address this problem. We consider what strategy should be used if the objective is to minimize the discounted number of infected individuals during the course of an epidemic. We show, for a system with two interconnected regions and an epidemic in which infec...

  20. Peru-15, an improved live attenuated oral vaccine candidate for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, J R; Coster, T S; Taylor, D N; Trofa, A F; Barrera-Oro, M; Hyman, T; Adams, J M; Beattie, D T; Killeen, K P; Spriggs, D R

    1995-10-01

    Cholera vaccine candidate Peru-15 was derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by deleting the cholera toxin genetic element, introducing the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit into recA, and screening for nonmotility. In a controlled study, Peru-15 (2 x 10(8) cfu) was administered to 11 volunteers. No vaccinee developed diarrhea, and 10 of 11 had > 4-fold rises in vibriocidal antibody titers. One month later, 5 vaccinees and 5 control volunteers were challenged with wild type V. cholerae O1. Four of 5 controls developed diarrhea (mean, 1.9 L). Two Peru-15 vaccinees developed diarrhea, 1 with volunteer had not developed a significant vibriocidal immune response to vaccination. Peru-15 shows promise as a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine that is safe, immunogenic, and protective.

  1. The Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system employs diverse effector modules for intraspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, Daniel; Miyata, Sarah T; Bachmann, Verena; Brooks, Teresa M; Mullins, Travis; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Provenzano, Daniele; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that consists of over 200 serogroups with differing pathogenic potential. Only strains that express the virulence factors cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) are capable of pandemic spread of cholera diarrhoea. Regardless, all V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbour genes for the type VI secretion system (T6SS) that translocates effectors into neighbouring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Here we report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighbouring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. As a consequence, strains with matching effector-immunity gene sets can coexist, while strains with different sets compete against each other. Thus, the V. cholerae T6SS contributes to the competitive behaviour of this species.

  2. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  3. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  4. SIS epidemic propagation on hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bodó, Ágnes; Simon, Péter L

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of epidemic propagation on networks is extended to hypergraphs in order to account for both the community structure and the nonlinear dependence of the infection pressure on the number of infected neighbours. The exact master equations of the propagation process are derived for an arbitrary hypergraph given by its incidence matrix. Based on these, moment closure approximation and mean-?eld models are introduced and compared to individual-based stochastic simulations. The simulation algorithm, developed for networks, is extended to hypergraphs. The e?ects of hypergraph structure and the model parameters are investigated via individual-based simulation results.

  5. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Medication Facts Prevention Treatment & Recovery Overdose Response Health Professionals Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ...

  6. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2014-07-24

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  7. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemol...

  8. Coagglutination of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio vulnificus with anti-flagellar monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Simonson, J G; Siebeling, R J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with serological activity for purified flagellar (H) core protein prepared from Vibrio cholerae were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Four of these MAbs reacted with the flagella of V. cholerae and V. mimicus exclusively, while eight MAbs reacted with at least 1 of 30 heterologous Vibrio species tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or coagglutination. It appears that V. cholerae and V. mimicus express similar, if not identical, H determinant...

  9. Immunochemical Properties of the Major Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    1983-01-01

    Antisera to the major outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae (molecular weight, 48,000) raised in rabbits (i) agglutinated several strains of V. cholerae and (ii) immunoprecipitated outer membrane proteins prepared from both the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae. Antibodies of all isotypes to the major outer membrane protein were detected in immune human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that the major outer membrane protein was the common outer membrane ...

  10. Purification and characterization of pili of a Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashiro, T.; Nakasone, N; Iwanaga, M

    1993-01-01

    Pili of the Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strain V10 were purified and characterized. The V10 pili were physicochemically and immunologically different from those of the previously reported V. cholerae non-O1 strain S7, although the pili of the two strains had homologous N-terminal amino acid sequences. V10 plus antigen was detected only in V. cholerae non-O1 strains.

  11. The Polar Flagellar Motor of Vibrio cholerae Is Driven by an Na+ Motive Force

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Seiji; Yamamoto, Koichiro; Kawagishi, Ikuro; Homma, Michio

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We e...

  12. Vibrio cholerae expresses iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sciortino, C V; Finkelstein, R A

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, of the outer membrane proteins of four strains of Vibrio cholerae grown in vivo in infant rabbits and in vitro in low-iron and iron-supplemented defined media. In vivo-grown V. cholerae expressed novel outer membrane-associated proteins which, in part, were similar to those observed on V. cholerae grown in vitro under conditions of iron deprivation.

  13. Diagnosing Cholera in The Young: A Review of W.H.O. Criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Gupta, Urmila Jhamb, Beena Uppal, Anita Chakraverti, S.K. Mittal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to study the occurrence of cholera in young children with a view to define theclinical criteria of diagnosis and endemicity of cholera in Delhi and to compare its clinical profile withrotavirus diarrhea. Hundred children below 3 years of age admitted with acute watery diarrhea wererecruited. The severity of diarrhea and degree of dehydration were noted. Stool specimens collected fromall cases were subjected to bacterial culture for identification of Vibrio cholerae and rotavirus detectionby ELISA and PAGE techniques. Both Vibrio cholerae and rotavirus were detected in 5, Vibrio choleraealone in 13 and rotavirus alone in 18 cases. Sixty-one percent cases of cholera occurred in children belowtwo years. Rice watery stools were seen only in 28% (5/18 cases of cholera. Three (3/13 cases withcholera alone and 6/18 with rotavirus alone had mild diarrhea. Moderate diarrhea occurred in 3/5 caseswith both pathogens, 6/13 with cholera alone and 7/18 with rotavirus alone. Severe diarrhea occurred in3/5 cases with both pathogens, 4/13 with cholera alone, and 5/18 cases with rotavirus alone. Milddehydration occurred in 3/5 and severe dehydration in 2/5 children with both pathogens. Only 3/13 childrenwith cholera alone and one child with rotavirus alone were severely dehydrated. It is concluded thatconsidering the diagnosis of cholera solely on clinical grounds and overlap between the clinical spectrumof cholera and rotavirus diarrhea would result in missing many cholera cases in a non-endemic area likeDelhi.

  14. The population structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz Abd El Ghany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA identified 16 distinct clusters.The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  15. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  16. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  17. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Dijk

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  18. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  19. Survival and proliferation of the lysogenic bacteriophage CTXΦ in Vibrio cholerae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenxia; Fan; Biao; Kan

    2015-01-01

    The lysogenic phage CTXΦ of Vibrio cholerae can transfer the cholera toxin gene both horizontally(inter-strain) and vertically(cell proliferation). Due to its diversity in form and species, the complexity of regulatory mechanisms, and the important role of the infection mechanism in the production of new virulent strains of V.cholerae, the study of the lysogenic phage CTXΦ has attracted much attention. Based on the progress of current research, the genomic features and their arrangement, the host-dependent regulatory mechanisms of CTXΦ phage survival, proliferation and propagation were reviewed to further understand the phage’s role in the evolutionary and epidemiological mechanisms of V. cholerae.

  20. Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia in a cirrhotic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Petsaris, O.; Nousbaum, J B; Quilici, M L; Le Coadou, G; PAYAN, C; Abalain, M L

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 or O139 are the aetiological agents of cholera. The pathogenicity of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae is less well known. These worldwide bacteria are responsible for gastrointestinal infections or, more rarely, bacteraemia in patients with an underlying disease, leading to life-threatening complications. We report a case of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae bacteraemia due to a haemolytic strain in a cirrhotic patient. Early antibiotherapy allowed a good outcome. The aim...

  1. 泉州地区1962-2010年霍乱弧菌菌型变迁及耐药性研究%Study on variance and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae strains in Quanzhou during 1962-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋平; 苏培聪; 杨德林; 张庆虎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemic isolates and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholera in Quanzhou,and provide the references for prevention and control of cholera. Methods Retrospective analysis was adopted based on the epidemiologjcal data on cholera in Quanzhou during 1962-2010.The antibiotic susceptibility of all the strains to antibacterials was determined by improve K-B method recommended by WHO. Results There were four cholera disease outbreaks occurred in Quanzhou city during 1962-2010. The dominant serotype that caused epidemics showed vicissitudinous phenomenon. Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa and Inaba were sensitive to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin with a susceptibility of 92.31% and 99.20% , respectively .The resistance to sulphanilamide was increased year by year and the resistances to other antibiotics were high. The drug resistance of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains was higher than that of Vibrio cholerae 01. Conclusions The dominant biotype of Vibrio cholerae was El Tor in Quanzhou city.Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa and Inaba that caused epidemics showed vicissitudinous phenomenon. The antibiotics sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae was gradually declining.%目的 了解泉州地区历年霍乱菌型变迁及药物耐药性,为霍乱防治工作提供参考.方法 对泉州地区1962-2010年霍乱流行疫情资料进行回顾性分析;采用WHO推荐的改良K-B纸片法,对部分菌株进行抗菌药物的药敏试验.结果 1962-2010年,泉州共发生4次较大规模的霍乱流行,流行菌型由O1小川型与O1稻叶型交替进行.大多数霍乱弧菌对诺氟沙星和环丙沙星敏感,敏感率分别为92.31%和99.20%;磺胺类药物敏感性逐年降低,对其它抗菌药耐药;O139群霍乱弧菌的耐药性明显高于O1群霍乱弧菌,不同年份的菌株耐药的程度不一致.结论 泉州地区霍乱流行优势菌型为O1群霍乱弧菌,由小川型与稻叶型交替进行;霍乱弧菌对抗菌药物的敏感性逐渐下降.

  2. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  3. Mathematical analysis of a cholera model with public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwasa, A; Tchuenche, J M

    2011-09-01

    Cholera, an acute gastro-intestinal infection and a waterborne disease continues to emerge in developing countries and remains an important global health challenge. We formulate a mathematical model that captures some essential dynamics of cholera transmission to study the impact of public health educational campaigns, vaccination and treatment as control strategies in curtailing the disease. The education-induced, vaccination-induced and treatment-induced reproductive numbers R(E), R(V), R(T) respectively and the combined reproductive number R(C) are compared with the basic reproduction number R(0) to assess the possible community benefits of these control measures. A Lyapunov functional approach is also used to analyse the stability of the equilibrium points. We perform sensitivity analysis on the key parameters that drive the disease dynamics in order to determine their relative importance to disease transmission and prevalence. Graphical representations are provided to qualitatively support the analytical results.

  4. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti, Asia, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Aleisha R; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.

  5. Genomics of immune response to typhoid and cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Partha P

    2015-06-19

    Considerable variation in antibody response (AR) was observed among recipients of an injectable typhoid vaccine and an oral cholera vaccine. We sought to find whether polymorphisms in genes of the immune system, both innate and adaptive, were associated with the observed variation in response. For both vaccines, we were able to discover and validate several polymorphisms that were significantly associated with immune response. For the typhoid vaccines, these polymorphisms were on genes that belonged to pathways of polysaccharide recognition, signal transduction, inhibition of T-cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory signalling and eventual production of antimicrobial peptides. For the cholera vaccine, the pathways included epithelial barrier integrity, intestinal homeostasis and leucocyte recruitment. Even though traditional wisdom indicates that both vaccines should act as T-cell-independent antigens, our findings reveal that the vaccines induce AR using different pathways.

  6. The Finitude of War or the Infinite War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Muriel Restrepo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the difference between M. Foucault and Th. Hobbes regarding war as a principle and foundation of power, the article shows the importance of this conceptual difference for contemporary political analyses. Foucault argues that in modern Western societies, the political community and, more specifically, politics itself, has been the space of a war waged by other means. By extension, this thesis entails the inversion of von Clausewitz’s principle, namely, that war is the continuation of politics by other means.

  7. Epidemic corruption: a bio-economic homology

    OpenAIRE

    Hathroubi, Salem

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study corruption as an epidemic phenomenon using the epidemic diffusion model of Kermack and Mc-Kendrick (1927). We seek to determine the dynamics of corruption and its impact on the composition of the population at a given time. We determine a threshold epidemiological corruption based on the approximation of the honest population.

  8. Epidemics in interconnected small-world networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Li, D.; Qin, P.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Networks can be used to describe the interconnections among individuals, which play an important role in the spread of disease. Although the small-world effect has been found to have a significant impact on epidemics in single networks, the small-world effect on epidemics in interconnected networks

  9. Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti

    OpenAIRE

    Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno; Bogreau, H.; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Kamil, Mohamed-Ali; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before, during, and after a 1999 malaria epidemic in Djibouti shows that, despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in drug resistance of local parasite populations.

  10. Cólera e condições de vida da população Cholera and living conditions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Gerolomo

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fatores relacionados às condições de vida da população e condições ambientais precárias são freqüentemente citados como os maiores obstáculos para o controle de surtos e epidemias por cólera. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o peso de fatores referentes às condições de vida da população, relacionando questões ambientais com a instalação e o impacto da cólera. MÉTODO: Através de uma regressão linear múltipla, pelo método "backward stepwise", com influência do investigador, foram correlacionados os indicadores socioeconômicos com as taxas de incidência por cólera observadas nos municípios do Estado de Pernambuco, no ano de 1992. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: O modelo ajustado indica que a proporção de domicílios que utilizam água não proveniente de uma rede geral é a variável que tem maior peso na flutuação positiva das taxas de incidência de cólera. As variáveis "proporção de domicílios não ligados à rede geral de esgotos" e "proporção de chefes de família com renda igual ou menor do que um salário-mínimo mensal" também se associam positivamente, com coeficientes de regressão estatisticamente significativos, às taxas de incidência de cólera. A proporção de domicílios sem nenhuma instalação sanitária, por outro lado, se associa negativamente às taxas de incidência de cólera, sugerindo que instalações sanitárias, sem existência de rede de esgoto, aumentam o risco de contaminação ambiental. Os resultados apontam que a maior prioridade em saneamento é a oferta de água de boa qualidade.INTRODUCTION: Factors associated with precarious living and environmental conditions are frequently cited as major obstacles for the control of cholera outbreaks and epidemics. The purposes of the study are to evaluate the contribution of factors associated with the population living conditions and correlate the environmental problems with the onset of cholera

  11. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA)

  12. Mali: Visions of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marchal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Political elites in Bamako articulate different understandings of the war in northern Mali, though share the same view on the restoration of Malian sovereignty. Those visions are deeply rooted in an assessment of the past failed peace agreements with Tuareg groups, a focus on social and ethnic differentiations that emphasize the role of Kidal and the will to avoid major reforms in dealing with key issues such as the efficiency of the political system, the role of Islam in the Malian polity and the complicated relations between Bamako and its neighbours. The status of AQIM in the current crisis, contrary to the international narrative, is downplayed while other armed groups, in particular the MNLA, are seen as the real, and, often, only threat.

  13. War: Origins and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Piepers, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a cr...

  14. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be mad...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars.......In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...

  15. Water and wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  16. [The experiments conducted by Japanese on human guinea pigs, and the use of biological weapons during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    microorganisms (including Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae, Richettsia typhi, and Salmonella typhi), and spores of Bacillus anthracis. With regard to infectious diseases, the objective was to establish the most effective models for the use of biological weapons, taking into consideration the features of territories and populations to be placed under attack. It has been estimated that over 100,000 people suffered in such experiments, and according to the authors who studied these facts on the basis of original documentation, approximately 540,000 subjects lost their lives in China and Korea due to epidemics caused by the Japanese between 1937 and 1945. PMID:25269971

  17. [The experiments conducted by Japanese on human guinea pigs, and the use of biological weapons during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    microorganisms (including Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae, Richettsia typhi, and Salmonella typhi), and spores of Bacillus anthracis. With regard to infectious diseases, the objective was to establish the most effective models for the use of biological weapons, taking into consideration the features of territories and populations to be placed under attack. It has been estimated that over 100,000 people suffered in such experiments, and according to the authors who studied these facts on the basis of original documentation, approximately 540,000 subjects lost their lives in China and Korea due to epidemics caused by the Japanese between 1937 and 1945.

  18. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindito Sen; Ranjan K Nandi; Amar N Ghosh

    2005-09-01

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of the sodium ions in the medium and then plateaus. The range within which the swimming speed attains saturation is approximately the same at different temperatures.

  19. RpoS controls the Vibrio cholerae mucosal escape response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Toftgaard Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the "mucosal escape response," this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.

  20. Cholera-Like Enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Kohli; John Holton; John D. Clements; Cyrille Di Martino; Fatou Thiam; Christelle Basset

    2010-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) and the heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LT), as well as their non toxic mutants, are potent mucosal adjuvants of immunization eliciting mucosal and systemic responses against unrelated co-administered antigens in experimental models and in humans (non toxic mutants). These enterotoxins are composed of two subunits, the A subunit, responsible for an ADP-ribosyl transferase activity and the B subunit, responsible for cell binding. Paradoxically, whereas the whole toxins h...

  1. Modeling and simulation of epidemic spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatnawi, Maad; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Zaki, Nazar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics have disturbed human lives for centuries causing massive numbers of deaths and illnesses among people and animals. As the number of urbanized and mobile population has increased, the possibility of a worldwide pandemic has grown too. The latest advances in high-performance computing...... and computational network science can help computational epidemiologists to develop large-scale high-fidelity models of epidemic spread. These models can help to characterize the large-scale patterns of epidemics and guide public health officials and policy makers in taking appropriate decisions to prevent...... and control such epidemics. This paper presents an overview of the epidemic spread modeling and simulation, and summarizes the main technical challenges in this field. It further investigates the most relevant recent approaches carried out towards this perspective and provides a comparison and classification...

  2. Inferring epidemic contact structure from phylogenetic trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Leventhal

    Full Text Available Contact structure is believed to have a large impact on epidemic spreading and consequently using networks to model such contact structure continues to gain interest in epidemiology. However, detailed knowledge of the exact contact structure underlying real epidemics is limited. Here we address the question whether the structure of the contact network leaves a detectable genetic fingerprint in the pathogen population. To this end we compare phylogenies generated by disease outbreaks in simulated populations with different types of contact networks. We find that the shape of these phylogenies strongly depends on contact structure. In particular, measures of tree imbalance allow us to quantify to what extent the contact structure underlying an epidemic deviates from a null model contact network and illustrate this in the case of random mixing. Using a phylogeny from the Swiss HIV epidemic, we show that this epidemic has a significantly more unbalanced tree than would be expected from random mixing.

  3. Epidemic centrality and the underestimated epidemic impact on network peripheral nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Sikic, Mile; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2011-01-01

    Studies of disease spreading on complex networks have provided a deep insight into the conditions of onset, dynamics and prevention of epidemics in human populations and malicious software propagation in computer networks. Identifying nodes which, when initially infected, infect the largest part of the network and ranking them according to their epidemic impact is a priority for public health policies. In simulations of the disease spreading in SIR model on studied empirical complex networks, it is shown that the ranking depends on the dynamical regime of the disease spreading. A possible mechanism leading to this dynamical dependence is illustrated in an analytically tractable example. A measure called epidemic centrality, averaging the epidemic impact over all possible disease spreading regimes, is introduced as a basis of epidemic ranking. Contrary to standard notion, the epidemic centrality of nodes with high degree, k-cores value or betweenness, which are structurally central, is comparable to epidemic c...

  4. Epidemic Survivability: Characterizing Networks Under Epidemic-like Failure Propagation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzano, Marc; Calle, Eusebi; Ripoll, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics theory has been used in different contexts in order to describe the propagation of diseases, human interactions or natural phenomena. In computer science, virus spreading has been also characterized using epidemic models. Although in the past the use of epidemic models...... in telecommunication networks has not been extensively considered, nowadays, with the increasing computation capacity and complexity of operating systems of modern network devices (routers, switches, etc.), the study of possible epidemic-like failure scenarios must be taken into account. When epidemics occur......, such as in other multiple failure scenarios, identifying the level of vulnerability offered by a network is one of the main challenges. In this paper, we present epidemic survivability, a new network measure that describes the vulnerability of each node of a network under a specific epidemic intensity. Moreover...

  5. Immunization of Mice With Vibrio cholerae Outer-Membrane Vesicles Protects Against Hyperinfectious Challenge and Blocks Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Anne L.; Tarique, Abdullah A.; Patimalla, Bharathi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background. Vibrio cholerae excreted by cholera patients is “hyperinfectious” (HI), which can be modeled by passage through infant mice. Immunization of adult female mice with V. cholerae outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) passively protects suckling mice from challenge. Although V. cholerae is unable to colonize protected pups, the bacteria survive passage and have the potential to be transmitted to susceptible individuals. Here, we investigated the impact of OMV immunization and the HI state on...

  6. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  7. Seasonality of cholera from 1974 to 2005: a review of global patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldacker Caryl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality of cholera is described in various study areas throughout the world. However, no study examines how temporal cycles of the disease vary around the world or reviews its hypothesized causes. This paper reviews the literature on the seasonality of cholera and describes its temporal cycles by compiling and analyzing 32 years of global cholera data. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on regional patterns and environmental and climatic drivers of cholera patterns. Data, Methods, and Results Cholera data are compiled from 1974 to 2005 from the World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiological Reports, a database that includes all reported cholera cases in 140 countries. The data are analyzed to measure whether season, latitude, and their interaction are significantly associated with the country-level number of outbreaks in each of the 12 preceding months using separate negative binomial regression models for northern, southern, and combined hemispheres. Likelihood ratios tests are used to determine the model of best fit. The results suggest that cholera outbreaks demonstrate seasonal patterns in higher absolute latitudes, but closer to the equator, cholera outbreaks do not follow a clear seasonal pattern. Conclusion The findings suggest that environmental and climatic factors partially control the temporal variability of cholera. These results also indirectly contribute to the growing debate about the effects of climate change and global warming. As climate change threatens to increase global temperature, resulting rises in sea levels and temperatures may influence the temporal fluctuations of cholera, potentially increasing the frequency and duration of cholera outbreaks.

  8. CHANGING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND OF CHOLERA IN WEST BENGAL: THE GIANT IS BACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Choler a is a devastating diarrheal disease caused by V. cholera. Two biotypes of V. cholerae O1, classical and El - Tor, are distinguished. Each biotype is further subdivided into two serotypes, termed Inaba and Ogawa. As large deltaic areas of the Ganges and Brah maputra rivers are considered to be the homeland of cholera, objective of our study was to detect the circulating strain of Vibrio causing Cholera outbreaks in different pockets of West Bengal. Water samples collected from the water sources of the affected areas and stool samples and or rectal swabs of suspected cases were tested according to standard bacteriological protocol. In July 2008, Cholera outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholera e O1 El - Tor Inaba serotype in Darjeeling district affecting 176 persons. Mean age of the affected people was 15years. Thereafter in the June, 2010, there was an outbreak of Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa affecting 87 people in Maldah. Mean age of the cases was 25years. Similar type of Vibrio cholerae O1 El - Tor Ogawa strain was is olated in the outbreak of June to September 2012 in Maldah with lower mean age of cases i.e.7years. A total of 93 patients suffered from Cholera during this outbreak. Cholera outbreak in West Bengal was caused by classical Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa serotype affecting 803 people in North 24 Paragana in October, 2013. Mean age of the patients was 31year. As classical Vibrio causes more severe disease than El - Tor, its reemergence with multidrug resistant properties is no doubt an upcoming threat

  9. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N

    2015-01-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric co-infection model for spreading of two diseases on a 2-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loop-less. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability to get infected by the other. Using generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called co-infected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally we compare the co-infected clusters in the case of co-operating diseases with the so-called viable clusters in networks with dependencies.

  10. Inhomogeneous epidemics on weighted networks

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A social (sexual) network is modeled by an extension of the configuration model to the situation where edges have weights, e.g. reflecting the number of sex-contacts between the individuals. An epidemic model is defined on the network such that individuals are heterogeneous in terms of how susceptible and infectious they are. The basic reproduction number R_0 is derived and studied for various examples, but also the size and probability of a major outbreak. The qualitative conclusion is that R_0 gets larger as the community becomes more heterogeneous but that different heterogeneities (degree distribution, weight, susceptibility and infectivity) can sometimes have the cumulative effect of homogenizing the community, thus making $R_0$ smaller. The effect on the probability and final size of an outbreak is more complicated.

  11. Food allergy: an enigmatic epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-08-01

    Food allergy is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Current research efforts are focused on understanding the immune basis of food allergy, identifying environmental factors that may contribute to its rising prevalence, and developing immunotherapeutic approaches to establish immune tolerance to foods. Technological advances such as peptide microarray and MHC class II tetramers have begun to provide a comprehensive profile of the immune response to foods. The burgeoning field of mucosal immunology has provided intriguing clues to the role of the diet and the microbiota as risk factors in the development of food allergy. The purpose of this review is to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge that need answers to stem the progression of this disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. PMID:23648309

  12. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Thiboutot

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes fever disease, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, and arthralgia. Indigenous to tropical Africa, recent large outbreaks have been reported in parts of South East Asia and several of its neighboring islands in 2005-07 and in Europe in 2007. Furthermore, positive cases have been confirmed in the United States in travelers returning from known outbreak areas. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment. With the threat of an emerging global pandemic, the peculiar problems associated with the more immediate and seasonal epidemics warrant the development of an effective vaccine. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting these concepts.

  13. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  14. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  15. Just war and the problem of evil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schott, Robin May

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous...

  16. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  17. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  18. [Nursing figures in the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    The three Red Cross associations worked hard in France before the First World War to prepare nurses to serve during a war. When war broke out, these nurses stepped up to the plate. They supported every phase of the war and demonstrated their high levels of creativity to overcome the difficult conditions related to the fighting.

  19. War and Peace: Toys, Teachers, and Tots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Arleen; And Others

    War play is play with a toy that initiates violence or play that involves the imitation of war. War play can involve: (1) the use of toys based on television cartoon shows to imitate the action in the cartoons; (2) play with replicas of war paraphernalia or manipulatives shaped into guns; and (3) dramatic play. The negative effects on children…

  20. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  1. Toxin(s), Other Than Cholera Toxin, Produced by Environmental Non O1 Non O139 Vibrio cholerae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kohinur Begum; Chowdhury R. Ahsan; Mohammad Ansaruzzaman; Dilip K. Dutta; Qazi S.Ahmad; Kaisar A. Talukder

    2006-01-01

    A total of 39 Vibrio cholerae non O1 non O139 strains were isolated from surface waters of different parts of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. All these strains showed lack of ctx or zot gene, as demonstrated by the PCR analysis.Eighteen representative strains were tested for enterotoxin production using a rabbit ileal loop model, of which live cells of 8 strains and culture filtrates of 6 strains produced fluid accumulation in ileal loops. However, none of them produced heat stable toxin (ST), as detected by suckling mouse assay. On the other hand, 15% of isolates produced cytotoxin as detected by the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell assay. Fifty times concentrated culture filtrates of the representative strains did not give any precipitin band against the anti-cholera toxin, suggesting the strains produced an enterotoxin, which is antigenically different from known cholera toxin (CT). Eighty percent of the total isolates were found to be positive for heat labile haemolysin detected by tube method, whereas, 39% were found positive by the Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP) method. However, 87% of the isolates were positive for haemagglutinin/protease and all of the strains were positive for mannose-sensitive-haemagglutinin assay.

  2. A study on the pathogenic characteristics and traceability of Vibrio cholera strains circulated in Hubei province in 2012%2012年湖北省霍乱的病原学研究及溯源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 杨红梅; 程均福; 吕静; 刘公平; 李国明

    2013-01-01

      目的分析2012年湖北省霍乱流行的病原学特征,应用脉冲场凝胶电泳分析各疫情菌株之间的遗传相关性,查找霍乱传染来源,为制定防治措施提供依据。方法对35株霍乱弧菌菌株进行常规生化鉴定和毒素基因检验,以及药敏试验,采用脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)技术获得电泳酶切指纹图谱并对图谱进行聚类分析。结果35株霍乱弧菌经检验均为霍乱 O139群,产毒株占71.42%,霍乱弧菌耐药结果显示四环素、复方新诺明、利福平耐药率分别为57.14%、88.57%、80.00%。 PFGE电泳图谱条带总相似率为80%~100%,具有一定的同源性。三起疫情中相同地区的大部分菌株都聚为一类,同源性为100%,提示为相同菌株感染所致;仅来源于荆州地区甲鱼中分离的菌株单独为一类与其他菌株不同。结论2012年湖北省霍乱弧菌的优势菌株为O139群,大部分产毒。药敏结果显示,菌株对四环素、复方新诺明、利福平大部分耐药;对亚胺培南、头孢曲松高度敏感;疫情中相同地区的大部分菌株聚为一类属于同一来源,不同地区的菌株有一定的变异,几起疫情暴发均与聚餐有关,所以注意食物卫生,从甲鱼中分离的菌株不产毒,提示甲鱼可能并不是疫情的主要毒株来源,应密切关注海、水产品的监测情况。%Objective To investigate the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholera strains isola-ted from Hubei province in 2012 , and to identify the source of infection by analyzing their genetic correla-tions.Methods The biochemical identification , toxin gene detection and drug susceptibility test were car-ried out to analyze a total of 35 Vibrio cholera strains isolated from three epidemic areas .Comparison of ge-nomic DNA fingerprints and cluster analysis among isolates of Vibrio cholera was conducted by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE

  3. Cholera in Papua New Guinea and the importance of safe water sources and sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Greenhill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea (PNG has resulted in a large number of illnesses with a relatively high case fatality ratio (3.2%. Access to adequate sanitation and safe water is very low in PNG and has undoubtedly contributed to the spread of cholera within the country.

  4. Mapping of a gene that regulates hemolysin production in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    von Mechow, S; Vaidya, A B; Bramucci, M G

    1985-01-01

    A gene that regulates the hemolysin structural gene (hly) was found to be tightly linked to the tox-1000 locus of Vibrio cholerae RJ1 and separated from hly by a large section of the V. cholerae genetic map. This hemolysin regulatory gene was designated hlyR.

  5. Vibrio cholerae tolC Is Required for Bile Resistance and Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Bina, James E.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2001-01-01

    TolC and its homologues are outer membrane proteins that are essential for the transport of many molecules across the cell envelope. In this study we characterized the gene encoding Vibrio cholerae TolC. V. cholerae tolC mutants failed to secrete the RTX cytotoxin, were hypersensitive to antimicrobial agents, and were deficient in intestinal colonization.

  6. Use of vaginal tampons in sewer surveys for non-O1. Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Pazzaglia, G; Lesmana, M; Tjaniadi, P; Subekti, D; Kay, B.

    1993-01-01

    Vaginal tampons were shown to be a practical alternative to conventional Moore swabs for isolating Vibrio cholerae from sewage. Associated laboratory investigations demonstrated improved isolation of V. cholerae by using 12- or 18-h enrichments in alkaline peptone water, in comparison with 6-h enrichments, when cultures were incubated at ambient temperatures.

  7. Molecular Analysis and Toxigenic Potential of Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Hilsha fish (Tenualosa ilisha), Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella;

    Exposure to contaminated fish may upsurge the virulent strains of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly human pathogen in the households of rural and urban Bangladesh. Since V. cholerae spreading was reported from the Bay of Bengal, this study hypothesized that Hilsha (Tenualosa ilisha), a marine and fresh...

  8. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.;

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products, ...

  9. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the cause of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, has its genome divided between two chromosomes, a feature uncommon for bacteria. The two chromosomes are of different sizes and different initiator molecules control their replication independently. Using novel methods...

  10. Small RNA target genes and regulatory connections in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Brian K; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2011-01-01

    The two-component quorum sensing (QS) system, first described in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and evolutionarily conserved among members of the genus Vibrio, has been best studied in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae (1, 2). In the V. cholerae QS system, the response to the accumulation...

  11. Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae abundance in Austrian saline lakes, assessed with quantitative solid-phase cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Sonja; Jakwerth, Stefan; Bliem, Rupert; Baudart, Julia; Lebaron, Philippe; Huhulescu, Steliana; Kundi, Michael; Herzig, Alois; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    In order to elucidate the main predictors of Vibrio cholerae dynamics and to estimate the risk of Vibrio cholera-related diseases, a recently developed direct detection approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and solid-phase cytometry (CARD-FISH/SPC) was applied in comparison to cultivation for water samples from the lake Neusiedler See, Austria and three shallow alkaline lakes over a period of 20 months. Vibrio cholerae attached to crustacean zooplankton was quantified via FISH and epifluorescence microscopy. Concentrations obtained by CARD-FISH/SPC were significantly higher than those obtained by culture in 2011, but were mostly of similar magnitude in 2012. Maximum cell numbers were 1.26 × 10(6) V. cholerae per L in Neusiedler See and 7.59 × 10(7) V. cholerae per L in the shallow alkaline lakes. Only on a few occasions during summer was the crustacean zooplankton the preferred habitat for V. cholerae. In winter, V. cholerae was not culturable but could be quantified at all sites with CARD-FISH/SPC. Beside temperature, suspended solids, zooplankton and ammonium were the main predictors of V. cholerae abundance in Neusiedler See, while in the shallow alkaline lakes it was organic carbon, conductivity and phosphorus. Based on the obtained concentrations a first estimation of the health risk for visitors of the lake could be performed.

  12. Production of Antibody Raised Against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS of Vibrio Cholerae Non-O1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shirzad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera, an infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is primarily transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water. In severe cases, cholera may lead to severe dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and ultimately, hypovolemic shock and death. Methods: In this study V.cholerae non-O1 was cultured in suitable media. LPS was extracted from the surface of  bacteria by hot phenol-water method and then purified by high-speed centrifugation. For production of specific antibody against LPS, white newzeland rabbits were first immunized by whole cell bacteria and then immunized with highly purified LPS. The titre of the antiserum was determined by ELISA for each serogroup. Results: Results presented in this study indicate that serum anti-LPS antibodies raised against purified LPS of V.cholerae non-O1 can detect V.cholerae non-O1 .Conclusion: This antibody had low cross reactivity with V.cholerae O1, serotype Inaba or Ogawa. So, this antibody can be used for for detection of V. cholerae non-O1.

  13. Comparative and genetic analyses of the putative Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharide biosynthesis (wav) gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesper, Jutta; Kraiss, Anita; Schild, Stefan; Blass, Julia; Klose, Karl E; Bockemühl, Jochen; Reidl, Joachim

    2002-05-01

    We identified five different putative wav gene cluster types, which are responsible for the synthesis of the core oligosaccharide (OS) region of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide. Preliminary evidence that the genes encoded by this cluster are involved in core OS biosynthesis came from analysis of the recently released O1 El Tor V. cholerae genome sequence and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of O1 El Tor mutant strains defective in three genes (waaF, waaL, and wavB). Investigations of 38 different V. cholerae strains by Southern blotting, PCR, and sequencing analyses showed that the O1 El Tor wav gene cluster type is prevalent among clinical isolates of different serogroups associated with cholera and environmental O1 strains. In contrast, we found differences in the wav gene contents of 19 unrelated non-O1, non-O139 environmental and human isolates not associated with cholera. These strains contained four new wav gene cluster types that differ from each other in distinct gene loci, providing evidence for horizontal transfer of wav genes and for limited structural diversity of the core OS among V. cholerae isolates. Our results show genetic diversity in the core OS biosynthesis gene cluster and predominance of the type 1 wav gene locus in strains associated with clinical cholera, suggesting that a specific core OS structure could contribute to V. cholerae virulence.

  14. Household-level spatiotemporal patterns of incidence of cholera, Haiti, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Diamond, Ulrica; Kracalik, Ian T; Widmer, Jocelyn; Brown, Will; Morrissey, B David; Alexander, Kathleen A; Curtis, Andrew J; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-09-01

    A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to understand disease spread and optimize interventions.

  15. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera.

  16. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera. PMID:26464184

  17. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  18. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Demirtas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  19. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  20. Nationalism, War and Social Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Malesevic, Sinisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most studies of nationalism and war focus on the direct causal relationship between the two. Whereas the naturalist theories see strong national attachments as a primary cause of war, the formativist approaches understand nationalism as an inevitable product of warfare. This paper challenges both of these leading interpretations by problematizing the nature of group solidarity in the large scale violent conflicts. The author develops an alternative argument that emphasises...