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Sample records for cholangiocarcinoma cell invasion

  1. ZHX1 Promotes the Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

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    Kim, Ji-young; Liu, Liangwen; Kim, Yun-Hak; Jung, Jin-Sup; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Zinc-fingers and homeoboxes 1 (ZHX1) is a transcription repressor that has been associated with the progressions of hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and breast cancer. However, the functional roles of ZHX1 in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have not been determined. We investigated the expression and roles of ZHX1 during the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CCA cells. In silico analysis and immunohistochemical studies showed amplification and overexpression of ZHX1 in CCA tissues. Furthermore, ZHX1 knockdown using specific siRNAs decreased CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas ZHX1 overexpression promoted all three characteristics. In addition, results suggested EGR1 might partially mediate the effect of ZHX1 on the proliferation of CCA cells. Taken together, these results show ZHX1 promotes CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and present ZHX1 as a potential target for the treatment of CCA. PMID:27835650

  2. Integrin β6 serves as an immunohistochemical marker for lymph node metastasis and promotes cell invasiveness in cholangiocarcinoma

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    Li, Zequn; Biswas, Siddhartha; Liang, Benjia; Zou, Xueqing; Shan, Liqun; Li, Yang; Fang, Ruliang; Niu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy that is notoriously difficult to diagnose and is associated with a high mortality. Despite extensive efforts to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this neoplasm, limited progress has been made. Integrin β6 is a subtype of integrin that is expressed exclusively on the surfaces of epithelial cells and is associated with a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the expression and roles of integrin β6 in cholangiocarcinoma. β6 upregulation in cholangiocarcinoma was correlated with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. Moreover, integrin β6 was identified as a biomarker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and an indicator of lymph node metastasis. Integrin β6 significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, integrin β6 increased Rac1-GTPase, resulting in the upregulation of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and F-actin polymerization. Taken together, our results indicate that integrin β6 promotes tumor invasiveness in a Rac1-dependent manner and is a potential biomarker for tumor metastasis. Integrin β6 may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and targeting β6 may be a novel strategy for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27440504

  3. Focal adhesion kinase and Src phosphorylations in HGF-induced proliferation and invasion of human cholangiocarcinoma cell line, HuCCA-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urai Pongchairerk; Jun-Lin Guan; Vijittra Leardkamolkarn

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its association with Src in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell signaling in cholangiocarcinoma progression.METHODS: Previously isolated HuCCA-1 cells were re-characterized by immunofluorescent staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the expression of cytokeratin 19, HGF and c-Met mRNA. Cultured HuCCA-1 cells were treated with HGF and determined for cell proliferation and invasion effects by MTT and invasion assays. Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and co-immunoprecipitation were also performed to study the phosphorylation and interaction of FAK and Src. A novel Src inhibitor (AZM555130) was applied in cultures to investigate the effects on FAK phosphorylation inhibition and on cell proliferation and invasion.RESULTS: HGF enhanced HuCCA-1 cell proliferation and invasion by mediating FAK and Src phosphorylations.FAK-Src interaction occurred in a time-dependent manner that Src was proved to be an upstream signaling molecule to FAK. The inhibitor to Src decreased FAK phosphorylation level in correlation with the reduction of cell proliferation and invasion.CONCLUSION: FAK plays a significant role in signaling pathway of HGF-responsive cell line derived from cholangiocarcinoma. Autophosphorylated Src, induced by HGF, mediates Src kinase activation, which subsequently phosphorylates its substrate, FAK, and signals to cell proliferation and invasion.

  4. High expression of ErbB2 contributes to cholangiocarcinoma cell invasion and proliferation through AKT/p70S6K

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    Warapen; Treekitkarnmongkol; Tuangporn; Suthiphongchai

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the impact of ErbB2 on cell invasion and proliferation in cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) cell lines.METHODS:Level of endogenous ErbB2 expression in three CCA cell lines,namely HuCCA-1,KKU-100 and KKU-M213,was determined by real-time reversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction.Two ErbB2 inhibitory methods,a small molecule ErbB2 kinase inhibitor(AG825) and siRNA,were used to disrupt ErbB2 function in the cell lines.CCA cell invasion,motility and proliferation under ErbB2-disrupted conditions were d...

  5. LncRNAs H19 and HULC, activated by oxidative stress, promote cell migration and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma through a ceRNA manner

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    Wen-Tao Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are known to play important roles in different cell contexts, including cancers. However, little is known about lncRNAs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a cholangiocyte malignancy with poor prognosis, associated with chronic inflammation and damage to the biliary epithelium. The aim of the study is to identify if any lncRNA might associate with inflammation or oxidative stress in CCA and regulate the disease progression. Methods In this study, RNA-seqs datasets were used to identify aberrantly expressed lncRNAs. Small interfering RNA and overexpressed plasmids were used to modulate the expression of lncRNAs, and luciferase target assay RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP was performed to explore the mechanism of miRNA-lncRNA sponging. Results We firstly analyzed five available RNA-seqs datasets to investigate aberrantly expressed lncRNAs which might associate with inflammation or oxidative stress. We identified that two lncRNAs, H19 and HULC, were differentially expressed among all the samples under the treatment of hypoxic or inflammatory factors, and they were shown to be stimulated by short-term oxidative stress responses to H2O2 and glucose oxidase in CCA cell lines. Further studies revealed that these two lncRNAs promoted cholangiocyte migration and invasion via the inflammation pathway. H19 and HULC functioned as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs by sponging let-7a/let-7b and miR-372/miR-373, respectively, which activate pivotal inflammation cytokine IL-6 and chemokine receptor CXCR4. Conclusions Our study revealed that H19 and HULC, up-regulated by oxidative stress, regulate CCA cell migration and invasion by targeting IL-6 and CXCR4 via ceRNA patterns of sponging let-7a/let-7b and miR-372/miR-373, respectively. The results suggest that these lncRNAs might be the chief culprits of CCA pathogenesis and progression. The study provides new insight into the mechanism linking lncRNA function with CCA and

  6. Identification of CXCL5/ENA-78 as a factor involved in the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts.

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    Okabe, Hirohisa; Beppu, Toru; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Masuda, Toshiro; Otao, Ryu; Horlad, Hasita; Mima, Kosuke; Miyake, Keisuke; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Takamori, Hiroshi; Jono, Hirofumi; Shinriki, Satoru; Ando, Yukio; Baba, Hideo

    2012-11-15

    Knowledge of tumor-stromal interactions is essential for understanding tumor development. We focused on the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and reported their positive interaction in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study is to identify the key protein involved in the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma cells and CAFs and its role on cholangiocarcinoma progression. Using the conditioning medium from cholangiocarcinoma cells, hepatic stellate cells and coculture of them, Protein-Chip analysis with SELDI-TOF-MS showed that the peak of an 8,360-Da protein remarkably increased in the coculture medium. This protein was identified as CXCL5/ENA78, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78, by q-TOF/MS/MS analysis. Two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, HuCCT1 and RBE, produced CXCL5 that promoted their invasion and migration in an autocrine fashion. These effects of CXCL5 significantly decreased by inhibition of CXC-receptor 2, which is the receptor for CXCL5. In addition, IL-1β produced by hepatic stellate cells induced the expression of CXCL5 in cholangiocarcinoma cells. In human tissue samples, a significant correlation was observed between CAFs and CXCL5 produced by cholangiocarcinoma cells in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (p = 0.0044). Furthermore, the high-CXCL5-expression group exhibited poor overall survival after curative hepatic resection (p = 0.027). The presence of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils expressing CD66b was associated with CXCL5 expression in tumor cells (p < 0.0001). These data suggest that CXCL5 is important for the interaction between cholangiocarcinoma and CAFs, and inhibition of tumor-stromal interactions may be a useful therapeutic approach for cholangiocarcinoma.

  7. Proteomic Studies of Cholangiocarcinoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Secretomes

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    Chantragan Srisomsap

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC occur with relatively high incidence in Thailand. The secretome, proteins secreted from cancer cells, are potentially useful as biomarkers of the diseases. Proteomic analysis was performed on the secreted proteins of cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA-1 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-S102, HepG2, SK-Hep-1, and Alexander cell lines. The secretomes of the five cancer cell lines were analyzed by SDS-PAGE combined with LC/MS/MS. Sixty-eight proteins were found to be expressed only in HuCCA-1. Examples include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (lipocalin 2, laminin 5 beta 3, cathepsin D precursor, desmoplakin, annexin IV variant, and annexin A5. Immunoblotting was used to confirm the presence of lipocalin 2 in conditioned media and cell lysate of 5 cell lines. The results showed that lipocalin 2 was a secreted protein which is expressed only in the conditioned media of the cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Study of lipocalin 2 expression in different types of cancer and normal tissues from cholangiocarcinoma patients showed that lipocalin 2 was expressed only in the cancer tissues. We suggest that lipocalin 2 may be a potential biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a cholangiocarcinoma cell line (RMCCA-1) from a Thai patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panthip Rattanasinganchan; Kawin Leelawat; Sa-ard Treepongkaruna; Chintana Tocharoentanaphol; Somboon Subwongcharoen; Tuangporn Suthiphongchai; Rutaiwan Tohtong

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish and characterize a new cell line derived from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma of a Thai patient.METHODS: The peripheral cholangiocarcinoma specimen surgically obtained from the patient was aseptically processed by washing and mincing before culturing in Ham's F12 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. After 3 mo, when the cell line has become homogeneous and stabilized, several features were investigated, including growth characteristics,immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratins, expression of tumor markers, chromosomal analysis by G-banding and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH), in vitro migration and invasion characteristics.RESULTS: The RMCCA-1 cell line has been established.These cells proliferated as a monolayer with a population doubling time of 48 h. Immunofluorescence staining showed positive staining for human cytokeratin 7 and 19 verifying the biliary epithelial origin. RMCCA-1secreted carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), but insignificant levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)and α-fetoprotein (AFP). Chromosome analysis identified aneuploidy karyotypes with a modal chromosome number of 59. RMCCA-1 exhibited a low level of in vitro invasiveness, but a high degree of motility. The cell line exhibited a significant number of chromosomal aberrations as shown by mFISH and G-banding methods.CONCLUSION: A new cell line derived from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma of a Thai patient has been established. This cell line shows a low level of in vitro invasiveness, but a high degree of motility. It will serve as a valuable tool for further studies on tumor biology,molecular pathogenesis, metastatic mechanism and response to therapeutic drugs of cholangiocarcinoma.

  9. Synergistic Anticancer Effects of Vorinostat and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against HuCC-T1 Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

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    Tae Won Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of vorinostat and epigallocatechin-3-gallate against HuCC-T1 human cholangiocarcinoma cells. A novel chemotherapy strategy is required as cholangiocarcinomas rarely respond to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Both vorinostat and EGCG induce apoptosis and suppress invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. The combination of vorinostat and EGCG showed synergistic growth inhibitory effects and induced apoptosis in tumor cells. The Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and caspase-3 and -7 activity increased, but poly (ADP-ribose polymerase expression decreased when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Furthermore, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, and migration of tumor cells decreased following treatment with the vorinostat and EGCG combination compared to those of vorinostat or EGCG alone. Tube length and junction number of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs decreased as well as vascular endothelial growth factor expression following vorinostat and EGCG combined treatment. These results indicate that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG had a synergistic effect on inhibiting tumor cell angiogenesis potential. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat and EGCG is a novel option for cholangiocarcinoma chemotherapy.

  10. Comparative study of antitumor effects of bromelain and papain in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.

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    Müller, Alena; Barat, Samarpita; Chen, Xi; Bui, Khac Cuong; Bozko, Przemyslaw; Malek, Nisar P; Plentz, Ruben R

    2016-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) worldwide is the most common biliary malignancy with poor prognostic value and new systemic treatments are desirable. Plant extracts like bromelain and papain, which are cysteine proteases from the fruit pineapple and papaya, are known to have antitumor activities. Therefore, in this study for the first time we investigated the anticancer effect of bromelain and papain in intra- and extrahepatic human CC cell lines. The effect of bromelain and papain on human CC cell growth, migration, invasion and epithelial plasticity was analyzed using cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion and apoptosis assay, as well as western blotting. Bromelain and papain lead to a decrease in the proliferation, invasion and migration of CC cells. Both plant extracts inhibited NFκB/AMPK signalling as well as their downstream signalling proteins such as p-AKT, p-ERK, p-Stat3. Additionally, MMP9 and other epithelial-mesenchymal-transition markers were partially found to be downregulated. Apoptosis was induced after bromelain and papain treatment. Interestingly, bromelain showed an overall more effective inhibition of CC as compared to papain. siRNA mediated silencing of NFκB on CC cells indicated that bromelain and papain have cytotoxic effects on human CC cell lines and bromelain and partially papain in comparison impair tumor growth by NFκB/AMPK signalling. Especially bromelain can evolve as promising, potential therapeutic option that might open new insights for the treatment of human CC.

  11. Proteasome inhibition-induces endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction and cell death of human cholangiocarcinoma cells

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    Yucel Ustundag; Steven F Bronk; Gregory J Gores

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine if proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells, and if so, to elucidate the cellular mechanisms.METHODS: Studies were performed in the human KMCH, KMBC, and Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma, and normal rat cell lines. MG132, a peptide aldehyde, which inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteaosome was employed for this study. Apoptosis was assessed morphologically by 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear staining and fluorescence microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential was examined using a fluorescent unquenching assay. Ultrastructural changes during cell death were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Caspase 3/7 activity was assessed using an enzymatic-based fluorescent assay. Cytosolic-free calcium concentrations were measured using Fura-2 and digitized fluorescent microscopy.RESULTS: MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induced apoptosis in all the cholangiocarcinoma cell lines examined. In contrast, minimal cytotoxicity was observed in normal rat cholangiocytes. Apoptosis was time- and -concentration-dependent. There was no change in the mitochondrial membrane potential between treated and untreated cells. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy displayed the classic features of apoptosis, but in addition, there was also dramatic vacuolization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Unexpectedly, no increase in caspase 3/7 activity was observed in MG132 treated cells, nor did the pancaspase inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh prevent cell death. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, blocked apoptosis induced by proteosome inhibitor indicating that ER dysfunction was dependent upon the formation of new proteins.CONCLUSION:Proteosome inhibition induces ER dysfunction and caspase-independent cell death selectively in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Proteasome inhibitors warrant evaluation as anticancer agents for the treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinoma cell inhibition by medicinal plants

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    Leelawat, Surang; Leelawat, Kawin

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality in Thailand. Certain phytochemicals have been demonstrated to modulate apoptotic signaling pathways, which may be targeted for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of specific medicinal plants on the inhibition of CCA cell proliferation, and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying this. A WST-1 cell proliferation assay was performed using an RMCCA1 cell line, and apoptotic signaling pathways were also investigated using a PathScan Stress and Apoptosis Signaling Antibody Array Kit. The cell proliferation assay indicated that extracts from the Phyllanthus emblica fruit pulp (PEf), Phyllanthus emblica seed (PEs), Terminalia chebula fruit pulp (TCf), Terminalia chebula seed (TCs), Areca catechu seed (ACs), Curcuma longa (CL) and Moringa oleifera seed (MOs) exerted anti-proliferative activity in RMCCA1 cells. In addition, the PathScan assay revealed that certain pro-apoptotic molecules, including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, checkpoint kinase 2 and tumor protein 53, exhibited increased activity in RMCCA1 cells treated with the aforementioned selected plant extracts, with the exception of PEf. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (including ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) expression level was significantly increased in RMCCA1 cells pre-treated with extracts of PEs, TCf, CL and MOs. The activation of protein kinase B (Akt) was significantly demonstrated in RMCCA1 cells pre-treated with extracts of TCf, ACs and MOs. In summary, the present study demonstrated that extracts of PEs, TCf, TCs, ACs, CL and MOs exhibited anti-proliferative effects in CCA cells by inducing pro-apoptotic signals and modulating signal transduction molecules. Further studies in vivo are required to demonstrate the potential applications of specific plant extracts for the treatment of human cancer.

  13. Matrine induces RIP3-dependent necroptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells

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    Xu, Beibei; Xu, Minying; Tian, Yuan; Yu, Qiang; Zhao, Yujie; Chen, Xiong; Mi, Panying; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Zhan, Yan-yan; Hu, Tianhui

    2017-01-01

    The development of acquired resistance to pro-apoptotic antitumor agents is a major impediment to the cure of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Antitumor drugs inducing non-apoptotic cell death are considered as a new approach to overcome such drug resistance. Here, we reported for the first time that matrine-induced necroptosis in CCA cell lines, differing from its classical role to induce apoptosis in many other kinds of cancer cells. CCA cells under matrine treatment exhibited typical necrosis-like but not apoptotic morphologic change. These matrine-induced morphologic change and cell death in CCA cells were greatly attenuated by necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Unlike many cancer cells with negative receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) expression, moderate expression of RIP3 in CCA cells was observed and was required for matrine to induce necroptosis, which was switched to apoptosis after knocking down endogenous RIP3. Moreover, matrine could increase RIP3 expression level, which may facilitate the necroptosis process. Translocation of mixed lineage kinase-domain like (MLKL) from cytoplasm to plasma membrane as a downstream event of RIP3, as well as the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by RIP3/MLKL, was critical for matrine to induce necroptosis. In clinical study, we found RIP3 was lower but still moderately expressed in most CCA tissue samples compared with adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, we identified matrine as a necroptosis inducer in CCA by enhancing RIP3 expression and the following RIP3/MLKL/ROS signaling pathway, which provided new individualized strategies based on RIP3 expression to overcome chemoresistance in CCA therapy. PMID:28179994

  14. Estrogens and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Modulate Neoplastic Cell Growth in Human Cholangiocarcinoma

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    Alvaro, Domenico; Barbaro, Barbara; Franchitto, Antonio; Onori, Paolo; Glaser, Shannon S.; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Marucci, Luca; Sterpetti, Paola; Ginanni-Corradini, Stefano; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Dostal, David E.; De Santis, Adriano; Attili, Adolfo F.; Benedetti, Antonio; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and IGF-1R (receptor) in human cholangiocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (HuH-28, TFK-1, Mz-ChA-1), evaluating the role of estrogens and IGF-1 in the modulation of neoplastic cell growth. ER-α, ER-β, IGF-1, and IGF-1R were expressed (immunohistochemistry) in all biopsies (18 of 18) of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. ER-α was expressed (Western blot) only by the HuH-28 cell line (intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), whereas ER-β, IGF-1, and IGF-1R were expressed in the three cell lines examined. In serum-deprived HuH-28 cells, serum readmission induced stimulation of cell proliferation that was inhibited by ER and IGF-1R antagonists. 17β-Estradiol and IGF-1 stimulated proliferation of HuH-28 cells to a similar extent to that of MCF7 (breast cancer) but greater than that of TFK-1 and Mz-ChA-1, inhibiting apoptosis and exerting additive effects. These effects of 17β-estradiol and IGF-1 were associated with enhanced protein expression of ER-α, phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2 and pAKT but with decreased expression of ER-β. Finally, transfection of IGF-1R anti-sense oligonucleotides in HuH-28 cells markedly decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas express receptors for estrogens and IGF-1, which cooperate in the modulation of cell growth and apoptosis. Modulation of ER and IGF-1R could represent a strategy for the management of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:16936263

  15. Inhibition of PI3K increases oxaliplatin sensitivity in cholangiocarcinoma cells

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    Udomchaiprasertkul Wandee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance of cholangiocarcinoma to chemotherapy is a major problem in cancer treatment. The mechanism of resistance is believed to involve phosphoinositide-3- kinase (PI3K/Akt activation. Although the platinum-containing compound oxaliplatin has been extensively used in the treatment of several solid tumors, recent data regarding its use to treat cholangiocarcinoma are ambiguous. Oxaliplatin resistance in this disease could potentially involve PI3K pathways. We, therefore, examined the effects of PI3K pathways in cholangiocarcinoma cells in modulating oxaliplatin resistance. Results After exposing the cholangiocarcinoma cell lines RMCCA1 and KKU100 to oxaliplatin, the levels of Akt and mTOR phosphorylation increased, as shown by western blot analysis. The WST-1 cell proliferation assay showed increased inhibition of cell growth under high concentrations of oxaliplatin. The combination of oxaliplatin with LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, resulted in a remarkable arrest of cell proliferation. Deactivation of mTOR by RAD001 was also synergistic with oxaliplatin, although to a lesser extent. The combination of oxaliplatin and a PI3K inhibitor also resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by the TUNEL assay. Conclusion Activation of PI3K might protect cholangiocarcinoma cells from oxaliplatininduced cytotoxicity. Although the inhibition of PI3K and the inhibition of mTOR both enhance oxaliplatin-induced cytotoxicity, PI3K inhibition has a greater effect. Targeting the PI3K pathway may be a useful approach to improve the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma.

  16. Establishment and characterization of an opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-100)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Banchob Sripa; Saman Leungwattanawanit; Takayuki Nitta; Chaisiri Wongkham; Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi; Anucha Puapairoj; Chongrak Sripa; Masanao Miwa

    2005-01-01

    AIM To establish and dharacterize a nev cholangiocarcinoma cell line from a patient living in the Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) endemic area of Northeast Thailand.METHODS: Fresh liver biopsy and bile specimens were obtained from a 65-year-old Thai woman with cholangiocarcinoma of the porta hepatis. After digestion, the cells were cultured in Ham's F12 media. The established cell line was then characterized for growth kinetics, cell morphology, imm unocytochemistry and cytogenetics. Tumorigenicity of the cell line was determined by heterotransplanting in nude mice. RESULTS: The primary tumor was a poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Examination of the bile revealed malignant cells with O. viverrini eggs. The cholangiocarcinoma cell line KKU-100 was established 4 mo after the primary culture-population doubling time was 72 h. KKU-100 possesses compact and polygonal-shapedepithelial cells. Immunocytochemically, this cell line exhibited cytokeratin, EMA, CEA, and CA125, but not α-fetoprotein (AFP), CA19-9, desmin, c-met, or p53. Such protein expressions parallel those of the primary tumor. Cytogenetic analysis identified aneuploidy karyotypes with a modal chromosome number of 78 and marked chromosomal structural changes. Inoculation of KKU-100 cells into nude mice produced a transplantable, poorly differentiated aden-ocarcinoma, similar to the original tumor.CONCLUSION: KKJ-100 is the first egg-proven, Opisthorchis- associated cholangiocarcinoma cell line, which should prove useful for further investigations of the tumor biology of this cancer.

  17. Effects of microRNA-21 on invasion and migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells through regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition%微小RNA-21通过调控上皮-间充质转化对胆管癌细胞侵袭与转移的影响

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    刘振; 黄强; 刘臣海; 林先盛; 谢放; 朱成林; 邵峰

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察微小RNA-21(miR-21)通过调控上皮-间充质(EMT)转化进程对胆管癌细胞的侵袭转移的影响.方法 构建合成无关序列、miR-21 mimics和miR-21 inhibitor并转染到胆管癌QBC939及RBE细胞中,实验设自然生长组(Cell组)、转染无关序列组(Cell-NC组)、转染miR-21mimics组(Cell-21M组)及转染miR-21 inhibitor组(Cell-21I组).通过实时定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-qPCR)检测miR-21在各组细胞中的表达;采用划痕实验、Transwell侵袭及迁移实验检测各组细胞侵袭力;RT-qPCR、Western blot检测EMT相关分子E-钙黏蛋白(E-cadherin)、N-钙黏蛋白(N-cadherin)及波形蛋白(Vimentin)的mRNA及蛋白表达.结果 在胆管癌QBC939和RBE细胞中,Cell组与Cell-NC组miR-21表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),Cell-21M组较Cell组表达增高,而Cell-21I组表达降低(P<0.05).Cell-21M组细胞侵袭迁移能力增加,Cell-21I组细胞侵袭迁移能力减弱(P<0.05).同时,Cell组与Cell-NC组E-cadherin、N-cadherin及Vimentin mRNA及蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),Cell-21M组较Cell组E-cadherin mRNA及蛋白表达降低,N-cadherin及Vimentin mRNA及蛋白表达增高,Cell-21I组E-cadherin mRNA及蛋白表达增高,N-cadherin及Vimentin mRNA及蛋白表达均降低(P<0.05).结论 miR-21能够诱导胆管癌细胞发生EMT转化,促进胆管癌细胞的侵袭与转移.%Objective To discuss wheather microRNA-21 (miR-21) promotes invasion and rnigration in cholangiocarcinoma via inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).Methods Scamble sequence,miR-21 mimics and inhibitor were constructed and transfected into QBC939 and RBE cells.Cell group treated with nothing,Cell-NC group treated with scamble sequence,Cell-21M group treated with miR-21 mimics and Cell-21I group treated with miR-21 inhibitor were respectively designed in this study.The expression of miR-21 in each group was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT

  18. Berberine inhibits growth and induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells.

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    He, Wei; Wang, Bin; Zhuang, Yun; Shao, Dong; Sun, Kewen; Chen, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic approach using non-toxic natural products may be one of the strategies for the management of the cholangiocarcinoma. Here we report that in vitro treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells with berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, decreased cell viability and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with an increase in G1 arrest. Our western blot analysis showed that berberine-induced G1 cell cycle arrest was mediated through the increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki) proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27); a simultaneous decrease in Cdk2 and Cdk4 and cyclins D1, and reduced activity of the Cyclins-Cdk complex. In additional studies, treatment of QBC939 cells with different concentrations (10, 40, 80 μM) of berberine for 48 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in apoptosis compared to the non-berberine-treated control, which was associated with an increased expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Together, this study for the first time identified berberine as a chemotherapeutic agent against human cholangiocarcinoma cells QBC939 cells in vitro. Further in vivo studies are required to determine whether berberine could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the management of cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. Inlfuences of Resveratrol on the Proliferation of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells and Expression of p21 and p27 Proteins

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    Liu Yong; Qian Huaxiang; Zhuo Ma; Xu Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of resveratrol on the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cells and expression of p21 and p27 proteins. Methods:The influences of resveratrol on the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cells and expression of p21 and p27 proteins were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method and Western blotting method, respectively. Results:Resveratrol had a conspicuous inhibitory effect on the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells, and was concentration-and time-dependant (P Conclusion:Resveratrol can signiifcantly inhibit the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells, which may be related to regulation of p21 and p27 expression and negative regulation to cell cycles.

  20. Moderndiagnosticapproachesto cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larisa E Vasilieva; Stefanos I Papadhimitriou; Spyros P Dourakis

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma is a very aggressive tumor with poor survival. Therefore, early diagnosis and surgical resection are of paramount importance. Its diagnosis is dififcult because access to the tumor is not easy. Biopsy is possible only for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which accounts for 10%of cases. Routine brush cytology from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has a high speciifcity of 100%but unfortunately a low sensitivity of 30%. In this review we brielfy describe new diagnostic techniques applicable to ERCP brush cytology specimens and targeting the genetic background of the disease, in particular lfuorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and digital image analysis (DIA). DATE SOURCES: The PubMed database up to 2011 was used for the retrieval of relevant articles. The search terms FISH, lfuorescence in situ hybridization, DIA, digital image analysis and cholangiocarcinoma were used. Both original and review articles were used. RESULTS: FISH identiifes cells with chromosomal abnormalities, mainly numerical aberrations, using a mixture of lfuorescence-labeled probes. FISH offers a higher sensitivity than routine cytology, retaining a high level of speciifcity. The DIA criterion for malignancy is demonstration of aneuploidy. This technique increases the sensitivity to 40%, but the speciifcity remains low. Preliminary data from application to other tumors suggest that combination of FISH and DIA may be of further beneift. CONCLUSIONS: The new techniques offer a signiifcantly enhanced diagnostic efifcacy in the evaluation of ERCP brush specimens. Apart from contributing to a more timely diagnosis, their wider application to cholangiocarcinoma may also facilitate the genetic study of the disease and add to our understanding of oncogenesis at the molecular level, with the prospect of identifying targets for novel therapeutic interventions.

  1. MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chan; Juang, Horng-Heng; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Hsu, Jun-Te; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C.; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsiao, Michael; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3. Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was found to be involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 meditated growth inhibition for CCA as knockdown of NGAL decreased Ki-67 expression in SNU308 cells and rendered SNU308 cells less responsive to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockdown partly abolished MART-10-induced inhibition of NGAL and cell growth in SNU308 cells. The xenograft animal study demonstrated MART-10 could effectively repressed CCA growth in vivo without inducing obvious side effects. The IHC examination of human CCA specimen for VDR revealed that higher VDR expression was linked with better prognosis. Collectively, our results suggest that MART-10 could be a promising regimen for CCA treatment. PMID:28256614

  2. Schisandrin B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wang, Shuai; Mu, Yunchuan; Zheng, Yixiong

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common hepatic cancer with high resistance to current chemotherapies and extremely poor prognosis. The present study aimed to examine the effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) on CCA cells both in vitro and in vivo and to examine its underlying mechanism. We found that Sch B inhibited the viability and proliferation of CCA cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner as assessed by MTT and colony formation assays. The flow cytometric assay revealed G0/G1 phase arrest in the Sch B-treated HCCC-9810 and RBE cells. In addition, Sch B induced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma apoptosis as shown by the results of Annexin V/PI double staining. Rhodamine 123 staining revealed that Sch B decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, western blot analysis indicated that Sch B induced apoptosis by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP, and by downregulating cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and CDK-4. Moreover, Sch B significantly inhibited HCCC-9810 xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. In summary, these findings suggest that Sch B exhibited potent antitumor activities via the induction of CCA apoptosis and that Sch B may be a promising drug for the treatment of CCA. PMID:27499090

  3. Dicoumarol enhances gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity in high NQO1-expressing cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjaporn; Buranrat; Auemduan; Prawan; Upa; Kukongviriyapan; Sarinya; Kong-petch; Veerapol; Kukongviriyapan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dicoumarol, a potent inhibitor of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), potentiates gemcitabine to induce cytotoxicity in chol-angiocarcinoma cells (CCA) and the role of reactive oxygen generation in sensitizing the cells. METHODS: Four human cell lines with different NQO1 activity were used; the human CCA cell lines, KKU-100, KKU-OCA17, KKU-M214, and Chang liver cells. NQO1 activity and mRNA expression were determined. The cells were pretreated with dicoumarol at relevant con...

  4. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants against human cholangiocarcinoma, laryngeal and hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itharat Arunporn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma is a serious public health in Thailand with increasing incidence and mortality rates. The present study aimed to investigate cytotoxic activities of crude ethanol extracts of a total of 28 plants and 5 recipes used in Thai folklore medicine against human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6, human laryngeal (Hep-2, and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cell lines in vitro. Methods Cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts against the cancerous cell lines compared with normal cell line (renal epithelial cell: HRE were assessed using MTT assay. 5-fluorouracil was used as a positive control. The IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50% and the selectivity index (SI were calculated. Results The extracts from seven plant species (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, Ligusticum sinense, Mimusops elengi and one folklore recipe (Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai exhibited promising activity against the cholangiocarcinoma CL-6 cell line with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the five plants and one recipe (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai recipe showed potent cytotoxic activity with mean IC50 values of 24.09, 37.36, 34.26, 40.74, 48.23 and 44.12 μg/ml, respectively. All possessed high activity against Hep-2 cell with mean IC50 ranging from 18.93 to 32.40 μg/ml. In contrast, activity against the hepatoma cell HepG2 varied markedly; mean IC50 ranged from 9.67 to 115.47 μg/ml. The only promising extract was from Zingiber officinal (IC50 = 9.67 μg/ml. The sensitivity of all the four cells to 5-FU also varied according to cell types, particularly with CL-6 cell (IC50 = 757 micromolar. The extract from Atractylodes lancea appears to be both the most potent and most selective against cholangiocarcinoma (IC50 = 24.09 μg/ml, SI = 8.6. Conclusions The

  5. Strong expression of CD133 is associated with increased cholangiocarcinoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kawin Leelawat; Taweesak Thongtawee; Siriluck Narong; Somboon Subwongcharoen; Sa-ad Treepongkaruna

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of CD133 in cholangiocar-cinoma progression.METHODS: CD133 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 34 cholangiocarcinoma specimens. In addition, proliferation, chemoresistance and invasive properties of CD133-enriched (CD133+) and CD133-depleted (CD133-) RMCCA1 cholangiocarci-noma cells were studied and compared.RESULTS: Strong CD133 expression was observed in 67.6% (23/34) of the cholangiocarcinoma specimens. Strong expression of CD133 was significantly associat-ed with nodal metastasis (P = 0.009) and positive sur-gical margin status (P = 0.011). In the in vitro study, both the CD133+ and CD133- cells had similar prolifera-tion abilities and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the CD133+ cells had a higher invasive ability compared with CD133- cells.CONCLUSION: CD133+ cells play an important role in the invasiveness of cholangiocarcinoma. Targeting of the CD133+ cells may be a useful approach to improve treatment against cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma cells induced by ESC-3 from Crocodylus siamensis bile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Song; Dong-Yan Shen; Jin-He Kang; Shan-Shan Li; Hui-Wang Zhan; Yan Shi; You-Xiong Xiong; Ge Liang; Qing-xi Chen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of ESC-3 isolated from crocodile bile on the growth and apoptosis induction of human cholangiocarcinoma cells.METHODS:ESC-3 was isolated from crocodile bile by Sephadex LH-20 and RP-18 reversed-phase column.3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was conducted to determine the effects of ESC-3 on the proliferation of human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (QBC939,Sk-ChA-1 and MZ-ChA-1).Giemsa staining,Hoechst 33258 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed the morphological changes of Mz-ChA-1 cells exposed to ESC-3 at different concentrations.Flow cytometry with regular propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed to analyze the cell cycle distribution of Mz-ChA-1 cells and to assess apoptosis by annexin v-fiuorescein isothiocyanate (VFITC)/PI staining.Rh123 staining was used to detect the alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm).The protein levels of Bax,Bcl-2,Cdk2,cytochrome c and caspase-3 were further confirmed by Western blotting.RESULTS:ESC-3 significantly inhibited the growth of three human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and arrested Mz-ChA-1 cell cycle at G0/G1 phase.Mz-ChA-1 cells showed typical apoptotic morphological changes after treated with ESC-3 (10 μg/mL) for 48 h.Cell death assay indicated that Mz-ChA-1 cells underwent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner induced by ESC-3.In addition,ESC-3 treatment could downregulate the protein level of Bcl-2 and upregulate the Bax,leading to the increase in the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in Mz-ChA-1 cells.Meanwhile,cytochrome c was released from the mitochondria into the cytosol,which subsequently initiated the activation of caspase-3.All these events were associated with the collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential.CONCLUSION:ESC-3,the active ingredient of crocodile bile,induced apoptosis in Mz-ChA-1 cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathway and may be a potential chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of

  7. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: Current therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Zhang; Lu-Nan; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, which is a rare primary malignancy, originates from the epithelial cells of the bile duct. Usually invading the periductal tissues and the lymph nodes, perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is commonly diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease and has a dismal prognosis. Currently, complete hepatectomy is the primary therapy for curing this disease. Perioperative assessment and available surgical procedures can be considered for achieving a negative margin resection, which is associated with long-term survival and better quality of life. For patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, several palliative treatments have been demonstrated to produce a better outcome; and liver transplantation for selected patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is promising and desirable. However, the role of palliative treatments and liver transplantation was controversial and requires more evidence and substantial validity from multiple institutions. In this article, we summarize the data from multiple institutions and discuss the resectability, mortality, morbidity and outcome with different approaches.

  8. Effect of mutated IκBα transfection on multidrug resistance in hilar cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Fu Chen; Zhi-Hua Li; Xian-He Kong; Ji-Sheng Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression effect of mutated IκBαtransfection on multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) in hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells by inhibiting the activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB).METHODS: We used the mutated IκBα plasmid to transfect QBC939HCVC+ cells and QBC939 cells, and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA) to detect the binding activity of NF-κB DNA and the effect of the transfrecting mutated IκBα plasmid on multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) in hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells and its expression protein (P-GP).RFSULTS: Plasmid DNA was digested by restriction enzymes Xbal and Hand Ⅲ, and its product after electrophoresis showed two bands with a big difference in molecular weight,with a size of 4.9 kb and 1.55 kb respectively, which indicated that the carrier was successfully constructed and digested with enzymes. The radioactivity accumulation of QBC939HCVC+and QBC939 cells transfected with mutated IκBα plasmid was significantly lower than that of the control group not transfected with mutated IκBα plasmid. Double densimeter scanning showed that the relative signal density between the tansfection group and non-transfection group was significantly different, which proved that the mutated IκBα plasmid could inhibit the binding activity of NF-κB DNA in hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells. Compared to control group not transfected with m IκBα plasmid, the expression level of MDR-1mRNA in the QBC939 and QBC939HCVC+ cells transfected with mutated IκBα plasmid was lower. The expression intensity of P-GP protein in QBC939 and QBC939HCVC+ cells transfected with mutated IκBα was significantly lower than that of the control group not transfected with mutated IκBα plasmid.CONCLUSION: The mutated IκBα plasmid transfection can markedly reverse the multidrug resistance of hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells. Interruption of NF-κB activity may become a new target in gene therapy for hilar cholangiocarcinogenesic carcinoma.

  9. Effects of Bile from Patient with Transduodenal Sphincteroplasty on the Growth of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴高松; 邹声泉; 刘正人; 裘法祖

    2004-01-01

    @@ It is reported that transduodenal sphincteroplasty (TS) had a closely relationship with malignancies of the biliary tract, and cholangiocarcinoma has been suggested as a TS possible long-term complication. We used bile from patient with transduodenal sphincteroplasty (TSB) to act directly on the cholangiocacinoma cells QBC939 to see the effects of TSB on the growth of QBC939 cells. TSB was obtained from a patient who had undergone TS, and normal bile (NB) was obtained from another patient who had not undergone TS.

  10. Notch1 is overexpressed in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and is associated with its proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Rui; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Xiang-De; Zhu, Man-Sheng; Xu, Lei-Bo; Zeng, Hong; Liu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has been reported to play crucial roles in inhibiting hepatocyte differentiation and allowing formation of intrahepatic bile ducts. However, little is known about its significance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Notch1 expression in ICC tissues and cells. The expression of Notch1 was examined in paraffin-embedded sections of ICC (n=44) by immunohistochemistry. Notch1 was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in cultured ICC cells (RBE and HCCC-9810). The proliferation, invasiveness and sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation assays, Transwell assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression levels of several multidrug resistance (MDR)-related genes, MDR1-P-glycoprotein (ABCB‑1), breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG‑2) and the multidrug resistance protein isoform 1 (MRP‑1), were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. Notch1 was overexpressed in cell membranes and cytoplasm of ICC compared with the adjacent liver tissue (35/44, 79.5%) and this was more common in cases with tumor size≥5 cm (p=0.021) and HBs-Ag positive (p=0.018). By silencing Notch1, the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells were inhibited and the inhibition rate of 5-FU was markedly increased. In addition, IC50 values of 5-FU in RBE cells were decreased from 148.74±0.72 to 5.37±0.28 µg/ml and the corresponding values for HCCC-9810 cells were 326.92±0.87 to 42.60±0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, Notch1 silencing clearly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells treated by 5-FU compared with the control. Notch1 knockdown led to diminished expression levels of ABCB‑1 and MRP‑1. Therefore, Notch may play important roles in the development of ICC. Silencing Notch1 can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of ICC cells and increase their

  11. DIFFERENCE IN BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIOTHERAPY BETWEEN INTRAHEPATIC AND EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA CELLS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ran He; Xiao-peng Wu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the biological characteristics and sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiother-apy of intrahepatic and extrahepatie cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro.Methods The intrahepatic and extrahepatie eholangiocarcinoma cell lines were established, and cells with steady passage were chosen to study the biological characteristics including morphology, growth dynamics, chromosome, and levels of cancer antigen (CA)125, CA 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA).M.eanwhile, MTT assay was used to determine the sensitivity of both kinds of cells to 6 chemotherapeutic drugs, inclu-ding cisplatin, paclitaxel, harringtonine, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, and aelacimomycin, and the inhibitory rate of ceils under the irradiation of 10 Gy ray was also measured.Reanlts The intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells were mostly fusiform in shape, and extrahepatic eholangiocar-cinoma cells were mostly round or polygon in shape. Their doubling time was 26. 3 hours and 23.1 hours, respectively.Their average number of chromosomes was 59 (range, 38-84) and 67 (range, 49-103 ), respectively. The chromo-some karyotypes of most intrahepatlc ebolangiocarcinoma cells were hyperdiploid and hypotriploid, while hypertriploid was predominant in extrahepatic cholangioearcinoma cells. The level of CA 125 in supernatant of extrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma cells increased obviously, while levels of other determined tumor markers in both kinds of cells were all with-in normal range. The intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells were low sensitive to cisplatin and paclitaxel, but not sensi-tive to the other 4 chemotherapeutic drugs. The extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells were high sensitive to eisplatin,but not sensitive to the other 5 drugs. Both kinds of cells had poor sensitivity to radiotherapy.Conelusions Intrahepatic and extrahepatie cbolangiocareinoma cells show differences in shape, doubling time,chromosome karyotype, tumor marker level, and

  12. Anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwak TW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Won Kwak,1,* Hee Jae Shin,2,* Young-Il Jeong,1 Myoung-Eun Han,3 Sae-Ock Oh,3 Hyun-Jung Kim,4 Do Hyung Kim,5 Dae Hwan Kang1 1Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 2Marine Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, 3Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Gyeongnam, 4Genewel Co Ltd. Gyeonggi-do, 5School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer activity of streptochlorin, a novel antineoplastic agent, in cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: The anticancer activity of streptochlorin was evaluated in vitro in various cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for apoptosis, proliferation, invasiveness, and expression of various protein levels. A liver metastasis model was prepared by splenic injection of HuCC-T1 cholangiocarcinoma cells using a BALB/c nude mouse model to study the systemic antimetastatic efficacy of streptochlorin 5 mg/kg at 8 weeks. The antitumor efficacy of subcutaneously injected streptochlorin was also assessed using a solid tumor xenograft model of SNU478 cells for 22 days in the BALB/c nude mouse. Results: Streptochlorin inhibited growth and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor by cholangiocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in vitro. In addition, streptochlorin effectively inhibited invasion and migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cholangiocarcinoma cells were also suppressed by treatment with streptochlorin. Streptochlorin effectively regulated metastasis of HuCC-T1 cells in a mouse model of liver metastasis. In a tumor xenograft study using SNU478 cells, streptochlorin significantly inhibited tumor growth without changes in body weight

  13. Immune Responses of Dendritic Cells Loaded with Antigens from Apoptotic Cholangiocarcinoma Cells Caused by γ-Irradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUGang; HANBenli; PEIXuetao

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the induction cytotoxic T cells(CTLs) with antitumor activity and therapeutic efficacy after dendritic cells(DCs) acquired antigen from apoptotic cholangiocarcinoma cells caused by γ-irradiation. Methods:DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity charateristic of immature cells have been established in vitro, using granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Then, in cholangiocarcinoma cells apoptosis was induced by γ-irradiation. The experimental groups were as follows:(1)coculture of DCs and apoptotic cancer cells and T cells;(2)coculture of DCs and necrotic cancer cells and T cells;(3)coculture of DCs, cultured cancer cell and T cells. They are cocultured for 7 days.DCs and T cells were riched, isolated and their antitumor response was tested. Results:The cells had typical dendritic morphology, expressed high levels of CDla and B7, acquired antigen from apoptotic cells caused by γ-irradiation and induced an increased T cell stimulatory capacity in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR). Conclusion:DCs obtained from PBMCs using GM-CSF and IL-4 can efficiently present antigen derived from apoptotic cells caused by γ-irradiation and efficiently induce T cells.This strategy, therefore, may present an effective approach to transduce DCs with antigen.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Nicola F.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Jennings, Elliott; Osburn, William; Lissauer, Samantha; Wilson, Garrick K.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Baumert, Thomas F.; Balfe, Peter; Afford, Simon; McKeating, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects the liver and hepatocytes are the major cell type supporting viral replication. Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes derive from a common hepatic progenitor cell that proliferates during inflammatory conditions, raising the possibility that cholangiocytes may support HCV re

  15. The BH3-mimetic ABT-737 targets the apoptotic machinery in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines resulting in synergistic interactions with zoledronic acid

    OpenAIRE

    ROMANI, ANTONELLO A.; Desenzani, Silvia; Morganti, Marina M.; Baroni, Maria Cristina; Borghetti, Angelo F.; Soliani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Purpose In TFK-1 and EGI-1 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, zoledronic acid (ZOL) determines an S-phase block without apoptosis. Here, we investigated the occurrence of apoptosis stigmata when ZOL is associated to the BH3-mimetic ABT-737. Methods In EGI-1 and TFK-1 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines untreated or treated with ABT-737 alone or in combination with ZOL, the pro-survival protein?s pattern (BC...

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 alone or combined with bortezomib or sorafenib exhibits strong antiproliferative action in human cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Baradari; Michael H(o)pfner; Alexander Huether; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antiproliferative effect of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MS-275 on cholangiocarcinoma cells alone and in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs (gemcitabine or doxorubicin)or the novel anticancer agents sorafenib or bortezomib.METHODS: Two human bile duct adenocarcinoma cell lines (EGI-1 and TFK-1) were studied. Crystal violet staining was used for detection of cell number changes.Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring the release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).Apoptosis was determined by measuring the enzyme activity of caspase-3. Cell cycle status reflected by the DNA content was detected by flow cytometry.RESULTS: MS-275 treatment potently inhibited the proliferation of EGI-1 and TFK-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. MS-275-induced apoptosis was characterized by activation of caspase-3, up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Cell cycle was predominantly arrested at the G1/S checkpoint, which was associated with induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf/CIP1. Furthermore,additive anti-neoplastic effects were observed when MS-275 treatment was combined with gemcitabine or doxorubicin, while combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib resulted in overadditive anti-neoplastic effects.CONCLUSION: The growth of human cholangiocarcinoma cells can be potently inhibited by MS-275 alone or in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs or new,targeted anticancer agents.

  17. SARCOMATOID CHANGE IN INTRAHEPATIC CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Wewer Albrechtsen; Da Zhang; A. Bashar Abdulkarim; Damjanov Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid transformation is a rare but well documented change that may occur in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. We report a tumor of this type to illustrate the difficulties in properly diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma when only the sarcomatous component is sampled by transcutaneous needle biopsy. The proper diagnosis of the tumor was suggested by finding the expression of cytokeratin 7 in the sarcomatous spindle cells. The surgically resected tumor comprised a spindle cell sarcomatous and a...

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Gallic Acid Isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk on Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines and Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Daduang, Sakda; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid was isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk and the structure s identified based on spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. In this study we compared the ability of natural gallic acid (nGA) and commercial gallic acid (cGA) to inhibit the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (M213, M214) and foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides). Both nGA and cGA had the same inhibitory effects on cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, nGA inhibited growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the same manner as cGA. Our results suggest that nGA from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk is a potential anticancer and antibacterial compound. However, in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms involved.

  19. Cholangiocarcinoma Stem-like Cells Shapes Tumor-initiating Niche by Regulating Associated Macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raggi, Chiara; Correnti, Margherita; Sica, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    to cooperate in supporting tumor initiation may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Considering that human cholangiocarcinoma represents a clinical emergency, it is essential to move to predictive models to understand the adaptive process of macrophage component (imprinting, polarization...

  20. [Radical surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Rubio, Emilio

    2007-07-01

    In patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, long-term survival critically depends on complete tumor resection. Indeed, there are no long-term survivors with positive resection margins. Furthermore, hilar cholangiocarcinoma seems to have a low propensity for distant metastases and adjuvant therapy after surgery has not been shown to have clear clinical benefits. This evidence should be regarded as arguments for extended resections. The question remains of how to achieve an R0 resection. In the last few years greater use of major hepatectomy has increased resectability and has improved long-term results. Concomitant resection of the caudate lobe is recommended as this site is a prime area of local recurrence. Frozen sections should be routinely used to assess the remnant proximal and distal ductal stumps. However, if the proximal remnant is positive, additional ductal resection at the separating limits is not always feasible. Gross portal vein invasion has a negative impact on survival, but should not be a contraindication to resection. Hepatectomy with portal vein resection can offer long-term survival in some patients with advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The incidence of nodal involvement in resected specimens has been reported to range from 30% to more than 50% and there is a correlation between primary tumor extension and nodal involvement. Lymphatic metastases from hilar cholangiocarcinoma appear to spread first to pericholedochal nodes in the hepatoduodenal ligament and then to spread widely toward the posteriorsuperior area around the pancreatic head, portal vein and common hepatic artery. Routine lymphadenectomy should include all these areas. The only factors precluding resection are involvement of celiac, superior mesenteric or para-aortic tumoral nodes. Survival is closely associated with the extent of nodal involvement. The no-touch technique including right trisegmentectomy combined with portal vein resection has been proposed as the surgical procedure

  1. Inflammatory cytokines suppress arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of inflammatory cytokines on arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), which is a phase-Ⅱ enzyme involved in the biotransformation of aromatic and heterocyclic amines found in food, drugs and the environment.METHODS: Human cholangiocarcinoma KKU-100 cells were treated with a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-y, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α)for 48 h, and the effect on NAT1 activity was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, while NAT1 expression was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The oxidative stress on the cells was examined by the formation of nitric oxide,superoxide anion and glutathione (GSH) levels. The cells were also treated with S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), a nitric oxide donor, to see if the responses were similar to those obtained with the inflammatory cytokines.RESULTS: Cytokines suppressed NAT1 activity,reducing the Vmax without affecting the Km. Cytokines also had a significant impact on the induction of nitric oxide production and in reducing the redox ratios of glutathione (GSH) and GSH disulfide. Treatment with GSNO for 2-48 h reduced NAT1 activity without affecting the GSH ratio. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines and GSNO suppressed NAT1 mRNA expression.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate an association between inflammation and suppression of NAT1, which perhaps contributes to chemical-mediated toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  2. Effect of transforming growth factor-β1 on human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya Shimizu; Takashi Tajiri; Shigeki Yokomuro; Yoshiaki Mizuguchi; Yutaka Kawahigashi; Yasuo Arima; Nobuhiko Taniai; Yasuhiro Mamada; Hiroshi Yoshida; Koho Akimaru

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the biological effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).METHODS: We investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on human ICC cell lines (HuCCT1, MEC, and HuH-28) by monitoring the influence of TGF-β1 on tumor growth and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in ICC cells.RESULTS: All three human ICC cell lines produced TGF-β1 and demonstrated accelerated growth in the presence of TGF-β1 with no apoptotic effect. Studies on HuCCT1 revealed a TGF-β1-induced stimulation of the expression of TGF-β1, as well as a decrease in TGF-β1 mRNA expression induced by neutralizing anti-TGF-β1 antibody. These results indicate that TGF-β1 stimulates the production and function of TGF-β1 in an autocrine fashion. Further, IL-6 secretion was observed in all three cell lines and exhibited an inhibitory response to neutralizing anti-TGF-β1 antibody. Experiments using HuCCT1 revealed a TGF-β1-induced acceleration of IL-6 protein expression and mRNA levels. These findings demonstrate a functional interaction between TGF-β1 and IL-6. All three cell lines proliferated in the presence of IL-6. In contrast, TGF-β1 induced no growth effect in HuCCT1 in the presence of small interfering RNA against a specific cell surface receptor of IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3.CONCLUSION: ICC cells produce TGF-β1 and confer a TGF-β1-induced growth effect in an autocrine fashion.TGF-β1 activates IL-6 production, and the functional interaction between TGF-β1 and IL-6 contributes to ICC cell growth by TGF-β1.

  3. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

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    Kellermeier Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Methods Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor, HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3 were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1. The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. Results EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml, with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D. HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. Conclusion CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab.

  4. Cyclophilin A enhances cell proliferation and tumor growth of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma

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    Sawanyawisuth Kanlayanee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclophilin A (CypA expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in many cancers. However, the role and mechanisms of CypA in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA are not presently known. In this study, we investigated the expression of CypA in CCA tumor tissues and CCA cell lines as well as regulation mechanisms of CypA in tumor growth using CCA cell lines. Methods CypA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. CypA silence or overexpression in CCA cells was achieved using gene delivery techniques. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay or Ki-67 staining. The effect of silencing CypA on CCA tumor growth was determined in nude mice. The effect of CypA knockdown on ERK1/2 activation was assessed by Western blot. Results CypA was upregulated in 68% of CCA tumor tissues. Silencing CypA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in several CCA cell lines. Likewise, inhibition of CypA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase activity using cyclosporin A (CsA decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of CypA resulted in 30% to 35% increases in proliferation of CCA cell lines. Interestingly, neither silence nor overexpression of CypA affected cell proliferation of a non-tumor human cholangiocyte cell line, MMNK1. Suppression of CypA expression attenuated ERK1/2 activity in CCA M139 cells by using both transient and stable knockdown methods. In the in vivo study, there was a 43% reduction in weight of tumors derived from CypA-silenced CCA cell lines compared with control vector CCA tumors in mice; these tumors with stable CypA silencing showed a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions CypA is upregulated in majority of CCA patients' tissues and confers a significant growth advantage in CCA cells. Suppression of CypA expression decreases proliferation of CCA cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Inhibition of Cyp

  5. Drug sensitivity and drug resistance profiles of human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisana Tepsiri; Liengchai Chaturat; Banchob Sripa; Wises Namwat; Sopit Wongkham; Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi; Wichittra Tassaneeyakul

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of a number of chemotherapeutic drugs on five human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines. The expressions of genes that have been proposed to influence the resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs including thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) were also determined.METHODS: Five human CCA cell lines (KKU-100, KKU M055, KKU-M156, KKU-M214 and KKU-OCA17) weretreated with various chemotherapeutic drugs and growth inhibition was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Semi-quantitative levels of gene expression were determined by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results of IC50 values and the ratios of gene expression were analyzed by linear regression to predict their relationship. RESULTS: Among five CCA cell lines, KKU-M055 was the most sensitive cell line towards all chemotherapeutic drugs investigated, particularly taxane derivatives with IC50 values of 0.02-3 nmol/L, whereas KKU-100 was apparently the least sensitive cell line. When compared to other chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and pirarubicin showed the lowest IC50 values (<5 μmol/L) in all five CCA cell lines. Results from RT-PCR showed that TS, MRP1, MRP3 and GSTP1 were highly expressed in these five CCA cell lines while DPD and MRP2 were only moderately expressed. It should be noted that MDR1 expression was detected only in KKU-OCA17 cell lines. A strong correlation was only found between the level of MRP3 expression and the IC50 values of etoposide, doxorubicin and pirarubicin (r = 0.86-0.98, ,P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents is not associated with the histological type of CCA. Choosing of the appropriate chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of CCA requires knowledge of drug

  6. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  7. Sarcomatoid change in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

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    Albrechtsen Wewer Nicolai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomatoid transformation is a rare but well documented change that may occur in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. We report a tumor of this type to illustrate the difficulties in properly diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma when only the sarcomatous component is sampled by transcutaneous needle biopsy. The proper diagnosis of the tumor was suggested by finding the expression of cytokeratin 7 in the sarcomatous spindle cells. The surgically resected tumor comprised a spindle cell sarcomatous and an adenocarcinomatous component accounting for approximately 30% and 70% of the total tumor mass respectively

  8. Fas counterattack in cholangiocarcinoma:a mechanism for immune evasion in human hilar cholangiocarcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Yu Li; Sheng-Quan Zou

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate FasL expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cultured cholangiocarcinoma cells, and to assess its ability to induce apoptosis. METHODS: We studied the expression of FasL by human hilar cholangiocaroinomas tissues by immunohistochemistry, and the QBC939 cholangiocarcinomacell line by RT- PCR, immunohiatochemistry, and Western Blot. TUNEL and flow cytometry were used to detect apoptotic cells. RESJLTS: Prevalent expression of FasL was detected in 39resected hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumor. FasL mRNA and protein expressions in cholangiocarcinoma cells could induce Jurkat cells. CONCLUSION: Hilar cholangiocarcinomas may elude immunological surveillance by inducing, via Fas/FasL system, the apoptosis of activated lymphocytes.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol use, and obesity, may also contribute to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma . Studies suggest that a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors influence whether a person will develop cholangiocarcinoma . However, ...

  10. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yun-Fei [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Department of Pathology, Shandong University (China); Lu, Xiao-Fei [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital (China); Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Suo, Ning [Department of Anatomy, Shandong University (China); Chen, Yu-Xin, E-mail: yxu8@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  11. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tae Min [Dept. of Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Dong; Jeong, Ho Gui; Park, Won Se [Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case.

  12. Tumour cell–derived extracellular vesicles interact with mesenchymal stem cells to modulate the microenvironment and enhance cholangiocarcinoma growth

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    Hiroaki Haga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to tumour growth and stroma formation are poorly understood. Tumour cells can transfer genetic information and modulate cell signalling in other cells through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs. We examined the contribution of EV-mediated inter-cellular signalling between bone marrow MSCs and tumour cells in human cholangiocarcinoma, highly desmoplastic cancers that are characterized by tumour cells closely intertwined within a dense fibrous stroma. Exposure of MSCs to tumour cell–derived EVs enhanced MSC migratory capability and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA, in addition to mRNA expression and release of CXCL-1, CCL2 and IL-6. Conditioned media from MSCs exposed to tumour cell–derived EVs increased STAT-3 phosphorylation and proliferation in tumour cells. These effects were completely blocked by anti-IL-6R antibody. In conclusion, tumour cell–derived EVs can contribute to the generation of tumour stroma through fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs, and can also selectively modulate the cellular release of soluble factors such as IL-6 by MSCs that can, in turn, alter tumour cell proliferation. Thus, malignant cells can “educate” MSCs to induce local microenvironmental changes that enhance tumour cell growth.

  13. Metallothionein overexpression and its prognostic relevance in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Klaus Jürgen; Lang, Hauke; Kaiser, Gernot; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Sotiropoulos, Georgios Charalambos; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Jasani, Bharat; Schmid, Kurt Werner

    2009-12-01

    Metallothionein is a group of small molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins with a broad variety of functions. Metallothionein has been shown to regulate apoptosis and proliferation. Overexpression of metallothionein frequently occurs in human tumors and is related to prognosis as well as therapy response. However, metallothionein expression and its clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma have not been investigated. The present study aimed to analyze metallothionein over-expression and its possible prognostic impact in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hilar extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumors). We investigated the relationship of immunohistochemically demonstrated metallothionein expression with various clinicopathological parameters in a series of 56 intrahepatic and 56 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. In noncancerous bile duct epithelia metallothionein was only occasionally weakly expressed; strong metallothionein overexpression (>50% metallothionein -positive tumor cells) was noted in 7 (12.5%) of 56 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 14 (25%) of 56 Klatskin tumors, which was associated with poor clinical outcome in univariate Kaplan-Meier testing in both intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (P = .002) and Klatskin tumors (P = .034). Moreover, strong metallothionein expression was identified as an independent prognostic parameter in multivariate Cox regression analysis in both intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (P = .005) and Klatskin tumors (P = .035). In contrast, cholangiocarcinoma with a papillary phenotype (8/112; 7.1%) exhibited a significant lack of strong metallothionein expression in all 8 of 8 cases. Strong metallothionein expression is identified as an independent poor prognostic parameter, and determination of the metallothionein expression may serve as an additional tool for the therapeutic management of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. In comparison, lack of metallothionein expression seems to be associated with cholangiocarcinoma with a

  14. Treatment of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in a Patient With Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Ramon E.A.; McNeill, Katharine; Volpicelli, Frank M.; Warltier, Karin; Iturrate, Eduardo; Okamura, Charles; Adler, Nicole; Smith, Joshua; Sigmund, Alana; Mednick, Aron; Wertheimer, Benjamin; Hochman, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman with cholangiocarcinoma metastatic to the lungs presented with new-onset unrelenting headaches. A lumbar puncture revealed malignant cells consistent with leptomeningeal metastasis from her cholangiocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed leptomeningeal enhancement. An intrathecal (IT) catheter was placed and IT chemotherapy was initiated with methotrexate. Her case is notable for the rarity of cholangiocarcinoma spread to the leptomeninges, the u...

  15. Impact of Salinomycin on human cholangiocarcinoma: induction of apoptosis and impairment of tumor cell proliferation in vitro

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    Lieke Thorsten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a primary liver cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Despite all efforts made in past years, prognosis remains to be poor. At least in part, this might be explained by a pronounced resistance of CC cells to undergo apoptosis. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. In this study we investigated the effect of Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, on CC cells as an appropriate agent to treat CC. Salinomycin was quite recently identified to induce apoptosis in cancer stem cells and to overcome apoptosis-resistance in several leukemia-cells and other cancer cell lines of different origin. Methods To delineate the effects of Salinomycin on CC, we established an in vitro cell culture model using three different human CC cell lines. After treatment apoptosis as well as migration and proliferation behavior was assessed and additional cell cycle analyses were performed by flowcytometry. Results By demonstrating Annexin V and TUNEL positivity of human CC cells, we provide evidence that Salinomycin reveals the capacity to break apoptosis-resistance in CC cells. Furthermore, we are able to demonstrate that the non-apoptotic cell fraction is characterized by sustainable impaired migration and proliferation. Cell cycle analyses revealed G2-phase accumulation of human CC cells after treatment with Salinomycin. Even though apoptosis is induced in two of three cell lines of CC cells, one cell line remained unaffected in regard of apoptosis but revealed as the other CC cells decreased proliferation and migration. Conclusion In this study, we are able to demonstrate that Salinomycin is an effective agent against previously resistant CC cells and might be a potential candidate for the treatment of CC in the future.

  16. Treatment of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in a Patient With Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katharine; Volpicelli, Frank M.; Warltier, Karin; Iturrate, Eduardo; Okamura, Charles; Adler, Nicole; Smith, Joshua; Sigmund, Alana; Mednick, Aron; Wertheimer, Benjamin; Hochman, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman with cholangiocarcinoma metastatic to the lungs presented with new-onset unrelenting headaches. A lumbar puncture revealed malignant cells consistent with leptomeningeal metastasis from her cholangiocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed leptomeningeal enhancement. An intrathecal (IT) catheter was placed and IT chemotherapy was initiated with methotrexate. Her case is notable for the rarity of cholangiocarcinoma spread to the leptomeninges, the use of IT chemotherapy with cytologic and potentially symptomatic response, and a possible survival benefit in comparison to previously reported cases of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26157901

  17. Quinoline-based clioquinol and nitroxoline exhibit anticancer activity inducing FoxM1 inhibition in cholangiocarcinoma cells

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    Chan-on W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Waraporn Chan-on,1 Nguyen Thi Bich Huyen,2 Napat Songtawee,3 Wilasinee Suwanjang,1 Supaluk Prachayasittikul,3 Virapong Prachayasittikul2 1Center for Research and Innovation, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, 3Center of Data Mining and Biomedical Informatics, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Fork head box M1 (FoxM1 is an oncogenic transcription factor frequently elevated in numerous cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. A growing body of evidence documents its diverse functions contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As such, discovery of agents that can target FoxM1 would be valuable for the treatment of CCA. The quinoline-based compounds, namely clioquinol (CQ and nitroxoline (NQ, represent a new class of anticancer drug. However, their efficacy and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in CCA. In this study, anticancer activities and inhibitory effects of CQ and NQ on FoxM1 signaling were explored using CCA cells.Methods: The effects of CQ and NQ on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay. Colony formation and cell migration affected by CQ and NQ were investigated using a clonogenic and a wound healing assay, respectively. To demonstrate the agents’ effects on FoxM1 signaling, expression levels of the target genes were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: CQ and NQ significantly inhibited cell survival of HuCCT1 and Huh28 in a dose- and a time-dependent fashion. Further investigations using the rapidly proliferating HuCCT1 cells revealed significant suppression of cell proliferation and colony formation induced by low doses of the compounds. Treatment of CQ and NQ repressed expression of cyclin D1 but enhanced expression of p21. Most importantly, upon CQ and NQ treatment

  18. Cholangiocarcinomas: New Insights from the Discovery of Stem Cell Niches in Peribiliary Glands of the Biliary Tree

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    Vincenzo Cardinale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peribiliary glands (PBGs are located in the large intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Although they were described many years ago, their functions have been elucidated only in the last couple of years when our group demonstrated that PBGs are niches of multipotent stem/progenitor cells of endodermal origin. These cells express genes of multipotency and can be rapidly differentiated in vitro into hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and endocrine pancreatic cells. PBGs share common features, in terms of stem/progenitor cell niches, with pancreatic duct glands and colon crypts, glandular structures representing in the adult life the endodermal remnants of fetal life. PBG stem/progenitor cells participate in the renewal of surface biliary epithelium and are active players in chronic pathologies of the biliary tree as well as in cholangiocarcinomas (CCA. Specifically, a large amount of recent evidence indicates that the pure mucin-CCA originates from PBGs; this could explain the similarities with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer, which also originate from transformed gland cells. In this paper, we summarized our recent findings concerning structure and functions of PBGs with the implications for liver pathophysiology and, specifically, for cancers of the biliary tree.

  19. Taurolithocholic acid promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonyingcharoen, Sumet; Suriyo, Tawit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant cancer of the biliary tract and its occurrence is associated with chronic cholestasis which causes an elevation of bile acids in the liver and bile duct. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanistic effect of bile acids on the CCA cell growth. Intrahepatic CCA cell lines, RMCCA-1 and HuCCA-1, were treated with bile acids and their metabolites to determine the growth promoting effect. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, EdU incorporation assays were conducted. Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by western immunoblotting. Among eleven forms of bile acids and their metabolites, only taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) concentration dependently (1-40 µM) increased the cell viability of RMCCA-1, but not HuCCA-1 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed induction of cells in the S phase and the EdU incorporation assay revealed induction of DNA synthesis in the TLCA-treated RMCCA-1 cells. Moreover, TLCA increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK 1/2 and also increased the expression of cyclin D1 in RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, TLCA-induced RMCCA-1 cell growth could be inhibited by atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, AG 1478, a specific EGFR inhibitor, or U 0126, a specific MEK 1/2 inhibitor. These results suggest that TLCA induces CCA cell growth via mAChR and EGFR/EKR1/2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the functional presence of cholinergic system plays a certain role in TLCA-induced CCA cell growth.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Upregulate 15-PGDH Expression in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Inhibiting miR-26a/b Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Han, Chang; Song, Kyoungsub; Zhang, Jinqiang; Lim, Kyu; Wu, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a proinflammatory lipid mediator that promotes cancer growth. The 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) catalyzes oxidation of the 15(S)-hydroxyl group of PGE2, leading to its inactivation. Therefore, 15-PGDH induction may offer a strategy to treat cancers that are driven by PGE2, such as human cholangiocarcinoma. Here, we report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) upregulate 15-PGDH expression by inhibiting miR-26a and miR-26b, thereby contributing to ω-3 PUFA-induced inhibition of human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Treatment of human cholangiocarcinoma cells (CCLP1 and TFK-1) with ω-3 PUFA (DHA) or transfection of these cells with the Fat-1 gene (encoding Caenorhabditis elegans desaturase, which converts ω-6 PUFA to ω-3 PUFA) significantly increased 15-PGDH enzymes levels, but with little effect on the activity of the 15-PGDH gene promoter. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this increase in 15-PGDH levels in cells was mediated by a reduction in the expression of miR-26a and miR-26b, which target 15-PGDH mRNA and inhibit 15-PGDH translation. These findings were extended by the demonstration that overexpressing miR-26a or miR-26b decreased 15-PGDH protein levels, reversed ω-3 PUFA-induced accumulation of 15-PGDH protein, and prevented ω-3 PUFA-induced inhibition of cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. We further observed that ω-3 PUFA suppressed miR-26a and miR-26b by inhibiting c-myc, a transcription factor that regulates miR-26a/b. Accordingly, c-myc overexpression enhanced expression of miR-26a/b and ablated the ability of ω-3 PUFA to inhibit cell growth. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism for ω-3 PUFA-induced expression of 15-PGDH in human cholangiocarcinoma and provide a preclinical rationale for the evaluation of ω-3 PUFA in treatment of this malignancy.

  1. Xanthohumol inhibits STAT3 activation pathway leading to growth suppression and apoptosis induction in human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokduang, Hasaya; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Namwat, Nisana; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Sangkhamanon, Sakkarn; Yageta, Mika Sakurai; Murakami, Yoshinori; Loilome, Watcharin

    2016-04-01

    STAT3 plays a significant role in the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) associated with the liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini; Ov). Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid extracted from hops, has known anticancer activity and could potentially target STAT3. The present study determined the effect of XN on STAT3, as well as ascertained its usefulness against CCA. The CCA cell proliferation at 20 µM and 50 µM of XN was shown to inhibited, while 20 µM partially inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 activation. At 50 µM, the inhibition was complete. The reduction in STAT3 activity at 20 and 50 µM was associated with a significant reduction of CCA cell growth and apoptosis. We also found that the administration of 50 µM XN orally in drinking water to nude mice inoculated with CCA led to a reduction in tumor growth in comparison with controls. In addition, apoptosis of cancer cells increased although there was no visible toxicity. The present study shows that XN can inhibit STAT3 activation both in vivo and in vitro due to suppression of the Akt-NFκB signaling pathway. XN should be considered as a possible therapeutic agent against CCA.

  2. Secreted cyclophilin A mediates G1/S phase transition of cholangiocarcinoma cells via CD147/ERK1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obchoei, Sumalee; Sawanyawisuth, Kanlayanee; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi; Wongkham, Sopit

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) was shown to be upregulated in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues. Suppression of intracellular CypA (inCypA) significantly reduces cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, the effect and potential mechanism of secreted CypA (sCypA) on cell proliferation of CCA cell lines were further investigated. CCA cells were treated with sCypA-containing conditioned media (CM) or with purified recombinant human CypA (rhCypA). Cell proliferation, cell cycle, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and STAT3 activities were examined by MTS assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. sCypA was detected in CM from MMNK1 (an immortalized human cholangiocyte cell line) and six CCA cell lines. The sCypA levels corresponded to the inCypA levels indicating the intracellular origin of sCypA. Both sCypA-containing CM and rhCypA significantly increased proliferation of CCA cells. CD147 depletion by shRNA-knockdown or neutralizing with a CD147-monoclonal antibody significantly reduced sCypA-, and rhCypA-mediated cell proliferation. Upon rhCypA treatment, ERK1/2 was rapidly phosphorylated; whereas neutralizing CD147 inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in S phase and decrease in G1 population in rhCypA-treated cells. The expression levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-retinoblastoma protein in the rhCypA-treated cells were increased compared with those in the non-treated control cells. p38 MAPK pathway was shown to be suppressed in siCypA-treated cells. In summary, CypA is secreted from CCA cells and enhances cell proliferation in an autocrine/paracrine manner, at least via direct binding with CD147, which may activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 translocations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rondell P; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Pestova, Ekaterina; Schulz, John; Sitailo, Leonid A; Vasmatzis, George; Murphy, Stephen J; McWilliams, Robert R; Hart, Steven N; Halling, Kevin C; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Couch, Fergus J; Zhang, Lizhi; Borad, Mitesh J; Kipp, Benjamin R

    2014-08-01

    Patients with cholangiocarcinoma often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. There is a need for effective therapeutic strategies for advanced stage cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, FGFR2 translocations have been identified as a potential target for tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies. This study evaluated 152 cholangiocarcinomas and 4 intraductal papillary biliary neoplasms of the bile duct for presence of FGFR2 translocations by fluorescence in situ hybridization and characterized the clinicopathologic features of cases with FGFR2 translocations. Thirteen (10 women, 3 men; 8%) of 156 biliary tumors harbored FGFR2 translocations, including 12 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (12/96; 13%) and 1 intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. Histologically, cholangiocarcinomas with FGFR2 translocations displayed prominent intraductal growth (62%) or anastomosing tubular glands with desmoplasia (38%). Immunohistochemically, the tumors with FGFR2 translocations frequently showed weak and patchy expression of CK19 (77%). Markers of the stem cell phenotype in cholangiocarcinoma, HepPar1 and CK20, were negative in all cases. The median cancer-specific survival for patients whose tumors harbored FGFR2 translocations was 123 months compared to 37 months for cases without FGFR2 translocations (P = .039). This study also assessed 100 cholangiocarcinomas for ERBB2 amplification and ROS1 translocations. Of the cases tested, 3% and 1% were positive for ERBB2 amplification and ROS1 translocation, respectively. These results confirm that FGFR2, ERRB2, and ROS1 alterations are potential therapeutic targets for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  4. Suppressing Effects of Down-regulating DNMT1 and DNMT3b Expression on the Growth of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi ZUO; Jian LUO; Minfeng LIU; Lining XU; Jingqing DONG; Wei GUO; Shengquan ZOU

    2008-01-01

    Hypermethylation in the promoter region is an important epigenetic mechanism for the transcriptional repression of a number of cancer-associated genes, and over-expression and/or increased activity of DNA methyltransferases are considered to be the main cause of promoter hypermethylation. In order to explore the roles of two methyltransferase members (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) in the cholangiocarcinoma tumorigenesis, antisense eukaryotic expression plasmid of DNMT1 and DNMT3b gene was constructed respectively, and were co-transfected into the human cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC-939 to observe their biological effects on the cell growth and proliferation ability, apoptosis, cell cycle alteration, and the tumorigenesis ability in the subcutaneous tissue of nude mouse. The results demonstrated that co-transfection with antisense eukaryotic expression plasmid of DNMT1 and DNMT3b gene and single transfection with antisense eukaryotic expression plasmid of DNMT1 gene can suppress the growth and proliferation of QBC-939, block the cell cycle at G1 phase, increase the apoptosis rate, minimize the tumor size in the subcutaneous tissue of nude mouse. The suppressing biological effect of co-transfection is stronger than single transfection with antisense DNMT1. Meanwhile, single transfection with antisense eukaryotic expression plasmid of DNMT3b gene has no effects on the biological characteristics of QBC-939. This study suggests that DNMT1 gene plays a key role in DNA methylation and DNMT3b gene may act as an accessory to support its function in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Combination DNMT1 and DNMT3b will inhere their biological effects and have the synergistic effect on suppressing the growth of human cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC-939.

  5. Development and characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-resistant cholangiocyte cell line: A novel model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanan, Raynoo [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Techasen, Anchalee [Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hou, Bo [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Jamnongkan, Wassana; Armartmuntree, Napat [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Yongvanit, Puangrat, E-mail: puangrat@kku.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Murata, Mariko, E-mail: mmurata@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Oxidative stress is a cause of inflammation–related diseases, including cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma is a liver cancer with bile duct epithelial cell phenotypes. Our previous studies in animal and human models indicated that oxidative stress is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma development. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can generate hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to cell death. However, some cells can survive by adapting to oxidative stress conditions, and selective clonal expansion of these resistant cells would be involved in oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to establish H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell line from an immortal cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1) by chronic treatment with low-concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (25 μM). After 72 days of induction, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell lines (ox-MMNK1-L) were obtained. The ox-MMNK1-L cell line showed H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant properties, increasing the expression of the anti-oxidant genes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) and the enzyme activities of CAT and intracellular SODs. Furthermore, the resistant cells showed increased expression levels of an epigenetics-related gene, DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), when compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the ox-MMNK1-L cell line had a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than the MMNK1 normal cell line. Moreover, ox-MMNK1-L cells showed pseudopodia formation and the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (multi-layers) under additional oxidative stress (100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). These findings suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cells can be used as a model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis through molecular changes such as alteration of gene expression and epigenetic changes. - Highlights: • An H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant ox-MMNK1-L cells was established from

  6. Targeting the ∆133p53 isoform can restore chemosensitivity in 5-fluorouracil-resistant cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutthasirikul, Nichapavee; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Techasen, Anchalee; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Chau-In, Siri; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee

    2015-12-01

    Lack of the normal p53 transactivation domain, ∆133p53 isoform exhibits anti-p53 function. Many studies report the correlation between ∆133p53 expression and poor survival in various cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is a cancer of the bile ducts. CCA almost always results in short survival times. The relevance of ∆133p53 to drug resistance in CCA is not yet well understood. This study aimed to demonstrate the association between ∆133p53 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in CCA. ∆133p53 protein was highly expressed in CCA patients with poor outcome compared to favorable outcome but was not statistically significant. However, a significant correlation was found between normalized ∆133p53 levels and 5-FU resistance which was defined by an ex vivo histoculture drug response assay (P=0.019). Two stable 5-FU-resistant CCA cell lines, KKU-M139R (IC50 38.8 µM) and KKU-M214R (IC50 39.5 µM), were used as a model to evaluate the role of ∆133p53. Increased ∆133p53 was correlated with 5-FU in a dose-dependent manner. The transient knockdown of ∆133p53 expression can restore drug sensitivity in both resistant CCA cells with 11- to 45-fold reduction of IC50 compared to control. Upon ∆133p53 silencing, apoptotic signaling was enhanced by the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. Additionally, p21 and p27 were upregulated, resulting in cell cycle arrest at G2. Inhibition of colony formation and prolong doubling time were also observed. Our findings demonstrated that chemosensitivity can be modulated via targeting of ∆133p53 suggesting the potential use of ∆133p53 as a candidate for targeting therapy in CCA.

  7. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  8. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  9. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

  10. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraveto, Alice; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Giuliante, Felice; De Rose, Agostino Maria; Grazi, Gian Luca; Napoletano, Chiara; Semeraro, Rossella; Lustri, Anna Maria; Costantini, Daniele; Nevi, Lorenzo; Di Matteo, Sabina; Renzi, Anastasia; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Alvaro, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA) subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients) and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay) and apoptosis (Caspase 3) after incubation (72 hours) with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib were more

  11. Sensitivity of Human Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Subtypes to Chemotherapeutics and Molecular Targeted Agents: A Study on Primary Cell Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fraveto

    Full Text Available We investigated the sensitivity of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA subtypes to chemotherapeutics and molecular targeted agents. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were prepared from surgical specimens (N. 18 IHCCA patients and evaluated for cell proliferation (MTS assay and apoptosis (Caspase 3 after incubation (72 hours with increasing concentrations of different drugs. In vivo, subcutaneous human tumor xenografts were evaluated. Primary cultures of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA were characterized by a different pattern of expression of cancer stem cell markers, and by a different drug sensitivity. Gemcitabine and the Gemcitabine-Cisplatin combination were more active in inhibiting cell proliferation in mixed-IHCCA while Cisplatin or Abraxane were more effective against mucin-IHCCA, where Abraxane also enhances apoptosis. 5-Fluoracil showed a slight inhibitory effect on cell proliferation that was more significant in mixed- than mucin-IHCCA primary cultures and, induced apoptosis only in mucin-IHCCA. Among Hg inhibitors, LY2940680 and Vismodegib showed slight effects on proliferation of both IHCCA subtypes. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Imatinib Mesylate and Sorafenib showed significant inhibitory effects on proliferation of both mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. The MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib, inhibited proliferation of only mucin-IHCCA while the aminopeptidase-N inhibitor, Bestatin was more active against mixed-IHCCA. The c-erbB2 blocking antibody was more active against mixed-IHCCA while, the Wnt inhibitor, LGK974, similarly inhibited proliferation of mucin- and mixed-IHCCA. Either mucin- or mixed-IHCCA showed high sensitivity to nanomolar concentrations of the dual PI3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235. In vivo, in subcutaneous xenografts, either NVP-BEZ235 or Abraxane, blocked tumor growth. In conclusion, mucin- and mixed-IHCCA are characterized by a different drug sensitivity. Cisplatin, Abraxane and the MEK 1/2 inhibitor, Selumetinib

  12. Upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA expression by in vitro transfection of hepatitis B virus X gene into human hepatocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Liang Qu; Sheng-Quan Zou; Nai-Qiang Cui; Xian-Zhong Wu; Ming-Fang Qin; Di Kong; Zhen-Li Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the changes of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2) and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (QBC939) after HBx gene transfection and to illustrate the significance of transcriptional regulation of hTERT gene by HBx gene in the carcinogenesis.METHODS: HepG2 and QBC939 cell lines were cultured and co-transfected with eukaryotic expression vector containing the HBx coding region and cloning vector containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence using lipid-mediated gene transduction technique. Thirty-six hours after transfection, EGFP expression in cells was used as the indicator of successful transfection. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the transfection efficiency.Cells were harvested and total RNA was extracted using TRIzol() reagent. The expression of hTERT mRNA in HepG2and QBC939 cell lines was assayed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The expression of HBx protein in both cell lines was detected by immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting.RESULTS: Flow cytometry showed that the transfection efficiency was 46.4% in HepG2 cells and 29.6% in QBC939cells for both HBx gene expression vector and blank vector. The expression of hTERT mRNA was meaningfully increased in HepG2 and QBC939 cell lines when transfected with HBx gene expression vector compared to those transfected with OPTI-MEM medium and blank vector.Immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting revealed HBx protein expression in HepG2 and QBC939cells only when transfected with HBx gene.CONCLUSION: HBx gene transfection can upregulate the transcriptional expression of hTERT mRNA. The transactivation of hTERT gene by HBx gene is a newfound mechanism for pathogenesis of hepatocarcinomas and cholangiocarcinomas after HBV infection.

  13. Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas/Pancreatic Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) Is Expressed and Secreted by Proliferating Ductules as well as by Hepatocarcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christa, Laurence; Simon, Marie-Thérèse; Brezault-Bonnet, Catherine; Bonte, Eric; Carnot, Françoise; Zylberberg, Hervé; Franco, Dominique; Capron, Frédérique; Roskams, Tania; Bréchot, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene was identified because of its increased expression in 25% of human hepatocellular carcinoma. HIP/PAP protein, a C-type lectin, binds laminin, acts as an adhesion molecule for hepatocytes, and has also been described as an acute phase secretory protein during acute pancreatitis in humans and rats. We investigated HIP/PAP protein expression in patients with various liver diseases associated with ductular reaction. At the same time, we analyzed patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, and tested HIP/PAP protein levels in sera to establish the pattern of secretion. Our data show that HIP/PAP expression was not restricted to hepatocellular carcinoma, but was also detected in cholangiocarcinoma cells as well as in reactive non-malignant bile ductules. In contrast, HIP/PAP protein expression was undetectable in normal mature hepatocytes, but some ductular cells localized at the interface of portal tracts with parenchyma were HIP/PAP immunoreactive in normal liver. Finally, we present evidence that HIP/PAP serum levels were increased in 21/28 (75%) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and in 25/51 (49%) patients with nonmalignant cirrhosis. Altogether, these results suggest that HIP/PAP protein may be implicated in hepatocytic and cholangiolar differentiation and proliferation. PMID:10550309

  14. S100与MMP-7在胆管癌神经浸润转移中的表达及意义%EXPRESSIONS OF S100 AND MMP-7 IN CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA WITH PERINEURAL INVASION AND THEIR CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐锟; 刘小方

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨S100与MMP-7在胆管癌组织中的表达及其与胆管癌神经浸润转移的作用和相关关系.方法 采用免疫组织化学方法检测36例胆管癌及癌旁组织中S100与MMP-7的表达,并结合临床资料进行分析.结果 胆管癌组织中S100、MMP-7的表达阳性率分别为61.11%(22/36)、83.33%(30/36),而在癌旁组织中S100、MMP-7的表达阳性率分别为30.56%(11/36)、0(0/36);胆管癌组织中神经浸润阳性率与S100的表达水平呈显著相关性(r=0.337,P<0.05),与MMP-7表达水平无相关性(r=0.189,P<0.05);S100与MMP-7的表达水平呈正相关(r=0.08,P<0.05);S100和MMP-7的表达与胆管癌病人生存期相关,表达阳性者预后差(χ2=9.960、5.98,P<0.05).结论 S100与MMP-7的异常表达共同参与了胆管癌的发生发展,可能与胆管癌的神经浸润转移有关,二者可作为判断胆管癌预后的指标.%ObjectiveTo study the expressions of S100 and MMP-7 in cholangiocarcinoma and their correlation with its perineural invasion. MethodsUsing immunohistochemical method, the expressions of S100 and MMP-7 in cancer and paraneoplastic tissues in 36 patients with cholangiocarcinoma were detected and analyzed based on clinical data. ResultsThe positive rates of S100 and MMP-7 in cancer and paraneoplastic tissues were 61.11%(22/36) and 83.33% (30/36), and 30.56% (11/36) and 0(0/36), respectively. The positive rate of nerve invasion was significantly correlated with S100 (r=0.337,P<0.05), but not with MMP-7 (r=0.189,P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between S100 and MMP-7 (r=0.048,P<0.05). The expressions of S100 and MMP-7 were related with patient's survival time, and those with positive expressions had a poor prognosis (χ2=9.960,5.984;P<0.05). Conclusion S100 and MMP-7 are both involved in the tumorigenesis and development of cholangiocarcinoma, probably associated with perineural invasion, which can be used as parameters for prediction of the prognosis of this malignancy.

  15. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivarou, Theodora; Patsavoudi, Evangelia, E-mail: epatsavoudi@pasteur.gr [Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens 11521 (Greece); Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, Athens 12210 (Greece)

    2015-01-26

    Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  16. Extracellular Molecules Involved in Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Stivarou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is perfectly clear that understanding and eradicating cancer cell invasion and metastasis represent the crucial, definitive points in cancer therapeutics. During the last two decades there has been a great interest in the understanding of the extracellular molecular mechanisms involved in cancer cell invasion. In this review, we highlight the findings concerning these processes, focusing in particular on extracellular molecules, including extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors, growth factors and their receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and extracellular chaperones. We report the molecular mechanisms underlying the important contribution of this pool of molecules to the complex, multi-step phenomenon of cancer cell invasion.

  17. Characterization of a novel rat cholangiocarcinoma cell culture model-CGCCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Nan Yeh; Kun-Ju Lin; Tsung-Wen Chen; Ren-Ching Wu; Lee-Cheng Tsao; Ying-Tzu Chen; Wen-Hui Weng; Miin-Fu Chen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To characterize a culture model of rat CCA cells, which were derived from a transplantable TTA-induced CCA and designated as Chang Gung CCA (CGCCA). METHODS: The CGCCA cells were cultured at in vitro passage 12 times on a culture dish in DMEM medium. To measure the doubling time, 103 cells were plated in a 96-well plate containing the growth medium. The cells were harvested 4 to 10 d after seeding, and a standard MTT assay was used to measure the growth. The phenotype of CACCA cell and xenograft was determined by immunohistochemical study. We also determine the chromosomal alterations of CGCCA, G-banding and spectral karyotyping studies were performed. The CGCCA cell line was transplanted into the nude mice for examining its tumorigenicity. 2-Deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-Dglucose (FDG) autoradiography was also performed to evaluate the FDG uptake of the tumor xenograft. RESULTS: The doubling time for the CGCCA cell line was 32 h. After transplantation into nude mice, FDG autoradiography showed that the tumors formed at the cell transplantation site had a latency period of 4-6 wk with high FDG uptake excluding necrosis tissue. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed prominent cytoplasmic expression of c-erb-B2, CK19, c-Met, COX-Ⅱ, EGFR, MUC4, and a negative expression of K-ras. All data confirmed the phenotypic features of the CGCCA cell line coincide with the xenograft mice tumors, indicating cells containing the tumorigenicity of CCA originated from CCA. In addition, karyotypic banding analysis showed that the diploid (2n) cell status combines with ring and giant rod marker chromosomes in these clones; either both types simultaneously appeared or only one type of marker chromosome in a pair appeared in a cell. The major materials contained in the marker chromosome were primarily identified from chromosome 4. CONCLUSION: The current CGCCA cell line may be used as a non-K-ras effect CCA model and to obtain information and reveal novel pathways for CCA. Further

  18. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, Gavin C

    2008-09-01

    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  19. Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Anticancer Activity of Gallic Acid against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Daduang, Sakda; Wongwattanakul, Molin; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Sandee, Alisa; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Daduang, Jureerut

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with gallic acid (GA) at various concentrations between 30 and 150 μM and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The anticancer activities of the gallic acid-stabilized gold nanoparticles against well-differentiated (M213) and moderately differentiated (M214) adenocarcinomas were then determined using a neutral red assay. The GA mechanism of action was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Distinctive features of the FTIR spectra between the control and GA-treated cells were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). The surface plasmon resonance spectra of the GNPs had a maximum absorption at 520 nm, whereas GNPs-GA shifted the maximum absorption values. In an in vitro study, the complexed GNPs-GA had an increased ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that was statistically significant (Pacids, which may enhance the efficacy of this anticancer activity regarding apoptosis pathways.

  20. Interleukin-2 gene-encoded stromal cells inhibit the growth of metastatic cholangiocarcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-Hwan Kim; Sang Soo Lee; Sung Koo Lee; Seung-Gyu Lee; Chul-Won Suh; Gyung-Yub Gong; Jung-Sun Park; Young-Hoon Kim; Sang-Hee Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be used as an attractive target for genetic modification in the treatment of malignant diseases.METHODS: Using a hamster model of biliary cancer,we investigated the therapeutic effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene-modified BMSCs. Syrian golden hamsters were injected via the femoral vein with 5x10s cells of the KIGB-5 biliary cancer cell line (n=20). One week later,the hamsters were injected intraperitoneally with BMSCs containing Ad/hIL-2 and Ad/△E1, unmodified BMSCs, or RPMI only (control) and observed for 12 wk (n=5/each group).RESULTS: All hamsters treated with BMSCs containing Ad/hIL-2 survived with no evidence of the disease during this period. In contrast, hamsters in the other three groups showed disseminated metastases involving the lungs as early as 4 wk.CONCLUSION: Ad/IL-2 therapy is effective in the treatment of biliary cancer.

  1. A polysaccharide from Pinellia ternata inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells by targeting of Cdc42 and 67kDa Laminin Receptor (LR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Li, Dajiang; Chen, Jian; Wang, Shuguang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we isolated and purified a polysaccharide (PTPA) from the tubers of Pinellia ternate. We aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of PTPA on human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines and to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. PTPA at the dose from 25 to 200μg/mL showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of four cancer cell lines (SNU-245, CL-6, Sk-ChA-1 and MZ-ChA-1), among which Sk-ChA-1 was a most sensitive cell line to PTPA treatment via induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, RNA interference of Sk-ChA-1 cells with 67LR or Cdc42-targeted shRNAs resulted a similar potency in decreasing cell viability and causing apoptotic death. Moreover, PTPA (100μg/mL) or 67LR or Cdc42 special shRNAs increased the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bax to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, induced the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, but not caspsase-8, and inhibited the expression of 67LR or Cdc42 protein in Sk-ChA-1 cells. Taken together, the inhibitory effect of PTPA on the cell growth of Sk-ChA-1 cells was at least in part mediated via the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and the downregulation of 67LR or Cdc42 protein expression. Thus, PTPA may be developed as a promising candidate for chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of human CCA.

  2. Anchor cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-07-01

    An understanding of cell-invasive behavior has been limited by the lack of in vivo models where this activity can be clearly visualized and manipulated. We show that a single cell in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, the anchor cell (AC), initiates uterine-vulval contact through a cell invasion event. Using genetic analysis, laser ablations, and cell-specific markers, we demonstrate that AC invasion is predominantly stimulated by the 1 degrees vulval lineage cells, which generate a diffusible signal that promotes AC invasive behavior toward these cells and further targets invasive processes between the two central 1 degrees vulval lineage cells. We also show that AC invasion is regulated by the AC response to this cue, as well as a vulval-independent mechanism that weakly drives invasion. These studies dissect the regulatory mechanisms that underlie a simple cell-invasive behavior in vivo, and introduce AC invasion as a model for understanding key checkpoints controlling cell invasion.

  3. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buettner S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Buettner, Jeroen LA van Vugt, Jan NM IJzermans, Bas Groot Koerkamp Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC is the second most common malignancy arising from the liver. ICC makes up about 10% of all cholangiocarcinomas. It arises from the peripheral bile ducts within the liver parenchyma, proximal to the secondary biliary radicals. Histologically, the majority of ICCs are adenocarcinomas. Only a minority of patients (15% present with resectable disease, with a median survival of less than 3 years. Multidisciplinary management of ICC is complicated by large differences in disease course for individual patients both across and within tumor stages. Risk models and nomograms have been developed to more accurately predict survival of individual patients based on clinical parameters. Predictive risk factors are necessary to improve patient selection for systemic treatments. Molecular differences between tumors, such as in the epidermal growth factor receptor status, are promising, but their clinical applicability should be validated. For patients with locally advanced disease, several treatment strategies are being evaluated. Both hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with floxuridine and yttrium-90 embolization aim to downstage locally advanced ICC. Selected patients have resectable disease after downstaging, and other patients might benefit because of postponing widespread dissemination and biliary obstruction. Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, diagnosis, treatment, developments 

  4. Sarcomatoid Change in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Zhang, Da; Abdulkarim, Bashar;

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid transformation is a rare but well documented change that may occur in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.We report a tumor of this type to illustrate the difficulties in properly diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma when only the sarcomatous component is sampled by transcutaneous needle biopsy...

  5. Targeting hexokinase II as a possible therapy for cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamrongwaranggoon, Ubonrat; Seubwai, Wunchana; Phoomak, Chatchai; Sangkhamanon, Sakkarn; Cha'on, Ubon; Boonmars, Thidarat; Wongkham, Sopit

    2017-03-04

    Overexpression of hexokinase 2 (HKII) has been demonstrated in various cancers. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies in several cancers show the significance of HKII in many cellular processes including proliferation, metastasis and apoptosis. However, the role of HKII in Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is still unknown. In the present study, the expression and roles of HKII were determined in Ov associated CCA. The expression of HKII was investigated in 82 patients with histologically proven CCAs by immunohistochemistry. HKII was distinctively expressed in CCA tissues. It was rarely expressed in normal bile duct epithelium, but was expressed in hyperplastic/dysplastic and in 82% of CCA bile ducts. The observation was confirmed in the Ov associated hamster model. Suppression of HKII expression using siRNA significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion of CCA cell lines. Similar results were obtained using lonidamine (LND), an inhibitor of HK. LND significantly inhibited growth of 4 CCA cell lines tested in dose and time dependent fashion. Comparison the cytotoxic effects of LND and siRNA-HKII suggests the off target of LND above 100 μM. In addition, LND in non-cytotoxic doses could suppress migration and invasion of CCA cells. These results indicate the association of HKII in cholangiocarcinogenesis and progression and suggest the possibility of HKII as a therapeutic target for CCA.

  6. 表观遗传学药物对肝内胆管癌的作用%Effects of epigenetic drugs in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文杰; 张锦前; 贺轲; 段小鹏; 黄睿; 夏正林; 何景亮; 向国安

    2016-01-01

    Objective Screening of epigenetic drugs sensitive to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and exploring the mechanism.Methods Screening a 96-epigenetic library in RBE cells through cell validity assay and comparing the inhibition effect of these sensitive drugs on multiple cell lines;Giemsa staining was used to observe the cell morphological change and flow cytometry to check the cell cycle distribution;Morphological observation,flow cytometry technique and Western blotting were combined to check the cell apoptosis.Results Twenty two drugs from the 96-epigenetic library had certain inhibition on RBE cells,including twelve histone deacetylase (HDAC) targeted species;HC-toxin' s inhibition effect on four intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell lines were the most obvious among the HDAC inhibitors' and were superior to that of gemcitabine;cells at G0/G1 phases in HC toxin treated group was much more than that in control group (82.93% vs.48.51%) and HC toxin brought about diverse of morphological changes,apoptosis bodies and reduced mitosis included;flow cytometry indicated intensively apoptosis inducted by HC toxin and it was not associated with Caspase-3 depended pathways for the Caspase-3 up-regulated in the trial groups tested by Western blotting was not remarkable in statistics.Conclusion HDAC inhibitors,especially HC toxin,are of great potential in the treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.%目的 筛选肝内胆管癌敏感的表观遗传学药物并研究其作用机制.方法 采用细胞活力实验筛选对RBE细胞敏感的药物;在多种细胞株上比较其作用;选择最敏感的药物探讨其机制:通过Giemsa染色观察肝内胆管癌细胞经药物处理后的形态学变化,用流式细胞技术检测细胞周期分布,联合流式细胞技术、Western blot检测细胞的凋亡.结果 RBE细胞分别经96种表观遗传学药物处理48 h,27 μmol/L浓度下22种药物对RBE细胞有抑制作用(细胞活力<60%),组蛋白

  7. Risedronate inhibits human osteosarcoma cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sung

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor and is the most commonly encountered malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Furthermore, significant numbers of patients eventually develop pulmonary metastases and succumb to the disease even after conventional multi-agent chemotherapy and surgical excision. Several solid tumors display enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, and recently clinical trials have been initiated on MMP-inhibitors. On the other hand, bisphosphonates (BPs, which have a profound effect on bone resorption, are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. BPs are also known to inhibit tumor growths and metastases in some tumors such as breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer. Methods Two osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS-2 and U2OS were treated with risedronate (0, 0.1, 1, 10 μM for 48 hours. Cell viabilities were determined using MTT assay, the mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the amount of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein were analyzed by Westernblot, the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were observed by Gelatin zymography, and Matrigel invasion assays were used to investigate the invasive potential of osteosarcoma cell lines before and after risedronate treatment. Results The invasiveness of osteosarcoma cell lines (SaOS-2, U2OS were reduced in a dose dependent manner follow 48 hour treatment of up to 10 μM of the risedronate at which concentration no cytotoxicity occurred. Furthermore, the gelatinolytic activities and protein and mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also suppressed by increasing risedronate concentrations. Conclusion Given that MMP-2 and MMP-9 are instrumental in tumor cell invasion, our results suggest the risedronate could reduce osteosarcoma cell invasion.

  8. Resection of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Hermien; Ijzermans, Jan N M; van Gulik, Thomas M; Groot Koerkamp, Bas

    2016-04-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma presents at the biliary and vascular junction of the hepatic hilum with a tendency to extend longitudinally into segmental bile ducts. Most patients show metastatic or unresectable disease at time of presentation or surgical exploration. In patients eligible for surgical resection, challenges are to achieve negative bile duct margins, adequate liver remnant function, and adequate portal and arterial inflow to the liver remnant. Surgical treatment is characterized by high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the various strategies and techniques, the role of staging laparoscopy, intraoperative frozen section, caudate lobectomy, and vascular reconstruction.

  9. Establishment of an allo-transplantable hamster cholangiocarcinoma cell line and its application for in vivo screening of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthdee, Nattapong; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Seubwai, Wunchana; Wonkchalee, Orasa; Kaewkong, Worasak; Juasook, Amornrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Okada, Seiji; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wongkham, Sopit

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) is a well-known causative agent of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in humans. CCA is very resistant to chemotherapy and is frequently fatal. To understand the pathogenesis of CCA in humans, a rodent model was developed. However, the development of CCA in rodents is time-consuming and the xenograft-transplantation model of human CCA in immunodeficient mice is costly. Therefore, the establishment of an in vivo screening model for O. viverrini-associated CCA treatment was of interest. We developed a hamster CCA cell line, Ham-1, derived from the CCA tissue of O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine-treated Syrian golden hamsters. Ham-1 has been maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 30 subcultures. These cells are mostly diploid (2n=44) with some being polyploid. Tumorigenic properties of Ham-1 were demonstrated by allograft transplantation in hamsters. The transplanted tissues were highly proliferative and exhibited a glandular-like structure retaining a bile duct marker, cytokeratin 19. The usefulness of this for in vivo model was demonstrated by berberine treatment, a traditional medicine that is active against various cancers. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine, mainly by an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest, were observed in vitro and in vivo. In summary, we developed the allo-transplantable hamster CCA cell line, which can be used for chemotherapeutic drug testing in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Different carcinogenic process in cholangiocarcinoma cases epidemically developing among workers of a printing company in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasunori; Kubo, Shoji; Takemura, Shigekazu; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Shogo; Fujikawa, Masahiro; Arimoto, Akira; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cholangiocarcinoma has epidemically developed among young adult workers of a printing company in Japan. Exposure to organic solvents including 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane is supposed to be associated with the carcinoma development. The metabolism of dichloromethane proceeds through a Theta-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1-1-catalyzed pathway, where its reactive intermediates have been implicated in genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. This study examined features of the carcinogenic process of the cholangiocarcinoma developed in the printing company. Surgically resected specimens of the cholangiocarcinoma cases were analyzed, where all cases were associated with precursor lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and/or intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed constitutional expression of GST T1-1 in normal hepatobiliary tract. Immunostaining of γ-H2AX, a marker of DNA double strand break, showed that its expression was significantly increased in foci of BilIN, IPNB and invasive carcinoma as well as in non-neoplastic biliary epithelial cells of the printing company cases when compared to that of control groups. In the printing company cases, immunohistochemical expression of p53 was observed in non-neoplastic biliary epithelial cells and BilIN-1. Mutations of KRAS and GNAS were detected in foci of BilIN in one out of 3 cases of the printing company. These results revealed different carcinogenic process of the printing company cases, suggesting that the exposed organic solvents might act as a carcinogen for biliary epithelial cells by causing DNA damage, thereby contributing to the carcinoma development.

  11. Cholangiocarcinoma with respect to IgG4 Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 reactions marked by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs occur in cancer patients and in patients with IgG4-related diseases. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas including gall bladder cancer are often accompanied by significant IgG4 reactions; these reactions show a negative correlation with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, suggesting that the evasion of immune surveillance is associated with cytotoxic T cells. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 may induce IgG4-positive plasma cell differentiation or promote B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4. Cholangiocarcinoma cells may function as nonprofessional antigen presenting cells that indirectly induce IgG4 reactions via the IL-10-producing cells and/or these may act as Foxp3-positive and IL-10-producing cells that directly induce IgG4 reactions. Moreover, IgG4-related disease is a high-risk factor for cancer development; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC cases associated with cholangiocarcinoma or its precursor lesion biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN have been reported. IgG4-positive cell infiltration is an important finding of IgG4-SC but is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-SC. For the diagnosis of IgG4-SC, its differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma remains important.

  12. Cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandalovičová, Aneta; Vomastek, Tomáš; Rosel, Daniel; Brábek, Jan

    2016-05-03

    Apico-basal polarity is typical of cells present in differentiated epithelium while front-rear polarity develops in motile cells. In cancer development, the transition from epithelial to migratory polarity may be seen as the hallmark of cancer progression to an invasive and metastatic disease. Despite the morphological and functional dissimilarity, both epithelial and migratory polarity are controlled by a common set of polarity complexes Par, Scribble and Crumbs, phosphoinositides, and small Rho GTPases Rac, Rho and Cdc42. In epithelial tissues, their mutual interplay ensures apico-basal and planar cell polarity. Accordingly, altered functions of these polarity determinants lead to disrupted cell-cell adhesions, cytoskeleton rearrangements and overall loss of epithelial homeostasis. Polarity proteins are further engaged in diverse interactions that promote the establishment of front-rear polarity, and they help cancer cells to adopt different invasion modes. Invading cancer cells can employ either the collective, mesenchymal or amoeboid invasion modes or actively switch between them and gain intermediate phenotypes. Elucidation of the role of polarity proteins during these invasion modes and the associated transitions is a necessary step towards understanding the complex problem of metastasis. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the role of cell polarity signaling in the plasticity of cancer cell invasiveness.

  13. Current update on combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Maximin

    2014-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma tends to present with an more aggressive behavior and a poorer prognosis than either hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. An accurate preoperative diagnosis and aggressive treatment planning can play crucial roles in appropriate patient management.

  14. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  15. [Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, G A; Donati, M; Faiss, S; Jenner, R M; Niehaus, K J; Oldhafer, K J

    2014-02-01

    Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumors are a rare entity arising from the extrahepatic bile duct bifurcation. Considering the close anatomical relationship of the bile duct bifurcation with the portal vein bifurcation and hepatic arteries, surgical treatment is demanding. With an incidence of only 2-4 cases/100,000 population/year patients should be referred to a specialized center. The tumors are usually poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas growing diffusely along the duct and also the perineural sheath. Only radical surgery offers a curative option and currently surgical strategy usually consists of en bloc resection of the bile duct, extended liver resection and portal vein resection. Proximal and lateral safety margin R0 resections are technically very demanding procedures because of the local anatomy.

  16. Cocktail treatment with EGFR-specific and CD133-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in a patient with advanced cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-chao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is one of the most fatal malignant tumors with increasing incidence, mortality, and insensitivity to traditional chemo-radiotherapy and targeted therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell (CART immunotherapy represents a novel strategy for the management of many malignancies. However, the potential of CART therapy in treating advanced unresectable/metastatic CCA is uncharted so far. Case presentation In this case, a 52-year-old female who was diagnosed as advanced unresectable/metastatic CCA and resistant to the following chemotherapy and radiotherapy was treated with CART cocktail immunotherapy, which was composed of successive infusions of CART cells targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and CD133, respectively. The patient finally achieved an 8.5-month partial response (PR from the CART-EGFR therapy and a 4.5-month-lasting PR from the CART133 treatment. The CART-EGFR cells induced acute infusion-related toxicities such as mild chills, fever, fatigue, vomiting and muscle soreness, and a 9-day duration of delayed lower fever, accompanied by escalation of IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP, acute increase of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and grade 2 lichen striatus-like skin pathological changes. The CART133 cells induced an intermittent upper abdominal dull pain, chills, fever, and rapidly deteriorative grade 3 systemic subcutaneous hemorrhages and congestive rashes together with serum cytokine release, which needed emergent medical intervention including intravenous methylprednisolone. Conclusions This case suggests that CART cocktail immunotherapy may be feasible for the treatment of CCA as well as other solid malignancies; however, the toxicities, especially the epidermal/endothelial damages, require a further investigation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01869166 and NCT02541370 .

  17. 肝门部胆管癌中Shh和Ptch的表达与肿瘤侵袭性及根治术后复发的关系%Correlation of Shh and Ptch Expression with Invasion and Tumor Recurrence after Radical Resection of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洪亮; 丁志强; 俞亚红

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究Hedgehog信号通路核心蛋白Sonic hedgehog(Shh)和Patched(Ptch)在肝门部胆管癌中的表达及与肿瘤侵袭性和根治性切除术后肿瘤复发的关系,探讨其相关分子机制.方法 采用免疫组织化学技术检测44例肝门部胆管癌、7例胆管炎性病变组织中Shh和Ptch的表达,分析Shh、Ptch与肝门部胆管癌临床病理特征及根治术后复发的关系.应用Kaplan-Meier法对肿瘤根治术后至肿瘤复发时间跨度进行单因素分析,并经Log-rank 检验;选择可能对肝门部胆管癌患者预后产生影响的临床病理指标进行量化,依次引入COX风险比例模型进行多因素回归分析.结果 肝门部胆管癌Shh和Ptch阳性表达强度明显高于胆管炎性病变组织;Shh和Ptch表达与肝门部胆管癌侵袭性呈正相关;Shh和Ptch表达与肝门部胆管癌根治术后早期复发呈正相关;单因素生存分析显示Shh和Ptch高表达组肝门部胆管癌患者根治术后复发时间更短(P<0.01);多因素回归分析显示Shh和Ptch表达是影响肝门部胆管癌患者根治术后复发的独立因素.结论 Shh和Ptch表达与肝门部胆管癌根治术后短期复发有关,Shh和Ptch可以作为预测胆管癌根治术后复发的独立影响因子.%Objective To investigate the correlation of Shh and Ptch expression with clinicopathological characteristics and tumor recurrence after radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and the molecular mechanisms of invasion and recurrence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of Shh and Ptch expression in 44 specimens of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and 7 specimens of benign bile duct tissues. The relation of the expression of Shh and Ptch to clinicopathological characteristics and tumor recurrence after radical resection was analyzed. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the recurrence of hilar cholangiocarinoma following radical resection by

  18. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Benjamin R; Voss, Jesse S; Kerr, Sarah E; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Graham, Rondell P; Zhang, Lizhi; Highsmith, W Edward; Zhang, Jun; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Halling, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are common in gliomas and help stratify patients with brain cancer into histologic and molecular subtypes. However, these mutations are considered rare in other solid tumors. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma and to assess histopathologic differences between specimens with and without an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation. We sequenced 94 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cholangiocarcinoma (67 intrahepatic and 27 extrahepatic) assessing for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (codon 132) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (codons 140 and 172) mutations. Multiple histopathologic characteristics were also evaluated and compared with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutation status. Of the 94 evaluated specimens, 21 (22%) had a mutation including 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma than in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (28% versus 7%, respectively; P = .030). The 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations were R132C (n = 9), R132S (n = 2), R132G (n = 2), and R132L (n = 1). The 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations were R172K (n = 5), R172M (n = 1), and R172G (n = 1). Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in tumors with clear cell change (P < .001) and poorly differentiated histology (P = .012). The results of this study show for the first time that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are mutated in cholangiocarcinoma. The results of this study are encouraging because it identifies a new potential target for genotype-directed therapeutic trials and may represent a potential biomarker for earlier detection of cholangiocarcinoma in a subset of cases.

  19. Cell adhesion molecules P-cadherin and CD24 are markers for carcinoma and dysplasia in the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Marc-Oliver; Vogetseder, Alexander; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kristiansen, Glen; Jochum, Wolfram

    2010-11-01

    P-cadherin (CDH3) and CD24 are cell adhesion molecules that control morphogenic processes, cell motility, and invasive growth of tumor cells. The aim of our study was to investigate P-cadherin and CD24 expression in carcinomas and dysplastic lesions of the biliary tract and to evaluate the potential diagnostic usefulness of these cell adhesion molecules. Using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, we analyzed P-cadherin, CD24, and p53 expression in 117 carcinomas of the biliary tract (19 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 59 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 39 gallbladder carcinomas) and correlated our findings with clinicopathologic parameters. We found P-cadherin positivity in 37% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 73% of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 64% of gallbladder carcinomas, respectively. CD24 reactivity was observed in 21% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 58% of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 42% of gallbladder carcinomas. Nuclear p53 expression was found in 37% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 46% of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 45% of gallbladder carcinomas. We also studied P-cadherin, CD24, and p53 expression in normal (n = 30), inflamed (n = 22), and dysplastic (n = 21) biliary epithelium of extrahepatic bile ducts. Dysplastic biliary epithelium was positive for P-cadherin in 91%, for CD24 in 71%, and for p53 in 24% of lesions, respectively. In contrast, normal and inflamed epithelia were negative for all 3 proteins. We conclude that P-cadherin and CD24 are expressed in carcinomas of the biliary tract with high frequency and at an early stage of carcinogenesis. Therefore, they may be useful markers for early detection and as targets for therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

  20. miR-29b, miR-205 and miR-221 enhance chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in HuH28 human cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is highly resistant to chemotherapy, including gemcitabine (Gem treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous, non-coding, short RNAs that can regulate multiple genes expression. Some miRNAs play important roles in the chemosensitivity of tumors. Here, we examined the relationship between miRNA expression and the sensitivity of CCA cells to Gem. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to determine the miRNA expression profiles of two CCA cell lines, HuH28 and HuCCT1. To determine the effect of candidate miRNAs on Gem sensitivity, expression of each candidate miRNA was modified via either transfection of a miRNA mimic or transfection of an anti-oligonucleotide. Ontology-based programs were used to identify potential target genes of candidate miRNAs that were confirmed to affect the Gem sensitivity of CCA cells. RESULTS: HuCCT1 cells were more sensitive to Gem than were HuH28 cells, and 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed whose ratios over ± 2log2 between HuH28 and HuCCT1. Among these 18 miRNAs, ectopic overexpression of each of three downregulated miRNAs in HuH28 (miR-29b, miR-205, miR-221 restored Gem sensitivity to HuH28. Suppression of one upregulated miRNA in HuH28, miR-125a-5p, inhibited HuH28 cell proliferation independently to Gem treatment. Selective siRNA-mediated downregulation of either of two software-predicted targets, PIK3R1 (target of miR-29b and miR-221 or MMP-2 (target of miR-29b, also conferred Gem sensitivity to HuH28. CONCLUSIONS: miRNA expression profiling was used to identify key miRNAs that regulate Gem sensitivity in CCA cells, and software that predicts miRNA targets was used to identify promising target genes for anti-tumor therapies.

  1. ABT737 enhances cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhongqi [Department of Hepatobiliary & Pancreas Surgery, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Yu, Huimei [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Cui, Ni [Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Chang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033 (China); Wu, Yao [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Sun, Liankun, E-mail: sunlk@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Wang, Guangyi, E-mail: wgymd@sina.com [Department of Hepatobiliary & Pancreas Surgery, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma responses weakly to cisplatin. Mitochondrial dynamics participate in the response to various stresses, and mainly involve mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission. Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in orchestrating mitochondrial dynamics, and are involved in the resistance to cisplatin. Here we reported that ABT737, combined with cisplatin, can promote cholangiocarcinoma cells to undergo apoptosis. We found that the combined treatment decreased the Mcl-1 pro-survival form and increased Bak. Cells undergoing cisplatin treatment showed hyperfused mitochondria, whereas fragmentation was dominant in the mitochondria of cells exposed to the combined treatment, with higher Fis1 levels, decreased Mfn2 and OPA1 levels, increased ratio of Drp1 60 kD to 80 kD form, and more Drp1 located on mitochondria. More p62 aggregates were observed in cells with fragmented mitochondria, and they gradually translocated to mitochondria. Mitophagy was induced by the combined treatment. Knockdown p62 decreased the Drp1 ratio, increased Tom20, and increased cell viability. Our data indicated that mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in the response of cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin. ABT737 might enhance cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the balance within Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, p62 seems to be critical in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • Cholangiocarcinoma may adapt to cisplatin through mitochondrial fusion. • ABT737 sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin by promoting fission and mitophagy. • p62 might participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and mitophagy.

  2. Cholangiocarcinomas can originate from hepatocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Biao; Malato, Yann; Calvisi, Diego F; Naqvi, Syed; Razumilava, Nataliya; Ribback, Silvia; Gores, Gregory J; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Chen, Xin; Willenbring, Holger

    2012-08-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) are primary liver tumors with a poor prognosis. The development of effective therapies has been hampered by a limited understanding of the biology of ICCs. Although ICCs exhibit heterogeneity in location, histology, and marker expression, they are currently thought to derive invariably from the cells lining the bile ducts, biliary epithelial cells (BECs), or liver progenitor cells (LPCs). Despite lack of experimental evidence establishing BECs or LPCs as the origin of ICCs, other liver cell types have not been considered. Here we show that ICCs can originate from fully differentiated hepatocytes. Using a mouse model of hepatocyte fate tracing, we found that activated NOTCH and AKT signaling cooperate to convert normal hepatocytes into biliary cells that act as precursors of rapidly progressing, lethal ICCs. Our findings suggest a previously overlooked mechanism of human ICC formation that may be targetable for anti-ICC therapy.

  3. Palliation:Hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahesh; Kr; Goenka; Usha; Goenka

    2014-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinomas are common tumors of the bile duct that are often unresectable at presentation. Palliation, therefore, remains the goal in the majority of these patients. Palliative treatment is particularly indicated in the presence of cholangitis and pruritus but is often also offered for high-grade jaundice and abdominal pain. Endoscopic drainage by placing stents at endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography(ERCP) is usually the preferred modality of palliation. However, for advanced disease, percutaneous stenting has been shown to be superior to endoscopic stenting. Endosonography-guided biliary drainage is emerging as an alternative technique, particularly when ERCP is not possible or fails. Metal stents are usually preferred over plastic stents, both for ERCP and for percutaneous bili-ary drainage. There is no consensus as to whether it is necessary to place multiple stents within advanced hi-lar blocks or whether unilateral stenting would suffice. However, recent data have suggested that, contrary to previous belief, it is useful to drain more than 50% of the liver volume for favorable long-term results. In the presence of cholangitis, it is beneficial to drain all of the obstructed biliary segments. Surgical bypass plays a limited role in palliation and is offered primarily as asegment Ⅲ bypass if, during a laparotomy for resec-tion, the tumor is found to be unresectable. Photody-namic therapy and, more recently, radiofrequency abla-tion have been used as adjuvant therapies to improve the results of biliary stenting. The exact technique to be used for palliation is guided by the extent of the bili-ary involvement(Bismuth class) and the availability of local expertise.

  4. Cancer review: Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezaz Ahmed Ghouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is the most common biliary tract malignancy. CCA is classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal extrahepatic; the individual subtypes differ in their biologic behavior, clinical presentation, and management. Throughout the last decades, CCA incidence rates had significantly increased. In addition to known established risk factors, novel possible risk factors (i.e. obesity, hepatitis C virus have been identified that are of high importance in developed countries where CCA prevalence rates have been low. CCA tends to develop on the background of inflammation and cholestasis. In recent years, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis has increased, thereby, providing the basis for molecularly targeted therapies. In its diagnostic evaluation, imaging techniques have improved, and the role of complementary techniques has been defined. There is a need for improved CCA biomarkers as currently used ones are suboptimal. Multiple staging systems have been developed, but none of these is optimal. The prognosis of CCA is considered dismal. However, treatment options have improved throughout the last two decades for carefully selected subgroups of CCA patients. Perihilar CCA can now be treated with orthotopic liver transplantation with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieving 5-year survival rates of 68%. Classically considered chemotherapy-resistant, the ABC-02 trial has shown the therapeutic benefit of combination therapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin. The benefits of adjuvant treatments for resectable CCA, local ablative therapies and molecularly targeted therapies still need to be defined. In this article, we will provide the reader with an overview over CCA, and discuss the latest developments and controversies.

  5. Review to better understand the macroscopic subtypes and histogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuichi; Sanada; Yujo; Kawashita; Satomi; Okada; Takashi; Azuma; Shigetoshi; Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is macroscopically classified into three subtypes, mass-forming-type, periductal infiltrating-type, and intraductal growth-type. Each subtype should be preoperatively differentiated to perform the valid surgical resection. Recent researches have revealed the clinical, radiologic, pathobiological characteristics of each subtype. We reviewed recently published studies covering various aspects of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma(ICC), focusing especially on the macroscopic subtypes and stem cell features to better understand the pathophysiology of ICC and to establish the valid therapeutic strategy.

  6. JAK-STAT pathway in carcinogenesis: Is it relevant to cholangiocarcinoma progression?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The features of JAK-STAT signaling in liver cells are discussed in the current review. The role of this signaling cascade in carcinogenesis is accentuated. The possible involvement of this pathway and alteration of its elements are compared for normal cholangiocytes,cholangiocarcinoma predisposition and development.Prolactin and interleukin-6 are described in detail as the best studied examples. In addition, the non-classical nuclear translocation of cytokine receptors is discussed in terms of its possible implication to cholangiocarcinoma development.

  7. Requirement of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandins for human prostate cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithipatikom, Kasem; Isbell, Marilyn A; Lindholm, Paul F; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kaul, Sushma; Campell, William B

    2002-01-01

    The PC-3 Low Invasive cells and the PC-3 High Invasive cells were used to investigate the correlation of the COX-2 expression and its arachidonic acid metabolites, prostaglandins, with their invasiveness through Matrigel using a Boyden chamber assay. The COX-2 expression in PC-3 High Invasive cells was approximately 3-fold higher than in PC-3 Low Invasive cells while the COX-1 expression was similar in both cell sublines. When incubated with arachidonic acid, PGE2 was the major prostaglandin produced by these cells. PC-3 High Invasive cells produced PGE2 approximately 2.5-fold higher than PC-3 Low Invasive cells. PGD2 was the second most abundant prostaglandin produced by these cells. Both indomethacin (a nonspecific COX inhibitor) and NS-398 (a specific COX-2 inhibitor) inhibited the production of prostaglandins and the cell invasion. PGE2 alone did not induce the cell invasion of PC-3 Low Invasive cells. However, PGE2 reversed the inhibition of cell invasion by NS-398 and enhanced the cell invasion of the PC-3 High Invasive cells. In contrast, PGD2 slightly inhibited the cell invasion. These results suggest that in the PC-3 Low Invasive cells, COX-2-derived PGE2 may not be sufficient to induce cell invasion while in the PC-3 High Invasive cells, PGE2 may be sufficient to act as an enhancer for the cell invasion. Further, PGD2 may represent a weak inhibitor and counteracts the effect of PGE2 in the cell invasion.

  8. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Kristin; Fritsch, Anatol W; Käs, Josef A; Magin, Thomas M

    2013-11-12

    Cell motility and cell shape adaptations are crucial during wound healing, inflammation, and malignant progression. These processes require the remodeling of the keratin cytoskeleton to facilitate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. However, the role of keratins for biomechanical properties and invasion of epithelial cells is only partially understood. In this study, we address this issue in murine keratinocytes lacking all keratins on genome engineering. In contrast to predictions, keratin-free cells show about 60% higher cell deformability even for small deformations. This response is compared with the less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization induced via latrunculin A. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and 3D growth assays. These experiments reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. Reexpression of a small amount of the keratin pair K5/K14 in keratin-free cells reverses the above phenotype for the invasion but does not with respect to cell deformability. Our data show a unique role of keratins as major players of cell stiffness, influencing invasion with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. This study supports the view that down-regulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.

  9. Neuropeptides of the VIP family inhibit glioblastoma cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochaud, Stéphanie; Meunier, Annie-Claire; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc; Chadéneau, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are neuropeptides acting through VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptors (referred here as the VIP-receptor system). In the central nervous system, VIP and PACAP are involved in neurogenesis, cell differentiation and migration, suggesting that they could be implicated in the development of glioblastoma (GBM). The infiltrative nature of GBM remains a major problem for the therapy of these tumors. We previously demonstrated that the VIP-receptor system regulated cell migration of the human cell lines M059J and M059K, derived from a single human GBM. Here, we evaluated the involvement of the VIP-receptor system in GBM cell invasion. In Matrigel invasion assays, M059K cells that express more the VIP-receptor system than M059J cells were less invasive. Invasion assays performed in the presence of agonists, antagonists or anti-PACAP antibodies as well as experiments with transfected M059J cells overexpressing the VPAC1 receptor indicated that the more the VIP-receptor system was expressed and activated, the less the cells were able to invade. Western immunoblotting experiments revealed that the VIP-receptor system inactivated the signaling protein AKT. Invasion assays carried out in the presence of an AKT inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of this signaling kinase in the regulation of cell invasion by the VIP-receptor system in M059K cells. The inhibition by VIP of invasion and AKT was also observed in U87 cells. In conclusion, VIP and PACAP act as anti-invasive factors in different GBM cell lines, a function mediated by VPAC1 inhibition of AKT signaling in M059K cells.

  10. Invasion of epithelial cells by Trichinella spiralis: in vitro observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romarís F.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for many years that Trichinella spiralis initiates infection by penetrating the columnar epithelium of the small intestine, however, the mechanisms used by the parasite in the establishment of its intramulticellular niche in the intestine are unknown. The recent demonstration that invasion also occurs in vitro when infective larvae of T. spiralis are inoculated onto cultures of epithelial cells provides a model that allows the direct observation of the process by which the parasite recognizes, invades and migrates within the epithelium. The finding that penetration of the cell membrane or Induction of plasma membrane wounds by larvae do not always result in invasion argue in favor of some kind of host-parasite communication in successful invasion. In this sense, the in vitro model of invasion provides a readily manipulated and controlled system to investigate both parasite, and host cell requirements for invasion.

  11. Impact of classification of hilar cholangiocarcinomas (Klatskin tumors) on the incidence of intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Tania M; McGlynn, Katherine A; Hsing, Ann W; O'Brien, Thomas R; Pfeiffer, Ruth M

    2006-06-21

    Cholangiocarcinomas are topographically categorized as intrahepatic or extrahepatic by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O). Although hilar cholangiocarcinomas (Klatskin tumors) are extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, the second edition of the ICD-O (ICD-O-2) assigned them a histology code 8162/3, Klatskin, which was cross-referenced to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Recent studies in the United States that included this code (8162/3, Klatskin) with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma reported an increasing incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and a decreasing incidence of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. To investigate the impact of this misclassification on site-specific cholangiocarcinoma incidence rates, we calculated annual percent changes (APCs) with data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program using a Poisson regression model that was age-adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. population. All statistical tests were two-sided. During 1992-2000, when SEER used ICD-O-2, 1710 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, 1371 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 269 hilar cholangiocarcinomas identified by code 8162/3, Klatskin were diagnosed. Ninety-one percent (246 of 269) of the hilar cholangiocarcinomas were incorrectly coded as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, resulting in an overestimation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma incidence by 13% and underestimation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas incidence by 15%. However, even after the exclusion of tumors that were coded to the histology code 8162/3, Klatskin, age-adjusted annual intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma incidence increased during this period (APC = 4%, 95% confidence interval = 2% to 6%, P<.001).

  12. Host epithelial geometry regulates breast cancer cell invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghaert, Eline; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast tumor development is regulated in part by cues from the local microenvironment, including interactions with neighboring nontumor cells as well as the ECM. Studies using homogeneous populations of breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D ECM have shown that increased ECM stiffness stimulates tumor cell invasion. However, at early stages of breast cancer development, malignant cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which have been shown to exert a tumor-suppressive effect on cocultured cancer cells. Here we explored how the biophysical characteristics of the host microenvironment affect the proliferative and invasive tumor phenotype of the earliest stages of tumor development, by using a 3D microfabrication-based approach to engineer ducts composed of normal mammary epithelial cells that contained a single tumor cell. We found that the phenotype of the tumor cell was dictated by its position in the duct: proliferation and invasion were enhanced at the ends and blocked when the tumor cell was located elsewhere within the tissue. Regions of invasion correlated with high endogenous mechanical stress, as shown by finite element modeling and bead displacement experiments, and modulating the contractility of the host epithelium controlled the subsequent invasion of tumor cells. Combining microcomputed tomographic analysis with finite element modeling suggested that predicted regions of high mechanical stress correspond to regions of tumor formation in vivo. This work suggests that the mechanical tone of nontumorigenic host epithelium directs the phenotype of tumor cells and provides additional insight into the instructive role of the mechanical tumor microenvironment. PMID:23150585

  13. Cell invasion through basement membrane: the anchor cell breaches the barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2011-10-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) is a specialized cellular behavior critical to many normal developmental events, immune surveillance, and cancer metastasis. A highly dynamic process, cell invasion involves a complex interplay between cell-intrinsic elements that promote the invasive phenotype, and cell-cell and cell-BM interactions that regulate the timing and targeting of BM transmigration. The intricate nature of these interactions has made it challenging to study cell invasion in vivo and model in vitro. Anchor cell invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as an important experimental paradigm for comprehensive analysis of BM invasion, revealing the gene networks that specify invasive behavior and the interactions that occur at the cell-BM interface.

  14. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M; Clarke, Frank M; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  15. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneet Bhatia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1 in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1 expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  16. Alterations in integrin expression modulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors mediating the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) are not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, sub-populations of the human pancreatic cancer cell line, MiaPaCa-2 were established which displayed differences in invasion, adhesion, anoikis, anchorage-independent growth and integrin expression. RESULTS: Clone #3 displayed higher invasion with less adhesion, while Clone #8 was less invasive with increased adhesion to ECM proteins compared to MiaPaCa-2. Clone #8 was more sensitive to anoikis than Clone #3 and MiaPaCa-2, and displayed low colony-forming efficiency in an anchorage-independent growth assay. Integrins beta 1, alpha 5 and alpha 6 were over-expressed in Clone #8. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), integrin beta1 knockdown in Clone #8 cells increased invasion through matrigel and fibronectin, increased motility, decreased adhesion and anoikis. Integrin alpha 5 and alpha 6 knockdown also resulted in increased motility, invasion through matrigel and decreased adhesion. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that altered expression of integrins interacting with different extracellular matrixes may play a significant role in suppressing the aggressive invasive phenotype. Analysis of these clonal populations of MiaPaCa-2 provides a model for investigations into the invasive properties of pancreatic carcinoma.

  17. A Mena Invasion Isoform Potentiates EGF-Induced Carcinoma Cell Invasion and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippar, Ulrike; Roussos, Evanthia T.; Oser, Matthew; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEKI; Kim, Hyung-Do; Giampieri, Silvia; Wang, Yarong; Goswami, Sumanta; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John S.; Gertler, Frank B

    2008-01-01

    The spread of cancer during metastatic disease requires that tumor cells subvert normal regulatory networks governing cell motility to invade surrounding tissues and migrate toward blood and lymphatic vessels. Enabled (Ena)/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate cell motility by controlling the geometry of assembling actin networks. Mena, an Ena/VASP protein, is upregulated in the invasive subpopulation of breast cancer cells. In addition, Mena is alternately spliced t...

  18. Kaempferol inhibits the growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youyou; Cui, Wu; Yang, Xuewei; Tong, Baifeng

    2016-03-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid that has been reported to exhibit antitumor activity in various malignant tumors. However, the role of kaempferol on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely unknown. In this article, we found that kaempferol inhibited proliferation, reduced colony formation ability, and induced apoptosis in HCCC9810 and QBC939 cells in vitro. Results from transwell assay and wound-healing assay demonstrated that kaempferol significantly suppressed the migration and invasion abilities of HCCC9810 and QBC939 cells in vitro. Kaempferol was found to decrease the expression of Bcl-2 and increase the expressions of Bax, Fas, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 9, and cleaved-PARP. In addition, kaempferol also downregulated the levels of phosphorylated AKT, TIMP2, and MMP2. In vivo, it was found that the volume of subcutaneous xenograft (0.15 cm(3)) in the kaempferol-treated group was smaller than that (0.6 cm(3)) in the control group. Kaempferol also suppressed the number and volume of metastasis foci in the lung metastasis model, with no marked effects on body weight of mice. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that the number of Ki-67-positive cells was lower in the kaempferol-treated group than that in the control group. We further confirmed that the changes of apoptosis- and invasion-related proteins after kaempferol treatment in vivo were similar to the results in vitro. These data suggest that kaempferol may be a promising candidate agent for the treatment of CCA.

  19. Fibrogenic Lung Injury Induces Non-Cell-Autonomous Fibroblast Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Neil; Grasberger, Paula E; Mugo, Brian M; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés; Lagares, David; Tager, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    Pathologic accumulation of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis appears to depend on their invasion through basement membranes and extracellular matrices. Fibroblasts from the fibrotic lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been demonstrated to acquire a phenotype characterized by increased cell-autonomous invasion. Here, we investigated whether fibroblast invasion is further stimulated by soluble mediators induced by lung injury. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from bleomycin-challenged mice or patients with IPF contain mediators that dramatically increase the matrix invasion of primary lung fibroblasts. Further characterization of this non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion suggested that the mediators driving this process are produced locally after lung injury and are preferentially produced by fibrogenic (e.g., bleomycin-induced) rather than nonfibrogenic (e.g., LPS-induced) lung injury. Comparison of invasion and migration induced by a series of fibroblast-active mediators indicated that these two forms of fibroblast movement are directed by distinct sets of stimuli. Finally, knockdown of multiple different membrane receptors, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, lysophosphatidic acid 1, epidermal growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, mitigated the non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion induced by bronchoalveolar lavage from bleomycin-injured mice, suggesting that multiple different mediators drive fibroblast invasion in pulmonary fibrosis. The magnitude of this mediator-driven fibroblast invasion suggests that its inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. Further elaboration of the molecular mechanisms that drive non-cell-autonomous fibroblast invasion consequently may provide a rich set of novel drug targets for the treatment of IPF and other fibrotic lung diseases.

  20. HIPK2 downregulates vimentin and inhibits breast cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodale, Cristina; Sheffer, Michal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Folgiero, Valentina; Falcioni, Rita; Aiello, Aurora; Garufi, Alessia; Rechavi, Gideon; Givol, David; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2012-02-15

    Vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, is frequently overexpressed in epithelial carcinomas undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a condition correlated with invasiveness and poor prognosis. Therefore, vimentin is a potential molecular target for anticancer therapy. Emerging studies in experimental models underscore the functions of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as potential oncosuppressor by acting as transcriptional corepressor or catalytic activator of molecules involved in apoptosis and response to antitumor drugs. However, an involvement of HIPK2 in limiting tumor invasion remains to be elucidated. This study, by starting with a microarray analysis, demonstrates that HIPK2 downregulates vimentin expression in invasive, vimentin-positive, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and in the non-invasive MCF7 breast cancer cells subjected to chemical hypoxia, a drive for mesenchymal shift and tumor invasion. At functional level, vimentin downregulation by HIPK2 correlates with inhibition of breast tumor cell invasion. Together, these data show that vimentin is a novel target for HIPK2 repressor function and that HIPK2-mediated vimentin downregulation can contribute to inhibition of breast cancer cells invasion that might be applied in clinical therapy.

  1. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  2. Effect of 7-hydroxystaurosporine on glioblastoma cell invasion and migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hui MENG; Li-xin ZHOU; Jia-lin LUO; Jian-ping CAO; Jian TONG; Sai-jun FAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), a selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, on cell growth, migration, and invasion in inva sive human glioblastoma U-87MG cells. Methods: PKC activity was determined based on the PKC-catalyzed transfer of the 32p-phosphate group from [g-32p]ATP into a PKC-specific peptide substrate. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay.Cell invasion and migration were evaluated by a Boyden chamber assay and scratch wound assay, respectively. Protein expression was analyzed using Western blot assay. The formation of 3-dimensional cellular aggregates was examined by a cell-cell aggregation assay. Results: UCN-01 treatment resulted in concentration- and time-dependent inhibition of U-87MG cell growth at higher doses (> 100 nmol/L), and reduced cell invasion and migration capability at less cytotoxic doses (<100 nmol/L). UCN-01 significantly repressed PKC activity. Consistent with this result, UCN-01 blocked cell invasion stimulated by phorbel 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) and ethanol (EtOH), 2 PKC activators. Enforced expression of the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and PTEN increased the anti-invasion potential of UCN-01. Exposure to UCN-01 caused a dose-dependent increase in cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The effect of UCN-01 on the formation of cell-cell aggregation was significantly reduced by the addition of an anti-E-cadherin antibody. Conclusion: UCN-01 inhibits the invasion and migration of human glioma cells. Accordingly, UCN-01 can have potential clinical applications for the treatment of human glioma metastasis.

  3. Collective cell migration: Implications for wound healing and cancer invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic morphogenesis, wound repair and cancer invasion, cells often migrate collectively via tight cell-cell junctions, a process named collective migration. During such migration, cells move as coherent groups, large cell sheets, strands or tubes rather than individually. One unexpected finding regarding collective cell migration is that being a "multicellular structure" enables cells to better respond to chemical and physical cues, when compared with isolated cells. This is important because epithelial cells heal wounds via the migration of large sheets of cells with tight intercellular connections. Recent studies have gained some mechanistic insights that will benefit the clinical understanding of wound healing in general. In this review, we will briefly introduce the role of collective cell migration in wound healing, regeneration and cancer invasion and discuss its underlying mechanisms as well as implications for wound healing.

  4. Cell Invasion in Collagen Scaffold Architectures Characterized by Percolation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Jennifer C; Mehr, Marco; Buxton, Paul G; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2015-06-24

    The relationship between biological scaffold interconnectivity and cell migration is an important but poorly understood factor in tissue regeneration. Here a scale-independent technique for characterization of collagen scaffold interconnectivity is presented, using a combination of X-ray microcomputed tomography and percolation theory. Confocal microscopy of connective tissue cells reveals this technique as highly relevant for determining the extent of cell invasion.

  5. Cell jamming: Collective invasion of mesenchymal tumor cells imposed by tissue confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeger, A.; Krause, M.; Wolf, K. van der; Friedl, P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer invasion is a multi-step process which coordinates interactions between tumor cells with mechanotransduction towards the surrounding matrix, resulting in distinct cancer invasion strategies. Defined by context, mesenchymal tumors, including melanoma and fibrosarcoma, develop eithe

  6. Invasion of Porphyromonas gingivalis strains into vascular cells and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered a major pathogen in adult periodontitis and is also associated with multiple systemic diseases, for example, cardiovascular diseases. One of its most important virulence factors is invasion of host cells. The invasion process includes attachment, entry/internalization, trafficking, persistence, and exit. The present review discusses these processes related to P. gingivalis in cardiovascular cells and tissue. Although most P. gingivalis strains invade, the invasion capacity of strains and the mechanisms of invasion including intracellular trafficking among them differ. This is consistent with the fact that there are significant differences in the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis strains. P. gingivalis invasion mechanisms are also dependent on types of host cells. Although much is known about the invasion process of P. gingivalis, we still have little knowledge of its exit mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is intriguing that P. gingivalis can remain viable in human cardiovascular cells and atherosclerotic plaque and later exit and re-enter previously uninfected host cells.

  7. Molecular pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Bøje

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an orphan cancer of the hepatobiliary tract, the incidence of which has increased in the past decade. The molecular pathogenesis of this treatment-refractory disease is poorly understood. Desmoplasia is a key causal feature of CCA; however, a majority of tumors develop...... underlying the diversity of growth patterns of this malignancy remain a clinical concern. It is crucial to advance our present understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CCA to improve current clinical strategies and patient outcome. This will facilitate the delineation of patient subsets...

  8. MiR-145 functions as a tumor suppressor targeting NUAK1 in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xinkui; Sun, Daoyi; Chai, Hao; Shan, Wengang [Liver Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Yue [Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Pu, Liyong [Liver Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Cheng, Feng, E-mail: docchengfeng@njmu.edu.cn [Liver Transplantation Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-18

    The dysregulation of micro (mi)RNAs is associated with cancer development. The miRNA miR-145 is downregulated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC); however, its precise role in tumor progression has not yet been elucidated. Novel (nua) kinase family (NUAK)1 functions as an oncogene in various cancers and is a putative target of miR-145 regulation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of NUAK1 by miR-145 in ICC. We found that miR-145 level was significantly decreased in ICC tissue and cell lines, which corresponded with an increase in NUAK1 expression. NUAK1 was found to be a direct target of miR-145 regulation. The overexpression of miR-145 in ICC cell lines inhibited proliferation, growth, and invasion by suppressing NUAK1 expression, which was associated with a decrease in Akt signaling and matrix metalloproteinase protein expression. Similar results were observed by inhibiting NUAK1 expression. These results demonstrate that miR-145 can prevent ICC progression by targeting NUAK1 and its downstream effectors, and can therefore be useful for clinical diagnosis and targeted therapy of ICC. - Highlights: • MiR-145 suppresses ICC proliferation and invasion abilities. • We demonstrated that miR-145 directly targets NUAK1 in ICC. • MiR-145 expression in ICC was associated with Akt signaling and MMPs expression.

  9. Investigation of thermo-sensitive amphiphilic micelles as drug carriers for chemotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Songgang; Wan, Ziwei; Quan, Zhiwei; Tan, Qinggang

    2014-03-10

    Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial cancer of the bile ducts with poor prognosis and, in recent years, a rapidly increasing incidence. In this study, nano-sized thermo-sensitive micelles were investigated as drug carriers to improve chemotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma. Thermo-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer, P-(N,N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-hydroxymethylacrylamide)-b-caprolactone [P-(NIPAAm-co-NHMAAm)-b-PCL] with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at about 38°C was synthesized. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles were prepared by dialysis method. The micelles exhibited a sustained and temperature-dependent DOX release. Toxicity of the blank micelles for human cholangiocarcinoma (QBC939) cells was minimal both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the DOX-loaded micelles effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of QBC939 cells in vitro (pthermo-sensitive amphiphilic micelles are a promising and effective drug carrier, and show potential for improving chemotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma.

  10. Interleukin-8 derived from local tissue-resident stromal cells promotes tumor cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Gabriel; Alt, Eckhard; Devarajan, Eswaran; Krishnappa, Srinivasalu; Jotzu, Constantin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of adipose tissue resident stromal cells on tumor cell invasion. Our data show that a subpopulation of adipose tissue derived stromal cells expressing Nestin, NG2, α-smooth muscle actin and PDGFR-α migrate toward the cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed the upregulation of IL-8 in the migrated cells. We demonstrated that stromal cell derived IL-8 promote the invasion and the anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells. We conclude that human breast cancer cells attract a subpopulation of stromal cells that secrete IL-8 to promote tumor cell invasion in a paracrine fashion.

  11. The diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Da-Peng; Han Lei; Liu Zhen-Xian; Yang He; Zhang Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma.Methods:A total of 35 patients with cholangiocarcinoma who received surgical resection in our hospital were selected as malignant group, 30 patients with cholelithiasis who received surgical resection in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign group, serum samples were collected before surgery to determine CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 content, and cholangiocarcinoma tissue and normal bile duct tissue were collected after surgery to determine the content of proliferation and invasion molecules. Results:Serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels of malignant group were significantly higher than those of control group; PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels in cholangiocarcinoma tissue were higher than those in benign bile duct tissue, and E-cadherin level was lower than that in benign bile duct tissue; serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels were positively correlated with PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels, and negatively correlated with E-cadherin level.Conclusion:Joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 can not only provide reference for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma, but can also provide basis for the evaluation of proliferation, invasion and other malignant biological behaviors.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D;

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully...

  13. Non-invasive Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography...

  14. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Filler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  16. Targeting the IL-6 dependent phenotype can identify novel therapies for cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Braconi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for new therapies for cholangiocarcinoma is highlighted by their poor prognosis and refractoriness to chemotherapy. Increased production of Interleukin-6 promotes cholangiocarcinoma growth and contributes to chemoresistance by activating cell survival mechanisms. We sought to identify biologically active compounds capable of ameliorating the phenotypic effects of IL-6 expression and to explore their potential therapeutic use for cholangiocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY: A genomic signature associated with Interleukin-6 expression in Mz-ChA-1 human malignant cholangiocytes was derived. Computational bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify compounds that induced inverse gene changes to the signature. The effect of these compounds on cholangiocarcinoma growth was then experimentally verified in vitro and in vivo. Interactions with other therapeutic agents were evaluated using median effects analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A group of structurally related compounds, nitrendipine, nifedipine and felodipine was identified. All three compounds were cytotoxic to Mz-ChA-1 cells with an IC50 for felodipine of 26 µM, nitrendipine, 44 µM and nifedipine, 15 µM. Similar results were observed in KMCH-1, CC-LP-1 and TFK-1 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. At a fractional effect of 0.5, all three agents were synergistic with either camptothecin or gemcitabine in Mz-ChA-1 cells in vitro. Co-administration of felodipine and gemcitabine decreased the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cell xenografts in nude athymic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Computational bioinformatics analysis of phenotype-based genomic expression can be used to identify therapeutic agents. Using this drug discovery approach based on targeting a defined tumor associated phenotype, we identified compounds with the potential for therapeutic use in cholangiocarcinoma.

  17. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  18. Fascin promotes the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Feng Xu; Shuang-Ni Yu; Zhao-Hui Lu; Jian-Ping Liu; Jie Chen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of actin-bundling protein, fascin during the progression of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The plasmid expressing human fascin-1 was stably transfected into the pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. The proliferation, cell cycle, motility, scattering, invasiveness and organization of the actin filament system in fascin-transfected MIA PaCa-2 cells and control non-transfected cells were determined. RESULTS: Heterogeneous overexpression of fascin markedly enhanced the motility, scattering, and invasiveness of MIA PaCa-2 cells. However, overexpression of fascin had minimal effect on MIA PaCa-2 cell proliferation and cell cycle. In addition, cell morphology and organization of the actin filament system were distinctly altered in fascin overexpressed cells. When transplanted into BALB/c-nu mice, fascin-transfected pancreatic cancer cells developed solid tumors at a slightly slower rate, but these tumors displayed more aggressive behavior in comparison with control tumors. CONCLUSION: Fascin promotes pancreatic cancer cell migration, invasion and scattering, thus contributes to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. Adjuvant therapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: the debate continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andrew X; Knox, Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of the Case A 37-year-old woman presented at 35 weeks of gestation with her third child with failure to adequately gain weight and was noted by her obstetrician to have delay in the growth of her baby. Ultrasound of the abdomen incidentally revealed the presence of a liver lesion. After additional evaluation, she ultimately delivered her daughter at 36 weeks uneventfully. She subsequently underwent additional evaluation. Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 5-cm solitary solid mass in segment 4A of the liver, concerning for malignancy. Serum α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen (CA)19-9, CA15-3, and CA125 were all normal. Liver biopsy was positive for adenocarcinoma. The tumor cells demonstrated a phenotype suggesting a possible breast primary, although the immunohistochemistry did not support that diagnosis and the tumor was negative for mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP)-15, estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR) (Table 1). The tumor was also CDX2 and cardiotrophin-1 negative, but cytokeratin (CK) 19 positive. Her endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, breast mammogram, and breast MRI were completely normal. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed a fluorodeoxyglucose-avid 5.8-cm × 6.0-cm hypoattenuating lesion with peripheral enhancement involving segment 4 and segment 8 at the dome. In addition, central necrosis within the lesion was noted. The left main portal vein was mildly attenuated by the mass. She eventually underwent a left hepatectomy en bloc with caudate resection, portal lymphadenectomy, cholecystectomy, and omental pedicle flap. On exploration of the abdomen, no additional disease was noted. The final pathology revealed a 9.4-cm moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Venous invasion was present. Perineural invasion was absent. The margins were negative. Thirteen

  20. Identification of molecular pathways facilitating glioma cell invasion in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Nevo

    Full Text Available Gliomas are mostly incurable secondary to their diffuse infiltrative nature. Thus, specific therapeutic targeting of invasive glioma cells is an attractive concept. As cells exit the tumor mass and infiltrate brain parenchyma, they closely interact with a changing micro-environmental landscape that sustains tumor cell invasion. In this study, we used a unique microarray profiling approach on a human glioma stem cell (GSC xenograft model to explore gene expression changes in situ in Invading Glioma Cells (IGCs compared to tumor core, as well as changes in host cells residing within the infiltrated microenvironment relative to the unaffected cortex. IGCs were found to have reduced expression of genes within the extracellular matrix compartment, and genes involved in cell adhesion, cell polarity and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT processes. The infiltrated microenvironment showed activation of wound repair and tissue remodeling networks. We confirmed by protein analysis the downregulation of EMT and polarity related genes such as CD44 and PARD3 in IGCs, and EFNB3, a tissue-remodeling agent enriched at the infiltrated microenvironment. OLIG2, a proliferation regulator and glioma progenitor cell marker upregulated in IGCs was found to function in enhancing migration and stemness of GSCs. Overall, our results unveiled a more comprehensive picture of the complex and dynamic cell autonomous and tumor-host interactive pathways of glioma invasion than has been previously demonstrated. This suggests targeting of multiple pathways at the junction of invading tumor and microenvironment as a viable option for glioma therapy.

  1. Current therapy of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie HiuYan Lau; WanYee Lau

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) is an adeno-carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree arising from the main left or right hepatic ducts or their confluence. This tumor is still considered to be difficult to treat or to cure. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed the medical literature on HC. Relevant and updated information on this tumor was analyzed in a concise and easy-to-read manner. The article is not intended to be a systematic review, but an extensive search was conducted on PubMed and MEDLINE using the keywords "hilar cholangiocarcinoma" and "Klatskin tumor" until July 2011. RESULTS: The selection and the timing of management options for patients with HC are determined by the degree of certainty of the diagnosis, the general condition of the patients, the underlying liver function and the stage of the disease. Current treatment of HC can be divided into curative and palliative treatment. For the curative treatment, local excision should only be used on small tumors which are confined to the bile duct wall and Bismuth I papillary carcinoma. Partial hepatectomy should be combined with caudate lobe resection and porta-hepatis lymph node dissection. The results of these major resections can be improved with portal vein embolization, and staging laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasound. The role of preoperative biliary drainage is controversial. Autotransplantation for HC gave disappointing results while the Mayo Protocol of chemoradiation for selecting patients with unresectable HC for orthotopic liver transplantation has been widely accepted. Palliative treatment included bypass surgery, endoscopic or percutaneous stenting, photodynamic therapy, intraluminal brachytherapy, and external radiation and systemic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate surgery with R0 resection should be the main goal of treatment. For patients with unresectable HC, treatment aims to improve the quality and quantity of their survival.

  2. The E-cadherin repressor slug and progression of human extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study explored the expression and function of Slug in human extrahepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma (EHC to identify its role in tumor progression. Methods The expression of Snail and Slug mRNA in 52 human tissue samples of EHC was investigated. The mRNA of Snail and Slug were quantified using reverse transcriptase-PCR, and correlations with E-cadherin expression and clinicopathological factors were investigated. We then investigated transfection of Slug cDNA in endogenous E-cadherin-positive human EHC FRH0201 cells, selectively induced the loss of E-cadherin protein expression, and then small interfering RNA (siRNA for inhibition of Slug expression in endogenous Slug-positive human EHC QBC939 cells, selectively induced the loss of Slug protein expression. A Boyden chamber transwell assay was used for invasion. Results Slug mRNA was overexpressed in 18 cases (34.6% of EHC compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue. E-Cadherin protein expression determined in the same 52 cases by immunohistochemistry was significantly down-regulated in those cases with Slug mRNA overexpression (P = 0.0001. The tumor and nontumor ratio of Slug mRNA was correlated with nodal metastasis(p = 0.0102, distant metastasis (p = 0.0001and Survival time(p = 0.0443. However, Snail mRNA correlated with neither E-cadherin expression nor tumor invasiveness. By inhibiting Slug expression by RNA interference, we found that reduced Slug levels upregulated E-cadherin and decreased invasion in QBC939 cell. When the QBC939 cells was infected with Slug cDNA,, significant E-cadherin was downregulated and increased invasion in QBC939 cell. Conclusions The results suggested that Slug expression plays an important role in both the regulation of E-cadherin expression and in the acquisition of invasive potential in human EHC. Slug is possibly a potential target for an antitumor therapy blocking the functions of invasion and metastasis in human EHCs.

  3. T cell immunity and vaccines against invasive fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, James Isami

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades much has been learned about the immunology of invasive fungal infection, especially invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Although quite different in their pathogenesis, the major common protective host response is Th1 mediated. It is through Th1 cytokine production that the effector cells, phagocytes, are activated to kill the fungus. A more thorough understanding of the pathogenesis of disease, the elicited protective Th1 immune response, the T cell antigen(s) which elicit this response, and the mechanism(s) whereby one can enhance, reconstitute, or circumvent the immunosuppressed state will, hopefully, lead to the development of a vaccine(s) capable of protecting even the most immunocompromised of hosts.

  4. Genetic and epigenetic changes associated with cholangiocarcinoma: From DNA methylation to microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas are malignant epithelial liver tumors arising from the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts. Little is known about the molecular development of this disease, and very few effective treatment options are available. Thus, prognosis is poor. Genetic and epigenetic changes play an integral role in the neoplastic transformation of human cells to their malignant counterparts. This review summarizes some of the more prevalent genetic alterations (by microRNA expression)and epigenetic changes (hypermethylation of specific gene promoters) that are thought to contribute to the carcinogenic process in cholangiocarcinoma.

  5. Collective cancer cell invasion induced by coordinated contractile stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Valencia, Angela M; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Yogurtcu, Osman N; Rao, Pranay; DiGiacomo, Josh; Godet, Inês; He, Lijuan; Lee, Meng-Horng; Gilkes, Daniele; Sun, Sean X; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-12-22

    The physical underpinnings of fibrosarcoma cell dissemination from a tumor in a surrounding collagen-rich matrix are poorly understood. Here we show that a tumor spheroid embedded in a 3D collagen matrix exerts large contractile forces on the matrix before invasion. Cell invasion is accompanied by complex spatially and temporally dependent patterns of cell migration within and at the surface of the spheroids that are fundamentally different from migratory patterns of individual fibrosarcoma cells homogeneously distributed in the same type of matrix. Cells display a continuous transition from a round morphology at the spheroid core, to highly aligned elongated morphology at the spheroid periphery, which depends on both β1-integrin-based cell-matrix adhesion and myosin II/ROCK-based cell contractility. This isotropic-to-anisotropic transition corresponds to a shift in migration, from a slow and unpolarized movement at the core, to a fast, polarized and persistent one at the periphery. Our results also show that the ensuing collective invasion of fibrosarcoma cells is induced by anisotropic contractile stresses exerted on the surrounding matrix.

  6. Lymphovascular invasion in testicular germ cell tumors: clinicopathological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Ehrlich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We assessed clinical–pathological correlates of lymphovascular invasion in testicular germ–cell tumors.Material and methods. Archived pathology specimens from 145 patients treated by radical orchiectomy for testicular germ cell tumors at our institution in 1995–2006 were reanalyzed by a dedicated urologic pathologist, and the corresponding medical records were reviewed. The association of lymphovascular invasion with clinical and pathological parameters was tested using stepwise logistic regression analysis.Results. Lymphovascular invasion was identified in 38 (26% patients and was associated with younger age, testicular pain at presentation, elevated serum tumor markers, nonseminoma histology, and advanced clinical stage. Orchalgia was indicated as the impetus for referral in 67 (46% patients and characterized as a dull aching sensation, persistent or intermittent in nature. Among the 98 men diagnosed with clinical stage I, those presenting with testicular pain had a 1.8X–higher likelihood of lymphovascular invasion than those without pain (95% CI 1.13–14.9, p = 0.02, and patients with elevated serum tumor markers had an 8.5–fold increased probability of lymphovascular invasion than those presenting with normal tumor markers (CI 1.1–54.2, p = 0.05. Among men with nonseminoma histology, elevated tumor markers was the strongest predictor of lymphovascular invasion in both univariate and multivariate analyses (OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.16–21.8, p = 0.03.Conclusion. Providing pathologists with information on pre–orchiectomy tumor marker levels and, possibly, testicular pain at presentation may increase their vigilance in searching for lymphovascular invasion, potentially improving their diagnostic accuracy. Whether it may also translate into improved oncological outcomes needs further evaluation.

  7. NHERF-1: Modulator of Glioblastoma Cell Migration and Invasion

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    Kerri L. Kislin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The invasive nature of malignant gliomas is a clinical problem rendering tumors incurable by conventional treatment modalities such as surgery, ionizing radiation, and temozolomide. Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein, recruiting cytoplasmic signaling proteins and membrane receptors/transporters into functional complexes. This study revealed that NHERF-1 expression is increased in highly invasive cells that reside in the rim of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tumors and that NHERF-1 sustains glioma migration and invasion. Gene expression profiles were evaluated from laser capture-microdissected human GBM cells isolated from patient tumor cores and corresponding invaded white matter regions. The role of NHERF-1 in the migration and dispersion of GBM cell lines was examined by reducing its expression with small-interfering RNA followed by radial migration, three-dimensional collagen dispersion, immunofluorescence, and survival assays. The in situ expression of NHERF-1 protein was restricted to glioma cells and the vascular endothelium, with minimal to no detection in adjacent normal brain tissue. Depletion of NHERF-1 arrested migration and dispersion of glioma cell lines and caused an increase in cell-cell cohesiveness. Glioblastoma multiforme cells with depleted NHERF-1 evidenced a marked decrease in stress fibers, a larger cell size, and a more rounded shape with fewer cellular processes. When NHERF-1 expression was reduced, glioma cells became sensitized to temozolomide treatment resulting in increased apoptosis. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence for NHERF-1 as a participant in the highly invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas and implicate NHERF-1 as a possible therapeutic target for treatment of GBM.

  8. TGF-beta and BMP in breast cancer cell invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Hildegonda Petronella Henriëtte

    2012-01-01

    TGF-beta and BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines which play an important role in a multitude of processes. In cancer, TGF-beta is known for its dual role: in early stages it inhibits cancer cell proliferation, whereas in later stages it promotes invasion and metastasis. In this

  9. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhang, Lishan; Xian, Guozhe; Lv, Yinping; Lin, Yanliang; Wang, Yibing

    2017-03-18

    25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase in various organs and is involved in many processes, including lipid metabolism, inflammation and the immune response. However, the role of 25-HC in the migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that 0.1 μM 25-HC promoted ADC cell migration and invasion without affecting cell proliferation, especially after coculture with THP1-derived macrophages. Further investigation showed that 0.1 μM 25-HC significantly stimulated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in a coculture system and increased the expression of LXR and Snail. IL-1β also mimicked the effect of 25-HC. LXR knockdown notably blocked the 25-HC-induced Snail expression, migration and invasion in both the monoculture system and the coculture system, but it did not impact the effect of IL-1β, which suggested that IL-1β functioned in an LXR-independent manner. These results suggested that 25-HC promoted ADC cell migration and invasion in an LXR-dependent manner in the monoculture system but that in the coculture system, the 25-HC-induced IL-1β secretion enhanced the effect of 25-HC in an LXR-independent manner.

  10. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa m

  11. Proteomics research on muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aimed to facilitate candidate biomarkers selection and improve network-based multi-target therapy, we perform comparative proteomics research on muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Laser capture microdissection was used to harvest purified muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells and normal urothelial cells from 4 paired samples. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the proteome expression profile. The differential proteins were further analyzed using bioinformatics tools and compared with the published literature. Results A total of 885/890 proteins commonly appeared in 4 paired samples. 295/337 of the 488/493 proteins that specific expressed in tumor/normal cells own gene ontology (GO cellular component annotation. Compared with the entire list of the international protein index (IPI, there are 42/45 GO terms exhibited as enriched and 9/5 exhibited as depleted, respectively. Several pathways exhibit significantly changes between cancer and normal cells, mainly including spliceosome, endocytosis, oxidative phosphorylation, etc. Finally, descriptive statistics show that the PI Distribution of candidate biomarkers have certain regularity. Conclusions The present study identified the proteome expression profile of muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells and normal urothelial cells, providing information for subcellular pattern research of cancer and offer candidate proteins for biomarker panel and network-based multi-target therapy.

  12. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1998-01-01

    analysis. In vitro invasion in a Boyden chamber assay was found in all EGFR-positive cell lines, whereas no invasion was detected in the EGFR-negative cell lines. Quantification of the in vitro invasion in 12 selected SCLC cell lines demonstrated that, in the EGFR-positive cell lines, between 5% and 16......-PCR). However, in vitro invasive SCLC cell lines could not be distinguished from non-invasive cell lines based on the expression pattern of these molecules. In six SCLC cell lines, in vitro invasion was also determined in the presence of the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody mAb528. The addition...... of this antibody resulted in a significant reduction of the in vitro invasion in three selected EGFR-positive cell lines. Our results show that only EGFR-positive SCLC cell lines had the in vitro invasive phenotype, and it is therefore suggested that the EGFR might play an important role for the invasion potential...

  13. Non-invasive imaging of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and multimodality approaches. Although the focus of this review article is primarily on hESCs, the labeling/tracking strategies described here can be readily applied to other (stem) cell types as well. Non-invasive imaging can provide convenient means to monitor hESC survival, proliferation, function, as well as overgrowth (such as teratoma formation), which could not be readily investigated previously. The requirement for hESC tracking techniques depends on the clinical scenario and each imaging technique will have its own niche in preclinical/clinical research. Continued evolvement of non-invasive imaging techniques will undoubtedly contribute to significant advances in understanding stem cell biology and mechanisms of action.

  14. Nanomimics of host cell membranes block invasion and expose invasive malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Bieri, Andrej; Brand, Françoise; Palivan, Cornelia G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2014-12-23

    The fight against most infectious diseases, including malaria, is often hampered by the emergence of drug resistance and lack or limited efficacies of vaccines. Therefore, new drugs, vaccines, or other strategies to control these diseases are needed. Here, we present an innovative nanotechnological strategy in which the nanostructure itself represents the active substance with no necessity to release compounds to attain therapeutic effect and which might act in a drug- and vaccine-like dual function. Invasion of Plasmodium falciparum parasites into red blood cells was selected as a biological model for the initial validation of this approach. Stable nanomimics-polymersomes presenting receptors required for parasite attachment to host cells-were designed to efficiently interrupt the life cycle of the parasite by inhibiting invasion. A simple way to build nanomimics without postformation modifications was established. First, a block copolymer of the receptor with a hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and then mixed with a polymersome-forming block copolymer. The resulting nanomimics bound parasite-derived ligands involved in the initial attachment to host cells and they efficiently blocked reinvasion of malaria parasites after their egress from host cells in vitro. They exhibited efficacies of more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than the soluble form of the receptor, which can be explained by multivalent interactions of several receptors on one nanomimic with multiple ligands on the infective parasite. In the future, our strategy might offer interesting treatment options for severe malaria or a way to modulate the immune response.

  15. Migrastatin analogues inhibit canine mammary cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Majchrzak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6 on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. RESULTS: OUR RESULTS SHOWED THAT TWO OF SIX FULLY SYNTHETIC ANALOGUES OF MIGRASTATIN: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6 disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. CONCLUSION: Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs

  16. TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Taylor, Chase; Koumangoye, Rainelli B. [Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Revetta, Frank [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Loomans, Holli A. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Andl, Claudia D., E-mail: claudia.andl@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is essential to epithelial homeostasis and is often inhibited during progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, an important role for TGFβ signaling has been described in the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating squamous tumor cell invasion in mouse models of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Loss of TGFβ signaling, in either compartment, leads to HNSCC however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Using organotypic reconstruct cultures (OTC) to model the interaction between epithelial and stromal cells that occur in dysplastic lesions, we show that loss of TGFβ signaling promotes an invasive phenotype in both fibroblast and epithelial compartments. Employing immortalized esophageal keratinocytes established to reproduce common mutations of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we show that treatment of OTC with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling (A83-01 or SB431542) enhances invasion of epithelial cells into a fibroblast-embedded Matrigel/collagen I matrix. Invasion induced by A83-01 is independent of proliferation but relies on protease activity and expression of ADAMTS-1 and can be altered by matrix density. This invasion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1 and EGFR ligands HB-EGF and TGFα. Altering EGF signaling prevented or induced epithelial cell invasion in this model. Loss of expression of the TGFβ target gene ROBO1 suggested that chemorepulsion may regulate keratinocyte invasion. Taken together, our data show increased invasion through inhibition of TGFβ signaling altered epithelial-fibroblasts interactions, repressing markers of activated fibroblasts, and altering integrin-fibronectin interactions. These results suggest that inhibition of TGFβ signaling modulates an array of pathways that combined promote multiple aspects of tumor invasion. - Highlights: • Chemical inhibition of TGFβ signaling advances collective invasion

  17. Rho1-Wnd signaling regulates loss-of-cell polarity-induced cell invasion in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Chen, Y; Zhang, S; Xu, W; Shao, Y; Yang, Y; Li, W; Li, M; Xue, L

    2016-02-18

    Both cell polarity and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity are essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and disruption of either is commonly seen in cancer progression. Despite the established connection between loss-of-cell polarity and JNK activation, much less is known about the molecular mechanism by which aberrant cell polarity induces JNK-mediated cell migration and tumor invasion. Here we show results from a genetic screen using an in vivo invasion model via knocking down cell polarity gene in Drosophila wing discs, and identify Rho1-Wnd signaling as an important molecular link that mediates loss-of-cell polarity-triggered JNK activation and cell invasion. We show that Wallenda (Wnd), a protein kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, by forming a complex with the GTPase Rho1, is both necessary and sufficient for Rho1-induced JNK-dependent cell invasion, MMP1 activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, Wnd promotes cell proliferation and tissue growth through wingless production when apoptosis is inhibited by p35. Finally, Wnd shows oncogenic cooperation with Ras(V12) to trigger tumor growth in eye discs and causes invasion into the ventral nerve cord. Together, our data not only provides a novel mechanistic insight on how cell polarity loss contributes to cell invasion, but also highlights the value of the Drosophila model system to explore human cancer biology.

  18. SENP1 regulates cell migration and invasion in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Ming, Yan; Zhi-Qiang, Xu; Ting, Zhang; Jian, Wang; Jian, Pan; Li-Qun, Yuan; Ming-Cui, Fu; Hong-Liang, Xia; Xu, Cao; Yun, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonic solid tumor derived from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, and accounts for 11% of childhood cancers and around 15% of cancer deaths in children. SUMOylation and deSUMOylation are dynamic mechanisms regulating a spectrum of protein activities. The SUMO proteases (SENP) remove SUMO conjugate from proteins, and their expression is deregulated in diverse cancers. However, nothing is known about the role of SENPs in NBL. In the present study, we found that SENP1 expression was significantly high in metastatic NB tissues compared with primary NB tissues. Overexpression of SENP1 promoted NB cells migration and invasion. Inhibition of SENP1 could significantly suppress NB cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that SENP1 could regulate the expression of CDH1, MMP9, and MMP2. In summary, the data presented here indicate a significant role of SENP1 in the regulation of cell migration and invasion in NB and suppress SENP1 expression as promising candidates for novel treatment strategies of NB.

  19. Molecular aspects of tumor cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Bozzuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration and invasion are crucial steps in many physiological events. However, they are also implicated in the physiopathology of many diseases, such as cancer. To spread through the tissues, tumor cells use mechanisms that involve several molecular actors: adhesion receptor families, receptor tyrosine kinases, cytoskeleton proteins, adapter and signalling proteins interplay in a complex scenario. The balance of cellular signals for proliferation and survival responses also regulates migratory behaviours of tumor cells. To complicate the scene of crime drug resistance players can interfere thus worsening this delicate situation. The complete understanding of this molecular jungle is an impossible mission: some molecular aspects are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Invasion-Resistant Cells Identifies Laminin α2 as a Host Factor for Bacterial Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Xander M.; Döhrmann, Simon; Hallström, Björn M.; Li, Shangzhong; Voldborg, Bjørn G.; Meng, Brandon X.; McKee, Karen K.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nizet, Victor

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When these mutants were compared to the pgsA745 cell line, a CHO xylosyltransferase mutant generated previously using chemical mutagenesis, an unexpected result was obtained. Bacterial invasion of pgsA745 cells by group B Streptococcus (GBS), group A Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus was markedly reduced compared to the invasion of wild-type cells, but newly generated CRISPR-cas9 mutants were only resistant to GBS. Invasion of pgsA745 cells was not restored by transfection with xylosyltransferase, suggesting that an additional mutation conferring panresistance to multiple bacteria was present in pgsA745 cells. Whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) uncovered a deletion in the gene encoding the laminin subunit α2 (Lama2) that eliminated much of domain L4a. Silencing of the long Lama2 isoform in wild-type cells strongly reduced bacterial invasion, whereas transfection with human LAMA2 cDNA significantly enhanced invasion in pgsA745 cells. The addition of exogenous laminin-α2β1γ1/laminin-α2β2γ1 strongly increased bacterial invasion in CHO cells, as well as in human alveolar basal epithelial and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, the L4a domain in laminin α2 is important for cellular invasion by a number of bacterial pathogens. PMID:28074024

  1. Preoperative assessment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma:combination of cholangiographyandCTangiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-An Yu; Cheng Zhang; Jia-Min Zhang; Gen-Jun Mao; Long-Tang Xu; Xiao-Kang Wu; Jin-Er Shu; Guang-Hong Lv; Zhang-Dong Zheng

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most dififcult carcinomas to manage because of the location of the main tumor at the hepatic hilus and the complex anatomy of the biliary, arterial, and portal systems. To plan an operation, it is important to acquire accurate information about the relationship between hilar cholangiocarcinoma and adjacent vessels. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of cholangiography combined with spiral CT three-dimensional (3D) angiography for a preoperative assessment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: From March 2007 to August 2009, cholangiography was performed in 13 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Meanwhile, contrast-enhanced abdominal scanning was performed using 16-slice spiral CT, and the 3D images of the hepatic artery and portal vein were acquired. The level and range of invasion of the hepatic artery, the portal vein, and the bile duct, the preoperative Bismuth classiifcation, and T-staging were recorded and compared with those after surgical exploration. RESULTS: The hepatic artery and portal vein were recon-structed successfully in all these patients. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed in 9 patients, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 1, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in 3. The CT angiography records of invasion of the hepatic artery were consistent with the results of explorations in these patients. The data from 5 of the 13 patients were consistent with those on invasion of the portal vein. The results of the Bismuth classiifcation and the T-staging system were consistent with those of surgical exploration in 12 of the 13 patients. Seven of 8 patients who were estimated to be suitable for operation based on images were curatively treated and 5 who were judged to be unsuitable for curative operation by cholangiography and CT angiography were conifrmed intraoperatively and underwent palliative procedures. CONCLUSIONS

  2. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  3. Beclin 1 deficiency correlated with lymph node metastasis, predicts a distinct outcome in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Tian Wang

    Full Text Available Autophagy can be tumor suppressive as well as promotive in regulation of tumorigenesis and disease progression. Accordingly, the prognostic significance of autophagy key regulator Beclin 1 was varied among different tumors. Here, we detected the clinicopathological and prognostic effect of Beclin 1 in the subtypes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC. Beclin 1 expression level was detected by immunohistochemistry staining in 106 ICC and 74 ECC patients. We found that Beclin 1 was lowly expressed in 126 (70% cholangiocarcinoma patients, consist of 72 ICC and 54 ECC. Moreover, the cholangiocarcinoma patients with lymph node metastasis (N1 had a lower Beclin 1 level than that of N0 subgroup (P=0.012. However, we did not detect any correlations between Beclin 1 and other clinicopathological features, including tumor subtypes, vascular invasion, HBV infection, liver cirrhosis, cholecystolithiasis and TNM stage. Survival analysis showed that, compared with the high expression subset, Beclin 1 low expression was correlated with a poorer 3-year progression-free survival (PFS, 69.1% VS 46.8%, P=041 for cholangiocarcinoma. Importantly, our stratified univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed that Beclin 1 lowly expressed ICC had an inferior PFS as well as overall survival than ECC, particularly than that of Beclin 1 highly expressed ECC patients. Thus, our study demonstrated that Beclin 1low expression, correlated with lymph node metastasis, and might be a negative prognostic biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma. Combined Beclin 1 level with the anatomical location might lead to refined prognosis for the subtypes of ICC and ECC.

  4. Prostaglandins in Cancer Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Menter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins exert a profound influence over the adhesive, migratory, and invasive behavior of cells during the development and progression of cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1 are upregulated in inflammation and cancer. This results in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, which binds to and activates G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E1-4 receptors (EP1-4. Selectively targeting the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1-4 axis of the prostaglandin pathway can reduce the adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Once stimulated by prostaglandins, cadherin adhesive connections between epithelial or endothelial cells are lost. This enables cells to invade through the underlying basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM. Interactions with the ECM are mediated by cell surface integrins by “outside-in signaling” through Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK and/or “inside-out signaling” through talins and kindlins. Combining the use of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1-4 axis-targeted molecules with those targeting cell surface adhesion receptors or their downstream signaling molecules may enhance cancer therapy.

  5. Invasion of primary glioma- and cell line-derived spheroids implanted into corticostriatal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Nørregaard, Annette; Christensen, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are highly invasive tumors and the pronounced invasive features of gliomas prevent radical surgical resection. In the search for new therapeutics targeting invasive glioma cells, in vivo-like in vitro models are of great interest. We developed and evaluated an in vivo-like in vitro model...... preserving the invasive features and stem cell features of glioma cells. Fluorescently labelled primary glioma spheroids and U87MG cell line-derived spheroids were implanted into organotypic rat corticostriatal slice cultures and the invasion was followed over time by confocal microscopy. The invasion...... that the primary glioma spheroid area was constant or decreasing after implantation, with a clear increase in the number of invading cells over time. In contrast, the U87MG spheroid area increased after implantation, with no convincing tumor cell invasion. High levels of Bmi-1 and nestin were found in all...

  6. Invasive oral cancer stem cells display resistance to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Gammon, Luke; Biddle, Adrian; Emich, Helena; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2015-12-22

    There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that human tumors are driven and maintained by a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSC). In the case of head and neck cancer, such cells have been characterised by high expression levels of CD44 cell surface glycoprotein, while we have previously shown the presence of two diverse oral CSC populations in vitro, with different capacities for cell migration and proliferation. Here, we examined the response of oral CSC populations to ionising radiation (IR), a front-line measure for the treatment of head and neck tumors. We show that oral CSC initially display resistance to IR-induced growth arrest as well as relative apoptotic resistance. We propose that this is a result of preferential activation of the DNA damagerepair pathway in oral CSC with increased activation of ATM and BRCA1, elevated levels of DNA repair proteins RAD52, XLF, and a significantly faster rate of DNA double-strand-breaks clearance 24 hours following IR. By visually identifying CSC sub-populations undergoing EMT, we show that EMT-CSC represent the majority of invasive cells, and are more radio-resistant than any other population in re-constructed 3D tissues. We provide evidence that IR is not sufficient to eliminate CSC in vitro, and that sensitization of CD44hi/ESAlow cells to IR, followed by secondary EMT blockade, could be critical in order to reduce primary tumor recurrence, but more importantly to be able to eradicate cells capable of invasion and distant metastasis.

  7. Recurrent Amplification at 13q34 Targets at CUL4A, IRS2, and TFDP1 As an Independent Adverse Prognosticator in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Liu

    Full Text Available Amplification of genes at 13q34 has been reported to be associated with tumor proliferation and progression in diverse types of cancers. However, its role in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA has yet to be explored. We examined two iCCA cell lines and 86 cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to analyze copy number of three target genes, including cullin 4A (CUL4A, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2, and transcription factor Dp-1 (TFDP1 at 13q34 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cell lines and all tumor samples were used to test the relationship between copy number (CN alterations and protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemical assays, respectively. IRS2 was introduced, and each target gene was silenced in cell lines. The mobility potential of cells was compared in the basal condition and after manipulation using cell migration and invasion assays. CN alterations correlated with protein expression levels. The SNU1079 cell line containing deletions of the target genes demonstrated decreased protein expression levels and significantly lower numbers of migratory and invasive cells, as opposed to the RBE cell line, which does not contain CN alterations. Overexpression of IRS2 by introducing IRS2 in SUN1079 cells increased the mobility potential. In contrast, silencing each target gene showed a trend or statistical significance toward inhibition of migratory and invasive capacities in RBE cells. In tumor samples, the amplification of each of these genes was associated with poor disease-free survival. Twelve cases (13.9% demonstrated copy numbers > 4 for all three genes tested (CUL4A, IRS2, and TFDP1, and showed a significant difference in disease-free survival by both univariate and multivariate survival analyses (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 5.88; P = 0.013. Our data demonstrate that amplification of genes at 13q34 plays an oncogenic role in iCCA featuring adverse disease

  8. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor on expression of HDAC1 in gallbladder carcinoma cell line and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line in vivo and in vitro%组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂对胆囊癌细胞系和肝外胆管癌细胞系HDAC1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 黄凯; 徐立宁

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂-曲古抑菌素(TSA)在体外和体内对胆囊癌细胞和肝外胆管癌细胞HDAC1表达的影响.方法 用TSA作用于胆囊癌细胞系(Mz-ChA-1)和肝外胆管癌细胞系(QBC939、KMBC、OZ),然后用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测HDAC1之mR-NA的表达变化,用Western blot检测其蛋白的表达变化.将这些细胞接种在裸鼠皮下建立胆囊癌和肝外胆管癌裸鼠种植瘤模型,用免疫组织化学方法 观察TSA在体内对裸鼠种植瘤组织中HDAC1蛋白表达的影响.结果 TSA可以减弱胆囊癌细胞系(Mz-ChA-1)和肝外胆管癌细胞系(QBC939、KMBC、OZ)HDAC1 mRNA和蛋白的表达;TSA作用前后的胆囊癌细胞系(Mz-ChA-1)和肝外胆管癌细胞系(KMBC)裸鼠成瘤组织中的各种蛋白的表达均无变化.结论 TSA在体外可以抑制胆囊癌和肝外胆管癌HDAC1的表达;TSA抑制HDAC1表达的作用可能受到体内环境的影响而消失.%Objective To study the effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor-trichostatin A (TSA) on the HDAC1 expression in gallbladder carcinoma and extrahepatic cholangioearcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. Methods The cells from gallbladder carcinoma cell line ( Mz-ChA-1 ) and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (QBC939, KMBC and OZ) were treated with TSA, and the expression of HDAC1 mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR assay and Western blot respectively. These cells were subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice to establish the transplanted cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma models. The effect of TSA on the expression of HDAC1 protein in transplanted cancer tissues in vivo was observed. Results TSA could down-regulate the expression of HDAC1 mRNA and protein in gallbladder carcinoma cells and cholangiocarcinoma cells. TSA could not down-or up-regulate the expression of HDAC1 protein in the transplanted biliary tract cancer models in nude mice. Conclusion TSA might down-regulate the expression of HDAC1 in

  9. Fucoidan reduced the invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and modified their effects to macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junda; Wang, Ketao; Wang, Huayang; Shao, Qianqian; Luan, Yijun; Xu, Yan; Song, Xiaobin; Tan, Wanye; Liu, Shaohua; Wei, Fengcai; Qu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Fucoidan is a complex of polysaccharides showing antitumor and immunomodulation properties. Our previous studies found its regulation to myeloid immune cells, including macrophages. Aberrant infiltration and functions of macrophages are commonly found in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we analyzed the effects of fucoidan on invasion of OSCC cells, and their regulation to macrophages, trying to evaluate its role as a potential therapy for OSCC. CAL27 and THP-1-derived macrophages were used as models for OSCC cells and tumor-infiltrated macrophages in the in vitro study, respectively. The effects of fucoidan on invasion of OSCC cells and their recruitment to macrophages were analyzed by transwell assay. KIF4A siRNA transfection was performed to investigate its role in fucoidan-modulated OSCC cells invasion. CCL3-neutralizing antibody was added into the conditioned medium of OSCC cells to evaluate its role in fucoidan-mediated macrophages recruitment and re-education. Fucoidan reduced the invasive potential of CAL27 cells with a decrease of MMP-2 and KIF4A transcription. KIF4A knockdown in CAL27 cells led to decreased invasion and MMP-2 expression. The conditioned medium of fucoidan-treated CAL27 cells promoted recruitment and inflammatory cytokines secretion on THP-1-derived macrophages. Further analysis found that fucoidan increased CCL3 production in CAL27 cells. Blocking CCL3 expression reversed the effects of fucoidan on macrophage recruitment and re-education. Our study found that fucoidan regulated the invasion of OSCC cells and also their recruiting and re-educating effects on macrophages, suggesting it could be a complementary approach in the treatment of OSCC.

  10. MUC1 and MUC5AC mucin expression in liver fluke-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanchai Boonla; Banchob Sripa; Peti Thuwajit; Ubon Cha-On; Anucha Puapairoj; Masanao Miwa; Sopit Wongkham

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of MUC1 and MUC5AC in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Association of expressions of mucins MUC1 and MUC5AC with clinical findings, metastasis, and survival of the liver fluke-associated ICC patients was determined.METHODS: The expressions of MUC1 and MUC5AC mucins were examined by immunohistochemical staining in 87cases of histologically-proven ICC. The expressions of mucins in relationship between clinicopathological significance and prognosis of the patients were evaluated.RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (60%) exhibited both MUC1 and MUC5AC expressions, whereas 31% expressed either MUC1or MUC5AC, and 9% expressed neither. High MUC1immunoreactivity displayed a significant correlation with tumor progression as reflected by vascular invasion (P<0.001),whereas high expression of MUC5AC significantly correlated with neural invasion (P = 0.022) and advanced ICC stage (P = 0.008). Patients with high expression of MUC1 had a significantly shorter survival (P = 0.0002). According to multivariate analyses, MUC1 reactivity (P = 0.026),histological grading and stage of tumor represented the least probability of survival.CONCLUSION: MUC1 is overexpressed in liver flukeassociated cholangiocarcinoma and relates to vascular invasion and poor prognosis, whereas MUC5AC mucin is neoexpressed and relates to neural invasion and advanced ICC stage. High MUC1 expression in tumor may be useful for predicting the poor outcome of ICC patients.

  11. Correlation of p53 gene mutation and expression of P53 protein in cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Fang Liu; Hao Zhang; Shi-Guang Zhu; Xian-Ting Zhou; Hai-Long Su; Zheng Xu; Shao-Jun Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the tumor suppressor gene p53 mutations and study the correlation of p53 gene mutation and the expression of P53 protein in cholangiocarcinoma.METHODS: A total of 36 unselected, frozen samples of cholangiocarcinoma were collected. p53 gene status(exon 5-8) and P53 protein were examined by automated sequencing and immunohistochemical staining, combined with the clinical parameters of patients.RESULTS: p53 gene mutations were found in 22 of 36 (61.1%) patients. Nineteen of 36 (52.8%) patients were positive for P53 protein expression. There were significant differences in extent of differentiation and invasion between the positive and negative expression of P53 protein. However, there were no significant differences in pathologic parameters between the mutations and non-mutations.CONCLUSION: The alterations of the p53 gene evaluated by DNA sequence analysis is relatively accurate. Expression of P53 protein could not act as an independent index to estimate the prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

  12. Cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey David M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid tumor metastasis to the epididymis is a rare occurrence and is mostly discovered incidentally at autopsy or after therapeutic orchidectomy for prostate cancer. Other primary carcinomas that have been demonstrated to metastasize to the paratesticular region include those originating in the stomach, kidney, ileum, and colon. Case presentation A 72-year-old gentleman presented with a firm and tender mass involving the right epididymis. On examination, he was jaundiced. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated an obstructive stricture of the extra-hepatic bile ducts, in keeping with a cholangiocarcinoma, through which a metal stent was endoscopically inserted for symptomatic relief. Subsequent right radical orchidectomy yielded a diffusely infiltrative adenocarcinoma obliterating the epididymis, extending into the rete testis, vas deferens and spermatic cord and showing widespread vascular and perineural invasion. Residual epididymal, rete, and testicular tubules showed no in situ neoplasia. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the features were in keeping with a metastasis from a primary cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion Only two cases of bile duct carcinoma metastasising to the male genital tract have previously been reported in the literature, the testis being the main site of metastasis in both cases. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cholangiocarcinoma metastasising primarily to the epididymis, and presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis in the absence of disseminated disease. It serves to highlight the importance of performing a thorough examination of the male external genitalia both clinically, in the follow up of cancer patients, and at autopsy.

  13. Cell-baswd non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldbjerg, Niels; Singh, Ripudaman; Christensen, Rikke;

    CONTROL ID: 2520273 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: OC06.03 TITLE: Cell based Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Niels Uldbjerg2, Ripudaman Singh4, Rikke Christensen3, Palle Schelde4, Ida Vogel1, Else Marie Vestergaard3, Lotte Hatt4, Steen Kølvrå4 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1....... Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, none, Denmark. 2. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. 3. Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. 4. Arcedi Biotech Aps, Aarhus, Denmark. ABSTRACT BODY: Objectives: NIPT...

  14. Molecular and cytogenetic abnormality on cholangiocarcinoma%肝门胆管癌细胞分子遗传学异常的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高戈; 邹声泉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study alterations of molecular cytogenetics of cholangiocarcinoma on chromosome and gene,study the possible involvement of chromosome abnormalities and the genetic susceptibility in pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma,investigate chromosome instability and expression of fragile sites of cholangiocarcinoma and relationship each other,and find marker chromosome of cholangiocarcinoma.Methods Chromosomal analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used with 9th chromosome libraries to investigate the chromosomal aberration,the chromosome instability and expressiom of fragile sites in patients with cholangiocarcinoma.The genetic alteration and expression of p16 gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction single strand comformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and immunohistochemistry.Results Chromosomal aberrations were found in 10 case of patients and 1 case of cell line of cholangiocarcinoma.The chromosome model number was 62.3 and predominantly hyperdiploid,with a chromosome number aberration rate of 83.67%,and a structure aberration rate of 62.8%.9p deletion appeared more frequently(50.8%).p16 gene mutation rate was 58.3% (21/36).The expression of p16 gene was not significantly related with sex and age of the patients,and had a relation with Bismuth type,the depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis.The chromosome gaps (8.75 ± 3.30),chromosome breakpoints (7.63 ± 2.76),abnormal cell rate (13.35 ± 4.73) and expression rate of fragile sites of the patients were markedly higher in patients with cholgnagiocarcinoma than those of normal persons (3.17 ±1.82,2.04±1.76,3.65 ±1.97) (P<0.01).Conclusion Chromosomal aberrations and gene mutation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma.The alteration of p16 gene and abnormal expression of p16 protein are significantly correlated with the biological behaviors and clinical staging of cholangiocarcinorma and may hence be helpful to prognosis.The increase of

  15. Antitumor effect of FGFR inhibitors on a novel cholangiocarcinoma patient derived xenograft mouse model endogenously expressing an FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ding, Xiwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Moser, Catherine D; Shaleh, Hassan M; Mohamed, Essa A; Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Allotey, Loretta K; Chen, Gang; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; McNulty, Melissa S; Ndzengue, Albert; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Knudson, Ryan A; Greipp, Patricia T; Clark, Karl J; Torbenson, Michael S; Kipp, Benjamin R; Zhou, Jie; Barrett, Michael T; Gustafson, Michael P; Alberts, Steven R; Borad, Mitesh J; Roberts, Lewis R

    2016-09-28

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal cancer with limited therapeutic options. Recent genomic analysis of cholangiocarcinoma has revealed the presence of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusion proteins in up to 13% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). FGFR fusions have been identified as a novel oncogenic and druggable target in a number of cancers. In this study, we established a novel cholangiocarcinoma patient derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model bearing an FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein from a metastatic lung nodule of an iCCA patient. Using this PDX model, we confirmed the ability of the FGFR inhibitors, ponatinib, dovitinib and BGJ398, to modulate FGFR signaling, inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma tumors harboring FGFR2 fusions. In addition, BGJ398 appeared to be superior in potency to ponatinib and dovitinib in this model. Our findings provide a strong rationale for the investigation of FGFR inhibitors, particularly BGJ398, as a therapeutic option for cholangiocarcinoma patients harboring FGFR2 fusions.

  16. Extracellular protonation modulates cell-cell interaction mechanics and tissue invasion in human melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofschröer, Verena; Koch, Kevin Alexander; Ludwig, Florian Timo; Friedl, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Stock, Christian; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement. Adhesive interaction strength between individual MV3 cells was quantified using atomic force microscopy and validated by multicellular aggregation assays. Extracellular acidification from pHe7.4 to 6.4 decreases cell migration and invasion but increases single cell detachment from the spheroids. Acidification and NHE1 overexpression both reduce cell-cell adhesion strength, indicated by reduced maximum pulling forces and adhesion energies. Multicellular aggregation and spheroid formation are strongly impaired under acidification or NHE1 overexpression. We show a clear dependence of melanoma cell-cell adhesion on pHe and NHE1 as a modulator. These effects are opposite to cell-matrix interactions that are strengthened by protons extruded via NHE1. We conclude that these opposite effects of NHE1 act synergistically during the metastatic cascade. PMID:28205573

  17. Autocrine and Paracrine Mechanisms Promoting Chemoresistance in Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cadamuro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, a typical feature of cholangiocarcinoma, prevents the efficacy of the therapeutic arsenal usually used to combat malignancy in humans. Mechanisms of chemoresistance by neoplastic cholangiocytes include evasion of drug-induced apoptosis mediated by autocrine and paracrine cues released in the tumor microenvironment. Here, recent evidence regarding molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance is reviewed, as well as associations between well-developed chemoresistance and activation of the cancer stem cell compartment. It is concluded that improved understanding of the complex interplay between apoptosis signaling and the promotion of cell survival represent potentially productive areas for active investigation, with the ultimate aim of encouraging future studies to unveil new, effective strategies able to overcome current limitations on treatment.

  18. A novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro assay for the study of tumor cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neufeld Gera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of tumor cell invasion is an important step in tumor progression. Due to the cost and slowness of in-vivo invasion assays, there is need for quantitative in-vitro invasion assays that mimic as closely as possible the tumor environment and in which conditions can be rigorously controlled. Methods We have established a novel asymmetric 3D in-vitro invasion assay by embedding a monolayer of tumor cells between two layers of collagen. The cells were then allowed to invade the upper and lower layers of collagen. To visualize invading cells the gels were sectioned perpendicular to the monolayer so that after seeding the monolayer appears as a thin line precisely defining the origin of invasion. The number of invading tumor cells, their proliferation rate, the distance they traverse and the direction of invasion could then be determined quantitatively. Results The assay was used to compare the invasive properties of several tumor cell types and the results compare well with those obtained by previously described assays. Lysyl-oxidase like protein-2 (Loxl2 is a potent inducer of invasiveness. Using our assay we show for the first time that inhibition of endogenous Loxl2 expression in several types of tumor cells strongly inhibits their invasiveness. We also took advantage of the asymmetric nature of the assay in order to show that fibronectin enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells more potently than laminin. The asymmetric properties of the assay were also used to demonstrate that soluble factors derived from fibroblasts can preferentially attract invading breast cancer cells. Conclusion Our assay displays several advantages over previous invasion assays as it is allows the quantitative analysis of directional invasive behavior of tumor cells in a 3D environment mimicking the tumor microenvironment. It should be particularly useful for the study of the effects of components of the tumor microenvironment on

  19. Quantitative Study of Cell Invasion Process under Extracellular Stimulation of Cytokine in a Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Tseng, Hsueh-Peng; Lee, Chia-Yi; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cell invasion is the first step of cancer metastasis that is the primary cause of death for cancer patients and defined as cell movement through extracellular matrix (ECM). Investigation of the correlation between cell invasive and extracellular stimulation is critical for the inhabitation of metastatic dissemination. Conventional cell invasion assay is based on Boyden chamber assay, which has a number of limitations. In this work, a microfluidic device incorporating with impedance measurement technique was developed for quantitative investigation of cell invasion process. The device consisted of 2 reservoirs connecting with a microchannel filled with hydrogel. Malignant cells invaded along the microchannel and impedance measurement was concurrently conducted by measuring across electrodes located at the bottom of the microchannel. Therefore, cell invasion process could be monitored in real-time and non-invasive manner. Also, cell invasion rate was then calculated to study the correlation between cell invasion and extracellular stimulation, i.e., IL-6 cytokine. Results showed that cell invasion rate was directly proportional to the IL-6 concentration. The microfluidic device provides a reliable and convenient platform for cell-based assays to facilitate more quantitative assessments in cancer research.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in the Golgi apparatus regulates cell-cell adhesion and invasive cell migration in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Emi; Itoh, Toshiki; Hasegawa, Junya; Ijuin, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Irino, Yasuhiro; Fukumoto, Miki; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2014-06-01

    Downregulation of cell-cell adhesion and upregulation of cell migration play critical roles in the conversion of benign tumors to aggressive invasive cancers. In this study, we show that changes in cell-cell adhesion and cancer cell migration/invasion capacity depend on the level of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] in the Golgi apparatus in breast cancer cells. Attenuating SAC1, a PI(4)P phosphatase localized in the Golgi apparatus, resulted in decreased cell-cell adhesion and increased cell migration in weakly invasive cells. In contrast, silencing phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ, which generates PI(4)P in the Golgi apparatus, increased cell-cell adhesion and decreased invasion in highly invasive cells. Furthermore, a PI(4)P effector, Golgi phosphoprotein 3, was found to be involved in the generation of these phenotypes in a manner that depends on its PI(4)P-binding ability. Our results provide a new model for breast cancer cell progression in which progression is controlled by PI(4)P levels in the Golgi apparatus.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  2. The role of the tissue microenvironment in the regulation of cancer cell motility and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brábek Jan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During malignant neoplastic progression the cells undergo genetic and epigenetic cancer-specific alterations that finally lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and restructuring of the microenvironment. The invasion of cancer cells through connective tissue is a crucial prerequisite for metastasis formation. Although cell invasion is foremost a mechanical process, cancer research has focused largely on gene regulation and signaling that underlie uncontrolled cell growth. More recently, the genes and signals involved in the invasion and transendothelial migration of cancer cells, such as the role of adhesion molecules and matrix degrading enzymes, have become the focus of research. In this review we discuss how the structural and biomechanical properties of extracellular matrix and surrounding cells such as endothelial cells influence cancer cell motility and invasion. We conclude that the microenvironment is a critical determinant of the migration strategy and the efficiency of cancer cell invasion.

  3. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  4. Alendronate inhibits cell invasion and MMP-2 secretion in human chondrosarcoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Te-jen LAI; Yi-chin FONG; Sheng-feng HSU; Temao LI; Horng-chaung HSU; Jaung-geng LIN; Chin-jung HSU; Ming-chih CHOU; Meng-chih LEE; Shun-fa YANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Chondrosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, on the invasion and migration of human chondrosarcoma cells (JJ012). Methods: JJ012 cells were treated with alendronate of various concentrations up to 100 μmol/L for a speci-fied period, and then gelatin zymography and matrigel invasion assay was per-formed to study the effects of alendronate on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity and the invasion ability of JJ012 cells, respectively. Results: Our data showed that alendronate exerted a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and migration of JJ012 cells. Furthermore, gelatin zymography and RT-PCR showed that alendronate treatment decreased the activity and mRNA levels of MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our find-ings suggest that alendronate may reduce MMP-2 secretion at the transcriptional and translational levels, and inhibit the invasion of chondrosarcoma cell. Therefore,alendronate may be a potential candidate for the systemic therapy of chondro-sarcomas, as well as other malignant diseases.

  5. [Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor) - current treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bělina, F

    2013-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a rare tumor with a rather poor prognosis, and thus remains a challenge for diagnosis and treatment. The sole potentionally curative treatment is the complete resection of the tumor. A negative surgical margin is one of the most important factors in achieving prolonged survival. A preoperative evaluation of the tumor is important for the evaluation of resectability and the extent of surgery. Unfortunately, only a small number of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma is indicated for the radical procedure. Liver transplantation is not a standard method in the treatment of the Klatskin tumor and it is reserved only for carefully selected patients in a few transplant centres. The main aim of the palliative treatment is biliary drainage, reduction of the pain and pruritus and overall improvement of the quality of life. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the important parts of the complex therapy, however, no definite regimen has been established to date. Further evidence is needed to define the role of liver transplantation and (neo)adjuvant new therapeutic modalities. Key words: hilar cholangiocarcinoma - radical surgery - palliative treatment - liver transplantation - (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy - radiotherapy.

  6. Osteopontin knockdown suppresses non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bing-sheng; YOU Jian; LI Yue; ZHANG Zhen-fa; WANG Chang-li

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) was identified as one of the leading genes that promote the metastasis of malignant tumor.However,the mechanism by which OPN mediates metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown.The aim of the study is to investigate the biological significance and the related molecular mechanism of OPN expression in lung cancer cell line.Methods Lentiviral-mediated RNA interference was applied to inhibit OPN expression in metastatic human NSCLC cell line (A549).The invasion,proliferation,and metastasis were evaluated OPN-silenced in A549 cells in vitro and in vivo.The related mechanism was further investigated.Results Interestingly,OPN knockdown significantly suppressed the invasiveness of A549 cells,but had only a minor effect on the cellular migration and proliferation.Moreover,we demonstrated that OPN knockdown significantly reduced the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA),and led to an obviousinhibition of both in vitro invasion and in vivo lung metastasis of A549 cells (P <0.001).Conclusions Our data demonstrate that OPN contributes to A549 cell metastasis by stimulating cell invasion,independent of cellular migration and proliferation.OPN could be a new treatment target of NSCLC.

  7. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bing; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  8. Slit2 inhibits glioma cell invasion in the brain by suppression of Cdc42 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Jia-Jean; Hu, Bo; Jarzynka, Michael J; Feng, Haizhong; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wu, Jane Y; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways. Slit2, a chemorepulsive factor, controls cell migration of neuronal and glial cells during development and inhibits chemotaxic migration of various types of cells in vitro. However, the role of Slit2 in vitro remains controversial, and the biological significance of Slit2 expression in cancer cell invasion in vivo has not yet been determined. In the present study, we characterized the effects of Slit2 expression on the migration and invasion of invasive glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. By reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, Slit2 was found to be expressed at lower levels in primary glioma specimens and invasive glioma cells compared with normal human brain cells and astrocytes. Ectopic expression of Slit2 or treatment with recombinant Slit2 on glioma cells attenuates cell migration and invasion through inhibition of Cdc42 activity in vitro. Cellular depletion of Robo1, a cognate receptor for Slit2, prevented Slit2 inhibition of Cdc42 activity and glioma cell migration. In vivo, expression of Slit2 by invasive SNB19 glioma cells markedly inhibited glioma cell infiltration into the brain of mice. Moreover, impediment of glioma cell invasion by Slit2 did not affect the expression of N-cadherin and beta-catenin in glioma cells. These results provide the first evidence demonstrating that Slit2-Robo1 inhibits glioma invasion through attenuating Cdc42 activity in vitro and in the brain. Understanding the mechanisms of Slit2-Robo1 inhibition of glioma cell invasion will foster new treatments for malignant gliomas.

  9. A novel zebrafish xenotransplantation model for study of glioma stem cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Yang

    Full Text Available Invasion and metastasis of solid tumors are the major causes of death in cancer patients. Cancer stem cells (CSCs constitute a small fraction of tumor cell population, but play a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The xenograft of tumor cells in immunodeficient mice is one of commonly used in vivo models to study the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. However, this model is time-consuming and labor intensive. Zebrafish (Danio rerio and their transparent embryos are emerging as a promising xenograft tumor model system for studies of tumor invasion. In this study, we established a tumor invasion model by using zebrafish embryo xenografted with human glioblastoma cell line U87 and its derived cancer stem cells (CSCs. We found that CSCs-enriched from U87 cells spreaded via the vessels within zebrafish embryos and such cells displayed an extremely high level of invasiveness which was associated with the up-regulated MMP-9 by CSCs. The invasion of glioma CSCs (GSCs in zebrafish embryos was markedly inhibited by an MMP-9 inhibitor. Thus, our zebrafish embryo model is considered a cost-effective approach tostudies of the mechanisms underlying the invasion of CSCs and suitable for high-throughput screening of novel anti-tumor invasion/metastasis agents.

  10. The roles of Notch1 expression in the migration of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Yafeng; Peng, Baogang; Liang, Lijian; Li, Jiaping

    2013-01-01

    Background Notch signaling, a critical pathway for tissue development, contributes to tumorigenesis in many tissues; however, the roles of Notch signaling in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression and effects of Notch1 on cell migration in ICC. Methods Multiple cellular and molecular approaches were performed including gene transfection, siRNA transfection, RT-PCR, Western blotting, Rac activation assays and immunofluorescence. Result...

  11. FOS-1 promotes basement-membrane removal during anchor-cell invasion in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Butler, James A; Kramer, James M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2005-06-17

    Cell invasion through basement membranes is crucial during morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Here, we genetically dissect this process during anchor-cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans. We have identified the fos transcription factor ortholog fos-1 as a critical regulator of basement-membrane removal. In fos-1 mutants, the gonadal anchor cell extends cellular processes normally toward vulval cells, but these processes fail to remove the basement membranes separating the gonad from the vulval epithelium. fos-1 is expressed in the anchor cell and controls invasion cell autonomously. We have identified ZMP-1, a membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, CDH-3, a Fat-like protocadherin, and hemicentin, a fibulin family extracellular matrix protein, as transcriptional targets of FOS-1 that promote invasion. These results reveal a key genetic network that controls basement-membrane removal during cell invasion.

  12. Overexpression of VCC-1 gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells promotes cell proliferation and invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Mu; Yao Chen; Shuihai Wang; Xiang Huang; Huazhen Pan; Ming Li

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemo-kine 1 (VCC-1), a novel chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. VCC-1 is expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, but its func-tion remains unknown. To investigate the molecular effects of VCC-1 on HCC cells, the HCC cell line SMMC7721 was stably transfected with the recombi-nant plasmid pcDNA3.1/VCC-1. Our data demonstrated that overexpression of VCC-1 in SMMC7721 cells sig-nificantly enhanced the cellular proliferation, invasive ability, and tumor growth, when compared with both empty vector control cells and parental cells. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays an important role in SMMC7721 invasion and tumor growth, and indicate that VCC-1 may serve as a potential biomarker for anti-HCC therapies.

  13. Cell Motility and Invasiveness of Neurofibromin-Deficient Neural Crest Cells and Malignant Triton Tumor Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    immunoblotting techniques to characterize signaling pathways activated by TGF-beta and PDGF-BB in MPNST -like sarcoma cell lines isolated from cisNfl+/-;p53...mouse model to include characterizations of genomic instability in the context of malignant transformation, and to test possible modifiers of MPNST ...growth and invasiveness. 15. SUBJECT TERMS neurofibromatosis type 1; neural crest cells; cell motility and Migration; PDGF; TGF-beta; MPNST

  14. Gallic acid suppresses cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong; Jiang, Feng; JIANG, Hao; Wu, Kalina; Zheng, Xuguang; Cai, Yizhong; Katakowski, Mark; Chopp, Michael; To, Shing-Shun Tony

    2010-01-01

    Gallic acid, an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is cytotoxic against certain cancer cells, without harming normal cells. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether gallic acid can inhibit glioma cell viability, proliferation, invasion and reduce glioma cell mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of U87 and U251n glioma cells with gallic acid inhibited cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BrdU and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid sign...

  15. Intestinal trefoil factor promotes invasion in non-tumorigenic Rat-2 fibroblast cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victor Y W; Chan, Michael W Y; Leung, Wai-Keung; Leung, Po-Sing; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chan, Francis K L

    2005-04-15

    Intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) is essential in regulating cell migration and maintaining mucosal integrity in gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that TFF3 was overexpressed in gastric carcinoma. Whether TFF3 possesses malignant potential is not fully elucidated. We sought to investigate the effects of inducting TFF3 expression in a non-malignant rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-2) on the cell proliferation, invasion and the genes regulating cell invasion. Invasiveness and proliferation of transfected Rat-2 cell line were assessed using in vitro invasion chamber assay and colorimetric MTS assay. Differential mRNA expressions of invasion-related genes, namely, metalloproteinases (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), beta-catenin and E-cadherin, were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We showed that TFF3 did not inhibit the proliferation of Rat-2 cells. We also demonstrated that transfection of TFF3 significantly promoted invasion of Rat-2 cells by 1.4- to 2.2-folds. There was an upregulation of beta-catenin (13.1-23.0%) and MMP-9 (43.4-92.2%) mRNA expression levels, and downregulation of E-cadherin (25.6-33.8%) and TIMP-1 (31.5-37.8%) in TFF3-transfected cells compared to controls during 48-h incubation. Our results suggested that TFF3 possesses malignant potential through promotion of cell invasiveness and alteration of invasion-related genes.

  16. Bromelain reversibly inhibits invasive properties of glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysnes, B B; Maurer, H R; Porwol, T; Probst, B; Bjerkvig, R; Hoover, F

    2001-01-01

    Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem that contains proteinases and exhibits pleiotropic therapeutic effects, i.e., antiedematous, antiinflammatory, antimetastatic, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities. In this study, we tested bromelain's effects on glioma cells to assess whether bromelain could be a potential contributor to new antiinvasive strategies for gliomas. Several complementary assays demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell adhesion, migration, and invasion without affecting cell viability, even after treatment periods extending over several months. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that alpha3 and beta1 integrin subunits and hyaluronan receptor CD44 protein levels were reduced within 24 hours of bromelain treatment. These effects were not reflected at the RNA level because RNA profiling did not show any significant effects on gene expression. Interestingly, metabolic labelling with 35-S methionine demonstrated that de novo protein synthesis was greatly attenuated by bromelain, in a reversible manner. By using a transactivating signaling assay, we found that CRE-mediated signaling processes were suppressed. These results indicate that bromelain exerts its antiinvasive effects by proteolysis, signaling cascades, and translational attenuation.

  17. Bromelain Reversibly Inhibits Invasive Properties of Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit B. Tysnes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain is an aqueous extract from pineapple stem that contains proteinases and exhibits pleiotropic therapeutic effects, i.e., antiedematous, antiinflammatory, antimetastatic, antithrombotic, fibrinolytic activities. In this study, we tested bromelain's effects on glioma cells to assess whether bromelain could be a potential contributor to new antiinvasive strategies for gliomas. Several complementary assays demonstrated that bromelain significantly and reversibly reduced glioma cell adhesion, migration, invasion without affecting cell viability, even after treatment periods extending over several months. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that a3 and α1 integrin subunits and hyaluronan receptor CD44 protein levels were reduced within 24 hours of bromelain treatment. These effects were not reflected at the RNA level because RNA profiling did not show any significant effects on gene expression. Interestingly, metabolic labelling with 35-S methionine demonstrated that de novo protein synthesis was greatly attenuated by bromelain, in a reversible manner. By using a transactivating signaling assay, we found that CRE-mediated signaling processes were suppressed. These results indicate that bromelain exerts its antiinvasive effects by proteolysis, signaling cascades, translational attenuation.

  18. Time-dependent traction force microscopy for cancer cells as a measure of invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschetola, Valentina; Laurent, Valérie M; Duperray, Alain; Michel, Richard; Ambrosi, Davide; Preziosi, Luigi; Verdier, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The migration of tumor cells of different degrees of invasivity is studied, on the basis of the traction forces exerted in time on soft substrates (Young modulus∼10 kPa). It is found that the outliers of the traction stresses can be an effective indicator to distinguish cancer cell lines of different invasiveness. Here, we test two different epithelial bladder cancer cell lines, one invasive (T24), and a less invasive one (RT112). Invasive cancer cells move in a nearly periodic motion, with peaks in velocity corresponding to higher traction forces exerted on the substrate, whereas less invasive cells develop traction stresses almost constant in time. The dynamics of focal adhesions (FAs) as well as cytoskeleton features reveals that different mechanisms are activated to migrate: T24 cells show an interconnected cytoskeleton linked to mature adhesion sites, leading to small traction stresses, whereas less invasive cells (RT112) show a less-structured cytoskeleton and unmature adhesions corresponding to higher traction stresses. Migration velocities are smaller in the case of less invasive cells. The mean squared displacement shows super-diffusive motion in both cases with higher exponent for the more invasive cancer cells. Further correlations between traction forces and the actin cytoskeleton reveal an unexpected pattern of a large actin rim at the RT112 cell edge where higher forces are colocalized, whereas a more usual cytoskeleton structure with stress fibers and FAs are found for T24 cancer cells. We conjecture that this kind of analysis can be useful to classify cancer cell invasiveness.

  19. Ezrin mediates c-Myc actions in prostate cancer cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuan, Yin Choy; Iglesias Gato, Diego; Fernandez-Perez, L;

    2010-01-01

    The forced overexpression of c-Myc in mouse prostate and in normal human prostate epithelial cells results in tumor transformation with an invasive phenotype. How c-Myc regulates cell invasion is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the interplay of c-Myc and androgens in the re...

  20. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  1. Effect of epithelial cell type on in vitro invasion of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Kunde, Dale A; Tristram, Stephen G

    2016-10-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have been shown to have variable ability for in vitro invasion with a range of epithelial cells, and increased invasion of BEAS-2B cells has been associated with altered penicillin binding protein3 (PBP3), which is concerning as these strains are increasing worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of respiratory cell type and the presence of altered PBP3 on the in vitro invasion of NTHi. A collection of 16 clinical NTHi isolates was established, 7 had normal PBP3, and 9 had altered PBP3 as defined by an N526K substitution. The isolates were tested for invasion of BEAS-2B, NHBE, A549 and NCI-H292 respiratory epithelial cells in vitro using a gentamicin survival assay, with invasion measured as the percentage of intracellular organisms relative to the initial inoculum. The overall median invasion for the 16 NTHi isolates for cell types BEAS-2B, NHBE, A549 and NCI-H292 cells were 3.17, 2.31, 0.11 and 1.52 respectively. The differences were statistically significant for BEAS-2B compared to A549 (P=0.015) and A549 compared to NCI-H292 (P=0.015), and there were also very marked differences in invasion for some individual isolates depending on the cell type used. There was a consistent bias for invasion of isolates with normal versus abnormal PBP3: and this was statistically significant for BEAS-2B (0.07 to 9.90, P=0.031) and A549 cells (0.02 to 1.68, P=0.037). These results show that NTHi invasion of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro is both strain dependant and influenced significantly by the cell line used, and that the association between altered PBP3 and increased invasion is conserved across multiple cell lines.

  2. Regulation of cancer cell migration and invasion by sphingosine-1-phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; R; Van; Brocklyn

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingo-lipid that has been implicated in regulation of a number of cancer cell malignant behaviors, including cell proliferation, survival, chemotherapeutic resistance and angiogenesis. However, the effects of S1P on cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis, are perhaps its most complex, due to the fact that, depending upon the S1P receptors that mediate its responses and the crosstalk with other signaling pathways, S1P can either positively or negatively regulate invasion. This review summarizes the effects of S1P on cancer cell invasion and the mechanisms by which it affects this important aspect of cancer cell behavior.

  3. Establishment and Characterization of a Tumor Stem Cell-Based Glioblastoma Invasion Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Meyer, Morten; Petterson, Stine Asferg

    2016-01-01

    invasion and tumor stemness into account. METHODS: Glioblastoma stem cell-like containing spheroid (GSS) cultures derived from three different patients were established and characterized. The spheroids were implanted in vitro into rat brain slice cultures grown in stem cell medium and in vivo into brains......AIMS: Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Recurrence is inevitable and most likely connected to tumor invasion and presence of therapy resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim was therefore to establish and characterize a three-dimensional in vivo-like in vitro model taking...... of immuno-compromised mice. Invasion was followed in the slice cultures by confocal time-lapse microscopy. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared tumor cell invasion as well as expression of proliferation and stem cell markers between the models. RESULTS: We observed a pronounced invasion into brain slice...

  4. Adherence and invasion of mouse-adapted H pylori in different epithelial cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Jun Zhang; Fan-Liang Meng; Xiao-Yun Ji; Li-Hua He; Jian-Zhong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the adhesion and invasion abilities of different mouse adapted H pylori strains in different cell lines in vitro and investigate their effects on the virulence factors cagA and vacA.METHODS: The adherence and invasion abilities of different H pylori strains in different epithelial cell lines were examined by the gentamycin protection assay. The null mutants of cagA and vacA were processed by direct PCR mutation method. The morphologic changes of different cell lines after H pylori attachment were examined by microscopy.RESULTS: The densities of adherence to and invasion into cells in vitro were different from those in the mouse infection experiments. 88-3887 strain could invade and adhere to cells stronger than SSI and X47. All tested strains had better adhering and invasive abilities in SCG-7901 cell. CagA and vacA minus mutants had the same invasion and adherent abilities as their wild types. In all strains and cell lines tested, only AGS cell had the significant hummingbird phenotype after inoculation with the 88-3887 wild-type.CONCLUSION: Both the host cells and the bacteria play important parts in the invasion and adhesion abilities of H pylori. CagA and VacA are not related to the ability of invasion and adhesion of Hpylori in different cell lines in vitro.

  5. The effects of antisense PTEN gene transfection on the growth and invasion of glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-jie; ZHENG Zhao-cong; WANG Ru-mi; WANG Shou-sen; YANG Wei-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of antisense PTEN gene on the growth and invasion of glioma cells. Methods:A pcDNA3. 1/Hygro (-) recombinant plasmid containing antisense PTEN gene fragment was constructed. Glioma cells of primary culture were transfected with antisense PTEN gene vector and stably transfected clones were selected. Then, the different growth and invasion abilities and the different MMP9 mRNA expressions of three kinds of cells were observed, including the transfected cells, untransfected cells and the cells transfected with empty vector. Results :The abilities of growth and invasion of the transfected cells and the expressions of MMP9 mRNA were obviously enhanced. Conclusion: Antisense PTEN gene could have a negative impact on the growth and invasion of primary culture glioma cells.

  6. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Keying; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Xiao; Pang, Zhaofei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Du, Jiajun; Shen, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS) was statistically analyzed. Results Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145) of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186) and 16.9% (50) of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, Ptumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (PTumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis.

  7. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Leyuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Zhiming [Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Gao Yabo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Lingyan [Experimental Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  8. Fibronectin matrix-mediated cohesion suppresses invasion of prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Dongxuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion is an important early step in the metastatic cascade and is the primary cause of death of prostate cancer patients. In order to invade, cells must detach from the primary tumor. Cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are important regulators of cohesion - a property previously demonstrated to mediate cell detachment and invasion. The studies reported here propose a novel role for α5β1 integrin - the principle mediator of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA - as an invasion suppressor of prostate cancer cells. Methods Using a combination of biophysical and cell biological methods, and well-characterized prostate cancer cell lines of varying invasiveness, we explore the relationship between cohesion, invasiveness, and FNMA. Results We show that cohesion is inversely proportional to invasive capacity. We also show that more invasive cells express lower levels of α5β1 integrin and lack the capacity for FNMA. Cells were generated to over-express either wild-type α5 integrin or an integrin in which the cytoplasmic domain of α5 was replaced with that of α2. The α2 construct does not promote FNMA. We show that only wild-type α5 integrin promotes aggregate compaction, increases cohesion, and reduces invasion of the more aggressive cells, and that these effects can be blocked by the 70-kDa fibronectin fragment. Conclusions We propose that restoring capacity for FNMA in deficient cells can increase tumor intercellular cohesion to a point that significantly reduces cell detachment and subsequent invasion. In prostate cancer, this could be of therapeutic benefit by blocking an early key step in the metastatic cascade.

  9. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  10. Molecular basis of mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Yoshida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, depends on a series of events involving interactions of diverse parasite molecules with host components. Here we focus on the mechanisms of target cell invasion by metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT and mammalian tissue culture trypomastigotes (TCT. During MT or TCT internalization, signal transduction pathways are activated both in the parasite and the target cell, leading to Ca2+ mobilization. For cell adhesion, MT engage surface glycoproteins, such as gp82 and gp35/50, which are Ca2+ signal-inducing molecules. In T. cruzi isolates that enter host cells in gp82-mediated manner, parasite protein tyrosine kinase as well as phospholipase C are activated, and Ca2+ is released from I P3-sensitive stores, whereas in T. cruzi isolates that attach to target cells mainly through gp35/50, the signaling pathway involving adenylate cyclase appears to be stimulated, with Ca2+ release from acidocalciosomes. In addition, T. cruzi isolate-dependent inhibitory signals, mediated by MT-specific gp90, may be triggered both in the host cell and the parasite. The repertoire of TCT molecules implicated in cell invasion includes surface glycoproteins of gp85 family, with members containing binding sites for laminin and cytokeratin 18, enzymes such as cruzipain, trans-sialidase, and an oligopeptidase B that generates a Ca2+-agonist from a precursor molecule.O estabelecimento da infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi, o agente da doença de Chagas, depende de uma série de eventos envolvendo interações de diversas moléculas do parasita com componentes do hospedeiro. Focalizamos aqui os mecanismos de invasão celular por tripomastigotas metacíclicos (TM e por tripomastigotas de cultura de tecido (TCT. Durante a internalização de TM ou TCT, vias de transdução de sinal são ativadas tanto no parasita como na célula alvo, acarretando a mobilização de Ca2+. Para adesão, TM utiliza as glicoprote

  11. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 promotes ovarian cancer cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinsong

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2 is overexpressed in ovarian malignant tissues and in the serum and cystic fluid of ovarian cancer patients, suggesting an important role of IGFBP2 in the biology of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased IGFBP2 in ovarian cancer cells. Results Using western blotting and tissue microarray analyses, we showed that IGFBP2 was frequently overexpressed in ovarian carcinomas compared with normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, IGFBP2 was significantly overexpressed in invasive serous ovarian carcinomas compared with borderline serous ovarian tumors. To test whether increased IGFBP2 contributes to the highly invasive nature of ovarian cancer cells, we generated IGFBP2-overexpressing cells from an SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line, which has a very low level of endogenous IGFBP2. A Matrigel invasion assay showed that these IGFBP2-overexpressing cells were more invasive than the control cells. We then designed small interference RNA (siRNA molecules that attenuated IGFBP2 expression in PA-1 ovarian cancer cells, which have a high level of endogenous IGFBP2. The Matrigel invasion assay showed that the attenuation of IGFBP2 expression indeed decreased the invasiveness of PA-1 cells. Conclusions We therefore showed that IGFBP2 enhances the invasion capacity of ovarian cancer cells. Blockage of IGFBP2 may thus constitute a viable strategy for targeted cancer therapy.

  12. Radiofrequency ablation for incidentally identified primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Witold Zgodzinski; N.Joseph Espat

    2005-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepato-biliary malignancy. The majority of patients with primary hepatic tumors are not suitable candidates for resection, due to advanced stage of the disease at presentation, anatomic limitations and medical comorbidities. At present, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may offer an alternative, feasible and safe therapy for selected patients with hepatic tumors, who are not otherwise candidates for hepatic resection. Herein, we present the case of successful RFA in a patient with a solitary, primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The patient remained free of disease 24 mo after the procedure, and is still followed up. This is the first report of RFA application inthe treatment of primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  13. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods: Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 proteins. Results: Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P < 0.01. Artesunate can effectively inhibit the expression of cancer cell ICAM-1 gene proteins, and was time- and concentration-dependant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Artesunate can significantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  14. High interstitial fluid pressure promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Liu, Kun; Wu, Yingying; Fan, Jinchuan; Chen, Jianchao; Li, Chao; Zhu, Guiquan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Longjiang

    2013-11-01

    It has been shown that interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is elevated in many solid tumors. The elevated IFP in tumors is responsible, at least in part, for the poor blood supply, inadequate delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors and poor treatment response in patients. The present study was carried out to examine alterations in malignant phenotypes in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells subjected to conditions mimicking IFP and to identify the relevant molecular mechanisms. We investigated tumor cell proliferation and invasion using SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells subjected to an increased extracellular pressure of 0, 15 and 30 mmHg in vitro. The results revealed that the increased IFP resulted in a marked increase in cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasion in vitro and altered the expression of >1,800 genes involved in invasion and metastasis, the heat shock pathway, the p38 and JNK signaling pathway, apoptosis and the cell growth and differentiation signaling pathway. These results suggest the important potential clinical application of measuring IFP, which can be used as a generic marker of prognosis and response to therapy.

  15. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoğlu, Seçil; Eren, Erdem; Özkul, Yılmaz; Ciğer, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; Önal, Kazım; Etit, Demet; Tütüncü, G Yazgı

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88 years (mean 60.4 years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7 %) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3 %). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3 %). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors.

  16. Inhibition of TRPC6 reduces non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Yan; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Bao, Qing; Doetsch, Paul W.; Deng, Xingming; Thai, Tiffany L.; Alli, Abdel A.; Eaton, Douglas C.; Shen, Bao-Zhong; Ma, He-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channel is highly expressed in several types of cancer cells. However, it remains unclear whether TRPC6 contributes to the malignancy of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We used a human NSCLC A549 cell line as a model and found that pharmacological blockade or molecular knockdown of TRPC6 channel inhibited A549 cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at the S-G2M phase and caused a significant portion of cells detached and rounded-up, but did not induce any types of cell death. Western blot and cell cycle analysis show that the detached round cells at the S-G2M phase expressed more TRPC6 than the still attached polygon cells at the G1 phase. Patch-clamp data also show that TRPC whole-cell currents in the detached cells were significantly higher than in the still attached cells. Inhibition of Ca2+-permeable TRPC6 channels significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ in A549 cells. Interestingly, either blockade or knockdown of TRPC6 strongly reduced the invasion of this NSCLC cell line and decreased the expression of an adherent protein, fibronectin, and a tight junction protein, zonula occluden protein-1 (ZO-1). These data suggest that TRPC6-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca2+ stimulates NSCLC cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression and that inhibition of TRPC6 attenuates cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, further in vivo studies may lead to a consideration of using a specific TRPC6 blocker as a complement to treat NSCLC. PMID:28030826

  17. CNK1 promotes invasion of cancer cells through NF-kappaB-dependent signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rafael D; Radziwill, Gerald

    2010-03-01

    Hallmarks of cancer cells are uncontrolled proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell invasion, and metastasis, which are driven by oncogenic activation of signaling pathways. Herein, we identify the scaffold protein CNK1 as a mediator of oncogenic signaling that promotes invasion in human breast cancer and cervical cancer cells. Downregulation of CNK1 diminishes the invasiveness of cancer cells and correlates with reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP). Ectopic expression of CNK1 elevates MT1-MMP promoter activity in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner. Moreover, CNK1 cooperates with the NF-kappaB pathway, but not with the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, to promote cell invasion. Mechanistically, CNK1 regulates the alternative branch of the NF-kappaB pathway because knockdown of CNK1 interferes with processing of NF-kappaB2 p100 to p52 and its localization to the nucleus. In agreement with this, the invasion of CNK1-depleted cells is less sensitive to RelB downregulation compared with the invasion of control cells. Moreover, CNK1-dependent MT1-MMP promoter activation is blocked by RelB siRNA. Thus, CNK1 is an essential mediator of an oncogenic pathway involved in invasion of breast and cervical cancer cells and is therefore a putative target for cancer therapy.

  18. Trousseau's Syndrome Caused by Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: An Autopsy Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An autopsy case report of Trousseau's syndrome caused by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is presented, and seven previously reported cases are reviewed. A 73-year-old woman experiencing light-headedness and dementia of unknown cause for 6 months developed severe hypotonia. A hypointense lesion compatible with acute cerebral infarction was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an ill-defined large liver mass in the right lobe. The mass was not further investigated because of the patient's poor condition. She died of multiple organ failure, and an autopsy was conducted. Postmortem examination revealed intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, fibrous vegetations on the mitral valves and multiple thromboemboli in the cerebrum, spleen and rectum. Trousseau's syndrome is defined as an idiopathic thromboembolism in patients with undiagnosed or concomitantly diagnosed malignancy. This syndrome is encountered frequently in patients with mucin-producing carcinomas, while the incidence in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is uncommon. We found that tissue factor and mucin tumor marker (CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA-125 expression in cancer cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of thromboembolism. A patient with unexplained thromboembolism may have occult visceral malignancy; thus, mucin tumor markers may indicate the origin of a mucin-producing carcinoma, and postmortem examination may play an important role in revealing the hidden malignancy.

  19. Invasiveness of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines: Contribution of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Murakami

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic metastasis is one of the malignant features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Matrix metalloproteoinases (MMPs and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA/plasmin, are known to be associated with the invasive properties of various types of tumor cells. In this study, we examined which proteinases play a role in the metastatic invasion of human HCC cell lines. JHH-5 and JHH-6 cells constitutively expressed mRNAs for both membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP and u-PA and invaded through reconstituted MATRIGEL in vitro, whereas JHH-7 cells expressed u-PA mRNA but not MT1-MMP and did not invade. However, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF induced MT1-MMP expression on the surface of JHH-7 cells and markedly increased invasiveness of JHH-7 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, cleavage activity for pro-MMP-2 was induced in HGF-treated JHH7 cells. MMP inhibitor, rather than serine proteinase inhibitor, potently inhibited HCC cell invasion. Intrahepatic injection of HCC cell lines into athymic nude mice caused visible intrahepatic metastases in vivo. Moreover, JHH-7 tumors showed expression of MT1-MMP mRNA, while in vitro cultured JHH-7 cells did not. These findings suggest that MTi-MMP plays an important role in the invasive properties of HCC cells, and that HGF modifies the invasive properties of noninvasive HCC cells.

  20. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Hu, Mengcai

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  1. Genetic and environmental determinants of risk for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanao; Miwa; Satoshi; Honjo; Gyokukou; You; Masakazu; Tanaka; Kazuhiko; Uchida; Petcharin; Srivatanakul; Thiravud; Khuhaprema; Watcharin; Loilome; Anchalee; Techasen; Chaisiri; Wongkham; Temduang; Limpaiboon; Puangrat; Yongvanit; Sopit; Wongkham

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) is a difficult cancer to diagnose in the early stage and to treat by curative resec-tion. The incidence of CCA in the northeast of Thailand is the highest in the world. To make progress in detecting a high risk group and in the prevention and detection of CCA, we have been analyzing the risk factors for CCA. Although liver fluke infection is known to be a risk factor, there are patients who are not infected with the liver fluke and not all people infected with the liver fluke will suffer from the disease. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to analyze the risk factors and the mechanism to prevent the disease and also to detect the disease in its early stage to save patients’ lives. Through collaboration among Thai and Japanese researchers, we analyzed the genetic and environmental determinants of risks for CCA. Also, we have been trying to develop methods to detect the disease in a non-invasive way. Without repeating findings reported in various reviews on CCA, we will first discuss the environmental and genetic determinants of the risks for CCA. Second, we will discuss the properties of CCA, including the etiological agents and the mechanism of cholangiocarcinogenesis, and finally, we will discuss future approaches to prevent and cure CCA from the standpoint of evidence-based medicine. We will discuss these points by including the data from our laboratories. We would like to emphasize the importance of the genetic data, especially whole genome approaches, to understand the properties of CCA, to find a high risk population for CCA and to develop effective preventative methods to stop the carcinogenic steps toward CCA in the near future. In addition, it is of the upmost importance to develop a non-invasive, specific and sensitive method to detect CCA in its early stage for the application of modern medical approaches to help patients with CCA.

  2. Prognostic significance of snail expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Dalu [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Hexi District, Tianjin (China); Liang, Jun [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Li, Rong [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Hexi District, Tianjin (China); Liu, Shihai [Department of Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Jigang [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Kejun; Chen, Dong [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China)

    2012-05-11

    Many patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) have a poor prognosis. Snail, a transcription factor and E-cadherin repressor, is a novel prognostic factor in many cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between snail and E-cadherin protein expression and the prognostic significance of snail expression in HC. We examined the protein expression of snail and E-cadherin in HC tissues from 47 patients (22 males and 25 females, mean age 61.2 years) using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Proliferation rate was also evaluated in the same cases by the MIB1 index. High, low and negative snail protein expression was recorded in 18 (38%), 17 (36%), and 12 (26%) cases, respectively, and 40.4% (19/47) cases showed reduced E-cadherin protein expression in HC samples. No significant correlation was found between snail and E-cadherin protein expression levels (P = 0.056). No significant correlation was found between snail protein expression levels and gender, age, tumor grade, vascular or perineural invasion, nodal metastasis and invasion, or proliferative index. Cancer samples with positive snail protein expression were associated with poor survival compared with the negative expresser groups. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing different snail protein expression levels to survival showed highly significant separation (P < 0.0001, log-rank test). With multivariate analysis, only snail protein expression among all parameters was found to influence survival (P = 0.0003). We suggest that snail expression levels can predict poor survival regardless of pathological features and tumor proliferation. Immunohistochemical detection of snail protein expression levels in routine sections may provide the first biological prognostic marker.

  3. High level of MT-MMP expression is associated with invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, C; Polette, M; Piette, J; Munaut, C; Thompson, E W; Birembaut, P; Foidart, J M

    1996-01-17

    MMP-2 (gelatinase A) has been associated with the invasive potential of many cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. It is now becoming clear that the activation of this enzyme might be a key step in tumor invasion. This activation process has been shown to be a membrane-associated pathway inducible by various agents such as collagen type I, concanavalin A or TGF-beta, but its physiological regulation is still largely unresolved. MT-MMP was recently discovered and described as a potential gelatinase-A activator. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MT-MMP (membrane-type metalloproteinase) in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Comparing several in vitro-transformed cervical cell lines, previously shown to display different invasive potentials, our results showed that the ability of cells to overexpress MT-MMP mRNA following ConA induction correlated with their ability to activate gelatinase A and with a highly invasive behavior. Moreover, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found a higher level of MT-MMP expression in invasive cervical carcinoma and lymph node metastases compared to its expression in non-invasive CIN III lesions. Our in vivo observations also clearly demonstrated a cooperation between stromal and tumor cells for the production of MT-MMP. Taken together, our results clearly correlated high level MT-MMP expression with invasiveness, and thus suggested that MT-MMP might play a crucial role in cervical tumor invasion.

  4. Multiplex profiling of cellular invasion in 3D cell culture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Burgstaller

    Full Text Available To-date, most invasion or migration assays use a modified Boyden chamber-like design to assess migration as single-cell or scratch assays on coated or uncoated planar plastic surfaces. Here, we describe a 96-well microplate-based, high-content, three-dimensional cell culture assay capable of assessing invasion dynamics and molecular signatures thereof. On applying our invasion assay, we were able to demonstrate significant effects on the invasion capacity of fibroblast cell lines, as well as primary lung fibroblasts. Administration of epidermal growth factor resulted in a substantial increase of cellular invasion, thus making this technique suitable for high-throughput pharmacological screening of novel compounds regulating invasive and migratory pathways of primary cells. Our assay also correlates cellular invasiveness to molecular events. Thus, we argue of having developed a powerful and versatile toolbox for an extensive profiling of invasive cells in a 96-well format. This will have a major impact on research in disease areas like fibrosis, metastatic cancers, or chronic inflammatory states.

  5. Cholangiocarcinoma accompanied by desmoid-type fibromatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Xu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Lu-NanYan; Jia-YingYang; Wen-TaoWang; Shu-Guang Jing

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma complicated by intra-abdominal desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) is uncommon. There are no reports on patients with this type of fibromatosis, in which the pre-operative treatment (including diagnosis), surgical approach, post-operative pathologic reports, and prognosis are discussed. METHOD: The clinicopathological features of a 49-year-old man were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Cholangiocarcinoma located in the inferior segment of the bile duct was considered pre-operatively on the basis of clinical findings. At the time of pancreaticoduodenectomy, the mesojejunum was stiff without nodules or a mass at a distance of approximately 80 cm from the ligament of Treitz. Complete excision of the entire lesion of the intestinal mesenteric contracture and its subsidiary was performed. Post-operative pathologic findings confirmed an adenocarcinoma located at the extremity of the common bile duct and infiltrating the full thickness of the common bile duct as well as the deep muscular layer of the duodenum. The contracted jejunal mesentery was shown to have DTF. The patient was alive with no evidence of recurrence after a follow-up of 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The patient had a rare hereditary disease with intra-abdominal DTF, which manifests the characteristics of an aggressive growth pattern and a high rate of local recurrence;conservative therapy is recommended. Complete excision of the fibromatous lesion during pancreaticoduodenectomy may maximally decrease the risk of local recurrence.

  6. Modeling invasion of metastasizing cancer cells to bone marrow utilizing ecological principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kun-Wan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasion of a new species into an established ecosystem can be directly compared to the steps involved in cancer metastasis. Cancer must grow in a primary site, extravasate and survive in the circulation to then intravasate into target organ (invasive species survival in transport. Cancer cells often lay dormant at their metastatic site for a long period of time (lag period for invasive species before proliferating (invasive spread. Proliferation in the new site has an impact on the target organ microenvironment (ecological impact and eventually the human host (biosphere impact. Results Tilman has described mathematical equations for the competition between invasive species in a structured habitat. These equations were adapted to study the invasion of cancer cells into the bone marrow microenvironment as a structured habitat. A large proportion of solid tumor metastases are bone metastases, known to usurp hematopoietic stem cells (HSC homing pathways to establish footholds in the bone marrow. This required accounting for the fact that this is the natural home of hematopoietic stem cells and that they already occupy this structured space. The adapted Tilman model of invasion dynamics is especially valuable for modeling the lag period or dormancy of cancer cells. Conclusions The Tilman equations for modeling the invasion of two species into a defined space have been modified to study the invasion of cancer cells into the bone marrow microenvironment. These modified equations allow a more flexible way to model the space competition between the two cell species. The ability to model initial density, metastatic seeding into the bone marrow and growth once the cells are present, and movement of cells out of the bone marrow niche and apoptosis of cells are all aspects of the adapted equations. These equations are currently being applied to clinical data sets for verification and further refinement of the models.

  7. Identification of NDRG1-regulated genes associated with invasive potential in cervical and ovarian cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Gang, E-mail: zhaog69@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, The First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Department of Pathology, Tianjin Cancer Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Chen, Jiawei, E-mail: jiaweichen2000@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, The First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Deng, Yanqiu [Pathophysiology Department, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Gao, Feng [Department of Pathology, The First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Jiwei [Basic Medical College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Feng, Zhenzhong; Lv, Xiuhong [Department of Pathology, The First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Zheng [SAS Headquarters, S6013, 600 Research Drive, Cary, NC (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} NDRG1 was knockdown in cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines by shRNA technology. {yields} NDRG1 knockdown resulted in increased cell invasion activities. {yields} Ninety-six common deregulated genes in both cell lines were identified by cDNA microarray. {yields} Eleven common NDRG1-regulated genes might enhance cell invasive activity. {yields} Regulation of invasion by NDRG1 is an indirect and complicated process. -- Abstract: N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an important gene regulating tumor invasion. In this study, shRNA technology was used to suppress NDRG1 expression in CaSki (a cervical cancer cell line) and HO-8910PM (an ovarian cancer cell line). In vitro assays showed that NDRG1 knockdown enhanced tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion activities without affecting cell proliferation. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 96 deregulated genes with more than 2-fold changes in both cell lines after NDRG1 knockdown. Ten common upregulated genes (LPXN, DDR2, COL6A1, IL6, IL8, FYN, PTP4A3, PAPPA, ETV5 and CYGB) and one common downregulated gene (CLCA2) were considered to enhance tumor cell invasive activity. BisoGenet network analysis indicated that NDRG1 regulated these invasion effector genes/proteins in an indirect manner. Moreover, NDRG1 knockdown also reduced pro-invasion genes expression such as MMP7, TMPRSS4 and CTSK. These results suggest that regulation of invasion and metastasis by NDRG1 is a highly complicated process.

  8. Cell invasion in the spheroid sprouting assay: a spatial organisation analysis adaptable to cell behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blacher

    Full Text Available The endothelial cell spheroid assay provides a suitable in vitro model to study (lymph angiogenesis and test pro- and anti-(lymph angiogenic factors or drugs. Usually, the extent of cell invasion, observed through optical microscopy, is measured. The present study proposes the spatial distribution of migrated cells as a new descriptor of the (lymph angiogenic response. The utility of this novel method rests with its capacity to locally characterise spheroid structure, allowing not only the investigation of single and collective cell invasion but also the evolution of the spheroid core itself. Moreover, the proposed method can be applied to 2D-projected spheroid images obtained by optical microscopy, as well as to 3D images acquired by confocal microscopy. To validate the proposed methodology, endothelial cell invasion was evaluated under different experimental conditions. The results were compared with widely used global parameters. The comparison shows that our method prevents local spheroid modifications from being overlooked and leading to the possible misinterpretation of results.

  9. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  10. Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Hinz, Burkhard

    2010-04-01

    Although cannabinoids exhibit a broad variety of anticarcinogenic effects, their potential use in cancer therapy is limited by their psychoactive effects. Here we evaluated the impact of cannabidiol, a plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on cancer cell invasion. Using Matrigel invasion assays we found a cannabidiol-driven impaired invasion of human cervical cancer (HeLa, C33A) and human lung cancer cells (A549) that was reversed by antagonists to both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors as well as to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The decrease of invasion by cannabidiol appeared concomitantly with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Knockdown of cannabidiol-induced TIMP-1 expression by siRNA led to a reversal of the cannabidiol-elicited decrease in tumor cell invasiveness, implying a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of cannabidiol. P38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases were identified as upstream targets conferring TIMP-1 induction and subsequent decreased invasiveness. Additionally, in vivo studies in thymic-aplastic nude mice revealed a significant inhibition of A549 lung metastasis in cannabidiol-treated animals as compared to vehicle-treated controls. Altogether, these findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol and imply its use as a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly invasive cancers.

  11. Intrinsic effects of gold nanoparticles on proliferation and invasion activity in SGC-7901 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucheng; Zhang, Qingqing; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang

    2016-03-01

    Although biomedical applications of functionalized nanoparticles have taken significant strides, biological characterization of unmodified nanoparticles remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the cell viability and invasion activity of gastric cancer cells after treatment with gold nanoparticles. The growth of SGC-7901 cells was inhibited significantly after treatment with 5-nm gold nanoparticles, and the cell invasion decreased markedly. These effects were not seen by different size gold nanoparticles (10, 20 and 40 nm). The attenuated invasion activity may be associated with the decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. These data indicated that the response of SGC-7901 cells to gold nanoparticles was strongly associated with their unique size-dependent physiochemical properties. Therefore, we provided new evidence for the effect of gold nanoparticles on gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, making a contribution to the application of gold nanoparticles to novel therapies in gastric cancer.

  12. Study on Invasion of Artesunate on Inhibiting Human Colon Cancer Cell SW620

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yu; Zhang Youli; Yao Guangtao; Li Yikui

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the invasive effect of Chinese extraction artesunate on human colon cancer cell SW620 and explore its possible mechanisms. Methods:Colon cancer cell SW620 was managed by different concentrations of artesunate, and soft agar colony-cultivating trial was applied to detect anchorage independent proliferation of cancer cells, Boyden chamber model method to detect the invasive capability of cancer cells and Western blot method to detect the change of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) proteins. Results:Artesunate can effectively inhibit malignant proliferation and invasive capability of colon cancer cell SW620, and was dose-dependent (P Conclusion:Artesunate can signiifcantly inhibit the invasion of colon cancer cell SW620, which can be related to down-regulation of ICAM-1 protein level.

  13. Nicotine enhances migration and invasion of human esophageal squamous carcinoma cells which is inhibited by nimesulide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zong; Shu-Tian Zhang; Sheng-Tao Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of nicotine on the migration and invasion of human esophageal squamous carcinoma cells and to investigate whether nimesulide can inhibit the effect of nicotine. METHODS:The esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line (TE-13) was treated with different concentrations of nicotine (100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL) or 200 mg/mL nicotine plus 100 mmol/L nimesulide. Cell migration and invasion were measured using migration and invasion chamber systems. COX-2 expression was determined by Western blotting. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was analyzed by zymography and ELISA. RESULTS:Nicotine (100 mg/mL, 200 mg/mL) enhanced TE-13 cells migration and invasion, and increased the protein expression of COX-2 and the activity of MMP-2. Nicotine (200 mg/mL) stimulated TE-13 cells migration and invasion which were partly blocked by nimesulide. This was associated with decreased protein expression of COX-2 and decreased activity and protein expression of MMP-2.CONCLUSION:Nicotine enhances the migration and invasion of the esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line, and nimesulide partly blocks the effect of nicotine-enhanced esophageal squamous carcinoma cell migration and invasion.

  14. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keying Che,1,* Yang Zhao,2,3,* Xiao Qu,1 Zhaofei Pang,1 Yang Ni,4 Tiehong Zhang,4 Jiajun Du,1,5 Hongchang Shen4 1Institute of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 2Department of Breast Surgery, Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer in Shanghai, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 3Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Department of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, 5Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Gastric carcinoma (GC is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma.Materials and methods: Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS was statistically analyzed.Results: Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145 of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186 and 16.9% (50 of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, P<0

  15. CRM-1 knockdown inhibits extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth by blocking the nuclear export of p27Kip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Qiang; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yanqiong; Lan, Hongzhen

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a deadly disease which responds poorly to surgery and conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the anatomical and biological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor and in the present study, we found that p27Kip1 expression was suppressed in the nucleus and increased in the cytoplasm in 53 samples of cholangiocarcinoma from patients with highly malignant tumors (poorly-differentiated and tumor-node-metastsis (TNM) stage III-IV) compared with that in samples from 10 patients with chronic cholangitis. The expression of phosphorylated (p-)p27Kip1 (Ser10), one of the phosphorylated forms of p27Kip1, was increased in the patient samples with increasing malignancy and clinical stage. Coincidentally, chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM-1; also referred to as exportin 1 or Xpo1), a critical protein responsible for protein translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, was also overexpressed in the tumor samples which were poorly differentiated and of a higher clinical stage. Through specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRM-1 in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939, we identified an elevation of cytoplasmic p27Kip1 and a decrease of nuclear p27Kip1. Furthermore, the viability and colony formation ability of QBC939 cells was largely reduced with G1 arrest. Consistent with the findings of the in vitro experiments, in a xenograft mouse model, the tumors formed in the CRM-1 knockdown group were markedly smaller and weighed less than those in the control group in vivo. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that the interplay between CRM-1 and p27Kip1 may provide potentially potent biomarkers and functional targets for the development of future cholangiocarcinoma treatments.

  16. Establishment and Characterization of a Tumor Stem Cell-Based Glioblastoma Invasion Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Skov Jensen

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Recurrence is inevitable and most likely connected to tumor invasion and presence of therapy resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim was therefore to establish and characterize a three-dimensional in vivo-like in vitro model taking invasion and tumor stemness into account.Glioblastoma stem cell-like containing spheroid (GSS cultures derived from three different patients were established and characterized. The spheroids were implanted in vitro into rat brain slice cultures grown in stem cell medium and in vivo into brains of immuno-compromised mice. Invasion was followed in the slice cultures by confocal time-lapse microscopy. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared tumor cell invasion as well as expression of proliferation and stem cell markers between the models.We observed a pronounced invasion into brain slice cultures both by confocal time-lapse microscopy and immunohistochemistry. This invasion closely resembled the invasion in vivo. The Ki-67 proliferation indexes in spheroids implanted into brain slices were lower than in free-floating spheroids. The expression of stem cell markers varied between free-floating spheroids, spheroids implanted into brain slices and tumors in vivo.The established invasion model kept in stem cell medium closely mimics tumor cell invasion into the brain in vivo preserving also to some extent the expression of stem cell markers. The model is feasible and robust and we suggest the model as an in vivo-like model with a great potential in glioma studies and drug discovery.

  17. Effects of hypoxia on the expression of CCR7 and proliferation, invasiveness of A549 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that hypoxia could promote tumor cells invasion and metastasis by different mechanisms, but the relationship between hypoxia and CCR7 have not been reported. The aim of this investigate is to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on the expression of CCR7 and the invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Methods A549 cells were incubated at either normoxia (37 ℃, 5%CO2, 21%O2 or hypoxia(37 ℃, 5%CO2, 1%O2 condition for 4 h,12 h, 24 h. The expressions of CCR7 mRNA and protein levels were observed by RT-PCR and Western blotting; Cells invasiveness was measured by matrigel invasion assay. Results RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression of CCR7 was detected in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, CCR7 mRNA and protein expression level were increased with culture time along either in normoxia or hypoxia condition; Furthermore,compared with normoxia group, the CCR7 mRNA and protein expression level in hypoxia group was increased (P <0.01.The results of Transwell invasion showed that The number of invasive cells was significantly increased in hypoxia group(t =0.006, P <0.01 and A549 cells invasive ability was inhibited after add anti-CCR7 Ab to culture medium (t =0.09, P <0.01. Conclusion The results suggest that hypoxia plays an important role in the augmentation of the CCR7 expression and invasiveness of A549 cells. Invasion of A549 cells in hypoxia condition correlated with CCR7 expression level.

  18. Characterization of a 21kDa protein from Trypanosoma cruzi associated with mammalian cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Claudio V; Kawashita, Silvia Y; Probst, Christian M; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Cruz, Mário C; da Silva, Erika A; Souto-Padrón, Thaís C B S; Krieger, Marco A; Goldenberg, Samuel; Briones, Marcelo R S; Andrews, Norma W; Mortara, Renato A

    2009-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi genomic database was screened for hypothetical proteins that showed high probability of being secreted or membrane anchored and thus, likely involved in host-cell invasion. A sequence that codes for a 21kDa protein that showed high probability of being secreted was selected. After cloning this protein sequence, the results showed that it was a ubiquitous protein and secreted by extracellular amastigotes. The recombinant form (P21-His(6)) adhered to HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of host cells with P21-His(6) inhibited cell invasion by extracellular amastigotes from G and CL strains. On the other hand, when the protein was added to host cells at the same time as amastigotes, an increase in cell invasion was observed. Host-cell pretreatment with P21-His(6) augmented invasion by metacyclic trypomastigotes. Moreover, polyclonal antibody anti-P21 inhibited invasion only by extracellular amastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes from G strain. These results suggested that P21 might be involved in T. cruzi cell invasion. We hypothesize that P21 could be secreted in the juxtaposition parasite-host cell and triggers signaling events yet unknown that lead to parasite internalization.

  19. Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Yang, Xi-fei [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Ren, Xiao-hu [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Meng, Xiao-jing [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Hai-yan [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Zhao, Qiong-hui [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen (China); Yuan, Jian-hui; Hong, Wen-xu; Xia, Bo; Huang, Xin-feng; Zhou, Li [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Jian-jun, E-mail: bio-research@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Zou, Fei, E-mail: zoufei616@163.com [Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We employed RNA interference to knockdown SET expression in breast cancer cells. • Knockdown of SET expression inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Knockdown of SET expression increases the activity and expression of PP2A. • Knockdown of SET expression decreases the expression of MMP-9. - Abstract: Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we explore the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Intracellular Theileria annulata promote invasive cell motility through kinase regulation of the host actin cytoskeleton.

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    Min Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata. These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities.

  1. GADD45β Determines Chemoresistance and Invasive Growth of Side Population Cells of Human Embryonic Carcinoma

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    Toshihiko Inowa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Side population (SP cells are an enriched population of stem, and the existence of SP cells has been reported in human cancer cell lines. In this study, we performed an SP analysis using 11 human cancer cell lines and confirmed the presence of SP cells in an embryonic carcinoma cell line, NEC8. NEC8 SP cells showed characteristics of cancer stem cells, such as high growth rate, chemoresistance and high invasiveness. To further characterize the NEC8 SP cells, we used DNA microarrays. Among 38,500 genes, we identified 12 genes that were over-expressed in SP cells and 1 gene that was over-expressed in non-SP cells. Among these 13 genes, we focused on GADD45b. GADD45b was over-expressed in non-SP cells, but the inhibition of GADD45b had no effect on non-SP cells. Paradoxically, the inhibition of GADD45b significantly reduced the viability of NEC8 SP cells. The inhibition of ABCG2, which determines the SP phenotype, had no effect on the invasiveness of NEC8 SP cells, but the inhibition of GADD45b significantly reduced invasiveness. These results suggest that GADD45b, but not ABCG2, might determine the cancer stem cell-like phenotype, such as chemoresistance and the high invasiveness of NEC8 SP cells, and might be a good therapeutic target.

  2. γ-射线诱导癌细胞凋亡致敏树突状细胞后的免疫应答%Immune Responses of Dendritic Cells Loaded with Antigens from Apoptotic Cholangiocarcinoma Cells Caused by γ-Irradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚; 韩本立; 裴雪涛

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the induction cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) with antitumor activity and therapeutic efficacy after dendritic cells(DCs) acquired antigen from apoptotic cholangiocarcinoma cells caused by γ-irradiation.Methods DCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity charateristicof immature cells have been established in vitro, using granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Then, in cholangiocarcinoma cells apoptosis was induced by γ-irradiation. The experimental groups were as follows: (1) coculture ofDCs and apoptotic cancer cells and T cells; (2) coculture of DCs and necrotic cancer cells and T cells; (3) coculture of DCs, culturedcancer cell and T cells. They are cocultured for 7 days. DCs and T cells were riched, isolated and their antitumor response was tested.Results The cells had typical dendritic morphology, expressed high levels of CD1a and B7, acquired antigen from apoptotic cells causedby γ-irradiation and induced an increased T cell stimulatory capacity in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR).Conclusion DCs obtained from PBMCs using GM-CSF and IL-4 can efficiently present antigen derived from apoptotic cells caused by γ-irradiation and efficiently induce T cells. This strategy, therefore, may present an effective approach to transduce DCs with antigen.%目的观察树突状细胞(DCs)从γ-射线诱导的凋亡胆管癌细胞获取抗原后,抗肿瘤免疫应答及对胆管癌细胞的特异性免疫杀伤效果.方法用粒-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)加白介素-4(IL-4)从人外周血分化、诱导DCs,γ-射线在体外诱导培养的人胆管癌细胞凋亡,将DCs、T淋巴细胞和凋亡胆管癌细胞共培养,同时设计不同类型肿瘤细胞(坏死胆管癌细胞及培养胆管癌细胞)作对照,7d后,分离、富集DCs、T淋巴细胞进行免疫应答及肿瘤细胞杀伤试验.结果与凋亡胆管癌细胞共

  3. Cell: sporozoite interactions and invasion by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, P C

    2001-01-01

    The site specificity that avian Eimeria sporozoites and, to a more limited degree, other apicomplexan parasites exhibit for invasion in vivo suggests that specific interactions between the sporozoites and the target host cells may mediate the invasion process. Although sporozoite motility and structural and secreted antigens appear to provide the mechanisms for propelling the sporozoite into the host cell,there is a growing body of evidence that the host cell provides characteristics by which the sporozoites recognise and interact with the host cell as a prelude to invasion. Molecules on the surface of cells in the intestinal epithelium, that act as receptor or recognition sites for sporozoite invasion, may be included among these characteristics. The existence of receptor molecules for invasion by apicomplexan parasites was suggested by in vitro studies in which parasite invasion was inhibited in cultured cells that were treated with a variety of substances designed to selectively alter the host cell membrane. These substance included cationic compounds or molecules, enzymes that cleave specific linkages, protease inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, etc. More specific evidence for the presence of receptors was provided by the binding of parasite antigens to specific host cell surface molecules. Analyses of host cells have implicated 22, 31, and 37 kDa antigens, surface membrane glycoconjugates,conserved epitopes of host cells and sporozoites, etc., but no treatment that perturbs these putative receptors has completely inhibited invasion of the cells by parasites. Regardless of the mechanism,sporozoites of the avian Eimeria also invade the same specific sites in foreign host birds that they invade in the natural host. Thus, site specificity for invasion may be a response to characteristics of the intestine that are shared by a number of hosts rather than to a unique trait of the natural host. Protective immunity elicited against avian Eimeria species is not

  4. Chemokine CXCL16 Expression Suppresses Migration and Invasiveness and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

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    Yeying Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing evidence argues that soluble CXCL16 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. However, the role of transmembrane or cellular CXCL16 in cancer remains relatively unknown. In this study, we determine the function of cellular CXCL16 as tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Methods. Expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines was determined at both RNA and protein levels. In vitro and in vivo studies that overexpressed or downregulated CXCL16 were conducted in breast cancer cells. Results. We report differential expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines that was negatively correlated with cell invasiveness and migration. Overexpression of CXCL16 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to a decrease in cell invasion and migration and induced apoptosis of the cells; downregulation of CXCL16 in MCF-7 cells increased cell migration and invasiveness. Consistent with the in vitro data, CXCL16 overexpression inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Conclusions. Cellular CXCL16 suppresses invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Targeting of cellular CXCL16 expression is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  5. ST3Gal III modulates breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion by altering the expression of invasion-related molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hong-Xia; Wang, Honglan; Wang, Yuchun; Song, Juan; Tian, Hua; Xia, Chunhui; Shen, Yetong

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the carbohydrate structure on the surface of tumor cells is an important feature of cancer metastasis. The specific role of sialic acids in the glycoconjugate terminal has not yet been clearly elucidated in these processes. Previously, we reported that α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer are associated with metastatic potential. The α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III, which adds α2,3-sialic acids to glycoproteins, is overexpressed in various tumors, and enzyme activity is correlated with tumor metastasis, yet its mechanistic role has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ST3Gal III on key steps in the process of breast cancer metastasis. ST3Gal III-overexpressing and ST3Gal III-silenced breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell lines were generated. They showed an increase or decrease in the tumor-associated antigen sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX). The E-selectin binding capacity of the transfectants was proportional to cell surface SLeX levels. Cell migration and invasion were positively correlated with ST3Gal III levels. Moreover, ST3Gal III expression modulated the protein expression of invasion-related molecules, including β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and cyclooxygenase-2, which may account for the mechanism involved in the effects of ST3Gal III on breast cancer invasiveness. In conclusion, our findings in these novel models of ST3Gal III expression revealed a critical requirement for ST3Gal III in several steps of breast cancer metastasis. ST3Gal III modulates breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion by altering the expression of invasion-related molecules. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying metastasis and suggests a new target for the effective drug treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

  6. SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis

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    Uygur Berna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SLUG is a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family that plays a role in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Mechanisms by which SLUG promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancers remain elusive. Methods Expression level of CXCR4 and CXCL12 was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and qPCR analyses. Forced expression of SLUG was mediated by retroviruses, and SLUG and CXCL12 was downregulated by shRNAs-expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of prostate cancer were measured by scratch-wound assay and invasion assay, respectively. Research We demonstrated that forced expression of SLUG elevated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, 22RV1, and LNCaP; conversely, reduced expression of SLUG by shRNA downregulated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression at RNA and protein levels in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SLUG increased MMP9 expression and activity in PC3, 22RV1, and DU-145 cells, and SLUG knockdown by shRNA downregulated MMP9 expression. We showed that CXCL12 is required for SLUG-mediated MMP9 expression in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we found that migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells was increased by ectopic expression of SLUG and decreased by SLUG knockdown. Notably, knockdown of CXCL12 by shRNA impaired SLUG-mediated migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Lastly, our data suggest that CXCL12 and SLUG regulate migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells independent of cell growth. Conclusion We provide the first compelling evidence that upregulation of autocrine CXCL12 is a major mechanism underlying SLUG-mediated migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that CXCL12 is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis.

  7. The Inhibitory Effects of an Antisense u-PAR Vector on Invasion of Highly Invasive Human Prostate Carcinoma PC-3M Cell Subclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国宁; 李清芬; 冯友梅; 邓耀祖; 李卓娅; 龚非力; 马丁

    2003-01-01

    Summary: To observe the inhibitory effects of an antisense u-PAR vector on invasion of highly inva-sive PC-3M cell subclones, the effects of the antisense u-PAR on activity of MMP-9 in those highlyinvasive cell subclones were detected by a quantitative RT-PCR and zymography. The monolayer in-vasion assay and colony formation assay in soft agar were used. And tumorigenesis rate and invasionsby the cell subclones with or without the antisense u-PAR were observed in nude mice. It was foundthat in vitro growth of highly invasive PC-3M cell subclones transfected with the antisense u-PARwas declined, and the ability of anchorage-independent growth of those cell subclones was found de-creased sharply, with the inhibiting rate becoming 79 % and 60 %, respectively. Although the anti-sense u-PAR didn't change MMP-9 gene transcription, they could inhibit the activation of MMP-9 ofhighly invasive PC-3M cell subclones. Moreover, the tumorigenesis rate of the cell subclones with theantisense u-PAR decreased and the growth of a neoplasm also slowed down. Thet tests showed thedifference between experimental and control groups was statistically significant (P<0. 01). The anti-sense u-PAR vector could not only inhibit the invasion ability of highly invasive PC-3M cell subclonesin vitro but also restrain the growth of those cell subclones in vivo.

  8. Microvesicles secreted by macrophages shuttle invasion-potentiating microRNAs into breast cancer cells

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    Lin Ling

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are alternatively activated cells induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4-releasing CD4+ T cells. TAMs promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions between macrophages and tumor cells that lead to cancer metastasis remain elusive. Previous studies have found microRNAs (miRNAs circulating in the peripheral blood and have identified microvesicles, or exosomes, as mediators of cell-cell communication. Therefore, one alternative mechanism for the promotion of breast cancer cell invasion by TAMs may be through macrophage-secreted exosomes, which would deliver invasion-potentiating miRNAs to breast cancer cells. Results We utilized a co-culture system with IL-4-activated macrophages and breast cancer cells to verify that miRNAs are transported from macrophages to breast cancer cells. The shuttling of fluorescently-labeled exogenous miRNAs from IL-4-activated macrophages to co-cultivated breast cancer cells without direct cell-cell contact was observed. miR-223, a miRNA specific for IL-4-activated macrophages, was detected within the exosomes released by macrophages and was significantly elevated in the co-cultivated SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The invasiveness of the co-cultivated breast cancer cells decreased when the IL-4-activated macrophages were treated with a miR-223 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO that would inhibit miR-223 expression. Furthermore, results from a functional assay revealed that miR-223 promoted the invasion of breast cancer cells via the Mef2c-β-catenin pathway. Conclusions We conclude that macrophages regulate the invasiveness of breast cancer cells through exosome-mediated delivery of oncogenic miRNAs. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the metastasis-promoting interactions between macrophages and breast cancer cells.

  9. Tetrahydrocurcumin inhibits HT1080 cell migration and invasion via downregulation of MMPs and uPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Supachai YODKEEREE; Spiridione GARBISA; Pomngarm LIMTRAKUL

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is an active metabolite of curcumin. It has been reported to have similar pharmacological activity to curcumin. The proteases that participate in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation are involved in cancer cell metastasis. The present study investigates the effect of an ultimate metabolite of curcumin, THC, on the invasion and motility of highly-metastatic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Methods: The effect of THC on HTI080 cell invasion and migration was determined using Boyden chamber assay. Cell-adhesion assay was used for examining the binding of cells to ECM molecules. Zymography assay was used to analyze the effect of THC on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) secretion from HT1080 cells. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) proteins levels were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: Treatment with THC reduced HT1080 cell invasion and migration in a dose-dependent manner. THC also decreased the cell adhesion to Matrigel and laminin-coated plates. Analysis by zymography demonstrated that treatment with THC reduced the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA. THC also inhibited the levels of MT1-MMP and TIMP-2 proteins detected by Western blot analysis. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that THC reduced HT1080 cell invasion and migration. The inhibition of cancer cell invasion is associated with the downregulation of ECM degradation enzymes and the inhibition of cell adhesion to ECM proteins.

  10. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induce collagen production and tongue cancer invasion.

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    Sirpa Salo

    Full Text Available Tumor microenvironment (TME is an active player in carcinogenesis and changes in its composition modify cancer growth. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, and inflammatory cells can all affect the composition of TME leading to changes in proliferation, invasion and metastasis formation of carcinoma cells. In this study, we confirmed an interaction between BMMSCs and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC cells by analyzing the invasion progression and gene expression pattern. In a 3-dimensional myoma organotypic invasion model the presence of BMMSCs inhibited the proliferation but increased the invasion of OTSCC cells. Furthermore, the signals originating from OTSCC cells up-regulated the expression of inflammatory chemokines by BMMSCs, whereas BMMSC products induced the expression of known invasion linked molecules by carcinoma cells. Particularly, after the cell-cell interactions, the chemokine CCL5 was abundantly secreted from BMMSCs and a function blocking antibody against CCL5 inhibited BMMSC enhanced cancer invasion area. However, CCL5 blocking antibody did not inhibit the depth of invasion. Additionally, after exposure to BMMSCs, the expression of type I collagen mRNA in OTSCC cells was markedly up-regulated. Interestingly, also high expression of type I collagen N-terminal propeptide (PINP in vivo correlated with the cancer-specific mortality of OTSCC patients, whereas there was no association between cancer tissue CCL5 levels and the clinical parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the interaction between BMMSC and carcinoma cells induce cytokine and matrix molecule expression, of which high level of type I collagen production correlates with the prognosis of OTSCC patients.

  11. NME2 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells to limit metastasis.

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    Yan-fei Liu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2, which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression.

  12. Effect and mechanism of the Twist gene on invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Qiu Luo; Jing-He Li; Ji-Fang Wen; Yan-Hong Zhou; Yong-Bin Hu; Jian-Hua Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of the transfected Twist gene on invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma cells and the possible mechanisms involved.METHODS: Human gastric carcinoma MKN28 cells were stably transfected with Twist sense plasmid, and MKN45 cells were stably transfected with Twist antisense plasmid using the lipofectamine transfection technique.RT-PCR,Western blotting, ENSA, gelatin zymography assay, and in vitro invasion and migration assays were performed.Nude mice metastasis models were established by the abdominal cavity transfer method.RESULTS: Cell models (TwistS-MKN28) that steadily expressed high Twist protein were obtained.Compared with MKN28 and pcDNA3-MKN28 cells, adherence,migration and invasion ability of TwistS-MKN28 cells were clearly raised.The number of cancer nodules was increased significantly in the abdominal cavity and liver of nude mice inoculated with TwistS-MKN28 cells.Overexpression of Twist in MKN28 cells increased Tcf-4/Lef DNA binding activity, and promoted expression of Tcf-4's downstream target genes cyclin Dt and HMP-2.However, suppression of Twist (TwistAS-NKN45) inhibited MKN45 cell invasion and the expression of cyclin D1 was reduced.The activity of MMP-2 was also decreased.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that Twist promotes gastric cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis, and Twist may play an important role in Wnt/Tcf-4 signaling.

  13. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  14. Enhanced invasion in vitro and the distribution patterns in vivo of CD133+ glioma stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-ping; YANG Xue-jun; ZHANG Bin; MING Hao-lang; CHEN Cong; REN Bing-cheng; LIU Zhi-feng; LIU Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that cancer stem cells cause tumor recurrence based on their resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.Although the highly invasive nature of glioblastoma cells is also implicated in the failure of current therapies,it is not clear whether cancer stem cells are involved in invasiveness.This study aimed to assess invasive ability of glioma stem cells (GSCs) derived from C6 glioma cell line and the distribution patterns of GSCs in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat brain tumor.Methods Serum-free medium culture and magnetic isolation were used to gain purely CD133+ GSCs.The invasive stem cell markers and luxol fast blue staining for white matter tracts were performed to show the distribution patterns of GSCs in brain tumor of rats and the relationship among GSCs,vessels,and white matter tracts.The results of matrigel invasion assay were estimated using the Student's t test and the analysis of Western blotting was performed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.Results CD133+GSCs(number:85.3±4.1)were significantly more invasive in vitro than matched CD133- cells(number:25.9±3.1) (t=14.5,P <0.005).GSCs invaded into the brain diffusely and located in perivascular niche of tumor-brain interface or resided within perivascular niche next to white fiber tracts.The polarity of glioma cells containing GSCs was parallel to the white matter tracts.Conclusions Our data suggest that CD133+ GSCs exhibit more aggressive invasion in vitro and GSCs in vivo probably disseminate along the long axis of blood vessels and transit through the white matter tracts.The therapies targeting GSCs invasion combined with traditional glioblastoma multiforme therapeutic paradigms might be a new approach for avoiding malignant glioma recurrence.

  15. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  16. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma in a Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Anusha Hemamali; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-11-01

    A 9-year-old male Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) with a history of anorexia and vomiting died of a liver tumor. The tumor consisted of neoplastic cells with hepatocellular and cholangiocellular differentiations and their intermingled areas. Neoplastic hepatocytes showed islands or trabecular growth with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cells showing biliary differentiation formed ducts or tubules lined by cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive epithelia, accompanied by desmoplasia consisting of myofibroblasts reacting to α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. The tumor was diagnosed as a combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, which is very rare in the avian.

  17. Non-small cell lung cancer cyclooxygenase-2-dependent invasion is mediated by CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, M; Luo, J; Zhu, L; Lin, Y; Dougherty, G J; Sharma, S; Huang, M; Pold, M; Batra, R K; Dubinett, S M

    2001-06-15

    Elevated tumor cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression is associated with increased angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and suppression of host immunity. We have previously shown that genetic inhibition of tumor COX-2 expression reverses the immunosuppression induced by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To assess the impact of COX-2 expression in lung cancer invasiveness, NSCLC cell lines were transduced with a retroviral vector expressing the human COX-2 cDNA in the sense (COX-2-S) and antisense (COX-2-AS) orientations. COX-2-S clones expressed significantly more COX-2 protein, produced 10-fold more prostaglandin E(2), and demonstrated an enhanced invasive capacity compared with control vector-transduced or parental cells. CD44, the cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, was overexpressed in COX-2-S cells, and specific blockade of CD44 significantly decreased tumor cell invasion. In contrast, COX-2-AS clones had a very limited capacity for invasion and showed diminished expression of CD44. These findings suggest that a COX-2-mediated, CD44-dependent pathway is operative in NSCLC invasion. Because tumor COX-2 expression appears to have a multifaceted role in conferring the malignant phenotype, COX-2 may be an important target for gene or pharmacologic therapy in NSCLC.

  18. Effect of bortezomib on migration and invasion in cervical carcinoma HeLa cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shi; Guo-Bin Zhang; Shu-Wang Yin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of bortezomib on migration and invasion of cervical carcinoma HeLa cell and specific molecular mechanism. Methods:The effect of bortezomib on the viability of HeLa cell was measured by MTT assay. The effect of bortezomib on cell migration and invasion was measured by Transwell assay and invasion experiment respectively. The activation of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and expression level of MMP2, MMP9 were assayed by western blot. Results:MTT assay indicated bortezomib (2.5μM, 5μM, 10μM) could inhibit HeLa cell viability, and the inhibitory rate was highest at 48 h. Transwell assay and invasion experiment results showed that bortezomib inhibited HeLa cell migration and invasion. Western blotting assays presented bortezomib could suppress the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, and down-regulate the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Conclusions:These results suggested bortezomib could inhibit migration and invasion in cervical carcinoma HeLa cell, which might be related to Akt/mTOR signal pathway.

  19. Implications of Rho GTPase signaling in glioma cell invasion and tumor progression

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    Shannon Patricia Fortin Ensign

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most malignant of primary adult brain tumors, characterized by a highly locally-invasive cell population, as well as abundant proliferative cells, neoangiogenesis, and necrosis. Clinical intervention with chemotherapy or radiation may either promote or establish an environment for manifestation of invasive behavior. Understanding the molecular drivers of invasion in the context of glioma progression may be insightful in directing new treatments for patients with GB. Here, we review current knowledge on Rho family GTPases, their aberrant regulation in GB, and their effect on GB cell invasion and tumor progression. Rho GTPases are modulators of cell migration through effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement; in non-neoplastic tissue, expression and activation of Rho GTPases are normally under tight regulation. In GB, Rho GTPases are deregulated, often via hyperactivity or overexpression of their activators, Rho GEFs. Downstream effectors of Rho GTPases have been shown to promote invasiveness and, importantly, glioma cell survival. The study of aberrant Rho GTPase signaling in GB is thus an important investigation of cell invasion as well as treatment resistance and disease progression.

  20. Expression of elongation factor-2 kinase contributes to anoikis resistance and invasion of human glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Yi ZHANG; Xiao-yuan LIU; Zheng-hong QIN; Jin-ming YANG

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase) contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme by promoting the migration and invasion of glioma cells. The mechanism involved was also explored.Methods: Human glioma cell lines T98G and LN-229 were used. The expression of eEF-2 kinase was silenced using siRNA, and the invasive potential of tumor cells was assessed using a wound-healing assay and a Matrigel invasion assay. Apoptosis was determined using propidium iodide (PI) staining and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-3.Results: Silencing the expression of eEF-2 kinase by siRNA significantly suppressed both the migration and invasion of human glioma cells. Silencing eEF-2 kinase expression also sensitized glioma cells to anoikis, thereby decreasing tumor cell viability in the absence of attachment. Treatment of tumor cells with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk down-regulated Bim accumulation and abolished glioma cell sensitivity to anoikis.Conclusion: The results suggest that the expression of eEF-2 kinase contributes to migration and invasion of human glioma cells by protecting them from anoikis. eEF-2 kinase expression may serve as a prognostic marker and a novel target for cancer therapy.

  1. The candidate tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 inhibits cancer cells migration and invasion in esophageal carcinoma

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    Lu ShihHsin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The esophageal cancer related gene 4 (ECRG4 was initially identified and cloned in our laboratory from human normal esophageal epithelium (GenBank accession no.AF325503. ECRG4 was a new tumor suppressor gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC associated with prognosis. In this study, we investigated the novel tumor-suppressing function of ECRG4 in cancer cell migration, invasion, adhesion and cell cycle regulation in ESCC. Methods Transwell and Boyden chamber experiments were utilized to examined the effects of ECRG4 expression on ESCC cells migration, invasion and adhesion. And flow cytometric analysis was used to observe the impact of ECRG4 expression on cell cycle regulation. Finally, the expression levels of cell cycle regulating proteins p53 and p21 in human ESCC cells transfected with ECRG4 gene were evaluated by Western blotting. Results The restoration of ECRG4 expression in ESCC cells inhibited cancer cells migration and invasion (P P > 0.05. Furthermore, ECRG4 could cause cell cycle G1 phase arrest in ESCC (P Conclusion ECRG4 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which suppressed tumor cells migration and invasion without affecting cell adhesion ability in ESCC. Furthermore, ECRG4 might cause cell cycle G1 phase block possibly through inducing the increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins in ESCC.

  2. Effect of SMYD3 over-expression on DNMT3B levels and proliferation ability in human cholangiocarcinoma cell line FRH0201%上调SMYD3对人胆管癌FRH0201细胞中DNMT3B表达及细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程帝; 李志花; 陈汝福; 郭宁; 廖巧芳; 郑礼平; 周泉波; 周嘉嘉

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究人胆管癌细胞株FRH0201中SET和MYND结构域含有蛋白3(SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3,SMYD3)过度表达对DNA甲基化转移酶3B(DNA methyltransferase 3B,DNMT3B)表达及细胞增殖能力的影响.方法:瞬时转染SMYD3真核表达质粒后,RT-PCR检测细胞中DNMT3B mRNA水平的变化;Western blotting检测细胞中DNMT3B蛋白水平的变化;CCK-8检测细胞增殖能力的改变;流式细胞术检测细胞周期的改变.结果:以未处理组为对照,胆管癌细胞FRH0201在转染pEGFP-C3-SMYD3质粒后,DNMT3B蛋白及mRNA表达均显著上升(P<0.01);细胞的增殖能力显著提高、细胞增殖速度加快(P<0.05);进入G2/M期的细胞明显增多(P<0.05).结论:过度表达SMYD3,可引起细胞中DNMT3B的表达上调并增强细胞增殖能力.%AIM:To explore ihe effect of SET and MYND domain - containing protein 3 ( SMYD3 ) over - expression on the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and the proliferation ability in human cholangiocarci-noma cell line FRH0201. METHODS; Transient transfection of SMYD3 eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP - C3 - SMYD3 into human cholangiocarcinoma cell line FRH0201 was performed. The expression of DNMT3B at mRNA and protein levels was detected by RT - PCR and Western blotting,respectively. Cell proliferation was examined by CCK -8 method and cell cycle situation was checked by flow cytometry. RESULTS; After transfected with SMYD3 eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP - C3 - SMYD3 , the over - expression of SMYD3 in FRH0201 cells was observed. Compared with the un-transfected cells, the expression of DNMT3B was significantly increased (P <0. 01) , the proliferation rate was obviously accelerated (P<0. 05) and the number of the cells in G2/M phase was significantly increased (P<0. 05) in FRH0201 cells transiently transfected with pEGFP - C3 - SMYD3 plasmid. CONCLUSION; The transient transfection of pEGFP -C3 - SMYD3 plasmid induces over - expression of DNMT3B and

  3. Targeting TGF-β1 suppresses survival of and invasion by anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhai; Xu, Yanyan; Zhao, Cheng; Hao, Fengyun; Chen, Dong; Guan, Jinping; Zhang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been implicated in promoting cell survival, migration and invasion in many cancers, including anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). In the present study, we studied the effect of suppressing TGF-β1 by RNA silencing on the survival, invasion and metastasis of ATC cells. Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs targeting TGF-β1 were validated and used to develop clonal derivatives of the ATC cell line, 8505C. The cells were used in several in vitro assays, including migration, invasion, survival rate, colony formation and apoptosis. A wound healing assay was used to determine the migration of cells in culture and a Boyden chamber transwell assay was used for invasion. Further, clones were used in an in vivo mouse model to study the kinetics of tumor growth and metastatic growth in lungs. Results: Targeting TGF-β1 expression in 8505C cells caused a 70% decrease in migration and a 78% decrease in invasion, as well as a 68% decrease in proliferation and a 19% increase in apoptosis in vitro. The growth of primary tumors in vivo was also inhibited when compared with parental 8505C cells; however, the number of mice bearing lung metastases was not significantly decreased. Conclusions: Targeting TGF-β1 may be effective in inhibiting primary tumor formation, but not metastasis, by ATC cells. TGF-β1 inhibition in combination with other tumor-targeted therapies may be more effective in inhibiting ATC.

  4. Survivin promotes the invasion of human colon carcinoma cells by regulating the expression of MMP‑7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Yuqin; Yang, Feng; Wang, Peng; Wang, Wenjun; Su, Yan; Luo, Weiren

    2014-03-01

    Increased expression levels of survivin are crucial for invasion activity in several types of human cancer, including colon carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby survivin regulates cancer invasion have not been completely elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the role of matrix metalloprotease‑7 (MMP‑7) in cell invasion that is induced by survivin by using in vitro assays, including western blot, immunofluorescence and qPCR analyses. The results demonstrated that the ectopic expression of survivin significantly promoted the invasive activity of colon carcinoma cells (SW620 and HCT‑116) and resulted in increased levels of MMP‑7 activation. By contrast, the small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑based knockdown of survivin markedly reduced cell migration and led to a dose‑dependent decrease in MMP‑7 expression levels. Compared with the controls, knockdown of MMP‑7 by siRNA in colon carcinoma cells led to reduced invasion ability, whereas no obvious changes were observed when MMP‑7 expression was silenced in survivin‑overexpressing colon carcinoma cells. These findings demonstrate that MMP‑7 is crucial for survivin‑mediated invasiveness, suggesting that the survivin‑mediated MMP‑7 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colon carcinoma.

  5. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

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    Muehlenweg Bernd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA. WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. Methods In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin® and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib® inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN and HeLa (cervical carcinoma cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib®, Galardin®, and WX-UK1. Results Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. Conclusions A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy.

  6. Identification of a subtype-specific ENC1 gene related to invasiveness in human pituitary null cell adenoma and oncocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Hong, Lichuan; Wu, Yonggang; Li, Chuzhong; Wan, Hong; Li, Guilin; Sun, Yilin; Yu, Shenyuan; Chittiboina, Prashant; Montgomery, Blake; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2014-09-01

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) may be locally invasive. Surgery is a treatment option, but unlike the case for functional pituitary adenomas, there are almost no drug treatments available for NFPAs. Markers of invasiveness are needed to guide therapeutic decision-making and identify potential adjuvant drugs. Owing to the highly heterogeneous nature of NFPAs, little is known regarding the subtype-specific gene expression profiles associated with invasiveness. To identify important biomarkers of invasiveness, we selected 23 null cell adenomas and 20 oncocytomas. These tumors were classified as invasive or non-invasive adenomas based on magnetic resonance imaging, pathology slides and surgical findings. Firstly, we observed that there were significant differences in expression between invasive (n = 3) and non-invasive (n = 4) adenomas by gene expression microarray. A total of 1,188 genes were differentially expressed in the invasive and non-invasive adenomas. Among these 1,188 genes, 578 were upregulated and 610 were downregulated in invasive adenomas. Secondly, the expression of ENC1, which displayed the significant alterations, was further confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis in all 43 tumor samples and three normal pituitary glands. Low levels of ENC1 were found in tumor samples, while high levels were detected in normal pituitary glands. Interestingly, the ENC1 expression level was low in invasive null cell adenomas compared with non-invasive adenomas, but this relationship was not observed in invasive oncocytomas. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated that the staining of ENC1 was different between invasive and non-invasive null cell adenomas. In addition, bioinformatics studies, including gene ontology and protein interaction analyses, were also performed to better understand the critical role of ENC1 in the development and progression of null cell adenomas and oncocytomas. Consequently, ENC1 may be an important biomarker for null cell

  7. Impact of tumor cell cytoskeleton organization on invasiveness and migration: a microchannel-based approach.

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    Claudio G Rolli

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a fundamental feature of the interaction of cells with their surrounding. The cell's stiffness and ability to deform itself are two major characteristics that rule migration behavior especially in three-dimensional tissue. We simulate this situation making use of a micro-fabricated migration chip to test the active invasive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1 into narrow channels. At a channel width of 7 microm cell migration through the channels was significantly impeded due to size exclusion. A striking increase in cell invasiveness was observed once the cells were treated with the bioactive lipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC that leads to a reorganization of the cell's keratin network, an enhancement of the cell's deformability, and also an increase in the cell's migration speed on flat surfaces. The migration speed of the highly deformed cells inside the channels was three times higher than of cells on flat substrates but was not affected upon SPC treatment. Cells inside the channels migrated predominantly by smooth sliding while maintaining constant cell length. In contrast, cells on adhesion mediating narrow lines moved in a stepwise way, characterized by fluctuations in cell length. Taken together, with our migration chip we demonstrate that the dimensionality of the environment strongly affects the migration phenotype and we suggest that the spatial cytoskeletal keratin organization correlates with the tumor cell's invasive potential.

  8. MALT1 Inhibition of Oral Carcinoma Cell Invasion and ERK/MAPK Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T; Soeno, Y; Shirako, Y; Sudo, H; Yagishita, H; Taya, Y; Kawashiri, S; Okada, Y; Imai, K

    2016-04-01

    The expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) that activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in lymphocyte lineages is rapidly inactivated in oral carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the patients with worst prognosis. However, its mechanism to accelerate carcinoma progression remains unknown, and this study was carried out to examine the role in invasion. HSC2 oral carcinoma cells stably expressing wild-type MALT1 (wtMALT1) reduced the invasion of basement membrane matrices and collagen gels, and the dominant-negative form (∆MALT1)-expressing cells aggressively invaded into collagen gels. MALT1 decelerated proliferation and migration of cells and downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, which were confirmed by short interfering RNA transfections. Reporter assays and immunoblot analysis showed that MALT1 does not affect the NF-κB pathway but inhibits ERK/MAPK activation. This was confirmed by endogenous MALT1 expression in oral carcinoma cell lines. Orthotopic implantation of ∆MALT1-expressing HSC2 cells in mice grew rapid expansive and invasive tongue tumors in contrast to an absence of tumor formation by wtMALT1-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that MALT1 suppresses oral carcinoma invasion by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix degradation and that the ERK/MAPK pathway is a target of MALT1 and further suggests a role as a suppressor of carcinoma progression.

  9. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in three-dimensional biopolymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nadine R; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E; Fabry, Ben

    2015-02-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a three-dimensional (3-D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3-D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3-D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes >5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3-D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in two dimensions, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3-D invasion models in cancer research.

  10. Inhibition of p38 activity reverses claudin-6 induced cell apoptosis,invasion, and migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiong; LIU Xing; LIU Ya-fang; LU Yan; WANG Li-ping; ZHANG Xiao-wei; LI Yu-lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Claudin-6 is a protein component of tight junctions and its expression could downregulate the malignant phenotype of breast carcinoma.Here we investigated the mechanisms of claudin-6 induced human MCF-7 breast cancer cells apoptosis,invasion,and migration.Methods Terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated nick-end labeling assay and Annexin-V/PI double stain assay were carried out to evaluate apoptosis.Inhibitors of each pathway were used to inactivate the signaling pathways.The expression of claudin-6 and phosphate p38,Erk 1/2 and Akt protein levels was confirmed by Western blotting analysis.Invasive and migratory traits of claudin-6 expressing cells were determined by Boyden chamber invasion assay and monolayer wound-healing assay.Results Cells with high-level expression of claudin-6 had a higher rate of apoptosis than control cells.Western blotting assay showed that by contrast to control groups,p38 pathways were more activated in claudin-6 expressing cells.However,after inhibitor SB203580 treatment,the activation status could be significantly counteracted.Furthermore,by applying inhibitors to the apoptotic rate,invasive and migratory traits were also recovered in cells with claudin-6 expression.Conclusion Claudin-6 may function through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway,of which inhibition may reverse claudin-6-induced cell apoptosis,invasion,and migration.

  11. Notch3 drives development and progression of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rachel V; Boulter, Luke; Dwyer, Benjamin J; Kendall, Timothy J; Man, Tak-Yung; Minnis-Lyons, Sarah E; Lu, Wei-Yu; Robson, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Sofia Ferreira; Raven, Alexander; Wojtacha, Davina; Morton, Jennifer P; Komuta, Mina; Roskams, Tania; Wigmore, Stephen J; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2016-10-25

    The prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is dismal. Notch has been identified as a potential driver; forced exogenous overexpression of Notch1 in hepatocytes results in the formation of biliary tumors. In human disease, however, it is unknown which components of the endogenously signaling pathway are required for tumorigenesis, how these orchestrate cancer, and how they can be targeted for therapy. Here we characterize Notch in human-resected CC, a toxin-driven model in rats, and a transgenic mouse model in which p53 deletion is targeted to biliary epithelia and CC induced using the hepatocarcinogen thioacetamide. We find that across species, the atypical receptor NOTCH3 is differentially overexpressed; it is progressively up-regulated with disease development and promotes tumor cell survival via activation of PI3k-Akt. We use genetic KO studies to show that tumor growth significantly attenuates after Notch3 deletion and demonstrate signaling occurs via a noncanonical pathway independent of the mediator of classical Notch, Recombinant Signal Binding Protein for Immunoglobulin Kappa J Region (RBPJ). These data present an opportunity in this aggressive cancer to selectively target Notch, bypassing toxicities known to be RBPJ dependent.

  12. Galectin-1, a gene preferentially expressed at the tumor margin, promotes glioblastoma cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toussaint L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-grade gliomas, including glioblastomas (GBMs, are recalcitrant to local therapy in part because of their ability to invade the normal brain parenchyma surrounding these tumors. Animal models capable of recapitulating glioblastoma invasion may help identify mediators of this aggressive phenotype. Methods Patient-derived glioblastoma lines have been propagated in our laboratories and orthotopically xenografted into the brains of immunocompromized mice. Invasive cells at the tumor periphery were isolated using laser capture microdissection. The mRNA expression profile of these cells was compared to expression at the tumor core, using normal mouse brain to control for host contamination. Galectin-1, a target identified by screening the resulting data, was stably over-expressed in the U87MG cell line. Sub-clones were assayed for attachment, proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vivo tumor phenotype. Results Expression microarray data identified galectin-1 as the most potent marker (p-value 4.0 x 10-8 to identify GBM cells between tumor-brain interface as compared to the tumor core. Over-expression of galectin-1 enhanced migration and invasion in vitro. In vivo, tumors expressing high galectin-1 levels showed enhanced invasion and decreased host survival. Conclusions In conclusion, cells at the margin of glioblastoma, in comparison to tumor core cells, have enhanced expression of mediators of invasion. Galectin-1 is likely one such mediator. Previous studies, along with the current one, have proven galectin-1 to be important in the migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells, in GBM neoangiogenesis, and also, potentially, in GBM immune privilege. Targeting this molecule may offer clinical improvement to the current standard of glioblastoma therapy, i.e. radiation, temozolomide, anti-angiogenic therapy, and vaccinotherapy.

  13. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  14. Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is a progesterone (P4) regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM) from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM) blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL) increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h) and U251 (24 and 48 h) cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells. PMID:28168193

  15. Afatinib inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis of the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunhua; Zhang, Xiangyang; Qi, Fan; Chen, Mingfeng; Li, Yuan; Liu, Longfei; He, Wei; Li, Zhuo; Zu, Xiongbing

    2015-05-01

    Afatinib is a highly selective, irreversible inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human EGFR 2 (HER-2). Although preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that afatinib has antitumor activity and clinical efficacy in non-small cell lung carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer, there are few studies investigating its inhibitory effect on human bladder carcinoma cells. In this study, the antitumor effect of afatinib was investigated on the T24 bladder cancer cell line. The T24 bladder cancer cell line was treated with afatinib at various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 µmol/l). MTT assay was used to estimate the proliferation of the T24 cells; flow cytometric analysis was used to estimate the effect of afatinib on T24 cell apoptosis; cell invasion ability was assessed by a Transwell invasion assay; and western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Akt, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The MTT assay demonstrated that afatinib inhibited the proliferation of T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell apoptosis rate increased as the concentration of afatinib increased. The cell invasion assay indicated that afatinib treatment significantly inhibited the invasive behavior of T24 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that with increasing afatinib concentrations, Bcl-2, phosphorylated (p)-ERK1/2, p-Akt, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels were significantly decreased, whereas total (t)-ERK1/2 and t-Akt expression levels remained basically unchanged, and Bax expression levels were greatly increased. The results indicate that afatinib inhibits the proliferation and invasion of T24 cells in vitro and induces the apoptosis of these cells by inhibiting the EGFR signaling network.

  16. Dihydroavenanthramide D inhibits human breast cancer cell invasion through suppression of MMP-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Rae; Noh, Eun-Mi; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hur, Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Han, Ji-Hey; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 560-182 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo [Department of Surgery, Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 560-182 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong-Soo; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Sung-Ho [Department of Companion and Laboratory Animal Science, Kongju National University, Yesan 340-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang-Sik [Division of Animal Science and Resources Research Center for Transgenic Cloned Pigs, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Suk, E-mail: jsukim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Medical School, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 560-182 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} MMP-9 plays a pivotal role in the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. {yields} TPA stimulates MMP-9 expression through activation of MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. {yields} Dihydroavenanthramide D suppresses MMP-9 expression via inhibition of TPA-induced MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 activations. {yields} Dihydroavenanthramide D blocks cell invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Dihydroavenanthramide D (DHAvD) is a synthetic analog to naturally occurring avenanthramide, which is the active component of oat. Previous study demonstrates that DHAvD strongly inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), which is a major component in cancer cell invasion. The present study investigated whether DHAvD can modulate MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was increased, whereas these inductions were muted by DHAvD. DHAvD also suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activations in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. The results indicate that DHAvD-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involves the suppression of the MAPK/NF-{kappa}B and MAPK/AP-1 pathways in MCF-7 cells. DHAvD may have potential value in breast cancer metastasis.

  17. Activated T cell exosomes promote tumor invasion via Fas signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhijian; Yang, Fei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Zhou; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Qingqing; Yang, Yunshan; Wang, Lie; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Jianli

    2012-06-15

    Activated T cells release bioactive Fas ligand (FasL) in exosomes, which subsequently induce self-apoptosis of T cells. However, their potential effects on cell apoptosis in tumors are still unknown. In this study, we purified exosomes expressing FasL from activated CD8(+) T cell from OT-I mice and found that activated T cell exosomes had little effect on apoptosis and proliferation of tumor cells but promoted the invasion of B16 and 3LL cancer cells in vitro via the Fas/FasL pathway. Activated T cell exosomes increased the amount of cellular FLICE inhibitory proteins and subsequently activated the ERK and NF-κB pathways, which subsequently increased MMP9 expression in the B16 murine melanoma cells. In a tumor-invasive model in vivo, we observed that the activated T cell exosomes promoted the migration of B16 tumor cells to lung. Interestingly, pretreatment with FasL mAb significantly reduced the migration of B16 tumor cells to lung. Furthermore, CD8 and FasL double-positive exosomes from tumor mice, but not normal mice, also increased the expression of MMP9 and promoted the invasive ability of B16 murine melanoma and 3LL lung cancer cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that activated T cell exosomes promote melanoma and lung cancer cell metastasis by increasing the expression of MMP9 via Fas signaling, revealing a new mechanism of tumor immune escape.

  18. Calpains are required for invasive and metastatic potentials of human HCC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Tang, Juan; Guo, Yun-Shan; Li, Yong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2013-07-01

    Calpains are a conserved family of calcium-dependent cysteine proteinases involved in various cellular functions. Two ubiquitous isoforms, µ- and m-calpain, are key members of the calpain family that play essential roles in regulating cell migration and invasion. However, it remains unclear whether they are involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the functions of µ- and m-calpain in the invasive and metastatic processes of human hepatoma cells. Our results indicated that the expression levels of calpains were elevated in HCC cells compared with those in normal hepatic cells. Our results indicated that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of µ- and m-calpain expressions significantly suppressed the adhesive, migrative and invasive potentials of human hepatoma cells. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key regulators of malignant tumour invasion and metastasis. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of µ- and m-calpain expressions also significantly attenuated MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion. Thus µ- and m-calpain may play important roles in the invasion and metastasis of human hepatoma cells, and calpains may be drug targets for preventing HCC metastasis.

  19. Annexin A5 promotes invasion and chemoresistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, Liang; Xiong, Yu; Guo, Hua; Shen, Xiaoli; Cheng, Zujue; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Ziyun; Zhu, Xingen

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the prevalent and most fatal brain tumor in adults. Invasion and a high rate of recurrence largely contribute to the poor prognosis of GBM. The current standard therapy for GBM includes surgery with maximum feasible resection, radiotherapy, and treatment with chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. Annexin A5 reportedly promotes progression and chemoresistance in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we explored the effects of annexin A5 on GBM cell invasion and chemoresistance to temozolomide. Stable overexpression and knockdown of annexin A5 were performed in both U-87 MG and U-118 MG human GBM cell lines. Overexpression of annexin A5 in both cell lines significantly increased cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression/activity, Akt phosphorylation at serine 473, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of temozolomide and markedly decreased temozolomide-induced apoptosis, all of which were abolished by selective PI3K inhibitor BKM120. On the other hand, knockdown of annexin A5 markedly decreased cell invasion, MMP-2 expression/activity, Akt phosphorylation at serine 473, and the IC50 values of temozolomide and significantly increased temozolomide-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that annexin A5 promotes GBM cell invasion, MMP-2 expression/activity, and chemoresistance to temozolomide through a PI3K-dependent mechanism. It adds new insights not only into the biological function of annexin A5 but also into the molecular mechanisms underlying GBM progression and chemoresistance.

  20. FOXO3a promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of cathepsin L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Qian; Cui, Yuehong; Wang, Yan; Li, Wei; Sun, Yihong; Liu, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) is an important transcription factor involved in various human cancers. However, the role of FOXO3a in regulating the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells has not been clarified. Here, we report that FOXO3a overexpression promoted migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells by upregulating cathepsin L. FOXO3a knockdown suppressed migration and invasion and also downregulated cathepsin L expression in gastric cancer cells. Silencing cathepsin L in these cells suppressed FOXO3a overexpression-induced cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic studies revealed that FOXO3a increased cathepsin L promoter activation, and cathepsin L overexpression repressed E-cadherin expression, causing gastric cancer cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our data reveal a previously unexplored function of FOXO3a in gastric cancer invasion by regulating proteins involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and EMT. We suggest that FOXO3a may be of prognostic value and a potential therapeutic target in blocking tumor metastasis. PMID:27127880

  1. The Transcriptional Repressor ZNF503/Zeppo2 Promotes Mammary Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Enhances Cell Invasion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Payam; Slorach, Euan M.; Wang, Chih-Yang; Chou, Jonathan; Lu, Angela; Ruderisch, Aline; Werb, Zena

    2015-01-01

    The NET (nocA, Nlz, elB, TLP-1) subfamily of zinc finger proteins is an important mediator during developmental processes. The evolutionary conserved zinc finger protein ZNF503/Zeppo2 (zinc finger elbow-related proline domain protein 2, Zpo2) plays critical roles during embryogenesis. We found that Zpo2 is expressed in adult tissue and examined its function. We found that ZPO2 is a nuclearly targeted transcriptional repressor that is expressed in mammary epithelial cells. Elevated Zpo2 levels increase mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Zpo2 promotes cellular invasion through down-regulation of E-cadherin and regulates the invasive phenotype in a RAC1-dependent manner. We detect elevated Zpo2 expression during breast cancer progression in a MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model. Tumor transplant experiments indicated that overexpression of Zpo2 in MMTV-PyMT mammary tumor cell lines enhances lung metastasis. Our findings suggest that Zpo2 plays a significant role in mammary gland homeostasis and that deregulation of Zpo2 may promote breast cancer development. PMID:25538248

  2. Effects of TRPC6 on invasibility of low-differentiated prostate cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Xiang Li; Jing Liu; Jun Li; Li-Jun Li; Ming-Xing Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of TRPC6 among prostate cancer cells, establish high expression cell lines of TRPC6, and to provide potential cell mode for prostate cancer oncogenesis and development. Methods: Occurrence and development of prostate cancer cells, PC3, PC-3 m DU145, 22 rv1, LNCaP and normal prostate epithelial cells in the PrEC TRPC6 expression level were detected by QPCR method. Calcium phosphate transfection method was used to package retrovirus pLEGFP-N1-TRPC6 and pLEGFP-N1-vector and infect the prostate cancer cells, a stable high expression of TRPC6 prostate cancer cells. Sable cell lines of TRPC6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 expression was detected by QPCR and Western blot. Change of cell invasion ability was detected by Transwell. Results: The expression level of prostate cancer cells TRPC6 were higher than control group PrEC cells. Among TPRC6 the expression of cell line PC 3 transfer potential wre the lowest, and high transfer cell line PC-3M express was the highest. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and western blot results showed that after filter, the seventh generation of cell TRPC6 protein and mRNA expression levels were higher than the control group obviously. Transwell experimental results showed that the overexpression of TRPC6 could promote the invasion ability of PC3 prostate cancer cells. Conclusions: TRPC6 expressed in prostate cancer cells is in disorder, and its action may be associated with the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells; successful establishment of stable high expression of TRPC6 prostate cancer cells primarily confirm the invasion-trigger ability of TRPC6 on prostate cancer, and lay down the foundation for exploring the TRPC6’s role in the occurrence and development of prostate cancer mechanism.

  3. Rap1-GTP-interacting Adaptor Molecule (RIAM) Protein Controls Invasion and Growth of Melanoma Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Coló, Georgina P.; Bartolomé, Ruben A.; Paterson, Andrew; Medraño-Fernández, Iria; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Lafuente, Esther M.; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Strömblad, Staffan; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells. PMID:21454517

  4. Effects of Src on Proliferation and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui ZHENG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that Src played pivotal roles in carcinogenesis, cancer progression and metastasis. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of Src phosphorylation on lung cancer cells. Methods Western blot and immunoprecipitation was used to detect the expression and phosphorylation of Src in lung cancer cells. MTT and Boyden chamber assay was used to examine the effects of inhibition of Src phosphorylation on proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells in vitro, respectively. Results pp60src was expressed in all lung cancer cell lines in this study. All 5 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines had increased autophosphorylated tyrosine-418, while nearly no phosphorylated Src in small cell lung cancer SBC5 cell line was detected. The effect of inhibition of Src tyrosine kinase on cell proliferation varied among the lung cancer cell lines. Submicromolar Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor (≤1 μM remarkably suppressed the proliferation of PC-9 and A549 cells in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05, while the same concentration of Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor had no significant effect on proliferation of H226, PC14PE6 and RERFLCOK cells. Invasiveness of lung cancer cells was significantly suppressed by Src tyrosine kinase in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05. Conclusion Phosphorylation of Src, but not over-expression, plays a pivotal role in proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cell lines in vitro.

  5. Myoferlin depletion in breast cancer cells promotes mesenchymal to epithelial shape change and stalls invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Li

    Full Text Available Myoferlin (MYOF is a mammalian ferlin protein with homology to ancestral Fer-1, a nematode protein that regulates spermatic membrane fusion, which underlies the amoeboid-like movements of its sperm. Studies in muscle and endothelial cells have reported on the role of myoferlin in membrane repair, endocytosis, myoblast fusion, and the proper expression of various plasma membrane receptors. In this study, using an in vitro human breast cancer cell model, we demonstrate that myoferlin is abundantly expressed in invasive breast tumor cells. Depletion of MYOF using lentiviral-driven shRNA expression revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells reverted to an epithelial morphology, suggesting at least some features of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. These observations were confirmed by the down-regulation of some mesenchymal cell markers (e.g., fibronectin and vimentin and coordinate up-regulation of the E-cadherin epithelial marker. Cell invasion assays using Boyden chambers showed that loss of MYOF led to a significant diminution in invasion through Matrigel or type I collagen, while cell migration was unaffected. PCR array and screening of serum-free culture supernatants from shRNA(MYOF transduced MDA-MB-231 cells indicated a significant reduction in the steady-state levels of several matrix metalloproteinases. These data when considered in toto suggest a novel role of MYOF in breast tumor cell invasion and a potential reversion to an epithelial phenotype upon loss of MYOF.

  6. Interleukin-8 associates with adhesion, migration, invasion and chemosensitivity of human gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Xia Kuai; Qiong wang; Xiao-Zhong Yang; Yao Zhao; Ren Yu; Xiao-Jun Tang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and proliferation,adhesion,migration,invasion and chemosensitivity of gastric cancer (GC) cells.METHODS:The IL-8 cDNA was stably transfected into human GC cell line MKN-45 and selected IL-8-secreting transfectants.The expression of IL-8 in human GC cell line KATO-Ⅲ was inhibited by RNA interference.The expressions of mRNA and protein of IL-8 in GC cells were detected by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).RESULTS:The overexpression of IL-8 resulted in an increased cell adhesion,migration and invasion,and a significant resistance to oxaliplatin in MKN-45 cells.Inhibition of IL-8 expression with small interfering RNA decreased the adhesion,migration and invasion functions and oxaliplatin resistance in KATO-Ⅲ cells.IL-8 increased NF-кB and Akt activities and adhesion molecules ICAM-1,VCAM-1,and CD44 expression in GC cells.CONCLUSION:Overexpression of IL-8 promotes the adhesion,migration,invasion,and chemoresistance of GC cells,indicating that IL-8 is an important therapeutic target in GC.

  7. TRPM7 is required for ovarian cancer cell growth, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Liao, Qian-jin [The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Zhang, Yi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China); Zhou, Hui; Luo, Chen-hui; Tang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Tang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Zhao, Xue-heng [The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Zhang, Qiong-yu [Department of Basic Medical Science, Yongzhou Vocational Technical College, Yong Zhou 425100 (China); Xiao, Ling, E-mail: lingxiaocsu@126.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha 410018 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Silence of TRPM7 in ovarian cancer cells inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Silence of TRPM7 decreases phosphorylation levels of Akt, Src and p38 in ovarian cancer cells. • Silence of TRPM7 increases expression of filamentous actin and number of focal adhesions in ovarian cancer cells. - Abstract: Our previous study demonstrated that the melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel 7 (TRPM7) was highly expressed in ovarian carcinomas and its overexpression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. However, the function of TRPM7 in ovarian cancer is mostly unknown. In this study, we examined the roles of TRPM7 in ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We found that short hairpin RNA interference-mediated silence of TRPM7 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in multiple ovarian cancer cell lines. Mechanistic investigation revealed that silence of TRPM7 decreased phosphorylation levels of Akt, Src and p38 and increased filamentous actin and focal adhesion number in ovarian cancer cells. Thus, our results suggest that TRPM7 is required for proliferation, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells through regulating multiple signaling transduction pathways and the formation of focal adhesions.

  8. Nuclear Membrane-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Wu, Yue; Ghosh, Deepraj; Do, Brian H; Chen, Kuangcai; Dawson, Michelle R; Fang, Ning; Sulchek, Todd A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2017-03-27

    Most cancer patients die from metastasis. Recent studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can slow down the migration/invasion speed of cancer cells and suppress metastasis. Since nuclear stiffness of the cell largely decreases cell migration, our hypothesis is that targeting AuNPs to the cell nucleus region could enhance nuclear stiffness, and therefore inhibit cell migration and invasion. Our results showed that upon nuclear targeting of AuNPs, the ovarian cancer cell motilities decrease significantly, compared with nontargeted AuNPs. Furthermore, using atomic force microscopy, we observed an enhanced cell nuclear stiffness. In order to understand the mechanism of cancer cell migration/invasion inhibition, the exact locations of the targeted AuNPs were clearly imaged using a high-resolution three-dimensional imaging microscope, which showed that the AuNPs were trapped at the nuclear membrane. In addition, we observed a greatly increased expression level of lamin A/C protein, which is located in the inner nuclear membrane and functions as a structural component of the nuclear lamina to enhance nuclear stiffness. We propose that the AuNPs that are trapped at the nuclear membrane both (1) add to the mechanical stiffness of the nucleus and (2) stimulate the overexpression of lamin A/C located around the nuclear membrane, thus increasing nuclear stiffness and slowing cancer cell migration and invasion.

  9. MicroRNA-7 regulates glioblastoma cell invasion via targeting focal adhesion kinase expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU De-gang; WANG Xi-rui; YOU Yong-ping; LIU Ning; WANG Ying-yi; FAN Li-gang; LUO Hui; HAN Bin; SUN Li-hua; WANG Xie-feng; ZHANG Jun-xia; CAO Lei

    2011-01-01

    Background Invasion growth is the most characteristic biological phenotype of glioblastoma,but the molecular mechanism in glioma cell invasion is poorly understood.Recent data have showed that microRNA plays an essential role in tumor invasion.Our study aimed to explore the mechanism of miR-7 involved in the control of glioblastoma cell invasion.Methods Glioma cell invasion was evaluated by transwell and scratch assays after up-regulation of miR-7 using miR-7 mimics in U87 and U251 cells.Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as a target of miR-7.The levels of miR-7,matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 mRNA were detected by PCR assay,and the levels of FAK,MMP-2,MMP-9,total and phosphorylation serine/threonine kinase (AKT),and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 were measured by Western blotting analysis.Results Over-expression of miR-7 inhibited the invasion and migration activity of U87 and U251 cells.And up-regulation of miR-7 reduced FAK protein expression,Further,luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-7 modulated FAK expression directly by binding 3'UTR of FAK mRNA.In addition,miR-7 repressed p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT level,MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.Finally,the inverse relationship between FAK and miR-7 expression was certificated in human glioma tissues.Conclusion To our knowledge,these data indicate for the first time that miR-7 directly regulates cell invasion by targeting FAK in glioblastoma and that miR-7 could be a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma intervention.

  10. Effects of chitosan nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference on invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jian

    2016-08-01

    To observe the changes in invasion capacity of gastric cancer BGC823 cells after being treated with chitosan-encapsulated BRAF siRNA nanoparticles, and to evaluate the effects of the nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference on cell invasion and metastasis, BRAF siRNA was encapsulated with chitosan into nanoparticles sized 350 nm to treat gastric cancer cells. Silencing of BRAF was detected by Western blot and PCR, and cell invasion was observed by the Transwell assay. The nanoparticles significantly downregulated BRAF expression in BGC823 cells (P Chitosan nanoparticle-mediated BRAF siRNA interference evidently reduced the invasion capacity of gastric cancers.

  11. Surface Molecules Released by Trypanosoma cruzi Metacyclic Forms Downregulate Host Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Tatiana Mordente; Cortez, Cristian; Novaes, Antônio da Silva; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    Background The question whether metacylic trypomastigote (MT) forms of different T. cruzi strains differentially release surface molecules, and how they affect host cell invasion, remains to be fully clarified. We addressed that question using T. cruzi strains that differ widely in the ability to invade cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Metacyclic forms were incubated at 37°C for 1 h in complete D10 medium or in nutrient-deprived PBS containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ (PBS++). The conditioned medium (CM), collected after parasite centrifugation, was used for cell invasion assays and Western blot analysis, using monoclonal antibodies directed to gp82 and gp90, the MT surface molecules that promote and negatively regulate invasion, respectively. CM of poorly invasive G strain (G-CM) contained high amounts of gp90 and gp82, either in vesicles or as soluble molecules. CM of highly invasive CL strain (CL-CM) contained gp90 and gp82 at very low levels. HeLa cells were incubated for 1 h with CL strain MT in D10, in absence or in the presence of G-CM or CL-CM. Parasite invasion was significantly inhibited by G-CM, but not by CL-CM. As G strain MT invasion rate in D10 is very low, assays with this strain were performed in PBS++, which induces invasion-promoting lysosome-spreading. G-CM, but not CL-CM, significantly inhibited G strain internalization, effect that was counteracted by preincubating G-CM with an anti-gp90 monoclonal antibody or anti-gp82 polyclonal antibody that do not recognize live MT. G strain CM generated in PBS++ contained much lower amounts of gp90 and gp82 as compared to CM produced in D10, and exhibited lower inhibitory effect on host cell invasion. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that the surface molecules spontaneously released by MT impair parasite-host cell interaction, gp82 presumably competing with the molecule expressed on MT surface for the host cell receptor, and gp90 further contributing to down modulate invasion. PMID:27483135

  12. The PDZ protein TIP-1 facilitates cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human invasive breast cancer cells in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Miaojun [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Yunnan (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Hailun [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zhang, Hua-Tang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Yunnan (China); Han, Zhaozhong, E-mail: zhaozhong.han@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has revealed novel oncogenic functions of TIP-1 in human invasive breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated TIP-1 expression levels in human breast cancers correlate to the disease prognosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the expression and functionality of motility-related genes. -- Abstract: Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1, also known as Tax1bp3) inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells through antagonizing the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. However, in this study, elevated TIP-1 expression levels were detected in human invasive breast cancers. Studies with two human invasive breast cancer cell lines indicated that RNAi-mediated TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in mammary fat pads and pulmonary metastasis in athymic mice. Biochemical studies showed that TIP-1 knockdown had moderate and differential effects on the beta-catenin-regulated gene expression, but remarkably down regulated the genes for cell adhesion and motility in breast cancer cells. The decreased expression of integrins and paxillin was accompanied with reduced cell adhesion and focal adhesion formation on fibronectin-coated surface. In conclusion, this study revealed a novel oncogenic function of TIP-1 suggesting that TIP-1 holds potential as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in the treatment of human invasive breast cancers.

  13. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection.

  14. The Runx transcriptional co-activator, CBFβ, is essential for invasion of breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Camacho Cesar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor Runx2 has an established role in cancers that metastasize to bone. In metastatic breast cancer cells Runx2 is overexpressed and contributes to the invasive capacity of the cells by regulating the expression of several invasion genes. CBFβ is a transcriptional co-activator that is recruited to promoters by Runx transcription factors and there is considerable evidence that CBFβ is essential for the function of Runx factors. However, overexpression of Runx1 can partially rescue the lethal phenotype in CBFβ-deficient mice, indicating that increased levels of Runx factors can, in some situations, overcome the requirement for CBFβ. Since Runx2 is overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer cells, and there are no reports of CBFβ expression in breast cells, we sought to determine whether Runx2 function in these cells was dependent on CBFβ. Such an interaction might represent a viable target for therapeutic intervention to inhibit bone metastasis. Results We show that CBFβ is expressed in the metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, and that it associates with Runx2. Matrigel invasion assays and RNA interference were used to demonstrate that CBFβ contributes to the invasive capacity of these cells. Subsequent analysis of Runx2 target genes in MDA-MB-231 cells revealed that CBFβ is essential for the expression of Osteopontin, Matrixmetalloproteinase-13, Matrixmetalloproteinase-9, and Osteocalcin but not for Galectin-3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that CBFβ is recruited to both the Osteopontin and the Galectin-3 promoters. Conclusions CBFβ is expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells and is essential for cell invasion. CBFβ is required for expression of several Runx2-target genes known to be involved in cell invasion. However, whilst CBFβ is essential for invasion, not all Runx2-target genes require CBFβ. We conclude that CBFβ is required for a subset of Runx2-target genes

  15. miR-1271 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion via targeting HOXA5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongfang; Xu, Lianhong; Jiang, Lixin, E-mail: jianglx66766@163.com

    2015-03-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs (∼22 nt) that play important roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases by negatively regulating numerous target genes at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in lung cancer, particularly non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has remained elusive. In this study, two microRNAs, miR-1271 and miR-628, and their predicted target genes were identified differentially expressed in NSCLC by analyzing the miRNA and mRNA expression data from NSCLC tissues and their matching normal controls. miR-1271 and its target gene HOXA5 were selected for further investigation. CCK-8 proliferation assay showed that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-1271 in NSCLC cells, while miR-1271 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Interestingly, migration and invasion assay indicated that overexpression of miR-1271 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells, whereas miR-1271 inhibitor could inhibited both cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Western blot showed that miR-1271 suppressed the protein level of HOXA5, and luciferase assays confirmed that miR-1271 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of HOXA5. This study indicated indicate that miR-1271 regulates NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion, via the down-regulation of HOXA5. Thus, miR-1271 may represent a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC intervention. - Highlights: • Overexpression of miR-1271 promoted proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells. • miR-1271 inhibitor inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells. • miR-1271 targets 3′ UTR of HOXA5 in NSCLC cells. • miR-1271 negatively regulates HOXA5 in NSCLC cells.

  16. Irinotecan drug eluting beads used as a treatment of advanced intra hepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Amede Roch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This report describes a 74-year-old male with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. However surgical procedure is the only curative treatment, it often seems to be ineffective because of the aggressive behaviour of the disease. The role of systemic chemotherapy in the ICC is undefined with a median survival between 6.43 to 12.17 months obtained by using the combination chemotherapy of gemcitabine with cisplatin. In the present case, we performed a targeted treatment using drug eluting beads (DEB with irinotecan (IRI administered as transarterial-chemoembolization (TACE. After one session, the tumour vascularity decreased significantly at the one month evaluation on computed tomography (CT scan of the liver.  This case report suggested that minimally invasive transcatheter DEB embolization could be a promising, safe and effective treatment for selective patients with unresectable ICC.

  17. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F G; Torres, Vicente A

    2016-05-17

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

  18. Anthraquinone emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by antagonizing P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelassi, Bilel; Anchelin, Monique; Chamouton, Julie; Cayuela, María Luisa; Clarysse, Lucie; Li, Junying; Goré, Jacques; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Roger, Sébastien

    2013-07-01

    The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is strongly upregulated in many tumors and cancer cells, and has an important role in cancer cell invasion associated with metastases. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Rheum officinale Baill known for decades to possess anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of emodin on P2X7R-dependent Ca(2+) signaling, extracellular matrix degradation, and in vitro and in vivo cancer cell invasiveness using highly aggressive human cancer cells. Inclusion of emodin at doses ≤10 µM in cell culture had no or very mild effect on the cell viability. ATP elicited increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by 35 and 60% by 1 and 10 µM emodin, respectively. Emodin specifically inhibited P2X7R-mediated currents with an IC50 of 3 µM and did not inhibit the currents mediated by the other human P2X receptors heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. ATP-induced increase in gelatinolytic activity, in cancer cell invasiveness in vitro and in cell morphology changes were prevented by 1 µM emodin. Furthermore, such ATP-evoked effects and inhibition by emodin were almost completely ablated in cancer cells transfected with P2X7R-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) but not with scrambled siRNA. Finally, the in vivo invasiveness of the P2X7R-positive MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells, assessed using a zebrafish model of micrometastases, was suppressed by 40 and 50% by 1 and 10 µM emodin. Taken together, these results provide consistent evidence to indicate that emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by specifically antagonizing the P2X7R.

  19. Slug down-regulation by RNA interference inhibits invasion growth in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Zhang Shaoyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most aggressive carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. We assessed the relevance of Slug in measuring the invasive potential of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Methods We utilized RNA interference to knockdown Slug gene expression, and effects on survival and invasive carcinoma were evaluated using a Boyden chamber transwell assay in vitro. We evaluated the effect of Slug siRNA-transfection and Slug cDNA-transfection on E-cadherin and Bcl-2 expression in ESCC cells. A pseudometastatic model of ESCC in immunodeficient mice was used to assess the effects of Slug siRNA transfection on tumor metastasis development. Results The EC109 cell line was transfected with Slug-siRNA to knockdown Slug expression. The TE13 cell line was transfected with Slug-cDNA to increase Slug expression. EC109 and TE13 cell lines were tested for the expression of apoptosis-related genes bcl-2 and metastasis-related gene E-cadherin identified previously as Slug targets. Bcl-2 expression was increased and E-cadherin was decreased in Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells. Bcl-2 expression was increased and E-cadherin was decreased in Slug cDNA-transfected TE13 cells. Invasion of Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells was reduced and apoptosis was increased whereas invasion was greater in Slug cDNA-transfected cells. Animals injected with Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells exhihited fewer seeded nodes and demonstrated more apoptosis. Conclusions Slug down-regulation promotes cell apoptosis and decreases invasion capability in vitro and in vivo. Slug inhibition may represent a novel strategy for treatment of metastatic ESCC.

  20. Combination of Praziquantel and Aspirin Minimizes Liver Pathology of Hamster Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Associated Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudsarn, Pakkayanee; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Namwat, Nisana; Loilome, Watcharin; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Nadchanan, Wonkchalee; Jiraporn, Songsri

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is one of the major risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeastern Thailand. An effective drug for killing this parasite is praziquantel. Recently, several reports have shown that with frequent use, praziquantel may itself be a CCA risk and can cause liver cell damage from an immunopathological response after parasite death. Aspirin has many properties including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Therefore, we use of aspirin (As) and praziquantel (Pz) to improve hepatobiliary system function in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) and or administered N-nitrosodimethylamine (ND). Livers of OVNDAsPz, appeared healthy macroscopically, suggesting slow progression of cholangiocarcinoma evident by extent of fibrosis and bile duct cell proliferation was less than OVND although aggregations of inflammatory cells remained. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), and cancer antigen (CA19-9) staining were strongly positive in OVND, but were only slight in OVNDAs. Moreover, OVNDAsPz, appeared a few inflammatory infiltrations, bile duct proliferation, fibrosis and CCA area than the OVNDAs group. Thirty seven point five percent of hamster in this group could not develop CCA. These findings suggest that using aspirin combination with praziquantel treatment can improve the hepatobiliary system after O. viverrini infection and reduce the risk of CCA.

  1. Imaging and interventions in hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumble; Seetharama; Madhusudhan; Shivanand; Gamanagatti; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a common malignant tumor of the biliary tree. It has poor prognosis with very low 5-year survival rates. Various imaging modalities are available for detection and staging of the hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Although ultrasonography is the initial investigation of choice, imaging with contrast enhanced computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging is needed prior to management. Surgery is curative wherever possible. Radiological interventions play a role in operable patients in theform of biliary drainage and/or portal vein embolization. In inoperable cases, palliative interventions include biliary drainage, biliary stenting and intra-biliary palliative treatment techniques. Complete knowledge of application of various imaging modalities available and about the possible radiological interventions is important for a radiologist to play a critical role in appropriate management of such patients.We review the various imaging techniques and appearances of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and the possible radiological interventions.

  2. Basolateral invasion and trafficking of Campylobacter jejuni in polarized epithelial cells.

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    Lieneke I Bouwman

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial diarrheal disease. Most enteropathogenic bacteria including C. jejuni can invade cultured eukaryotic cells via an actin- and/or microtubule-dependent and an energy-consuming uptake process. Recently, we identified a novel highly efficient C. jejuni invasion pathway that involves bacterial migration into the subcellular space of non-polarized epithelial cells (termed subvasion followed by invasion from the cell basis. Here we report cellular requirements of this entry mechanism and the subsequent intracellular trafficking route of C. jejuni in polarized islands of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Advanced microscopy on infected cells revealed that C. jejuni invades the polarized intestinal cells via the subcellular invasion pathway. Remarkably, invasion was not blocked by the inhibitors of microtubule dynamics colchicine or paclitaxel, and was even enhanced after disruption of host cell actin filaments by cytochalasin D. Invasion also continued after dinitrophenol-induced cellular depletion of ATP, whereas this compound effectively inhibited the uptake of invasive Escherichia coli. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that intracellular C. jejuni resided in membrane-bound CD63-positive cellular compartments for up to 24 h. Establishment of a novel luciferase reporter-based bacterial viability assay, developed to overcome the limitations of the classical bacterial recovery assay, demonstrated that a subset of C. jejuni survived intracellularly for up to 48 h. Taken together, our results indicate that C. jejuni is able to actively invade polarized intestinal epithelial cells via a novel actin- and microtubule-independent mechanism and remains metabolically active in the intracellular niche for up to 48 hours.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of CpG promoter methylation in invasive prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar William L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, much attention has been focused on gaining a better understanding of the different populations of cells within a tumor and their contribution to cancer progression. One of the most commonly used methods to isolate a more aggressive sub-population of cells utilizes cell sorting based on expression of certain cell adhesion molecules. A recently established method we developed is to isolate these more aggressive cells based on their properties of increased invasive ability. These more invasive cells have been previously characterized as tumor initiating cells (TICs that have a stem-like genomic signature and express a number of stem cell genes including Oct3/4 and Nanog and are more tumorigenic compared to their 'non-invasive' counterpart. They also have a profile reminiscent of cells undergoing a classic pattern of epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT. Using this model of invasion, we sought to investigate which genes are under epigenetic control in this rare population of cells. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methylation, are key events regulating the process of normal human development. To determine the specific methylation pattern in these invasive prostate cells, and if any developmental genes were being differentially regulated, we analyzed differences in global CpG promoter methylation. Results Differentially methylated genes were determined and select genes were chosen for additional analyses. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase BMX and transcription factor SOX1 were found to play a significant role in invasion. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the methylated gene list frequently displayed genes from the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Cells which have decreased levels of the targets BMX and SOX1 also display loss of STAT3 activity. Finally, using Oncomine, it was determined that more aggressive metastatic prostate cancers in humans also have higher levels of both Stat3 and Sox1. Conclusions Using this

  4. Stromal fibroblasts mediate extracellular matrix remodeling and invasion of scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells.

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    Hideki Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Scirrhous gastric carcinoma (SGC has the worst prognosis of all gastric cancers, owing to its rapid expansion by invasion and frequent peritoneal dissemination. Due to the increased proliferation of stromal fibroblasts (SFs that occurs within SGC lesions and the peritoneal metastatic sites, SFs have been proposed to support the progression of this disease. However, the biological and molecular basis and the pathological role of the intercellular interaction between SGC cells and SFs remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SFs in the invasion of the extracellular matrix (ECM by SGC cells. When SGC cells were cocultured with SFs derived from SGC tissue on three-dimensional (3D Matrigel, they were attracted together to form large cellular aggregates that invaded within the Matrigel. Time-lapse imaging revealed that this process was associated with extensive contraction and remodeling of the ECM. Immunofluorescence and biochemical analysis showed that SGC cells stimulate phosphorylation of myosin light chain and actomyosin-mediated mechanical remodeling of the ECM by SFs. By utilizing this assay system for inhibitor library screening, we have identified several inhibitors that potently suppress the cooperation between SGC cells and SFs to form the invasive structures. Among them, a Src inhibitor dasatinib impaired the interaction between SGC cells and SFs both in vitro and in vivo and effectively blocked peritoneal dissemination of SGC cells. These results indicate that SFs mediate mechanical remodeling of the ECM by SGC cells, thereby promoting invasion and peritoneal dissemination of SGC.

  5. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Härmä

    Full Text Available The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP, and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility.

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of living cell culture by lensless digital holography imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxin Wang; Dayong Wang; Jie Zhao; Yishu Yang; Xiangqian Xiao; Huakun Cui

    2011-01-01

    @@ A non-invasive detection method for the status analysis of cell culture is presented based on digital holography technology.Lensless Fourier transform digital holography (LFTDH) configuration is developed for living cell imaging without prestaining.Complex amplitude information is reconstructed by a single inverse fast Fourier transform, and the phase aberration is corrected through the two-step phase subtraction method.The image segmentation is then applied to the automatic evaluation of confluency.Finally,the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is employed for experimental validation, and the results demonstrate that LFTDH imaging with the corresponding image post-processing can provide an automatic and non-invasive approach for monitoring living cell culture.%A non-invasive detection method for the status analysis of cell culture is presented based on digital holography technology. Lensless Fourier transform digital holography (LFTDH) configuration is developed for living cell imaging without prestaining. Complex amplitude information is reconstructed by a single inverse fast Fourier transform, and the phase aberration is corrected through the two-step phase subtraction method. The image segmentation is then applied to the automatic evaluation of confluency. Finally,the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is employed for experimental validation, and the results demonstrate that LFTDH imaging with the corresponding image post-processing can provide an automatic and non-invasive approach for monitoring living cell culture.

  7. The effects of CD147 on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haoyuan; Shao, Ying; Chen, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) on glioma proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis. Tissue samples were obtained from 101 glioma cases while normal brain tissues were obtained from 30 brain injury cases. Immunohistochemical assay was performed to detect the expressions of CD147, CD34, and VEGF in tissue samples. QRT-PCR was performed to detect the relative expression of CD147 mRNA in human glioma cell lines. CD147 siRNA was transfected into glioma cell line U251. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis were tested by MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell assay, and vasculogenic mimicry assay, respectively. Expressions of relative proteins were analyzed with western blot. CD147 was positively expressed with the percentage of 0, 37.5, 44.8, 67.9, and 85.7 % in normal tissues and glioma tissues with WHO grades I-IV, respectively, and the scores of MVDand VEGF were associated with the expression of CD147. CD147 was significantly upregulated in the human glioma cell lines (P CD147 suppressed cell proliferation, blocked cell cycle, induced apoptosis, inhibited cell invasion and angiogenesis in glioma cells in vitro. The expression of CD147 was significantly associated with WHO tumor grade and angiogenesis; silencing of CD147 contributed to inhibition of glioma proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Our study provided firm evidence that CD 147 is a potential glioma target for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  8. Non-invasive discrimination between pancreatic islets and exocrine cells using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Li, Ge; Hao, Mingming; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we propose a non-invasive method to distinguish pancreatic islet cells from exocrine cell clusters using multiphoton (MP) imaging. We demonstrate the principle of distinguishing them based on autofluorescence. The results show that MP imaging has a potential to distinguish pancreatic islets from exocrine cells. This ability to distinguish the two cell types could have many applications, such as the examination of fresh pancreatic biopsies when staining is not possible or desirable.

  9. Tracking the Invasion of Small Numbers of Cells in Paper-Based Assays with Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Andrew S; Lochbaum, Christian A; Boyce, Matthew W; Lockett, Matthew R

    2015-11-17

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for culturing mammalian cells in a three-dimensional environment. There are a number of previously published studies, which utilize these scaffolds to generate models of aortic valves, cardiac ischemia and reperfusion, and solid tumors. These models have largely relied on fluorescence imaging and microscopy to quantify cells in the scaffolds. We present here a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method, capable of quantifying multiple cell types in a single culture with the aid of DNA barcodes: unique sequences of DNA introduced to the genome of individual cells or cell types through lentiviral transduction. PCR-based methods are highly specific and are amenable to high-throughput and multiplexed analyses. To validate this method, we engineered two different breast cancer lines to constitutively express either a green or red fluorescent protein. These cells lines allowed us to directly compare the ability of fluorescence imaging (of the fluorescent proteins) and qPCR (of the unique DNA sequences of the fluorescent proteins) to quantify known numbers of cells in the paper based-scaffolds. We also used both methods to quantify the distribution of these breast cell lines in homotypic and heterotypic invasion assays. In the paper-based invasion assays, a single sheet of paper containing cells suspended in a hydrogel was sandwiched between sheets of paper containing only hydrogel. The stack was incubated, and the cells invaded the adjacent layers. The individual sheets of the invasion assay were then destacked and the number of cells in each layer quantified. Our results show both methods can accurately detect cell populations of greater than 500 cells. The qPCR method can repeatedly and accurately detect as few as 50 cells, allowing small populations of highly invasive cells to be detected and differentiated from other cell types.

  10. Invasive fungal disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: an autopsy-driven survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkó, J; Csomor, J; Nikolova, R; Lueff, S; Kriván, G; Reményi, P; Bátai, A; Masszi, T

    2008-04-01

    Invasive mycoses are pre-eminent causes of morbidity and mortality in the allogeneic stem cell transplant setting. In spite of novel diagnostic modalities, the timely and specific identification of invasive mycoses still remains challenging. We analyzed the case history of 97 consecutive patients receiving 103 allogeneic stem cell transplants between January 2003 and October 2006 performed by a single team at 2 transplant centers in Budapest, Hungary. All patients with febrile neutropenia not responding to broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy received amphotericin B deoxycholate empirically. In cases of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis, intravenous voriconazole was instituted. Patients who failed to improve on initial therapy were treated with an antifungal combination, while responders were switched to oral voriconazole. A total of 38 patients died following allografting. Both centers had an autopsy rate of 100% due to central health care regulations. An infectious cause of death could be identified in 15 cases, invasive fungal disease being the most prevalent and accounting for 10 fatalities. Six patients died of invasive aspergillosis, while invasive candidiasis and mucormycosis led to a fatal outcome in 2 cases each. Despite the regular use of galactomannan antigen detections and imaging, an ante mortem diagnosis of proven/probable invasive fungal disease could only be established in 4 of 10 autopsy-verified cases (aspergillosis: 3, candidiasis: 1, mucormycosis: 0). In the remaining 6 patients, deep mycoses were missed clinically and were revealed only by postmortem histology. Present diagnostic and therapeutic strategies still seem to be suboptimal for the management of invasive fungal diseases in the high-risk allogeneic stem cell transplant population.

  11. Selective loss of TGFbeta Smad-dependent signalling prevents cell cycle arrest and promotes invasion in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

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    Benjamin A Onwuegbusi

    Full Text Available In cancer, Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta increases proliferation and promotes invasion via selective loss of signalling pathways. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's oesophagus, progresses rapidly and is usually fatal. The contribution of perturbed TGFbeta signalling in the promotion of metastasis in this disease has not been elucidated. We therefore investigated the role of TGFbeta in Barrett's associated oesophageal adenocarcinoma using a panel of cell lines (OE33, TE7, SEG, BIC, FLO. 4/5 adenocarcinoma cell lines failed to cell cycle arrest, down-regulate c-Myc or induce p21 in response to TGFbeta, and modulation of a Smad3/4 specific promoter was inhibited. These hyperproliferative adenocarcinoma cell lines displayed a TGFbeta induced increase in the expression of the extracellular matrix degrading proteinases, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, which correlated with an invasive cell phenotype as measured by in vitro migration, invasion and cell scattering assays. Inhibiting ERK and JNK pathways significantly reduced PAI and uPA induction and inhibited the invasive cell phenotype. These results suggest that TGFbeta Smad-dependent signalling is perturbed in Barrett's carcinogenesis, resulting in failure of growth-arrest. However, TGFbeta can promote PAI and uPA expression and invasion through MAPK pathways. These data would support a dual role for TGFbeta in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  12. The role of liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durgatosh Pandey; Kang-Hoe Lee; Kai-Chah Tan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating disease. Surgery is the only potentially curative modality. However, the results of surgical resection for hilar cholangiocarcinomas are disappointing. The introduction of liver transplantation for this condition has brought new hope for the management of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of liver transplantation in this disease. DATA SOURCES:A MEDLINE search was conducted for the articles on liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Their results have been compiled and compared with the existing literature on resection for this disease. RESULTS:The earlier series on liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma were not encouraging because of poor patient selection. The Mayo Clinic protocol of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by liver transplantation has shown remarkable success (survival at 1-, 3-, and 5-year post-transplantation being 92%, 82%, and 82%, respectively). With better patient selection and integration of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, the long-term survival is superior to that of the patients who undergo resection, as shown by the published literature on resection. The limitations of organ availability can be overcome by the living donor liver transplantation programme. This review article discusses the rationale, pros and cons of liver transplantation vis-à-vis resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:Liver transplantation, especially living donor liver transplantation, is a new and exciting alternative to resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Integration of neoadjuvant chemoradiation has the potential to further improve the curative potential of liver transplantation. The strategy of combining neoadjuvant chemoradiation and liver transplantation brings new hope for the treatment of this dififcult disease.

  13. Combining biological agents and chemotherapy in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Jakobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    is not always possible. Chemotherapy is effective and the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine is considered a standard treatment of inoperable cholangiocarcinoma. Biological targeted treatment to date has minor effect when given as monotherapy, but some of the drugs hold promise as an adjunct...... to chemotherapy. It should, however, be noted that most of the trials are based on few patients, and thus far the literature does not allow for a conclusion as to the role of biological treatment on cholangiocarcinoma. This situation calls for well-designed randomized trials, and international cooperation as well...

  14. Promoter Hypomethylation of Maspin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Extravillous Trophoblast Cells during Placentation.

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    Xinwei Shi

    Full Text Available Extravillous trophoblast (EVT cells invade the endometrium and the maternal spiral arterioles during the first trimester. Mammary Serine Protease Inhibitor (Maspin, SERPINB5 plays a putative role in regulating the invasive activity of cytotrophoblasts. The maspin gene is silenced in various cancers by an epigenetic mechanism that involves aberrant cytosine methylation. We investigated the effect of the methylation status of the maspin promoter on the maspin expression and the aggressiveness of EVT cells.Western blotting was used to detect the maspin protein expression in EVT cells upon hypoxia. The proliferative ability, the apoptosis rate and the migration and invasiveness were measured with Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, Flow Cytometry technology and Transwell methods. Subsequently, we treated cells with recombinant maspin protein. The methylation degree of maspin promoter region upon hypoxia/ decitabine was detected by bisulfite sequencing PCR and methylation-specific PCR. Finally, we explored the effects of decitabine on maspin protein expression and the aggressiveness of EVT cells.Hypoxia effectively increased maspin protein expression in EVT cells and significantly inhibited their aggressiveness. The addition of recombinant maspin protein inhibited this aggressiveness. Decitabine reduced the methylation in the maspin promoter region and effectively increased the maspin protein expression, which significantly weakened the migration and invasiveness of EVT cells.The methylation status of the maspin promoter is an important factor that affects the migration and invasion of EVT cells during early pregnancy. A decrease in the methylation status can inhibit the migration and invasion of EVT cells to affect placentation and can result in the ischemia and hypoxia of placenta.

  15. Silencing of WWP2 inhibits adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong; Xu, Sheng-Qian; Pan, De-Biao; Ye, Guan-Xiong; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Shi; Wang, Chao-Jun; Jiang, Jin-Yan; Fu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The role and clinical implication of the WWP2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in liver cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the expression level of WWP2 and its functions in cell adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer. We used real-time PCR to detect the expression of WWP2 in liver cancer and adjacent samples from the People's Hospital of Lishui and also analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq data by bioinformatics. Migration and invasion were detected by transwell analysis. We detected a strong WWP2 expression in tumor tissues of the People's Hospital of Lishui, and the survival rate was significantly higher in patients with lower WWP2-expressing tumors. WWP2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus stably infected cells (shWWP2), Huh7, showed slower growth speed compared with scramble control-infected cells in a xenograft mouse model. Knockdown of WWP2 Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells demonstrated a reduction in adhesion, invasion, and migration. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that WWP2 is positively correlated to cancer-related pathways including the chemokine signaling pathway. WWP2 also regulated MMP-9, caspase-9, CXCR3, and CCR5 expression in liver cancer cells. In addition, knockdown of CXCR3 and CCR5 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration in Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells. Our data suggest that targeting of WWP2 may be a therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment.

  16. Role of lipase in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) invasion of lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T; Markey, K; Murphy, P; McClean, S; Callaghan, M

    2007-12-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of ten closely related species associated with life-threatening infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). These bacteria are highly antibiotic resistant, with some strains transmissible, and in a subgroup of patients, they can cause a rapid and fatal necrotising pneumonia. The Bcc organisms produce a range of exoproducts with virulence potential, including exopolysaccharide, proteases and lipases. Many members of the Bcc are also capable of epithelial cell invasion, although the mechanism(s) involved are poorly understood. This study investigates a role for Bcc lipase in epithelial cell invasion by Bcc strains. Lipase activity was measured in eight species of the Bcc. Strains that produced high levels of lipase were predominantly from the B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia species. Pre-treatment of two epithelial cell lines with Bcc lipase significantly increased invasion by two B. multivorans strains and one B. cenocepacia strain and did not affect either plasma membrane or tight junction integrity. Inhibition of Bcc lipase production by the lipase inhibitor Orlistat significantly decreased invasion by both B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia strains in a concentration-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the extent of lipase production across the Bcc and establishes a potential role for lipase in Bcc epithelial cell invasion.

  17. Concerted action of two formins in gliding motility and host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daher

    Full Text Available The invasive forms of apicomplexan parasites share a conserved form of gliding motility that powers parasite migration across biological barriers, host cell invasion and egress from infected cells. Previous studies have established that the duration and direction of gliding motility are determined by actin polymerization; however, regulators of actin dynamics in apicomplexans remain poorly characterized. In the absence of a complete ARP2/3 complex, the formin homology 2 domain containing proteins and the accessory protein profilin are presumed to orchestrate actin polymerization during host cell invasion. Here, we have undertaken the biochemical and functional characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii formins and established that they act in concert as actin nucleators during invasion. The importance of TgFRM1 for parasite motility has been assessed by conditional gene disruption. The contribution of each formin individually and jointly was revealed by an approach based upon the expression of dominant mutants with modified FH2 domains impaired in actin binding but still able to dimerize with their respective endogenous formin. These mutated FH2 domains were fused to the ligand-controlled destabilization domain (DD-FKBP to achieve conditional expression. This strategy proved unique in identifying the non-redundant and critical roles of both formins in invasion. These findings provide new insights into how controlled actin polymerization drives the directional movement required for productive penetration of parasites into host cells.

  18. Sensitivity-increasing effect of recommbinant analgesic-antitumor peptide on cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapy%重组东亚钳蝎镇痛抗肿瘤肽对胆管癌细胞化疗的增敏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛贤秀; 曹鹏; 缪林; 李全鹏; 汪婷婷; 于泓; 季国忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨重组东亚钳蝎镇痛抗肿瘤肽(rAGAP)对胆管癌细胞化疗的增敏作用及其机制.方法 体外培养人胆管癌细胞株HuCC-T1、QBC939和胆管上皮细胞HIBepic,单独用药:不同浓度的rAGAP、顺铂(DDP)和5-氟尿嘧啶(5-FU)处理三株细胞,四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(MTT法)观察细胞的增殖抑制率及半抑制浓度(IC50).联合用药:选用rAGAP(5μg/ml)、DDP(4μg/ml)、5-FU(50μg/ml)处理三株细胞,分为对照(A)组、rAGAP(B)组、DDP(C)组、rAGAP与DDP联用(D)组、5-FU(E)组、rAGAP与5-FU联用(F)组.MTT法检测细胞存活率;荧光定量PCR方法检测细胞多药耐药基因1(MDR-1)及多药耐药相关蛋白1(MRP-1)的mRNA表达.结果 单独用药结果显示rAGAP抑制细胞增殖呈时间剂量依赖性,且对癌细胞具有一定的选择性;rAGAP组的IC50值明显小于DDP组和5-FU组(P<0.01).联合用药结果显示,胆管癌细胞株HuCC-T1和QBC939中,D组较B、C组以及F组较B、E组细胞存活减少;而且MDR-1和MRP-1表达下调(P<0.01).而在胆管上皮细胞HIBepic细胞系里,联合用药并未表现明显的增加化疗药效果的作用.结论 rAGAP可选择性抑制胆管癌细胞,与化疗药DDP和5 FU联用可增强化疗敏感性.%Objective To investigate the sensitivity-increasing effect of recommbinant analgesicantitumor peptide (rAGAP)on cholangiocarcinoma cells to chemotherapy and its underlying mechanism.Methods The cholangiocarcinoma cell lines HuCC-T1,QBC939 and bile duct epithelial cells HIBepic were cultured in vitro,and then exposed to rAGAP,cisplatin and 5-FU,respectively.The cells inhibition rate and 50% inhibiting concentration(IC5) were detected.The cells were divided into 6 groups of A(control),B(treated with rAGAP 5 μg/ml),C(treated with DDP 4μg/ml),D(treated with 5-FU 50μg/ml plus DDP),E(treated with 5-FU 50μg/ml) and F(treated with rAGAP plus 5FU).The cell survival rates were detected using MTT method and the mRNA expressions of

  19. Migratory, invasive and metastatic capacity of NCAM transfected rat glioma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, was transfected into the rat glioma cell line BT4Cn. Transfectants with a homogeneously high expression of NCAM-B showed a decreased capacity for penetration of an artificial basement membrane when compared...... to cells transfected with expression-vector alone or untransfected cells. However, when injected subcutaneously into nude mice, both NCAM expressing cells and control cells produced invasive tumors. Nude mice injected with NCAM positive cells developed tumors with slower growth rates as compared to those...

  20. Effects of Roundabout 5 on adhesion, invasion and potential motility of human tongue carcinoma Tb cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Rui; ZHAO yuan; WANG Li-jing; LI Wei-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Roundabout 5 (R5) is a monoclonal antibody which can neutralize the binding of Roundabout 1 (Robo1)to Slit2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma angiogenesis was significantly inhibited when R5 blocked slit-robo signaling pathway. However, the effect of R5 on the invasion of tongue cancer cells has not been investigated clearly. Methods In this study, we treated human brain metastasis of tongue cancer cell lines (Tb cells) with R5 at different concentrations, and the control Tb cells were treated with 10 mg/ml immunoglobin G 2b (lgG2b). The effect of R5 on the proliferation, adhension, invasion and motility of Tb cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell attachment assay on fibronectin (FN), wound assay and chemotaxis assay,respectively. And gelatin-incorporated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to investigate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Results R5 had no effect on the proliferation of Tb cells. However, R5 could significantly inhibit the motility, attachment and chemotaxis of Tb cells to FN, and it could also significantly inhibit the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 in Tb cells. Conclusion R5 can inhibit the adhesion, invasion and motility of human tongue carcinoma Tb cells.

  1. Gadd45a inhibits cell migration and invasion by altering the global RNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhanhai; Li, Guiyuan; Zhan, Qimin; Li, Dan

    2012-09-01

    Gadd45a, the first well-defined p53 downstream gene, can be induced by multiple DNA-damaging agents, which plays important roles in the control of cell cycle checkpoint, DNA repair process and signaling transduction. Our previous findings suggested that Gadd45a maintains cell-cell adhesion and cell contact inhibition. However, little is known about how Gadd45a participates in the suppression of malignancy in human cancer cells. To examine the functions of Gadd45a in cell invasion and metastasis, we performed the adhesion, wound-healing and transwell assays in Gadd45a (+/+) and Gadd45a (-/-) MEF cell lines. We found the adhesion, migration and invasive abilities were much higher in Gadd45a deficient cells. We furthermore applied high-throughput cDNA microarray analysis and bioinformatics analysis to analyze the mechanisms of Gadd45a gene in invasion and metastasis. Compared with the Gadd45a wild type cells, the Gadd45a deficient cells showed a wide range of transcripts alterations. The altered gene pathways were predicted by the MAS software, which indicated focal adhesion,cell communication,ECM-receptor interaction as the three main pathways. Real-time PCR was employed to validate the differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, we figured out that the deregulations of these genes are caused neither by genomic aberrations nor methylation status. These findings provided a novel insight that Gadd45a may involve in tumor progression by regulating related genes expressions.

  2. MEK-dependent IL-8 induction regulates the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Jeon, Myeongjin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) serves as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, and its expression level correlates with metastatic breast cancer and poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the levels of IL-8 expression in a variety of breast cancer cells and the regulatory mechanism of IL-8 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Our results showed that IL-8 expression correlated positively with overall survival in basal-type breast cancer patients. The levels of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were significantly increased in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC cells. In addition, the invasiveness of the TNBC cells was dramatically increased by IL-8 treatment and then augmented invasion-related proteins such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 or MMP-9. We observed that elevated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were suppressed by a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126. In contrast, the overexpression of constitutively active MEK significantly increased the level of IL-8 mRNA expression in BT474 non-TNBC cells. Finally, we investigated the effect of UO126 on the tumorigenecity of TNBC cells. Our results showed that anchorage-independent growth, cell invasion, and cell migration were also decreased by UO126 in TNBC cells. As such, we demonstrated that IL-8 expression is regulated through MEK/ERK-dependent pathways in TNBC cells. A diversity of MEK blockers, including UO126, may be promising for treating TNBC patients.

  3. N-cadherin knock-down decreases invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Li; Wei He; Na Lin; Xin Wang; Qing-Xia Fan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the expressions of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in specimens of 62 normal esophageal epithela, 31 adjacent atypical hyperplastic epithelia and 62 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs), and to investigate the roles of N-cadherin in the invasiveness of ESCC cell line EC9706 transfected by N-cadherin shRNA. METHODS: PV immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression pattern of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in specimens of 62 normal esophageal epithelia, 31 adjacent atypical hyperplastic epithelia and 62 ESCCs. The invasiveness of ESCC line EC9706 was determined by transwell assay after EC9706 was transfected by N-cadherin shRNA. RESULTS: The positive rates of N-cadherin decreased in the carcinoma, adjacent atypical hyperplastic and normal esophageal tissues (75.8%, 61.3% and 29.0%, P < 0.05), respectively, while those of E-cadherin increased (40.3%, 71.0% and 95.2%, P < 0.05). The increased expression of N-cadherin and decreased expression of E-cadherin were related to invasion, differentiation, and lymph node metastasis ( P < 0.05). The expression level of N-cadherin decreased in the N-cadherin knocked down cells, and the invasiveness of those cells decreased significantly as well. The number of cells which crossed the basement membrane filter 0.05). CONCLUSION: E-cadherin and N-cadherin expression is correlated with the invasion and aggravation of ESCC. The down-regulation of N-cadherin lowers the invasiveness of EC9706 cell line.

  4. Metastasis-associated phosphatase PRL-2 regulates tumor cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Lazo, J S

    2012-02-16

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, comprising PRL-1, PRL-2 and PRL-3, is a group of prenylated phosphatases that are candidate cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Although several studies have documented that altered expression of PRL-1 or PRL-3 can influence cell proliferation, migration and invasion, there is a dearth of knowledge about the biological functions of PRL-2. Thus, in the current study we have evaluated the role of PRL-2 in cell migration and invasion in human cancer cells. We found that four human lung cancer cells, including A549 cells, overexpress PRL-2 when compared with normal lung cells. PRL-2 knockdown by RNA interference markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion, and this inhibition can be restored by overexpressing the short interference RNA (siRNA)-resistant vector HA-PRL-2m. PRL-2 suppression by siRNA decreased p130Cas and vinculin expression, and decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, while increasing the phosphorylation of ezrin on tyrosine 146. We found no significant changes in total p53, Akt and c-Src expression levels or their phosphorylation status, suggesting that PRL-2 knockdown could inhibit tumor cell migration and invasion through a Src-independent p130Cas signaling pathway. Ectopic expression of wild-type PRL-2, a catalytic inactive C101S mutant and a C-terminal CAAX deletion revealed a requirement for both the PRL-2 catalytic functionality and prenylation site. Expression of wild-type but not mutant forms of PRL-2 caused ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. These results support a model in which PRL-2 promotes cell migration and invasion through an ERK-dependent signaling pathway.

  5. Involvement of calreticulin in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in diallyl disulfide-treated HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lan; Shan, Jian; Chen, Xin; Li, Guoqing; Li, Linwei; Tan, Hui; Su, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) has shown potential as a therapeutic agent in various cancers. Previously, calreticulin (CRT) was found to be downregulated in differentiated HL-60 cells treated with DADS. The present study investigated the role of CRT proteins in DADS-induced proliferation, invasion and differentiation in HL-60 cells. The present study demonstrated that DADS treatment significantly changed the morphology of HL-60 cells and caused the significant time-dependent downregulation of CRT. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRT expression significantly inhibited proliferation, decreased invasion ability, increased the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)11b and reduced the expression of CD33 in DADS-treated HL-60 cells. DADS also significantly affected cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in CRT-overexpressed HL-60 cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays showed decreased NBT reduction activity in the CRT overexpression group and increased NBT reduction in the CRT siRNA group. Following treatment with DADS, the NBT reduction abilities in all groups were increased. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the downregulation of CRT during DADS-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells and indicates that CRT is involved in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in DADS-treated HL-60 cells.

  6. Upregulated expression of Ezrin and invasive phenotype in malignantly transformed esophageal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Ying Shen; Li-Yan Xu; Ming-Hua Chen; En-Min Li; Jin-Tao Li; Xian-Ying Wu; Yi Zeng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between ezrin expression and invasive phenotype formation in malignantly transformed esophageal epithelial cells. METHODS: The experimental cell line employed in the present study was originated form the progressive induction of a human embryonic esophageal epithelial cell line (SHEE)by the E6E7 genes of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18.The cells at the 35th passage after induction called SHEEIMM were in a state of immortalized phase and used as the control,while that of the 85th passage denominated as SHEEMT represented the status of cells that were malignantly transformed. The expression changes of ezrin and its mRNA in both cell passages were respectively analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Invasive phenotype was assessed in vivo by inoculating these cells into the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice via subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection, and in vitro by inoculating them on the surface of the amnion membranes, which then was determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Upregulated expression of ezrin protein and its mRNA was observed in SHEEMT compared with that in SHEEIMM cells. The SHEEMT cells inoculated in SCID mice were observed forming tumor masses in both visceral organs and soft tissues in a period of 40 days with a special propensity to invading mesentery and pancreas, but did not exhibit hepatic metastases. Pathologically, these tumor cells harboring larger nucleus, nucleolus and less cytoplasm could infiltrate and destroy adjacent tissues. In the in vitro study,the inoculated SHEEMT cells could grow in cluster on the amniotic epithelial surface and intrude into the amniotic stroma. In contrast, unrestricted growth and invasiveness were not found in SHEEIMM cells in both in vivo and in vitroexperiment. CONCLUSION: The upregulated ezrin expression is one of the important factors that are possibly associated with the invasive phenotype formation in malignantly

  7. Modeled microgravity suppressed invasion and migration of human glioblastoma U87 cells through downregulating store-operated calcium entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zi-xuan [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Rao, Wei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Huan [Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Nan-ding [Department of Cardiology, Xi' an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Si, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Jun-chang [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Zong-ren, E-mail: zongren@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China)

    2015-02-13

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor and is characterized with robust invasion and migration potential resulting in poor prognosis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that modeled microgravity (MMG) could decline the cell proliferation and attenuate the metastasis potential in several cell lines. In this study, we studied the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials of glioblastoma in human glioblastoma U87 cells. We found that MMG stimulation significantly attenuated the invasion and migration potentials, decreased thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and downregulated the expression of Orai1 in U87 cells. Inhibition of SOCE by 2-APB or stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) downregulation both mimicked the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of Orai1 significantly weakened the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Therefore, these findings indicated that MMG stimulation inhibited the invasion and migration potentials of U87 cells by downregulating the expression of Orai1 and sequentially decreasing the SOCE, suggesting that MMG might be a new potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma treatment in the future. - Highlights: • Modeled microgravity (MMG) suppressed migration and invasion in U87 cells. • MMG downregulated the SOCE and the expression of Orai1. • SOCE inhibition mimicked the effects of MMG on migration and invasion potentials. • Restoration of SOCE diminished the effects of MMG on migration and invasion.

  8. KIF20A-Mediated RNA Granule Transport System Promotes the Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Taniuchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancers are aggressive because they are highly invasive and highly metastatic; moreover, effective treatments for aggressive pancreatic cancers are lacking. Here, we report that the motor kinesin protein KIF20A promoted the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through transporting the RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 and IGF2BP3-bound transcripts toward cell protrusions along microtubules. We previously reported that IGF2BP3 and its target transcripts are assembled into cytoplasmic stress granules of pancreatic cancer cells, and that IGF2BP3 promotes the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of localized translation of IGF2BP3-bound transcripts in cell protrusions. We show that knockdown of KIF20A inhibited accumulation of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules in cell protrusions and suppressed local protein expression from specific IGF2BP3-bound transcripts, ARF6 and ARHGEF4, in the protrusions. Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of KIF20A-mediated trafficking of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules and modulation of the motility and invasiveness in pancreatic cancers.

  9. Emperipolesis-like invasion of neoplastic lymphocytes into hepatocytes in feline T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M; Kanae, Y; Kagawa, Y; Ano, N; Nomura, K; Ozaki, K; Narama, I

    2011-05-01

    Twelve cases of feline malignant lymphoma with emperipolesis-like invasion of neoplastic lymphocytes were examined microscopically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Intracytoplasmic invasion of neoplastic cells varied in severity between the cases, between hepatic lobules and between areas within the lobules. The number of infiltrating neoplastic cells ranged from one to several per hepatocyte. Neoplastic cells exhibited widely varying morphology from case-to-case and cell-to-cell within each case, and contained eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in four cases. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that neoplastic cells in 11 of the 12 cases expressed one or both T-cell markers (CD3 and TIA-1). Diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma was also confirmed by assessment of clonality by polymerase chain reaction. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the neoplastic lymphocytes were contained within an invagination of the cell membrane of the hepatocyte, rather than directly infiltrating into the cytoplasm of the cell. There was no evidence that the invasive neoplastic lymphocytes had a cytotoxic effect.

  10. Inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by the proteasome antagonist carfilzomib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeb, Zammam; Stylli, Stanley S; Ware, Thomas M B; Harris, Nicole C; Shukla, Lipi; Shayan, Ramin; Paradiso, Lucia; Li, Bo; Morokoff, Andrew P; Kaye, Andrew H; Luwor, Rodney B

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive and lethal tumor of the central nervous system with limited treatment strategies on offer, and as such the identification of effective novel therapeutic agents is paramount. To examine the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors, we tested bortezomib, carfilzomib, nafamostat mesylate, gabexate mesylate and acetylsalicylic acid on glioblastoma cell viability, migration and invasion. Both bortezomib and carfilzomib produced significant reduction of cell viability, while nafamostat mesylate, gabexate mesylate and acetylsalicylic acid did not. Subsequent testing showed that carfilzomib significantly reduced cell viability at nM concentrations. Carfilzomib also reduced cell migration, secretion and activation of MMP2 and also cell invasion of all four glioblastoma cells tested. In summary, carfilzomib represents a novel, yet FDA-approved agent for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

  11. Imbalanced adaptive responses associated with microsatellite instability in cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loilome, Watcharin; Kadsanit, Sasithorn; Muisook, Kanha; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Namwat, Nisana; Techasen, Anchalee; Puapairoj, Anucha; Khuntikeo, Narong; Phonjit, Pichai

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive response of the genome protection mechanism occurs in cells when exposed to genotoxic stress due to the overproduction of free radicals via inflammation and infection. In such circumstances, cells attempt to maintain health via several genome protection mechanisms. However, evidence is increasing that this adaptive response may have deleterious effect; a reduction of antioxidant enzymes and/or imbalance in the DNA repair system generates microsatellite instability (MSI), which has procarcinogenic implications. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that MSI caused by imbalanced responses of antioxidant enzymes and/or DNA repair enzymes as a result of oxidative/nitrative stress arising from the inflammatory response is involved in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis. The present study investigated this hypothesis by identifying the expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), and DNA repair enzymes, including alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), apurinic endonuclease (APE) and DNA polymerase β (DNA pol β). In addition, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and CAT, were examined in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues using immunohistochemical staining. MSI was also analyzed in human CCA tissues. The resulting data demonstrated that the expression levels of the SOD2 and CAT enzymes decreased. The activities of SOD2 and CAT decreased significantly in the CCA tissues, compared with the hepatic tissue of cadaveric donors. In the DNA repairing enzymes, it was found that the expression levels of AAG and DNA pol β enzymes increased, whereas the expression of APE decreased. In addition, it was found that MSI-high was present in 69% of patients, whereas MSI-low was present in 31% of patients, with no patients classified as having microsatellite stability. In the patients, a MSI-high was correlated with poor prognosis, indicated by a shorter survival rate. These results

  12. Anti-invasive activity against cancer cells of phytochemicals in red jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintha, Komsak; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Pitchakarn, Pornsirit; Limtrakul, Pornngarm

    2014-01-01

    Red rice contains pharmacological substances including phenolics, oryzanol, tocotrienol and tocopherol. Recently, red rice extract has been employed as a source of antioxidants for inhibition of tumor growth. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-invasion effects of red rice extract fractions on cancer cells. It was found that at 100 μg/ml of crude ethanolic extract (CEE), hexane fraction (Hex) and dichloromethane fraction (DCM) could reduce HT1080 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion. Hex and DCM revealed higher potency levels than CEE, whereas an ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) had no effect. Gelatin zymography revealed that Hex decreased the secretion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and-9). In contrast, the DCM fraction exhibited slightly effect on MMPs secretion and had no effect on MMPs activity. Collagenase activity was significantly inhibited by the Hex and DCM fractions. High amounts of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol were found in the Hex and DCM fractions and demonstrated an anti-invasion property. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin was detected only in the CEE fraction and reduced MDA-MB-231 cells invasion property. These observations suggest that proanthocyanidin, γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in the red rice fractions might be responsible for the anti invasion activity. The red rice extract may have a potential to serve as a food-derived chemotherapeutic agent for cancer patients.

  13. Adherence to and invasion of human intestinal cells by Arcobacter species and their virulence genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levican, Arturo; Alkeskas, Aldukali; Günter, Claudia; Forsythe, Stephen J; Figueras, María José

    2013-08-01

    The genus Arcobacter is composed of 17 species which have been isolated from various sources. Of particular interest are A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii, as these have been associated with human cases of diarrhea, the probable transmission routes being through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water and food. To date, only limited studies of virulence traits in this genus have been undertaken. The present study used 60 Arcobacter strains isolated from different sources, representing 16 of the 17 species of the genus, to investigate their ability to adhere to and invade the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. In addition, the presence of five putative virulence genes (ciaB, cadF, cj1349, hecA, and irgA) was screened for in these strains by PCR. All Arcobacter species except A. bivalviorum and Arcobacter sp. strain W63 adhered to Caco-2 cells, and most species (10/16) were invasive. The most invasive species were A. skirrowii, A. cryaerophilus, A. butzleri, and A. defluvii. All invasive strains were positive for ciaB (encoding a putative invasion protein). Other putative virulence genes were present in other species, i.e., A. butzleri (cadF, cj1349, irgA, and hecA), A. trophiarum (cj1349), A. ellisii (cj1349), and A. defluvii (irgA). No virulence genes were detected in strains which showed little or no invasion of Caco-2 cells. These results indicate that many Arcobacter species are potential pathogens of humans and animals.

  14. Early interactions of Edwardsiella ictaluri, with Pangasianodon catfish and its invasive ability in cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, T T; Chiers, K; Tuan, N A; Sorgeloos, P; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2012-06-01

    Commercial Pangasianodon catfish production is heavily impacted by Bacillary Necrosis of Pangasius (BNP) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri. This study aimed to investigate the early bacterium-host interactions following immersion challenge and to compare the retrieved data with the invasion ability of the used isolates in fish cell lines. Firstly, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings were challenged via immersion using E. ictaluri isolate HO2 or 223. At different times post inoculation, fish were sacrificed and gill and internal organ samples were taken for bacteriological, histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. The bacterial load was higher for fish inoculated with isolate HO2 compared with 223. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed multifocal necrotic areas in kidney, spleen and liver of HO2 inoculated fish at 72 h post inoculation with short rod-shaped immunoperoxidase positive bacteria clustered inside cells respectively. Bacteria especially were present in the gills and intestinal tract of HO2 inoculated fish, suggesting the gastrointestinal tract and gills act as portals of entry. Following, the ability of HO2, 223 and four additional isolates to invade a Chinook salmon embryo cell line, a fat head minnow cell line and a rainbow trout liver cell line was tested. All E. ictaluri isolates were invasive in all cell lines albeit at different degrees. Isolate HO2 was highly invasive in all cell lines with a significantly higher invasion capacity than isolate 223 in the Chinook salmon embryo cell line. A correlation between in vivo virulence and in vitro invasiveness hence is suggested although further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. BLT2 up-regulates interleukin-8 production and promotes the invasiveness of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunju Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elevated production of interleukin (IL-8 is critically associated with invasiveness and metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathway responsible for up-regulation of IL-8 production in breast cancer cells has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report that the expression of BLT2 is markedly up-regulated in the highly aggressive human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 compared with MCF-10A immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, as determined by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and FACS analysis. Blockade of BLT2 with BLT2 siRNA knockdown or BLT2 inhibitor treatment downregulated IL-8 production and thereby diminished the invasiveness of aggressive breast cancer cells, analyzed by Matrigel invasion chamber assays. We further characterized the downstream signaling mechanism by which BLT2 stimulates IL-8 production and identified critical mediatory roles for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the consequent activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Moreover, blockade of BLT2 suppressed the formation of metastatic lung nodules by MDA-MB-231 cells in both experimental and orthotopic metastasis models. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our study demonstrates that a BLT2-ROS-NF-κB pathway up-regulates IL-8 production in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells, thereby contributing to the invasiveness of these aggressive breast cancer cells. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of invasiveness in breast cancer.

  16. Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as well as tumor cell migration was examined. Effects of drug treatment on integrin α and β subtypes, on integrin-linked kinase (ILK and total and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK were also determined. Integrin knock-down was carried out to evaluate integrin influence on migration and adhesion. A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. TCCSUP adhesion was also reduced, but migration was elevated under amygdalin. Integrin subtype expression was significantly and specifically altered by amygdalin depending on the cell line. ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. Knock down of β1 integrin caused a significant decrease in both adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 cells, but a significant increase in TCCSUP adhesion. Knock down of β4 integrin caused a significant decrease in migration of RT112 cells. Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. The amygdalin induced increase in TCCSUP migratory behavior indicates that any anti-tumor benefits from amygdalin (seen with the other two cell lines may depend upon the cancer cell type.

  17. Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Tsaur, Igor; Nelson, Karen; Pfitzenmaier, Jesco; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as well as tumor cell migration was examined. Effects of drug treatment on integrin α and β subtypes, on integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and total and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were also determined. Integrin knock-down was carried out to evaluate integrin influence on migration and adhesion. A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. TCCSUP adhesion was also reduced, but migration was elevated under amygdalin. Integrin subtype expression was significantly and specifically altered by amygdalin depending on the cell line. ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. Knock down of β1 integrin caused a significant decrease in both adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 cells, but a significant increase in TCCSUP adhesion. Knock down of β4 integrin caused a significant decrease in migration of RT112 cells. Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. The amygdalin induced increase in TCCSUP migratory behavior indicates that any anti-tumor benefits from amygdalin (seen with the other two cell lines) may depend upon the cancer cell type.

  18. The Biological Effect of Hepsin on the Proliferation and Invasion of PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xu; Zhiqiang Fan; Jantao Sun; Ranlu Liu; Weiming Zhao; Chunyu Wang; Ju Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown that hepsin, a type of transmembrane serine protease, is highly upregulated in prostate cancer, but, little is known about its role in progression and invasion of this cancer. We constructed a hepsin-expressing plasmid and transfected it into PC-3 cells to investigate the effect of the hepsin gene on the biological behavior of the PC-3 cells.METHODS Plasmid pHepsin-IRES2 was transfected into prostate cancer PC-3 cells using Fugene6, and the cells with stable hepsin expression were screened and selected with Zeocin (600 mg/L). The hepsin mRNA level was measured by real-time PCR and the growth curve of the PC-3-transfected cells assessed using MTT and BrdU assays. A Boyden chamber was used to examine the difference in invasion and metastases between transfected and non-transfected cells.RESULTS The hepsin mRNA level in pHepsin-IRES2 transfected -PC-3 cells was significantly higher than that found in the control PC-3 cells. While the growth curve of the hepsin gene transfected PC-3 cells showed that there was no significant effect on proliferation, the invasive ability of the pHepsin-IRES2 transfected PC-3 cells, as compared with control cells, was significantly increased (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The results suggest that even though hepsin has no effect on the proliferation of prostate cancer PC-3 cells, it does promote cellular invasion and metastasis.Therefore hepsin may have a role in the development of prostate cancer.

  19. Ionizing Radiation Promotes the Migratory and Invasive Potential of Lung Cancer Cells by Different Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jin Nyoung; Kang, Ga Young; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Although radiation therapy is a major therapeutic modality for cancer treatment, previous reports have suggested that ionizing radiation (IR) can promote the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells. It was consistently reported that IR can induce certain types of matrix metalloproteinases, which are critical to the degradation of extracellular matrix. Given that the motility of cancer cells is an additional requirement for their metastasis, this study investigated whether IR can also influence the migratory potential of cancer cells.

  20. Novel Silicone-Coated 125I Seeds for the Treatment of Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lizhou; Guo, Lili; Zhang, Weixing; Cai, Xiaobo; Chen, Dafan; Wan, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    125I seeds coated with titanium are considered a safe and effective interstitial brachytherapy for tumors, while the cost of 125I seeds is a major problem for the patients implanting lots of seeds. The aim of this paper was to develop a novel silicone coating for 125I seeds with a lower cost. In order to show the radionuclide utilization ratio, the silicone was coated onto the seeds using the electro-spinning method and the radioactivity was evaluated, then the anti-tumor efficacy of silicone 125I seeds was compared with titanium 125I seeds. The seeds were divided into four groups: A (control), B (pure silicone), C (silicone 125I), D (titanium 125I) at 2 Gy or 4 Gy. Their anti-tumour activity and mechanism were assessed in vitro and in vivo using a human extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line FRH-0201 and tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice. The silicone 125I seeds showed higher radioactivity; the rate of cell apoptosis in vitro and the histopathology in vivo demonstrated that the silicone 125I seeds shared similar anti-tumor efficacy with the titanium 125I seeds for the treatment of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, while they have a much lower cost.

  1. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  2. Intracellular Expression of PAI-1 Specific Aptamers Alters Breast Cancer Cell Migration, Invasion and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Yolanda M; Brandal, Stephanie M; Carpentier, Gilles; Hemani, Malvi; Pathak, Arvind P

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in various cancers, where it has been shown to effect cell migration and invasion and angiogenesis. While, PAI-1 is a secreted protein, its intercellular levels are increased in cancer cells. Consequently, intracellular PAI-1 could contribute to cancer progression. While various small molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 are currently being investigated, none specifically target intracellular PAI-1. A class of inhibitors, termed aptamers, has been used effectively in several clinical applications. We previously generated RNA aptamers that target PAI-1 and demonstrated their ability to inhibit extracellular PAI-1. In the current study we explored the effect of these aptamers on intracellular PAI-1. We transiently transfected the PAI-1 specific aptamers into both MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and studied their effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Aptamer expressing MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a decrease in cell migration and invasion. Additionally, intracellular PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) protein levels decreased, while the PAI-1/uPA complex increased. Moreover, a significant decrease in endothelial tube formation in HUVECs transfected with the aptamers was observed. In contrast, conditioned media from aptamer transfected MDA-MB-231 cells displayed a slight pro-angiogenic effect. Collectively, our study shows that expressing functional aptamers inside breast and endothelial cells is feasible and may exhibit therapeutic potential.

  3. Repositioning "old" drugs for new causes: identifying new inhibitors of prostate cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Esha T; Upadhyaya, Akanksha; Philp, Lisa K; Tang, Tiffany; Skalamera, Dubravka; Gunter, Jennifer; Nelson, Colleen C; Williams, Elizabeth D; Hollier, Brett G

    2016-04-01

    The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) deaths occur due to the metastatic spread of tumor cells to distant organs. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies once tumor cells have spread outside the prostate. It is therefore imperative to rapidly develop therapeutics to inhibit the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Gain of cell motility and invasive properties is the first step of metastasis and by inhibiting motility one can potentially inhibit metastasis. Using the drug repositioning strategy, we developed a cell-based multi-parameter primary screening assay to identify drugs that inhibit the migratory and invasive properties of metastatic PC-3 PCa cells. Following the completion of the primary screening assay, 33 drugs were identified from an FDA approved drug library that either inhibited migration or were cytotoxic to the PC-3 cells. Based on the data obtained from the subsequent validation studies, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, simvastatin, fluvastatin and vandetanib were identified as strong candidates that can inhibit both the migration and invasion of PC-3 cells without significantly affecting cell viability. By employing the drug repositioning strategy instead of a de novo drug discovery and development strategy, the identified drug candidates have the potential to be rapidly translated into the clinic for the management of men with aggressive forms of PCa.

  4. BGLAP is expressed in pancreatic cancer cells and increases their growth and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Christoph W

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP; osteocalcin is a small, highly conserved molecule first identified in the mineralized matrix of bone. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various malignancies. In this study, we analyzed the expression and role of BGLAP in the normal human pancreas, chronic pancreatitis (CP, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and enzyme immunoassays, as well as cell proliferation and invasion assays. Gene silencing was carried out using specific siRNA molecules. Results Compared to the normal pancreas, BGLAP mRNA and protein levels were not significantly different in CP and PDAC tissues. BGLAP was faintly present in the cytoplasm of normal acinar cells but was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of tubular complexes and PanIN lesions of CP and PDAC tissues. Furthermore, BGLAP expression was found in the cancer cells in PDAC tissues as well as in 4 cultured pancreatic cancer cell lines. TNFalpha reduced BGLAP mRNA and protein expression levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, BGLAP silencing led to reduction of both cell growth and invasion in those cells. Conclusion BGLAP is expressed in pancreatic cancer cells, where it potentially increases pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion through autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms.

  5. Intracellular Expression of PAI-1 Specific Aptamers Alters Breast Cancer Cell Migration, Invasion and Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Yolanda M.; Brandal, Stephanie M.; Carpentier, Gilles; Hemani, Malvi; Pathak, Arvind P.

    2016-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in various cancers, where it has been shown to effect cell migration and invasion and angiogenesis. While, PAI-1 is a secreted protein, its intercellular levels are increased in cancer cells. Consequently, intracellular PAI-1 could contribute to cancer progression. While various small molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 are currently being investigated, none specifically target intracellular PAI-1. A class of inhibitors, termed aptamers, has been used effectively in several clinical applications. We previously generated RNA aptamers that target PAI-1 and demonstrated their ability to inhibit extracellular PAI-1. In the current study we explored the effect of these aptamers on intracellular PAI-1. We transiently transfected the PAI-1 specific aptamers into both MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and studied their effects on cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Aptamer expressing MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a decrease in cell migration and invasion. Additionally, intracellular PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) protein levels decreased, while the PAI-1/uPA complex increased. Moreover, a significant decrease in endothelial tube formation in HUVECs transfected with the aptamers was observed. In contrast, conditioned media from aptamer transfected MDA-MB-231 cells displayed a slight pro-angiogenic effect. Collectively, our study shows that expressing functional aptamers inside breast and endothelial cells is feasible and may exhibit therapeutic potential. PMID:27755560

  6. Genistein inhibits invasive potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma by altering cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Gu; Chen-Fang Zhu; Hitoshi Iwamoto; Ji-Sheng Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of genistein on invasive potential of Bel 7402 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism.METHODS: Bel 7402 HCC cells were exposed to genistein. The invasive activity of tumor cells was assayed in transwell cell culture chamber. p125FAK expression and cell cycle were evaluated by a functional assay. Cell apoptosis analysis was performed with TUNEL method. In addition, bilateral subrenal capsule xenograft transplantation of HCC was performed in 10 nude mice.Genistein was injected and the invasion of HCC into the renal parenchyma was observed. Microvessels with immunohistochemical staining were detected.RESULTS: Genistein significantly inhibited the growth of Bel 7402 cells, the inhibitory rate of tumor cells was 26 -42%. The invasive potential of Bel 7402 cells in vitro was significantly inhibited, the inhibitory rate was 11-28%. Genistein caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, S phase decreased significantly. The occurrence of apoptosis in genistein group increased significantly. The expression of p125FAK in 5 μg/mL genistein group (15.26±0.16%)and 10 μg/mL genistein group (12.89±0.36%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (19.75± 1.12%,P<0.05). Tumor growth in genistein-treated nude mice was significantly retarded in comparison to control mice, the inhibitory rate of tumor growth was about 20%. Genistein also significantly inhibited the invasion of Bel 7402 cells into the renal parenchyma of nude mice with xenograft transplant. The positive unit value of microvessels in genistein-treated group (10.422±0.807)was significantly lower than that in control group (22.330 ± 5.696, P< 0.01).CONCLUSION: Genistein can effectively inhibit the invasive potential of Bel 7402 HCC cells by altering cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis, inhibition of focal adhesion kinase may play a significant role in this process.

  7. Androgens Regulate T47D Cells Motility and Invasion through Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Russo, Eleonora; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in approximately 70 to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple-negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the ezrin–radixin–moesin (ERM) family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodeling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER), while the non-aromatizable androgen – DHT – only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer and, eventually, to develop new strategies for breast cancer treatment. PMID:27746764

  8. Inhibitory effect of lanthanum chloride on migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hongwei; LIU Sisun; MIAO Lifang; YU Lingfang; WANG Yang; GUO Fei

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis remains the main reason for treatment failure and death of patients with cervical cancer.The present study was designed to explore the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms.The migration and invasion of tumor cells was evaluated by a modified Transwell/Boyden chamber assays.It is well known that MMPs (Matrix metalloprotcinascs) and NF-κB (Nuclear factor-κB) pathway play important roles in migration and invasion of tumor cells,and also the expression of MMPs were regulated by NF-κB signaling.The expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Western blot and the NF-κB-DNA-binding activity assay were used to analyze the NF-κB activity.The results indicated that LaCl3 was capable of inhibiting the cell invasion and migration of human cervical cancer Hela cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 via blocking NF-κB pathway.

  9. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  10. Nuclear stiffening inhibits migration of invasive melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Alexandre J. S.; Khanna, Payal; Sukumar, Aishwarya; Dong, Cheng; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2014-01-01

    During metastasis, melanoma cells must be sufficiently deformable to squeeze through extracellular barriers with small pore sizes. We visualize and quantify deformability of single cells using micropipette aspiration and examine the migration potential of a population of melanoma cells using a flow migration apparatus. We artificially stiffen the nucleus with recombinant overexpression of Δ50 lamin A, which is found in patients with Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome and in aged individuals....

  11. Amygdalin-mediated inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liyu; Xie, Bo; Wang, Yaguo; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor claiming the highest fatality worldwide for a long period of time. Unfortunately, most of the current treatment methods are still based on the characteristics of cancer cells in the primary lesion and the prognosis is often much poorer in patients with metastatic cancers. Amygdalin, a natural product of glycosides and lots of evidence shows that amygdalin can inhibit the proliferation of some kinds of cancer cells. In this study, we first obtained the highly metastatic NSCLC cell lines H1299/M and PA/M and further treated these cells with amygdalin. We found that the in vitro proliferability of H1299/M and PA/M was inhibited, but such inhibition required higher concentration of amygdalin. When lower concentration of amygdalin was used for the experiments, we observed that the in vitro invasive and migration capacities of H1299/M and PA/M were significantly inhibited. These results strongly suggested that amygdalin was likely to have anti-metastatic NSCLC effect. This study offers information of the role of amygdalin that may be useful as a therapeutic target in lung tumors.

  12. Antibodies against mucin-based glycopeptides affect Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and tumor cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Vanessa L; Riul, Thalita B; Carvalho, Ivone; Baruffi, Marcelo-Dias

    2014-07-07

    This study describes the synthesis of glycopeptides NHAc[βGal]-(Thr)2 -[αGalNAc]-(Thr)2 -[αGlcNAc]-(Thr)2 Gly-OVA (1-OVA) and NHAc[βGal-αGalNAc]-(Thr)3 -[αLacNAc]-(Thr)3 -Gly-OVA (2-OVA) as mimetics of both T. cruzi and tumor mucin glycoproteins. These glycopeptides were obtained by solid-phase synthesis, which involved the prior preparation of the protected glycosyl amino acids αGlcNAc-ThrOH (3), αGalNAc-ThrOH (4), βGal-ThrOH (5), αLacNAc-ThrOH (6), and βGal-αGalNAc-ThrOH (7) through glycosylation reactions. Immunizations of mice with glycopeptides 1-OVA and 2-OVA induced high antibody titers (1:16 000), as verified by ELISA tests, whereas flow cytometry assays showed the capacity of the obtained anti-glycopeptides 1-OVA and 2-OVA antibodies to recognize both T. cruzi and MCF-7 tumor cells. In addition, antisera induced by glycopeptides 1-OVA and 2-OVA were also able to inhibit T. cruzi fibroblast cell invasion (70 %) and to induce antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against MCF-7 cells, with 50 % reduction of cell viability.

  13. Cholangiocarcinoma: A compact review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucel Ustundag; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a devastating cancer aris-ing from biliary epithelia. Unfortunately, the incidence of this disease is increasing in Western countries. These tumors progress insidiously, and liver failure, biliary sepsis, malnutrition and cancer cachexia are general modes of death associated with this disease. To dale, no established therapy for advanced dis-ease has been established or validated. However, our knowledge in tumor biology is increasing dramatically and new drugs are under investigation for treatment of this notorious tumor. In clinical practice, there are better diagnostic tools in use to facilitate an earlier diagnosis of CC, at least in those patients with known risk factors. CC is resectable for cure in only a small percentage of patients. Preoperative staging for vas-cular and biliary extension of CC is very important in this tumor. Laparoscopy and recently endosonography seem to protect against unnecessary laparotomies in these patients. During the last 15 years, aggressive surgical approaches, including combined liver resec-tions and vascular reconstructive surgical expertise, have improved survival in patients with CC. Surgery is contraindicated in CC cases having primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Although CC was previously consid-ered a contraindication to liver transplantation, new cautious protocols, including neo-adjuvant chemora-diation therapies and staging procedures before the transplantation, have made it possible to achieve long-term survival after liver transplantation in this disease. New ablative therapies with photodynamic therapy, intraductal high-intensity ultrasonography and chemo- therapy-impregnated plastic biliary endoprosthesis are important steps in the palliative management of extra-hepatic CCs. Radiofrequency and chemo-embolization methods are also applicable for intra-hepatic CCs as palliative modes of treatment. We need more prospec-tive randomized controlled trials to evaluate the role of the new

  14. The anti-tumor activity of dendritic cell/cytotoxic T lymphocyte induced by cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosome and its ultrafiltered lysate%基于exosome裂解超滤液的树突状细胞/细胞毒性T淋巴细胞诱导及其抗胆管癌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炯煌; 丁国平; 陈文超; 曹利平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosome and ultrafiltered exosome lysate on the anti-tumor activity of dendritic celL/cytotoxic T lymphocyte (DC/CTL) cells and discuss the mechanism involved.Methods Exosomes derived from RBE cells (human cholangiocarcinoma line) were collected by ultracentrifugation,ow-osmotic splitting followed by ultrafiltration was performed to remove exosomal microRNAs and purify the ultrafiltered exosome lysate.ImDCs (immature dendritic cells) were induced from peripheral blood and were co-cultured with CTL(cytotoxic lymphocyte),which were impulsed by exosome and ultrafiltered exosome lysate,respectively.The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αt and perforin in culture medium supernatant were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of DC/CTL to RBE cells.Results The concentrations of TNF-αand perforin in E-DC/CTL group were 138.61 ng/L and 2.41 μg/L respectively,lower than those of DC/CTL (194.08 ng/L and 3.39 μg/L) and EL-DC/CTL group (210.87 ng/L and 3.79 μg/L).The killing rate of E-DC/CTL was 33.35%,lower than that of DC/CTL (47.35%) and EL-DC/CTL (66.23%) significantly.The killing rate of EL-DC/CTL was significantly higher than that of DC/CTL (P < 0.01).Conclusion RBE cell-derived exosome inhibits the anti-tumor activity of DC/CTL by down-regulating TNF-α and perforin,exosomal miRNA may play important roles in the immune escape of cholangiocarcinoma.We built a new model based on ultrafiltered exosome lysate derived from cholangiocarcinoma to enhance the anti-tumor activity of DC/CTL.%目的 观察人胆管癌细胞来源的exosome及exosome裂解超滤液(UEL)对树突状细胞/细胞毒性T淋巴细胞诱导(DC/CTL)混合细胞抗肿瘤活性的影响及机制.方法 采用超速离心法提取人胆管癌细胞(RBE细胞)释放的exosome,低渗法裂解exosome,超

  15. Stat3 promotes invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through up-regulation of MMP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xaioyan; Li, Shanshan; Lou, Xi; Zheng, Xianzhao; Li, Yunyun; Wang, Feng; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Hongyan; He, Hongliu; Zeng, Qingru

    2015-05-01

    Stat3 alters the expression of its downstream genes and is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in several human cancers. Its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been well characterized. We examined the tumor sections of 100 cases of ESCC by immunohistochemistry and observed significant overexpression of Stat3 in the cytoplasm of 89% of ESCC cells and of phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) in the nuclei of 71% of ESCC when compare with normal esophageal mucosa (72%, p = 0.02; and 31%, p = 0.001). Overexpression of Stat3 and p-Stat3 positively correlated with that of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), a known regulator for cell migration, in 65% of ESCC while only 26% shown in benign esophageal mucosa. To further investigate the association of Stat3 with tumor metastasis in vitro, invasion of EC-1 cells (a human ESCC cell line) were investigated with Boyden chambers. The results showed that transfection of Stat3 not only promoted invasion of EC-1 cells but also significantly induced MMP2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, suppressing expression of endogenous Stat3 mRNA and protein by Stat3 siRNA significantly reduced EC-1 cell invasion and MMP2 expression. A high-affinity Stat3-binding element was localized to the positions of 648-641 bp (TTCTCGAA) in the MMP2 promoter with electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our results suggest that Stat3, p-Stat3, and MMP2 were overexpressed in ESCC and associated with invasion of ESCC; and Stat3 up-regulated expression of MMP2 in ESCC through directly binding to the MMP2 promoter.

  16. Regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function of V-ATPases in tumor cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Christina; Cotter, Kristina; Stransky, Laura; Forgac, Michael

    2016-08-01

    V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps that function within both intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a wide array of normal physiological and pathophysiological processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain that hydrolyzes ATP and an integral V(0) domain that transports protons. Regulated assembly of the V-ATPase represents an important mechanism of regulating V-ATPase activity in response to a number of environmental cues. Our laboratory has demonstrated that glucose-dependent assembly of the V-ATPase complex in yeast is controlled by the Ras/cAMP/PKA pathway. By contrast, increased assembly of the V-ATPase during dendritic cell maturation involves the PI-3 kinase and mTORC1 pathways. Recently, we have shown that amino acids regulate V-ATPase assembly in mammalian cells, possibly as a means to maintain adequate levels of amino acids upon nutrient starvation. V-ATPases have also been implicated in cancer cell survival and invasion. V-ATPases are targeted to different cellular membranes by isoforms of subunit a, with a3 targeting V-ATPases to the plasma membrane of osteoclasts. We have shown that highly invasive human breast cancer cell lines express higher levels of the a3 isoform than poorly invasive lines and that knockdown of a3 reduces both expression of V-ATPases at the plasma membrane and in vitro invasion of breast tumor cells. Moreover, overexpression of a3 in a non-invasive breast epithelial line increases both plasma membrane V-ATPases and in vitro invasion. Finally, specific ablation of plasma membrane V-ATPases in highly invasive human breast cancer cells using either an antibody or small molecule approach inhibits both in vitro invasion and migration. These results suggest that plasma membrane and a3-containing V-ATPases represent a novel and important target in the development of therapeutics to limit breast cancer metastasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics

  17. CT-scan prediction of thyroid cartilage invasion for early laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Dana M; Landry, Guillaume; Bidault, François; Hans, Stéphane; Julieron, Morbize; Mamelle, Gérard; Janot, François; Brasnu, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Treatment choice for laryngeal cancer may be influenced by the diagnosis of thyroid cartilage invasion on preoperative computed tomography (CT). Our objective was to determine the predictive value of CT for thyroid cartilage invasion in early- to mid-stage laryngeal cancer. Retrospective study (1992-2008) of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with open partial laryngectomy and resection of at least part of the thyroid cartilage. Previous laser surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and second primaries were excluded. CT prediction of thyroid cartilage invasion was determined by specialized radiologists. Tumor characteristics and pathologic thyroid cartilage invasion were compared to the radiologic assessment. 236 patients were treated by vertical (20 %), supracricoid (67 %) or supraglottic partial laryngectomy (13 %) for tumors staged cT1 (26 %), cT2 (55 %), and cT3 (19 %). The thyroid cartilage was invaded on pathology in 19 cases (8 %). CT's sensitivity was 10.5 %, specificity 94 %, positive predictive value 13 %, and negative predictive value 92 %. CT correctly predicted thyroid cartilage invasion in only two cases for an overall accuracy of 87 %. Among the false-positive CT's, tumors involving the anterior commissure were significantly over-represented (61.5 % vs. 27 %, p = .004). Tumors with decreased vocal fold (VF) mobility were significantly over-represented in the group of false-negatives (41 vs. 13 %, p = .0035). Preoperative CT was not effective in predicting thyroid cartilage invasion in these early- to mid-stage lesions, overestimating cartilage invasion for AC lesions and underestimating invasion for lesions with decreased VF mobility.

  18. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  19. Diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography for renal sinus fat invasion in renal cell carcinoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cherry, E-mail: cherrykim0505@gmail.com; Choi, Hyuck Jae, E-mail: choihj@amc.seoul.kr; Cho, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: kscho@amc.seoul.kr

    2014-06-15

    Objective: Although renal sinus fat invasion has prognostic significance in patients with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), there are no previous studies about the value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) about this issue in the current literature. Materials and methods: A total of 863 consecutive patients (renal sinus fat invasion in 110 patients (12.7%)) from single institutions with surgically-confirmed renal cell carcinoma who underwent MDCT between 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. The area under the curves (AUCs) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare diagnostic performance. Reference standard was pathologic examination. Weighted κ statistics were used to measure the level of interobserver agreement. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to find the predictors for renal sinus fat invasion. Image analysis was first performed with axial-only CT images. A second analysis was then performed with both axial and coronal CT images. A qualitative analysis was then conducted by two reviewers who reached consensus regarding tumor size, decreased perfusion, tumor margin, vessel displacement, and lymph node metastasis. The reference standard was pathologic evaluation. Results: The AUCs of the ROC analysis were 0.881 and 0.922 for axial-only images and 0.889 and 0.902 for combined images in both readers. The AUC of tumor size was 0.884, a similar value to that of the reviewers. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, a linear-nodular or nodular type of fat infiltration, and an irregular tumor margin were independent predicting factors for perinephric fat invasion. Conclusion: MDCT shows relatively high diagnostic performance in detecting perinephric fat invasion of RCC but suffers from a relatively low PPV related to low prevalence of renal sinus fat invasion. Applying tumor size alone we could get similar diagnostic performance to those of radiologists. Tumor size, fat infiltration with a nodular appearance, and

  20. Knockdown of OLA1, a regulator of oxidative stress response, inhibits motility and invasion of breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-wei ZHANG; Valentina RUBIO; Shu ZHENG; Zheng-zheng SHI

    2009-01-01

    To explore the role of a novel Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) in cancer metastasis, small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown the protein, and the cells were subjected to in vitro cell migration and invasion assays. Knockdown of OLA1 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The knockdown caused no changes in cell growth but affected ROS production. In wound-healing assays, decreased ROS in OLA1-knockdown cells were in situ asso-ciated with the cells' decreased motile morphology. Further, treatment of N-acetylcysteine, a general ROS scavenger, blunted the motility and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells, similar to the effect of OLA1-knockdown. These results suggest that knock-down of OLA1 inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion through a mechanism that involves the modulation of intracel-lular ROS levels.

  1. Functional characterization of E- and P-cadherin in invasive breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Amparo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in the cadherin-catenin adhesion complexes are involved in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. However, the functional implication of distinct cadherin types in breast cancer biology is still poorly understood. Methods To compare the functional role of E-cadherin and P-cadherin in invasive breast cancer, we stably transfected these molecules into the MDA-MB-231 cell line, and investigated their effects on motility, invasion and gene expression regulation. Results Expression of either E- and P-cadherin significantly increased cell aggregation and induced a switch from fibroblastic to epithelial morphology. Although expression of these cadherins did not completely reverse the mesenchymal phenotype of MDA-MB-231 cells, both E- and P-cadherin decreased fibroblast-like migration and invasion through extracellular matrix in a similar way. Moreover, microarray gene expression analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells after expression of E- and P-cadherins revealed that these molecules can activate signaling pathways leading to significant changes in gene expression. Although the expression patterns induced by E- and P-cadherin showed more similarities than differences, 40 genes were differentially modified by the expression of either cadherin type. Conclusion E- and P-cadherin have similar functional consequences on the phenotype and invasive behavior of MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that these cadherins can induce both common and specific gene expression programs on invasive breast cancer cells. Importantly, these identified genes are potential targets for future studies on the functional consequences of altered cadherin expression in human breast cancer.

  2. Relaxation of DNA supercoiling leads to increased invasion of epithelial cells and protein secretion by Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni is a critical step during infection of the human intestine by this important human pathogen. In this study we investigated the role played by DNA supercoiling in the regulation of invasion of epithelial cells and the mechanism by which ...

  3. (19)F-heptuloses as tools for the non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaisse, Willy J; Zhang, Ying; Louchami, Karim;

    2012-01-01

    Suitable analogs of d-mannoheptulose are currently considered as possible tools for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic islet insulin-producing cells. Here, we examined whether (19)F-heptuloses could be used for non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells. After 20 min incubation, the uptak...

  4. Non-invasive imaging of kupffer cell status using radiolabelled mannosylated albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.; Hartimath, S.; Comley, R.; Stefan-Gueldner, M.; Roth, A.; Poelstra, K.; Reker-Smit, C.; Kamps, J.; Dierckx, R.; de Vries, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Kupffer cells are responsible for maintaining liver homeostasis and have a vital role in chronic hepatotoxicity and various liver diseases. Positron Imaging Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows quantification and visualization of biochemical processes

  5. Cutaneous head and neck basal and squamous cell carcinomas with perineural invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Ferlito, A.; Takes, R.P.; Bradford, C.R.; Corry, J.; Fagan, J.J.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Rodrigo, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) occurs in 2% to 6% of cutaneous head and neck basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and is associated with mid-face location, recurrent tumors, high histologic grade, and increasing tumor size. Patients may be asymptomatic with PNI appreciated on pathologic examination

  6. EFFECTS OF GENISTEIN ON INVASION AND MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE ACTIVITIES OF HT1080 HUMAN FIBROSARCOMA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ Effects of genistein on invasion and matrix metalloproteinase activities were investigated in HT1080 human sarcoma cells.Invasion of HT1080 cells through reconstituted basement membrane was inhibited when the cells were treated with 100 μ mol/L and 200 μ mol/L genistein.At the same concentrations,genistein not only suppressed latent forms of matrix metalloprotinese-2 and-9(MMP-2 and MMP-9) to convert into active forms,but also increase dramatically the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase(TIMP-1) mRNA contents and reverse the imbalance of MMPs and TIMPs.However,expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were not significantly affected.Suppression of MMP activation and increase of TIMP-1 expression will decrease matrix degradation by MMPs,and consequently inhibit invasions of the cells.These results emphasized the existence of the imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs in tumor invasion and metastasis formation.The value of genistein as a drug for antiinvasion and anti-metastasis chemotherapy was suggested.

  7. MicroRNA-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting LATS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Ying; Gao, Yan, E-mail: gaoyanhdhos@126.com

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • miR-181b is upregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues. • miR-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • LATS2 is a direct target of miR-181b. • LATS2 is involved in miR-181b-induced ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are strongly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we showed significant upregulation of miR-181b in ovarian cancer tissues, compared with the normal ovarian counterparts. Forced expression of miR-181b led to remarkably enhanced proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells while its knockdown induced significant suppression of these cellular events. The tumor suppressor gene, LATS2 (large tumor suppressor 2), was further identified as a novel direct target of miR-181b. Specifically, miR-181b bound directly to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of LATS2 and suppressed its expression. Restoration of LATS2 expression partially reversed the oncogenic effects of miR-181b. Our results indicate that miR-181b promotes proliferation and invasion by targeting LATS2 in ovarian cancer cells. These findings support the utility of miR-181b as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  8. Effects of Curcumin on Invasion and Metastasis in the Human Cervical Cancer Cells Caski

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang XU; Xiao-ling MU; Jing ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of curcumin on invasion and metastasis in the human cervical cancer cells Caski.Methods: Caski cells were treated with 10, 25, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48, 72 h. Proliferation of Caski cells was measured with MTT assay. When treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h, the expressions of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB of cells were detected by Western-blot, and invasion and metastasis of Caski cells were evaluated with transwell chamber.Results: After being treated with 10μmol/L, 25μmol/L, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48 and 72 h, the proliferation of Caski cells was inhibited in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB were decreased when being treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h. After treatment with 50μmol/L curcumin, in invasion assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter coated with Matrigel was reduced compared with control group(P<0.05). Meanwhile, in migration assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter was also decreased compared with control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: Curcumin could affect the invasion and metastasis of the human cervical cancer cells Caski. Inhibiting the expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB was probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  9. Ezrin promotes invasion and migration of the MG63 osteosarcoma cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian; Zuo Jianhong; Lei Mingsheng; Wu Song; Zang Xiaofang; Zhang Chaoyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that ezrin plays an important role in the development of some human malignancies.But the mechanism by which ezrin may affect tumor cell invasion and metastasis remains unclear.Methods In this study,the expression of ezrin was verified in osteosarcoma (OS) cells and tissues by comparison with normal bone cells and tissues using Western blotting.OS-MG63 were transfected with pcDNA3.1-ezrin or pGenesil-1/ shRNA-ezrin and the stably transfected cells were selected with G418 to yield the ezrin cell line.The OS-MG63 tumor cells were delivered by tail vein to female BALB/c to develop pulmonary metastasis model in vivo.Ezrin was identified as a direct target of miR-183 via a luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region of ezrin.Migration assays and invasion assays were done with the transwells.Signaling pathway was studied by Western blotting and/or inhibitor.Results Ectopic overexpression of ezrin in OS cell line MG63 promoted tumor cell invasion and migration.Consistent with this,knockdown of ezrin inhibited tumor cell invasion and migration.Similar results were obtained in the experimental metastasis model in vivo.We identified ezrin as a direct target of miR-183.What is more,ectopic expression of ezrin could induce the expression of N-cadherin and enhance the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling.Conclusion Collectively,these results suggest that ezrin as a direct target of miR-183 promotes the aggressiveness of OS via increased N-cadherin and activating ERK signaling.

  10. MiR-145 expression accelerates esophageal adenocarcinoma progression by enhancing cell invasion and anoikis resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Francois Derouet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the esophagus has a high case fatality ratio and is now the 6th most common cause of cancer deaths in the world. We previously conducted a study to profile the expression of miRNAs in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC pre and post induction therapy. Of the miRNAs differentially expressed post induction chemoradiation, miR-145, a known tumor suppressor miRNA, was upregulated 8-fold following induction therapy, however, its expression was associated with shorter disease-free survival. This unexpected result was explored in this current study. METHODS: In order to study the role of miR-145 in EAC, miRNA-145 was overexpressed in 3 EAC cell lines (OE33, FLO-1, SK-GT-4 and one ESCC cell line (KYSE-410. After validation of the expression of miR-145, hallmarks of cancer such as cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy drugs or anoikis, and cell invasion were analyzed. RESULTS: There were no differences in cell proliferation and 5 FU resistance between miR145 cell lines and the control cell lines. miR-145 expression also had no effect on cisplatin resistance in two of three cell lines (OE33 and FLO-1, but miR-145 appeared to protect SK-GT-4 cells against cisplatin treatment. However, there was a significant difference in cell invasion, cell adhesion and resistance to anoikis. All three EAC miR-145 cell lines invaded more than their respective controls. Similarly, OE33 and SK-GT-4 miR-145 cell lines were able to survive longer in a suspension state. DISCUSSION: While expression of miR-145 in ESCC stopped proliferation and invasion, expression of miR-145 in EAC cells enhanced invasion and anoikis resistance. Although more work is required to understand how miR-145 conveys these effects, expression of miR-145 appears to promote EAC progression by enhancing invasion and protection against anoikis, which could in turn facilitate distant metastasis.

  11. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Maj, Małgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Czuwara, Joanna; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-12-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for squamous cell carcinoma is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Dermoscopy has become one of the basic diagnostic methods in clinical practice. The most common dermoscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma include clustered vascular pattern, glomerular vessels and hyperkeratosis. Under reflectance confocal microscopy, squamous cell carcinoma shows an atypical honeycomb or disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis, round nucleated bright cells in the epidermis and round vessels in the dermis. High frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may be helpful in predominantly in pre-surgical evaluation of tumor size. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, lip, oral mucosa, vulva or other tissues include high-definition optical coherence tomography, in vivo multiphoton tomography, direct oral microscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, differential path-length spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and angle-resolved low coherence interferometry.

  12. MiR-203 controls proliferation, migration and invasive potential of prostate cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viticchiè, Giuditta; Lena, Anna Maria; Latina, Alessia;

    2011-01-01

    transition and invasion of healthy tissues (usually bones). MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) is a tumor suppressor microRNA often silenced in different malignancies. Here, we show that miR-203 is downregulated in clinical primary prostatic tumors compared to normal prostate tissue, and in metastatic prostate cancer...... cell lines compared to normal epithelial prostatic cells. Overexpression of miR-203 in brain or bone metastatic prostate cell lines (DU145 and PC3) is sufficient to induce a mesenchymal to epithelial transition with inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness. We have identified CKAP2......, LASP1, BIRC5, WASF1, ASAP1 and RUNX2 as new miR-203 direct target mRNAs involved in these events. Therefore, miR-203 could be a potentially new prognostic marker and therapeutic target in metastatic prostate cancer....

  13. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor on invasive cancer cells: A prognostic factor in distal gastric adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpizar, Warner Enrique Alpizar; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cancer causing death worldwide. The five-year survival for this malignancy is below 25% and few parameters have shown an impact on the prognosis of the disease. The receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is involved in extracellular matrix degradation...... by mediating cell surface associated plasminogen activation, and its presence on gastric cancer cells is linked to micrometastasis and poor prognosis. Using immunohistochemistry, the prognostic significance of uPAR was evaluated in tissue samples from a retrospective series of 95 gastric cancer patients. u...... association between the expression of uPAR on tumor cells in the peripheral invasion zone and overall survival of gastric cancer patients (HR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.13-4.14; p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that uPAR immunoreactivity in cancer cells at the invasive front is an independent prognostic factor...

  14. PI3K{gamma} activation by CXCL12 regulates tumor cell adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrubio, Maria; Mellado, Mario; Carrera, Ana C. [Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Frade, Jose Miguel, E-mail: jmrfrade@cnb.csic.es [Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-16

    Tumor dissemination is a complex process, in which certain steps resemble those in leukocyte homing. Specific chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs have important roles in both processes. CXCL12/CXCR4 is the most commonly expressed chemokine/chemokine receptor pair in human cancers, in which it regulates cell adhesion, extravasation, metastatic colonization, angiogenesis, and proliferation. All of these processes require activation of signaling pathways that include G proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), JAK kinases, Rho GTPases, and focal adhesion-associated proteins. We analyzed these pathways in a human melanoma cell line in response to CXCL12 stimulation, and found that PI3K{gamma} regulates tumor cell adhesion through mechanisms different from those involved in cell invasion. Our data indicate that, following CXCR4 activation after CXCL12 binding, the invasion and adhesion processes are regulated differently by distinct downstream events in these signaling cascades.

  15. MicroRNA-133a suppresses multiple oncogenic membrane receptors and cell invasion in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs cause high mortality worldwide, and the cancer progression can be activated by several genetic events causing receptor dysregulation, including mutation or amplification. MicroRNAs are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that function in gene silencing and have emerged as the fine-tuning regulators during cancer progression. MiR-133a is known as a key regulator in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, and it acts as a tumor suppressor in various cancers. This study demonstrates that miR-133a expression negatively correlates with cell invasiveness in both transformed normal bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cell lines. The oncogenic receptors in lung cancer cells, including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R, TGF-beta receptor type-1 (TGFBR1, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, are direct targets of miR-133a. MiR-133a can inhibit cell invasiveness and cell growth through suppressing the expressions of IGF-1R, TGFBR1 and EGFR, which then influences the downstream signaling in lung cancer cell lines. The cell invasive ability is suppressed in IGF-1R- and TGFBR1-repressed cells and this phenomenon is mediated through AKT signaling in highly invasive cell lines. In addition, by using the in vivo animal model, we find that ectopically-expressing miR-133a dramatically suppresses the metastatic ability of lung cancer cells. Accordingly, patients with NSCLCs who have higher expression levels of miR-133a have longer survival rates compared with those who have lower miR-133a expression levels. In summary, we identified the tumor suppressor role of miR-133a in lung cancer outcome prognosis, and we demonstrated that it targets several membrane receptors, which generally produce an activating signaling network during the progression of lung cancer.

  16. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  17. Effect of DPC4 Gene on Invasion and Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Sheng XIAO; Ji-Fang WEN; Jing-He LI; Kuan-Song WANG; Zhong-Liang HU; Jian-Hua ZHOU; Zheng-Hao DENG; Ying LIU

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effect of DPC4 gene on invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells, the expression of DPC4 was detected in sixty-three samples of colorectal tumors and seven cases of colorectal mucosa. The biological behavior of tumors expressing DPC4 was evaluated (including tumor staging, differentiation degree and metastasis), pcDNA3.1-DPC4 plasmid was constructed and transferred into HCT116 cells not expressing DPC4. The cell models (DPC4+-HCT116) steadily expressing DPC4 were obtained. Compared with HCT116 and pcDNA3.1-HCT116 cells, the doubling time of DPC4+-HCT 116 cells was lengthened obviously (P<0.01), the apoptosis rate of DPC4+-HCT116 cells was significantly increased (P<0.01), the cloning efficiency, cell adherency, migration and invasion ability of DPC4+-HCT116 cells were dropped obviously (P<0.01). The number of cancer nodules was decreased significantly in abdominal cavity and liver of the nude mice inoculated with DPC4+-HCT116 cells. The activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2 was detected by gelatin zymography. In comparison with HCT116 and pcDNA3.1-HCT116 cells, the activity of MMP-9 was decreased in DPC4+-HCT116 cells. Therefore, the down-regulation of DPC4 expression may be associated with the carcinogenesis of colorectal carcinoma. DPC4 may inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cell by restraining growth and inducing apoptosis, and the invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells. MMP-9 may be one of the downstream target genes regulated by DPC4.

  18. RNAi knockdown of PIK3CA preferentially inhibits invasion of mutant PIK3CA cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Ke Zhou; Sheng-Song Tang; Gao Yi; Min Hou; Jin-Hui Chen; Bo Yang; Ji-Fang Liu; Zhi-Min He

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effects of siRNA silencing of PIK3CA on proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.METHODS: The mutation of PIK3CA in exons 9 and 20 of gastric cancer cell lines HGC-27, SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803 and MKN-45 was screened by poly-merase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. BGC-823 cells harboring no mutations in either of the exons, and HGC-27 cells containing PIK3CA mutations were employed in the current study. siRNA targeting PIK3CA was chemically synthesized and was transfect-ed into these two cell lines in vitro. mRNA and protein expression of PIK3CA were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. We also measured phosphorylation of a serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt) using Western blotting. The proliferation, migra-tion and invasion of these cells were examined sepa-rately by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltet-razolium bromide (MTT), wound healing and Transwell chambers assay.RESULTS: The siRNA directed against PIK3CA effec-tively led to inhibition of both endogenous mRNA and protein expression of PIK3CA, and thus significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of Akt (P < 0.05). Furthermore, simultaneous silencing of PIK3CA result-ed in an obvious reduction in tumor cell proliferation activity, migration and invasion potential (P < 0.01). Intriguing, mutant HGC-27 cells exhibited stronger invasion ability than that shown by wild-type BGC-823 cells. Knockdown of PIK3CA in mutant HGC-27 cells contributed to a reduction in cell invasion to a greater extent than in non-mutant BGC-823 cells.CONCLUSION: siRNA mediated targeting of PIK3CA may specifically knockdown the expression of PIK3CA in gastric cancer cells, providing a potential implication for therapy of gastric cancer.

  19. Comparison of hyaluronidase expression, invasiveness and tubule formation promotion in ER (-) and ER (+) breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yi; TAN Jin-xiang; Marc Vasse; Bertrand Delpech; REN Guo-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Hyaluronidase (Hyase) is an enzyme which hydrolyses hyaluronan (HA), a large nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. Several genes have been identified to code for hyaluronidases in humans. Its role has only recently been underlined in the invasion of prostate cancer, colonic cancer, and breast cancer. Moreover, the findings were in agreement with some experimental results which showed that HA-derived oligosaccharides had angiogenesis-promoting activity. All these findings prompted us to investigate factors that had been characterized as putative invasive factors in different human breast cancer-derived cell lines.Methods We selected two series of human breast cancer-derived cell lines whose expression of estrogen receptors (ER) was previously published. Hyaluronidase secretion in culture medium and expression of matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP)-9, cathepsin-D (cath-D) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by cells were determined. We also investigated cell invasiveness in the Matrigel invasion assay, and studied the capability of cancer cells to promote in vitro formation of tubules by endothelial cells.Results ER(-) cells secreted significantly more hyaluronidase (P <0.001) and expressed significantly more VEGF (P <0.01), MMP-9 (P <0.05) and cath-D (P <0.0001) than ER(+) cells. Invasion through Matdgel by ER(-) Hyase(+) cells was significantly higher than that by ER(+) Hyase(-) cells (P<0.05). In both cases, invasion was decreased by heparin (P <0.05). When ECV-304 endothelial cells were co-cultivated in millicell chambers with cancer cells, ECV-304 cells were induced to form tubules. Tubule formation was demonstrated to be more prominent with ER(-) Hyase(+) cells than with ER(+) Hyase(-) cells (P <0.05).Conclusion Invasive features of ER(-) breast cancer cells can be characterized in vitro by an invasive Matrigel assay,as the induction of tubule formation by ECV-304 endothelial cells, higher secretion of hyaluronidase, and higher expression of

  20. Alternate estrogen receptors promote invasion of inflammatory breast cancer cells via non-genomic signaling.

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    Kazufumi Ohshiro

    Full Text Available Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC is a rare and an aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer with a generally worst prognosis, little work has been done in identifying the status of non-genomic signaling in the invasiveness of IBC. The present study was performed to explore the status of non-genomic signaling as affected by various estrogenic and anti-estrogenic agents in IBC cell lines SUM149 and SUM190. We have identified the presence of estrogen receptor α (ERα variant, ERα36 in SUM149 and SUM190 cells. This variant as well as ERβ was present in a substantial concentration in IBC cells. The treatment with estradiol (E2, anti-estrogenic agents 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182780, ERβ specific ligand DPN and GPR30 agonist G1 led to a rapid activation of p-ERK1/2, suggesting the involvement of ERα36, ERβ and GPR30 in the non-genomic signaling pathway in these cells. We also found a substantial increase in the cell migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells upon the treatment with these ligands. Both basal and ligand-induced migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells were drastically reduced in the presence of MEK inhibitor U0126, implicating that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MEK is involved in the observed motility and invasiveness of IBC cells. We also provide evidence for the upregulation of p-ERK1/2 through immunostaining in IBC patient samples. These findings suggest a role of non-genomic signaling through the activation of p-ERK1/2 in the hormonal dependence of IBC by a combination of estrogen receptors. These findings only explain the failure of traditional anti-estrogen therapies in ER-positive IBC which induces the non-genomic signaling, but also opens newer avenues for design of modified therapies targeting these estrogen receptors.

  1. ZEB2 mediates multiple pathways regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in glioma.

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    Songtao Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of Zinc finger E-box Binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2 in glioma and to explore the molecular mechanisms of ZEB2 that regulate cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of ZEB2 in 90 clinicopathologically characterized glioma patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, siRNA targeting ZEB2 was transfected into U251 and U87 glioma cell lines in vitro and proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were examined separately by MTT assay, Transwell chamber assay, flow cytometry, and western blot. RESULTS: The expression level of ZEB2 protein was significantly increased in glioma tissues compared to normal brain tissues (P<0.001. In addition, high levels of ZEB2 protein were positively correlated with pathology grade classification (P = 0.024 of glioma patients. Knockdown of ZEB2 by siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as induced cell apoptosis in glioma cells. Furthermore, ZEB2 downregulation was accompanied by decreased expression of CDK4/6, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, E2F1, and c-myc, while p15 and p21 were upregulated. Lowered expression of ZEB2 enhanced E-cadherin levels but also inhibited β-Catenin, Vimentin, N-cadherin, and Snail expression. Several apoptosis-related regulators such as Caspase-3, Caspase-6, Caspase-9, and Cleaved-PARP were activated while PARP was inhibited after ZEB2 siRNA treatment. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of ZEB2 is an unfavorable factor that may facilitate glioma progression. Knockdown ZEB2 expression by siRNA suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and promoted cell apoptosis in glioma cells.

  2. HIF-1α contributes to proliferation and invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells via SHH signaling.

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    Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Min; Xing, Lili; Wang, Yue; Xiao, Yongtao; Wu, Yeming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on the proliferation, migration and invasion of neuroblastoma (NB) cells and the mechanisms involved. We here initially used the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the expression of HIF-1α and components of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway in NB cells and human specimens. Subsequently, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed using the cell counting assay, wound healing assay and Transwell system in two types of human NB cell lines, SH-SY5Y and IMR32. In addition, the role of HIF-1α in NB cells growth was determined in a xenograft nude mouse model. We found that the level of HIF-1α was significantly upregulated during NB progression and was associated with the expression of two components of SHH signaling, SHH and GLI1. We next indicated that the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of SH-SY5Y and IMR32 cells were significantly inhibited by HIF-1α knockdown, which was mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting against its mRNA. Furthermore, the growth of NB cells in vivo was also suppressed by HIF-1α inhibition. Finally, the pro-migration and proliferative effects of HIF-1α could be reversed by disrupting SHH signaling. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that upregulation of HIF-1α in NB promotes proliferation, migration and invasiveness via SHH signaling.

  3. HIF-1α contributes to proliferation and invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells via SHH signaling.

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    Sheng Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α on the proliferation, migration and invasion of neuroblastoma (NB cells and the mechanisms involved. We here initially used the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC to detect the expression of HIF-1α and components of the sonic hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway in NB cells and human specimens. Subsequently, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were analyzed using the cell counting assay, wound healing assay and Transwell system in two types of human NB cell lines, SH-SY5Y and IMR32. In addition, the role of HIF-1α in NB cells growth was determined in a xenograft nude mouse model. We found that the level of HIF-1α was significantly upregulated during NB progression and was associated with the expression of two components of SHH signaling, SHH and GLI1. We next indicated that the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of SH-SY5Y and IMR32 cells were significantly inhibited by HIF-1α knockdown, which was mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting against its mRNA. Furthermore, the growth of NB cells in vivo was also suppressed by HIF-1α inhibition. Finally, the pro-migration and proliferative effects of HIF-1α could be reversed by disrupting SHH signaling. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that upregulation of HIF-1α in NB promotes proliferation, migration and invasiveness via SHH signaling.

  4. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Yes-associated protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

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    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Wen-Fang; Guo, Gang; Gong, Jian-Ping; Ding, Xiong

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) are the most aggressive malignancies with a poor prognosis in humans, and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) exhibits greater malignant behaviour. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an important downstream target of the Hippo signalling pathway. As an oncogene, it plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of tumours. Our study focuses on the clinical significance of YAP protein expression in HCC and CC. Furthermore, we sought to explore the different survival rates between HCC and CC. A total of 137 patients with HCC and 122 with CC after resection were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of YAP. Our results showed that positive expression rates of YAP were more frequently noted in CC 67.2 % (82/122) than in HCC 56.9 % (78/137) (P = 0.024). High YAP expression in HCC and CC was significantly associated with tumour size (P < 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively), liver cirrhosis (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), vascular invasion (P = 0.047 and P = 0.018, respectively), multiplicity (P = 0.019 and P = 0.015, respectively), and intrahepatic metastasis (P = 0.015 and P = 0.047, respectively). Importantly, recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival rates were lower in CC with high YAP expression than in HCC with high YAP expression (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Overall, high YAP expression was more frequently found in CC than in HCC, and YAP overexpression was associated with poor survival rates in patients with HCC and CC. Targeting YAP treatment requires further prospective investigations in larger patient populations.

  5. Stimulation of cortical myosin phosphorylation by p114RhoGEF drives cell migration and tumor cell invasion.

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    Stephen J Terry

    Full Text Available Actinomyosin activity is an important driver of cell locomotion and has been shown to promote collective cell migration of epithelial sheets as well as single cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cortical myosin to stimulate single cell movement, and the relationship between the mechanisms that drive single cell locomotion and those that mediate collective cell migration of epithelial sheets are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that p114RhoGEF, an activator of RhoA that associates with non-muscle myosin IIA, regulates collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and tumor cell invasion. Depletion of p114RhoGEF resulted in specific spatial inhibition of myosin activation at cell-cell contacts in migrating epithelial sheets and the cortex of migrating single cells, but only affected double and not single phosphorylation of myosin light chain. In agreement, overall elasticity and contractility of the cells, processes that rely on persistent and more constant forces, were not affected, suggesting that p114RhoGEF mediates process-specific myosin activation. Locomotion was p114RhoGEF-dependent on Matrigel, which favors more roundish cells and amoeboid-like actinomyosin-driven movement, but not on fibronectin, which stimulates flatter cells and lamellipodia-driven, mesenchymal-like migration. Accordingly, depletion of p114RhoGEF led to reduced RhoA, but increased Rac activity. Invasion of 3D matrices was p114RhoGEF-dependent under conditions that do not require metalloproteinase activity, supporting a role of p114RhoGEF in myosin-dependent, amoeboid-like locomotion. Our data demonstrate that p114RhoGEF drives cortical myosin activation by stimulating myosin light chain double phosphorylation and, thereby, collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and amoeboid-like motility of tumor cells.

  6. Protein kinase D2 regulates migration and invasion of U87MG glioblastoma cells in vitro

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    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); DeVaney, Trevor [Institute of Biophysics, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Zimmer, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Karl-Franzens University, Graz (Austria); Raynham, Tony; Ireson, Christopher [Cancer Research Technology Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Sattler, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.sattler@medunigraz.at [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined modality treatment, reoccurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Recently, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was shown to be a potent mediator of glioblastoma growth. Here we studied the role of PRKD2 in U87MG glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an activator of PRKD2 and a GBM mitogen. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that random cell migration was significantly diminished in response to PRKD2 silencing. The pharmacological PRKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 decreased chemotactic migration and invasion across uncoated or matrigel-coated Transwell inserts. Silencing of PRKD2 attenuated migration and invasion of U87MG cells even more effectively. In terms of downstream signaling, CRT0066101 prevented PRKD2 autophosphorylation and inhibited p44/42 MAPK and to a smaller extent p54/46 JNK and p38 MAPK activation. PRKD2 silencing impaired activation of p44/42 MAPK and p54/46 JNK, downregulated nuclear c-Jun protein levels and decreased c-Jun{sup S73} phosphorylation without affecting the NFκB pathway. Finally, qPCR array analyses revealed that silencing of PRKD2 downregulates mRNA levels of integrin alpha-2 and -4 (ITGA2 and -4), plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (PLAUR), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Findings of the present study identify PRKD2 as a potential target to interfere with glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, two major determinants contributing to recurrence of glioblastoma after multimodality treatment. Highlights: • Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces glioma cell migration and invasion. • Part of the effects is mediated by protein kinase D2 (PRKD2) activation. • Inactivation of PRKD2 attenuates glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • Both, RNAi and pharmacological inhibition of PRKD2 inhibits MAPK

  7. Long-term survival after intraluminal brachytherapy for inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siu-Yin Chan; Ronnie T. Poon; Kelvin K. Ng; Chi-Leung Liu; Raymond T. Chan; Sheung-Tat Fan

    2005-01-01

    Surgical resection with a tumor-free margin is the onlycurative treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor). However, over half of the patients present late with unresectable tumors. Radiotherapy using external beamirradiation or intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) has been used to treat unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma with satisfactory outcome. We reported a patient with unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma surviving more than 6 years after combined external beam irradiation and ILBT.

  8. Decline in arylsulfatase B leads to increased invasiveness of melanoma cells.

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    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Terai, Kaoru; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2017-01-17

    Arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) is reduced in several malignancies, but levels in melanoma have not been investigated previously. Experiments were performed in melanoma cell lines to determine ARSB activity and impact on melanoma invasiveness. ARSB activity was reduced ~50% in melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes. Silencing ARSB significantly increased the mRNA expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan(CSPG)4 and pro-matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2, known mediators of melanoma progression. Also, invasiveness and MMP activity increased when ARSB was reduced, and recombinant ARSB inhibited invasiveness and MMP activity. Since the only known function of ARSB is to remove 4-sulfate groups from the N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate residue at the non-reducing end of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) or dermatan sulfate, experiments were performed to determine the transcriptional mechanisms by which expression of CSPG4 and MMP2 increased. Promoter activation of CSPG4 was mediated by reduced binding of galectin-3 to C4S when ARSB activity declined. In contrast, increased pro-MMP2 expression was mediated by increased binding of the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 to C4S. Increased phospho-ERK1,2 resulted from SHP2 inhibition. Combined effects of increased C4S, CSPG4, and MMP2 increased the invasiveness of the melanoma cells, and therapy with recombinant ARSB may inhibit melanoma progression.

  9. Inhibitory effect of Trolox on the migration and invasion of human lung and cervical cancer cells.

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    Sung, Ho Joong; Kim, Yoonseo; Kang, Hyereen; Sull, Jae Woong; Kim, Yoon Suk; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Ko, Jesang

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) is implicated in migration and invasion of metastatic tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of Trolox on metastatic cancer cells is not known. We found that a non-cytotoxic dose of Trolox decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and migration of both A549 and HeLa cancer cells. We also found that Trolox suppressed both the expression and the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and that the promoter activity of PMA-induced MMP-9 was inhibited by Trolox. Our results show that Trolox inhibits the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppression of NF-κB transactivation. These results indicate that Trolox inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion in lung and cervical cancer cells. Trolox is a potential agent for clinical use in preventing the invasion and metastasis of human malignant lung and cervical cancers.

  10. Shikonin inhibits TNF-α-induced growth and invasion of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Zhang, Xuemin; Hu, Wenyu; Wu, Fang; Yuan, Xue; Hu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Shikonin is a naphthoquinone compound extracted from the Chinese herb purple gromwell. Shikonin has broad antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced proliferation and invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is an important factor that contributes to atherosclerosis. The effects of shikonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs have been reported; however, the function of shikonin on TNF-α-mediated growth and invasion of VSMCs during atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this study, we used Western blot, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate the effect of shikonin on the TNF-α-induced growth and invasion of VSMCs and to determine the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that shikonin inhibits the TNF-α-mediated growth and invasion. Further study revealed that shikonin regulates the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase signaling pathways; modulates the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, B-cell lymphoma 2, and Bax; activates caspase-3 and caspase-9; induces cell cycle arrest; and promotes the apoptosis of VSMCs. Together, our results indicate that shikonin may become a promising agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis and they also establish foundation for the development of anti-atherosclerosis drugs.

  11. Deconstructing autofluorescence: non-invasive detection and monitoring of biochemistry in cells and tissues (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldys, Ewa M.; Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Cassano, Juan C.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Pernichery, Sandeep M.; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Sutton-Mcdowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.

    2016-03-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous fluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from imaging of native fluorescence has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Multispectral intrinsic fluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast, subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. The versatility of our method is further illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent.

  12. MicroRNA-3713 regulates bladder cell invasion via MMP9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Wei; Du, Yi-Heng; Li, Hao; Xia, Shu-Jie; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2016-08-31

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer but its carcinogenesis remains not completely elucidated. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is well known to be involved in the development of various cancers, including TCC, whereas a role of miR-3713 in the pathogenesis of TCC has not been appreciated. Here, we reported that significantly higher levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), and significantly lower levels of miR-3713 were detected in TCC tissue, compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissue, and were inversely correlated. Moreover, the low miR-3713 levels in TCC specimens were associated with poor survival of the patients. In vitro, overexpression of miR-3713 significantly decreased cell invasion, and depletion of miR-3713 increased cell invasion in TCC cells. The effects of miR-3713 on TCC cell growth appeared to result from its modification of MMP9 levels, in which miR-3713 was found to bind to the 3'-UTR of MMP9 mRNA to inhibit its protein translation in TCC cells. This study highlights miR-3713 as a previously unrecognized factor that controls TCC invasiveness, which may be important for developing innovative therapeutic targets for TCC treatment.

  13. Fisetin inhibits migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of LMP1-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

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    Li, Rong; Zhao, Yinhai; Chen, Jin; Shao, Songjun; Zhang, Xiujuan

    2014-02-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been reported to possess certain anticancer properties. It may inhibit tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and induce apoptosis. However, the effects of fisetin in preventing the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remain to be determined. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in several metastatic malignancies including NPC. It has been reported that the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) induced EMT and is associated with the metastasis of NPC. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fisetin in preventing the migration and invasion of LMP1-expressing NPC cells (CNE1-LMP1 cells), as well as to investigate whether fisetin may inhibit the molecular changes associated with EMT induced by LMP1. The investigation demonstrated that fisetin suppressed the migration and invasion of CNE1-LMP1 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Fisetin inhibited molecular changes associated with EMT induced by LMP1, upregulated the epithelial marker, E-cadherin protein, and downregulated the mesenchymal marker, vimentin protein, levels. Fisetin also significantly reduced the levels of Twist protein, an EMT regulator. The investigation suggested that fisetin inhibits the migration and invasion of LMP1-positive NPC cells, and the molecular mechanism involves fisetin reversing the EMT induced by LMP1 and downregulates the expression of Twist. This study indicated that fisetin serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer metastasis.

  14. Intertwining of Activin A and TGFβ Signaling: Dual Roles in Cancer Progression and Cancer Cell Invasion

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    Loomans, Holli A. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Andl, Claudia D., E-mail: claudia.andl@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Digestive Disease Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in cancer. Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFβ and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion.

  15. AHNAK is highly expressed and plays a key role in cell migration and invasion in mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-02-01

    The worldwide incidence of the highly aggressive tumor mesothelioma is expected to increase. Mesothelioma is classified into three main histological subtypes: epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic. Although the pathological diagnostic markers for epithelioid are established, to date no adequate marker for sarcomatoid mesothelioma has been found. Thus, a reliable diagnostic marker of sarcomatoid mesothelioma is necessary. In this study, to identify an unknown protein with 120 kDa expressed only in the mesothelioma cell line 211H, we conducted proteomic analysis and found five candidate proteins. One such protein, AHNAK, was highly expressed in all seven mesothelioma cell lines (211H, H28, H226, H2052, H2452, MESO1 and MESO4), but not in the mesothelial cell line MeT-5A by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, we confirmed high AHNAK expression not only in xenografts but also in human mesothelioma specimens including sarcomatoid, epithelioid and biphasic mesothelioma using immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggest that AHNAK has the potential to be a new marker for detecting mesothelioma. Since AHNAK is involved in cell migration and invasion in other metastatic tumor cells, we conducted migration and invasion assays in mesothelioma cell lines. The number of migrating cells in six of seven mesothelioma cell lines and the number of invading cells in all seven cell lines were significantly increased compared with those in MeT-5A. Knockdown of AHNAK significantly reduced the cell migration and invasion ability in all seven mesothelioma cell lines. These results support further clinical evaluation of the association of AHNAK and metastasis in mesothelioma.

  16. Gene expression analysis on small numbers of invasive cells collected by chemotaxis from primary mammary tumors of the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segall Jeffrey E

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA microarrays have the potential to identify the genes involved in invasion and metastasis. However, when used with whole tumor tissue, the results average the expression patterns of different cell types. We have combined chemotaxis-based cell collection of the invasive subpopulation of cells within the primary tumor with array-based gene expression analysis to identify the genes necessary for the process of carcinoma cell invasion. Results Invasive cells were collected from live primary tumors using microneedles containing chemotactic growth factors to mimic chemotactic signals thought to be present in the primary tumor. When used with mammary tumors of rats and mice, carcinoma cells and macrophages constitute the invasive cell population. Microbeads conjugated with monoclonal anti-CD11b (Mac-1α antibodies were used to separate macrophages from carcinoma cells. We utilized PCR-based cDNA amplification from small number of cells and compared it to the quality and complexity of conventionally generated cDNA to determine if amplified cDNA could be used with fidelity for array analysis of this cell population. These techniques showed a very high level of correlation indicating that the PCR based amplification technique yields a cDNA population that resembles, with high fidelity, the original template population present in the small number of cells used to prepare the cDNA for use with the chip. Conclusions The specific collection of invasive cells from a primary tumor and the analysis of gene expression in these cells are is now possible. By further comparing the gene expression patterns of cells collected by invasion into microneedles with that of carcinoma cells obtained from the whole primary tumor, the blood, and whole metastatic tumors, genes that contribute to the invasive process in carcinoma cells may be identified.

  17. Merozoite surface proteins in red blood cell invasion, immunity and vaccines against malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, James G.; Drew, Damien R.; Boyle, Michelle J.; Feng, Gaoqian; Fowkes, Freya J.I.; Richards, Jack S.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria accounts for an enormous burden of disease globally, with Plasmodium falciparum accounting for the majority of malaria, and P. vivax being a second important cause, especially in Asia, the Americas and the Pacific. During infection with Plasmodium spp., the merozoite form of the parasite invades red blood cells and replicates inside them. It is during the blood-stage of infection that malaria disease occurs and, therefore, understanding merozoite invasion, host immune responses to merozoite surface antigens, and targeting merozoite surface proteins and invasion ligands by novel vaccines and therapeutics have been important areas of research. Merozoite invasion involves multiple interactions and events, and substantial processing of merozoite surface proteins occurs before, during and after invasion. The merozoite surface is highly complex, presenting a multitude of antigens to the immune system. This complexity has proved challenging to our efforts to understand merozoite invasion and malaria immunity, and to developing merozoite antigens as malaria vaccines. In recent years, there has been major progress in this field, and several merozoite surface proteins show strong potential as malaria vaccines. Our current knowledge on this topic is reviewed, highlighting recent advances and research priorities. PMID:26833236

  18. Raddeanin A induces human gastric cancer cells apoptosis and inhibits their invasion in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zou, Xi [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Zhou, Jin-Yong [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Sun, Wei [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jian [Laboratory Center, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Xu, Jia-Li [Department of Oncology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China); Wang, Rui-Ping, E-mail: ruipingwang61@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Raddeanin A is a triterpenoid saponin in herb medicine Anemone raddeana Regel. •Raddeanin A can inhibit 3 kinds of gastric cancer cells’ proliferation and invasion. •Caspase-cascades’ activation indicates apoptosis induced by Raddeanin A. •MMPs, RECK, Rhoc and E-cad are involved in Raddeanin A-induced invasion inhibition. -- Abstract: Raddeanin A is one of the triterpenoid saponins in herbal medicine Anemone raddeana Regel which was reported to suppress the growth of liver and lung cancer cells. However, little was known about its effect on gastric cancer (GC) cells. This study aimed to investigate its inhibitory effect on three kinds of different differentiation stage GC cells (BGC-823, SGC-7901 and MKN-28) in vitro and the possible mechanisms. Proliferation assay and flow cytometry demonstrated Raddeanin A’s dose-dependent inhibitory effect and determined its induction of cells apoptosis, respectively. Transwell assay, wounding heal assay and cell matrix adhesion assay showed that Raddeanin A significantly inhibited the abilities of the invasion, migration and adhesion of the BGC-823 cells. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis found that Raddeanin A increased Bax expression while reduced Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin expressions and significantly activated caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, Raddeanin A could also up-regulate the expression of reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), E-cadherin (E-cad) and down-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, MMP-14 and Rhoc. In conclusion, Raddeanin A inhibits proliferation of human GC cells, induces their apoptosis and inhibits the abilities of invasion, migration and adhesion, exhibiting potential to become antitumor drug.

  19. Mathematical modeling of cancer cell invasion of tissue: biological insight from mathematical analysis and computational simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andasari, Vivi; Gerisch, Alf; Lolas, Georgios; South, Andrew P; Chaplain, Mark A J

    2011-07-01

    The ability of cancer cells to break out of tissue compartments and invade locally gives solid tumours a defining deadly characteristic. One of the first steps of invasion is the remodelling of the surrounding tissue or extracellular matrix (ECM) and a major part of this process is the over-expression of proteolytic enzymes, such as the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), by the cancer cells to break down ECM proteins. Degradation of the matrix enables the cancer cells to migrate through the tissue and subsequently to spread to secondary sites in the body, a process known as metastasis. In this paper we undertake an analysis of a mathematical model of cancer cell invasion of tissue, or ECM, which focuses on the role of the urokinase plasminogen activation system. The model consists of a system of five reaction-diffusion-taxis partial differential equations describing the interactions between cancer cells, uPA, uPA inhibitors, plasmin and the host tissue. Cancer cells react chemotactically and haptotactically to the spatio-temporal effects of the uPA system. The results obtained from computational simulations carried out on the model equations produce dynamic heterogeneous spatio-temporal solutions and using linear stability analysis we show that this is caused by a taxis-driven instability of a spatially homogeneous steady-state. Finally we consider the biological implications of the model results, draw parallels with clinical samples and laboratory based models of cancer cell invasion using three-dimensional invasion assay, and go on to discuss future development of the model.

  20. Epidermal growth factor mediates detachment from and invasion through collagen I and Matrigel in Capan-1 pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuver Rahul

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a highly invasive neoplasm. Epidermal growth factor (EGF and its receptor are over expressed in pancreatic cancer, and expression correlates with invasion and metastasis. We hypothesized that EGF receptor and integrin signalling pathways interact in mediating cellular adhesion and invasion in pancreatic cancer, and that invasiveness correlates temporally with detachment from extracellular matrix. Methods We tested this hypothesis by investigating the role of EGF in mediating adhesion to and invasion through collagen I and Matrigel in the metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Capan-1. Adhesion and invasion were measured using in vitro assays of fluorescently-labeled cells. Adhesion and invasion assays were also performed in the primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line MIA PaCa-2. Results EGF inhibited adhesion to collagen I and Matrigel in Capan-1 cells. The loss of adhesion was reversed by AG825, an inhibitor of erbB2 receptor signalling and by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, but not by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. EGF stimulated invasion through collagen I and Matrigel at concentrations and time courses similar to those mediating detachment from these extracellular matrix components. Adhesion to collagen I was different in MIA PaCa-2 cells, with no significant change elicited following EGF treatment, whereas treatment with the EGF family member heregulin-alpha elicited a marked increase in adhesion. Invasion through Matrigel in response to EGF, however, was similar to that observed in Capan-1 cells. Conclusion An inverse relationship exists between adhesion and invasion capabilities in Capan-1 cells but not in MIA PaCa-2 cells. EGF receptor signalling involving the erbB2 and PI3K pathways plays a role in mediating these events in Capan-1 cells.

  1. Cyclic mechanical stretching promotes migration but inhibits invasion of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingyu; Luo, Qing; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Jinghui; Xu, Baiyao; Ju, Yang; Song, Guanbin

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also broadly known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are multipotent stem cells that have a self-renewal capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. Mechanical stretching plays a vital role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs. However, little is known about the effects of cyclic stretching on BMSC migration and invasion. In this study, using a custom-made cell-stretching device, we studied the effects of cyclic mechanical stretching on rat BMSC migration and invasion using a Transwell Boyden Chamber. The protein secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was detected by gelatin zymography, and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) was measured by western blot. We found that cyclic mechanical stretching with 10% amplitude at 1Hz frequency for 8h promotes BMSC migration, but reduces BMSC invasion. FAK and ERK1/2 signals were activated in BMSCs after exposure to cyclic stretching. In the presence of the FAK phosphorylation blocker PF573228 or the ERK1/2 phosphorylation blocker PD98059, the cyclic-stretch-promoted migration of BMSCs was completely suppressed. On the other hand, cyclic mechanical stretching reduced the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BMSCs, and PF573228 suppressed the cyclic-stretch-reduced secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The decrease of BMSC invasion induced by mechanical stretching is partially restored by PF573228 but remained unaffected by PD98059. Taken together, these data show that cyclic mechanical stretching promotes BMSC migration via the FAK-ERK1/2 signalling pathway, but reduces BMSC invasion by decreasing secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via FAK, independent of the ERK1/2 signal.

  2. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  3. Review of endoscopic techniques in the diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine Nguyen; James T Sing Jr

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare malignancy of the biliary tract. Key factors in determining therapeutic options include knowledge of tumor extent, anatomy and obtaining tissue diagnosis. Endoscopically, there are three modalities available to make the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. These include endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration and cholangioscopy. Management of cholangiocarcinoma endoscopically is typically confined to stent placement for palliative purposes or as a bridge to surgery. In this article, we will review the endoscopic techniques available for the diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma.

  4. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Cristina Melo Carneiro COSTA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common malignances. In epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, epithelial cells switch to mesenchymal-like cells exhibiting high mobility. This migratory phenotype is significant during tumor invasion and metastasis. Objective : The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of the EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin in OSCC. Material and Methods : Immunohistochemical detection of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin was performed on 20 OSCC samples. Differences in the expression of each protein at the invasive front (IF and in the central/superficial areas (CSA of the tumor were assessed. Differences in the expression of each protein at the IF of both histologically high- and low-invasive OSCCs were evaluated. Associations among expression of proteins at the IF were assessed. Correlations between the expression levels of each protein at the IF and the tumor stage and clinical nodal status were also evaluated. Results : Reduced expression of E-cadherin was detected in 15 samples (75%. E-cadherin expression was reduced at the IF when compared to the CSA and in high-invasive tumors when compared to low-invasive tumors. All samples were negative for N-cadherin, even though one sample showed an inconspicuous expression. Positive expression of vimentin was observed in 6 samples (30%. Nevertheless, there was no difference in vimentin expression between the IF and the CSA regions or between the low- and high-invasive tumors. Furthermore, no association was observed among protein expression levels at the IF. Finally, no correlations were observed between each protein’s expression levels and tumor stage or clinical nodal status. Conclusions : Reduced E-cadherin expression at the IF and its association with histological invasiveness suggest that this protein is a noteworthy EMT marker in OSCC. Although vimentin was also detected as an EMT marker, its expression was neither limited to

  5. Endobronchial mucosa invasion predicts survival in patients with small cell lung cancer.

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    Pai-Chien Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current staging system for small cell lung cancer (SCLC categorizes patients into limited- or extensive-stage disease groups according to anatomical localizations. Even so, a wide-range of survival times has been observed among patients in the same staging system. This study aimed to identify whether endobronchial mucosa invasion is an independent predictor for poor survival in patients with SCLC, and to compare the survival time between patients with and without endobronchial mucosa invasion. METHODS: We studied 432 consecutive patients with SCLC based on histological examination of biopsy specimens or on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and received computed tomography and bone scan for staging. All the enrolled patients were assessed for endobronchial mucosa invasion by bronchoscopic and histological examination. Survival days were compared between patients with or without endobronchial mucosa invasion and the predictors of decreased survival days were investigated. RESULTS: 84% (364/432 of SCLC patients had endobronchial mucosal invasion by cancer cells at initial diagnosis. Endobronchial mucosal involvement (Hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.30-3.10, age (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06, and extensive stage (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.84 were independent contributing factors for shorter survival time, while received chemotherapy (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25-0.42 was an independent contributing factor better outcome. The survival days of SCLC patients with endobronchial involvement were markedly decreased compared with patients without (median 145 vs. 290, p<0.0001. Among SCLC patients of either limited (median 180 vs. 460, p<0.0001 or extensive (median 125 vs. 207, p<0.0001 stages, the median survival duration for patients with endobronchial mucosal invasion was shorter than those with intact endobronchial mucosa, respectively. CONCLUSION: Endobronchial mucosal involvement is an independent prognostic factor for SCLC

  6. Inhibition of IGF-1-Mediated Cellular Migration and Invasion by Migracin A in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Ukaji

    Full Text Available Previously we isolated migracin A from a Streptomyces culture filtrate as an inhibitor of cancer cell migration. In the present research, we found that migracin A inhibited migration and invasion of ovarian clear cell carcinoma ES-2 cells. In the course of our mechanistic study, migracin A was shown to enhance vasohibin-1 expression in an angiogenesis array. We also confirmed that it increased the mRNA expression of this protein. Moreover, overexpression of vasohibin-1 lowered the migration but not the invasion of ES-2 cells. Then, we looked for another target protein employing a motility array, and found that migracin A lowered the IGF-1 expression. Knockdown of IGF-1 by siRNA decreased the migration and invasion of ES-2 cells. Migracin A also decreased Akt phosphorylation involved in the downstream signaling. Crosstalk analysis indicated that overexpression of vasohibin-1 decreased the IGF-1 expression. On the other hand, it showed no direct anticancer activity in terms of the ES-2 growth in agar. Migracin A inhibited the migration and IGF-1 expression in not only ES-2 but also another ovarian clear cell carcinoma JHOC-5 cells. In addition, it also inhibited capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Since its cytotoxicity is very low, migracin A may be a candidate for an anti-metastasis agent not exhibiting prominent toxicity.

  7. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated NOX4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Invasion in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rackhyun; Li, Liqing; Jang, Minsu; Morris, Andrew J.; Huang, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of NOX4 protein is associated with cancer progression and metastasis but the role of NOX4 in cell proliferation and invasion is not fully understood. We generated NOX4 knockout HeLa cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to explore the cellular functions of NOX4. After transfection of CRISPR-Cas9 construct, we performed T7 endonuclease 1 assays and DNA sequencing to generate and identify insertion and deletion of the NOX4 locus. We confirmed the knockout of NOX4 by Western blotting. NOX4 knockout cell lines showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase of sub-G1 cell population and the decrease of S/G2/M population. Moreover, NOX4 deficiency resulted in a dramatic decrease in invadopodium formation and the invasive activity. In addition, NOX4 deficiency also caused a decrease in focal adhesions and cell migration in HeLa cells. These results suggest that NOX4 is required for both efficient proliferation and invasion of HeLa cells. PMID:28099519

  8. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated NOX4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Invasion in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Naser; Kim, Hyunju; Park, Rackhyun; Li, Liqing; Jang, Minsu; Morris, Andrew J; Park, Junsoo; Huang, Cai

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of NOX4 protein is associated with cancer progression and metastasis but the role of NOX4 in cell proliferation and invasion is not fully understood. We generated NOX4 knockout HeLa cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to explore the cellular functions of NOX4. After transfection of CRISPR-Cas9 construct, we performed T7 endonuclease 1 assays and DNA sequencing to generate and identify insertion and deletion of the NOX4 locus. We confirmed the knockout of NOX4 by Western blotting. NOX4 knockout cell lines showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase of sub-G1 cell population and the decrease of S/G2/M population. Moreover, NOX4 defici