Sample records for cholagogues and choleretics

  1. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients. (United States)

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming


    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts.

  2. Research on choleretic effect of menthol, menthone, pluegone, isomenthone, and limonene in DanShu capsule. (United States)

    Hu, Guanying; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Sanyin; Wang, Ruru; Yang, Miao; Wu, Chunjie; Wu, Zhigang; Ke, Xiao


    Danshu capsule (DSC) is a medicinal compound in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is commonly used for the treatment of acute & chronic cholecystitis as well as choleithiasis. To study its choleretic effect, healthy rats were randomly divided into DSC high (DSCH, 900mg/kg), medium (DSCM, 450mg/kg), and low (DSCL, 225mg/kg) group, Xiaoyan Lidan tablet (XYLDT, 750mg/kg), and saline group. The bile was collected for 1h after 20-minute stabilization as the base level, and at 1h, 2h, 3h, and 4h after drug administration, respectively. Bile volume, total cholesterol, and total bile acid were measured at each time point. The results revealed that DSC significantly stimulated bile secretion, decreased total cholesterol level and increased total bile acid level. Therefore, it had choleretic effects. To identify the active components contributing to its choleretic effects, five major constituents which are menthol (39.33mg/kg), menthone (18.02mg/kg), isomenthone (8.18mg/kg), pluegone (3.31mg/kg), and limonene (4.39mg/kg) were tested on our rat model. The results showed that menthol and limonene could promote bile secretion when compared to DSC treatment (p > 0.05); Menthol, menthol and limonene could significantly decrease total cholesterol level (pmenthol, menthone and limonene.

  3. Effect of inducers and inhibitors of glucuronidation on the biliary excretion and choleretic action of valproic acid in the rat. (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D


    Valproic acid (VPA) induces an immediate choleresis in the rat which may be attributable to the osmotic properties of VPA-glucuronic acid conjugates in bile. The influence of inducers and inhibitors of glucuronidation of VPA on the biliary excretion and choleretic effect of VPA was studied. Hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity toward VPA was determined in vitro. Pretreatment with phenobarbital (75 mg/kg/day for 4 days) enhanced VPA glucuronidation; borneol (750 mg/kg) decreased VPA conjugation; 3-methylcholanthrene (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) and galactosamine (600 mg/kg) had no effect on glucuronidation of VPA in vitro. Hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid content was decreased by borneol and galactosamine administration and was enhanced by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment. The enzyme inducers increased the plasma disappearance of VPA in vivo but did not augment its biliary excretion or choleretic effect. Borneol and galactosamine, which inhibited the conjugation and plasma disappearance of VPA, decreased its biliary excretion and inhibited the VPA-induced increase in bile flow. Thus, the bile flow rate after VPA administration is closely related to the excretion of VPA-glucuronic acid. These data support the conclusion that the choleretic effect of VPA is due to the osmotic activity of VPA conjugates in bile.

  4. Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes. (United States)

    Kim, Young Woo; Kang, Hee Eun; Lee, Myung Gull; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Geon


    Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease.

  5. Choleretic and antispasmodic effects of Lippia integrifolia aqueous extract Efeitos colerético e antiespasmódico do extrato aquoso de Lippia integrifolia

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    Susana Gorzalczany


    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia has been assayed for its choleretic and antispasmodic effects. Doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg administered orally in rats significantly increased the bile flow and the bile acid output. The extract also showed a significant reduction of the contractions induced by acetylcholine, CaCl2 and KCl on isolated rat jejunum. The total caffeoyl quinic acids derivatives content, expressed as chlorogenic acid was 0.10% w/v by spectrophotometric determination.O extrato aquoso das partes aéreas de Lippia integrifolia foi ensaiado quanto aos seus efeitos colerético e antiespasmódico. Doses de 250, 500 e 750 mg/kg administradas oralmente em ratos aumentaram significativamente o fluxo biliar e a saída de ácidos biliares. O extrato também exibiu uma significativa redução das contrações induzidas por acetilcolina, CaCl2 e KCl em jejuno isolado de rato. O conteúdo total de derivados dos ácidos cafeoilquínicos, expressado como ácido clorogênico foi de 0.10% w/v através de determinação espectrofotométrica.

  6. Choleretic effect of structural analogs of valproic acid in the rat. (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D


    A comparison of structure-choleretic activity relationship has been made for several branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids including valproic acid. Cumulative bile flow was 13.8, 23.8, 29.4 and 14.9 ml/4hr/kg body weight for dimethyl-, diethyl-, dipropyl- (valproic acid), and dibutyl-acetic acid, respectively, after iv administration of approximately equimolar doses (1100 mumoles/kg). Except for dibutylacetic acid, maximal bile flow increased from control rates of 50-60 to 120-140 microliters/min/kg. Administration of higher doses of 2,2-dimethylbutanoic acid and 2-ethylbutanoic acid did not increase maximal bile flow above 125-140 microliters/min/kg but did prolong the duration of choleresis. Maximal and cumulative bile flows increased with length of carboxylic acid chain for 2,2-dimethyl substituted acids (2,2-dimethylacetic acid to 2,2-dimethylbutanoic acid). If the two methyl groups were on C-3 (3-methylbutanoic acid), no change in bile flow was observed. Straight-chain acids from C-5 to C-11 and pent-4-enoic acid did not alter bile flow. Thus, the effectiveness of several branched-chain carboxylic acids as choleretics parallel their ability as anticonvulsants. In contrast, the straight-chain acids which cause central nervous system depression have no choleretic activity.

  7. Choleretic effect of valproic acid in the rat. (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D


    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant agent which produced marked choleresis in the rat. Bile flow rate increased from 50 to 60 microliter per min per kg to 120 to 145 microliter per min per kg immediately after i.v. injection of VPA (37.5 to 150 mg per kg; 2 ml per kg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The duration of maximal bile flow was dose-dependent and increased from 30 min (37.5 mg VPA per kg) to approximately 2 hr (150 mg VPA per kg). Choleresis diluted the biliary concentrations of bile acids, Cl-, cholesterol, and phospholipids. VPA did not change the bile/plasma ratio for erythritol suggesting that the increased bile flow is of canalicular origin. VPA did not influence the excretion of bile acids or their osmotic activity, whereas bile salt-independent flow doubled in rats treated with 150 mg VPA per kg. The bile/plasma, bile/liver, and liver/plasma concentration ratios for VPA were 11.7, 1.6, and 7.3, respectively. Approximately 90% of VPA appearing in bile was biotransformed, primarily as a glucuronide. Bile flow correlated with VPA excretion; 16 microliter of bile was produced per micromole VPA which suggests that choleresis is primarily due to the osmotic activity of VPA metabolites in bile. VPA enhanced the excretion of inorganic ions which may also contribute to choleresis. Biliary excretion of phenol-3,6-dibromophthalein disulfonate and ouabain was unaffected. Thus, VPA is an effective choleretic which stimulates bile salt-independent flow of canalicular origin largely as a consequence of the osmotic properties of VPA conjugates in bile.

  8. [The echographic assessment of the activity of the inflammatory process in patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis in the choleretic test]. (United States)

    Ivanov, L A; Barashkov, M N


    Ultrasonic investigations of the gallbladder in choleretic test were carried out in 186 patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC): 47 with intensive, 76 with moderate and 31 with minimal exacerbation, 32 patients in remission and 36 control subjects. As shown by choleretic test, a reduction of latent period and gallbladder contraction duration, a decrease in discharged bile amount, bile discharge velocity, initial and final gallbladder volumes' ration and increased final gallbladder volume occurred in CAC patients. These changes were parallel to inflammation intensity. Three types of gallbladder contraction were revealed in choleretic test: a 3-phase contraction curve with the initial fast evacuation period, relaxation wave (enlarged gallbladder) and slow evacuation period (type 1); a 2-phase curve with fast and slow evacuation (type 2); a monophasic curve with slow evacuation (type 3). In the patients studied type 1 prevailed, while type 3 was not observed in the controls. With increasing inflammation activity in CAC patients a type-1 contraction frequency declined and disappeared in active exacerbation, whereas type 2 and especially type 3 contractions became more frequent.

  9. Study on Cholagogue Decoction of Coptis Chinensis in Treatment of Peptic Ulcer%黄连温胆汤在消化性溃疡治疗中的应用分析

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    Objective To explore clinical efficacy of cholagogue decoction of coptis chinensis in treatment of peptic ulcer. Methods We chose 38 peptic ulcer patients who were treated in hospital from August 2013 to August 2014 and separate them into study group and control group,according to different treatment approaches. Eighteen patients in study group were given cholagogue decoction of coptis chinensis treatment;while 19 patients in control group were given pantoprazole medicine treatment;and then observed and compared treatment efficacy of two groups. Results Compared to control group, the treatment efficacy in study group is much higher;there was a treatment differential between the two groups,and such a differential had statistic value (P<0.05). Conclusion Cholagogue decoction of coptis chinensis is of efficacy and application value in treatment of peptic ulcer.%目的:分析黄连温胆汤在消化性溃疡治疗中的应用效果。方法搜集2013年8月~2014年8月我院接收的消化性溃疡38例患者,按照治疗方法不同进行分组。研究组共19例,治疗选择黄连温胆汤;对照组共19例,治疗选择泮托拉唑。观察对比两组疗效。结果与对照组相比,研究组治疗有效率较高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论黄连温胆汤治疗消化性溃疡效果确切。

  10. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species]. (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di


    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003.

  11. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits


    Seong-Il Lim; Young Kyung Rhee; Chang-Won Cho; Joo Hyuk Yim; Ok-Hwan Lee; Ung-Kyu Choi; Young-Chan Kim


    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis-linked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male ...

  12. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus. (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Joyeux, M; Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Sayag, M; Mortier, F; Younos, C; Pelt, J M


    Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties.

  13. Bioactive phytoconstituents and plant extracts from genus Heliotropium

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    Naveen Goyal


    Full Text Available Heliotropium is a genus of herbs and rarely shrubs of family Boraginaceae. Heliotropium species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gout, rheumatism and as antiseptic, febrifuge, cholagogue, anti-inflammatory and healing agents. The alkaloids mainly pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the main constituents of Heliotropium species, which are responsible for several biological activities viz. anti-tumoural, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. Phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and quinones have also been reported in this genus. The present review summarizes the various biological studies done on the extracts and bioactive phytoconstituents from the plants of the genus Heliotropium over the past few decades.

  14. Chemical characterization and evaluation of biological activity of Cynara cardunculus extractable compounds


    Ramos, Patrícia Alexandra Bogango


    The Mediterranean species Cynara cardunculus L. is recognized in the traditional medicine, for their hepatoprotective and choleretic effects. Biomass of C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC), or cultivated cardoon, may be explored not only for the production of energy and pulp fibers, but also for the extraction of bioactive compounds. The chemical characterization of extractable components, namely terpenic and phenolic compounds, may valorize the cultivated cardoon plantation, due to their ant...

  15. A review of the chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus marrubium. (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir


    The genus Marrubium (Lamiaceae) is comprised of about forty species, distributed in Europe, Asia and Brazil. Some species are traditionally used to treat various diseases, including asthma, pulmonary infections, inflammation and hypotension, as cholagogues and sedative agents, and for pain relief. A literature review on the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, analgesic properties, and anti-hypertensive, antidiabetic, antioxidant properties, among others, particularly related to the presence of diterpenes, sterols, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This review shows the main chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus Marrubium, with emphasis on M. vulgare, which grows in Brazil and has been studied by us and other authors.

  16. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei


    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  17. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

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    Cermanova, Jolana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kadova, Zuzana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Zagorova, Marie [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hroch, Milos [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Tomsik, Pavel [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka [Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek [Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Laho, Tomas [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Micuda, Stanislav, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)


    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  18. Protective Action of Complex Prescription Yinbai Granule on Acute Liver Injury and Its Effect on Bile Secretion in Rats%复方茵柏颗粒对大鼠急性肝损伤的保护作用及对胆汁分泌的影响

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    田静; 蒋小琴; 潘旭旺; 刘杭


    Objective: To study the protective action of complex prescription Yinbai granule on liver injury and its cho-lagogue action. Methods: Acute liver injury was induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. The biochemical indexes and pathological changes were used for evaluation. The cholagogue action was studied by biliary drainage method. Results; Compared with those of the CC14 control group, AST, ALT and bilirubin levels of complex prescription Yinbai granule group were declined significantly. The pathological changes revealed that liver injury was relieved. There was no change in bile secretion after administration of complex prescription Yinbai granule. Conclusion: Complex prescription Yinbai granule has protective action on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, and promotive action on bile secretion.%目的:研究复方茵柏颗粒对急性肝损伤大鼠的肝脏保护作用和对胆汁分泌的影响.方法:用四氯化碳致大鼠急性肝损伤,以生化指标和病理变化评价复方茵柏颗粒的药物作用,以胆总管插管引流法观察药物对胆汁分泌的影响,并与复方茵柏合剂作用相比较.结果:与模型对照组比较,复方茵柏颗粒剂组和合剂组AST、ALT及胆红素指标明显下降,病理切片显示各给药组肝组织损伤明显减轻;复方茵柏颗粒组与合剂组给药后对胆汁分泌有促进作用.结论:复方茵柏颗粒对四氯化碳所致的大鼠急性肝损伤有保护作用,促进肝损伤大鼠胆汁分泌,其保肝利胆作用与复方茵柏合剂相当.

  19. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Nisha Sharma; Ch V Rao


    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  20. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory

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    Prakash Chandra Gupta


    Full Text Available Fumaria indica (Hausskn. Pugsley (Fumariaceae, known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.


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    Full Text Available Clerodendron infortunatum Gaertn (Verbenaceae is an important and widely used medicinal plant, reported to contain active bitter substance like clerodin, has been widely used as tonic and ant-helmintic agent in the countrysides of North India. Though, variously used in Ayurveda, Unani system of medicine and Homeopathy in case of ailments like diarrhea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as vermifuge, laxative and cholagogue, for the removal of ascarids in anus, as external applications on tumours, etc., the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. Leaves and roots are used for external applications on tumours are due to the presence of Clerodolone, Clerodone, Clerodol and a sterol now designated as Clerosterol. Leaves and root extract is useful for the treatment of fresh wound. Percentage of haemoglobin increased due to leaf extract. Pile patient treated with leaf extract gives considerable relief. Sugar percentage reduced in diabetic patient. Slightly warm leaves applied with edible oil on the painful part of human body gives considerable relief within twelve hours. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, glactose, glucose and fructose were also identified from root extract. Pollen viability was assessed on the basis of hanging drop method. Reproductive success was assessed on the basis of fruit and seed set

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

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    Raquel Kummer


    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  3. In vitro glucuronidation of Armillarisin A: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 acts as a major contributor and significant species differences. (United States)

    Sun, Dongxue; Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Ge, Guangbo; Cao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yan; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling


    1. This study is performed to investigate liver microsomal glucuronidation of Armillarisin A (A.A), an effective cholagogue drug, aiming at characterizing the involved UDP-glucuronosyltranferases (UGT) and revealing potential species differences. 2. A.A glucuronidation in human liver microsomes (HLM) generates one metabolite (M2) glucuronidated at the phenol hydroxyl group, obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. Multiple isoforms including UGT1A1, 1A7, 1A9 and 2B15 can catalyze A.A glucuronidation. Kinetic assays and chemical inhibition studies both demonstrate that UGT1A9 is responsible for A.A glucuronidation in HLM. A.A glucuronidation in Cynomolgus monkey microsomes (CyLM) also follows Michaelis-Menten model, but can additionally catalyze the traced glucuronosyl substitution at the alcohol hydroxyl group (M1). The reactions in liver microsomes from Sprague-Dawley rats (RLM), ICR/CD-1 mouse (MLM), Beagle dog (DLM) all display biphasic kinetics and only M2 is detected. HLM, RLM and CyLM exhibit very similar catalytic activities towards A.A glucuronidation, with the intrinsic clearance values of respective 38, 37 and 37 μL/min/mg, which are much higher than MLM and DLM. 3. This in vitro study indicates that UGT1A9 acts as a major contributor to A.A glucuronidation in human liver, and the reaction displays large species differences.

  4. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Root and Leaf on Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

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    Seong-Il Lim


    Full Text Available Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosislinked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index.

  5. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf on cholesterol-fed rabbits. (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yim, Joo Hyuk; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lim, Seong-Il; Kim, Young-Chan


    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), an oriental herbal medicine, has been shown to favorably affect choleretic, antirheumatic and diuretin properties. Recent reports have indicated that excessive oxidative stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis-linked metabolic syndrome. The objective of this current study was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of dandelion root and leaf in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet. A group of twenty eight male rabbits was divided into four subgroups; a normal diet group, a high-cholesterol diet group, a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion leaf group, and a high-cholesterol diet with 1% (w/w) dandelion root group. After the treatment period, the plasma antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles were determined. Our results show that treatment with dandelion root and leaf positively changed plasma antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid profiles in cholesterol-fed rabbits, and thus may have potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Dandelion root and leaf could protect against oxidative stress linked atherosclerosis and decrease the atherogenic index.

  6. The effect of five Taraxacum species on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. (United States)

    Mingarro, D Muñoz; Plaza, A; Galán, A; Vicente, J A; Martínez, M P; Acero, N


    Plants belonging to the genus Taraxacum are considered a nutritious food, being consumed raw or cooked. Additionally, these plants have long been used in folk medicine due to their choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This genus, with its complex taxonomy, includes several species that are difficult to distinguish. Its traditional use must be related not only to T. officinale F.H. Wigg., the most studied species, but also to others. The aim of this work is to compare five different common South European species of Taraxacum (T. obovatum (Willd.) DC., T. marginellum H. Lindb., T. hispanicum H. Lindb., T. lambinonii Soest and T. lacistrum Sahlin), in order to find differences between antioxidant and cytotoxic activities among them. Dissimilarities between species in LC/MS patterns, in in vitro and intracellular antioxidant activity and also in the cytotoxicity assay were found. T. marginellum was the most efficient extract reducing intracellular ROS levels although in in vitro assays, T. obovatum was the best free radical scavenger. A relevant cytotoxic effect was found in T. lacistrum extract over HeLa and HepG2 cell lines.

  7. Inhibition of biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion by cefmetazole. The role of vesicular transport and of canalicular events. (United States)

    Cava, F; Gonzalez, J; Gonzalez-Buitrago, J M; Muriel, C; Jimenez, R


    A number of organic anions selectively inhibit the biliary secretion of cholesterol and phospholipids without affecting bile acid secretion. We studied the effect of cefmetazole, a third-generation cephalosporin, on biliary lipid secretion in the rat. Injection of cefmetazole at a dose of 200 mumol/kg body wt. induced a choleretic effect and a significant decrease in the biliary output of cholesterol and phospholipid, without changes in bile acid secretion. The decrease was more marked for cholesterol than for phospholipid secretion, with a significant decrease in their molar ratio in bile. The effects were apparently unrelated to an inhibition of intracellular vesicular transport because, after injection of horseradish peroxidase, both the time course and total amount secreted of the protein did not significantly differ between control animals and those receiving cefmetazole. The secretory rate of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase was not affected by cefmetazole administration. Biliary outputs of the plasma-membrane enzymes alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by the antibiotic. These results point to an effect of cefmetazole at the level of the canalicular membrane. PMID:1674860

  8. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet. (United States)

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu


    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  9. Effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat′s gastric acid output at basal, vagotomized, and vagal-stimulated conditions

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    S Niazmand


    Full Text Available Background: Achillea is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. There are some reports on gastrointestinal effects of Achillea, such as antiulcer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and antispasmodic. To investigate the effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat′s gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX, and vagal-stimulated conditions. Materials and Methods: 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and test. Gastroduodenostomy was performed for each rat. Gastric content was collected for 30 min by washout technique. One milliliter of 3 doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg was introduced into the stomach of each rat in the test group and the same volume of saline was used in the control group. Total titratable acid was measured by a titrator. Results: The extract inhibited acid output significantly in basal condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses (P < 0.05 but in VX condition this inhibitory effect on acid output disappeared and the 1 and 2 mg/kg doses increased acid output significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively. The extract showed a reduction in the acid output in vagal-stimulated condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect of A. wilhelmsii extract on acid output in basal condition. The inhibitory effect of the extract was exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve.

  10. Hepatic lesions and hemolysis following administration of 3. cap alpha. , 7. cap alpha. , 12. cap alpha. -trihydroxy-5. beta. -cholestan-26-oyl taurine to rats

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    Hanson, R.F. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis); Williams, G.C.; Hachey, D.; Sharp, H.L.


    Patients with a metabolic block in the conversion of THCA into cholic acid develop cirrhosis and hemolysis, and die of hepatic failure. In these patients, THCA is largely conjugated to taurine (tauro-THCA) and excreted instead of being converted into cholic acid. In the present study, the effects of tauro-THCA on hemolysis, bile flow, and hepatic morphology were evaluated in bile fistula rats. All rats infused with tauro-THCA at rates of 0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 developed hemolysis with hemoglobinuria. A direct toxic effect of tauro-THCA on washed human red blood cell membranes was demonstrated at a concentration of 8 x 10/sup -4/ M. Liver biopsy sections from rats infused for a 2 hr period with tauro-THCA were examined by electron microscopy and showed dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and distortion of mitochondrial membranes. Cholestasis was not induced, since tauro-THCA actually caused a greater choleretic response for a given rate of bile salt excretion than did taurocholate. This study raises the possibility that the clinical liver disease seen in patients with a metabolic block in the conversion of THCA into cholic acid may be caused by tauro-THCA.

  11. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties. (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán


    The increasing recognition of the participation of free radical-mediated oxidative events in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular, tumoural, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, has given rise to the search for new antioxidant molecules. An important source of such molecules has been plants for which there is an ethno-cultural base for health promotion. An important example of this is boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a chilean tree whose leaves have been traditionally employed in folk medicine and is now widely recognized as a herbal remedy by a number of pharmacopoeias. Boldo leaves are rich in several aporphine-like alkaloids, of which boldine is the most abundant one. Research conducted during the early 1990s led to the discovery that boldine is one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Prompted by the latter, a large and increasing number of studies emerged, which have focused on characterizing some of the pharmacological properties that may arise from the free radical-scavenging properties of boldine. The present review attempts to exhaustively cover and discuss such studies, placing particular attention on research conducted during the last decade. Mechanistic aspects and structure-activity data are discussed. The review encompasses pharmacological actions, which arise from its antioxidant properties (e.g., cyto-protective, anti-tumour promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic actions), as well as those that do not seem to be associated with such activity (e.g., vasorelaxing, anti-trypanocidal, immuno- and neuro-modulator, cholagogic and/or choleretic actions). Based on the pharmacological and toxicological data now available, further research needs and recommendations are suggested to define the actual potential of boldine for its use in humans.

  12. [New approaches to diagnosing and treating hyperkinetic biliary dyskinesia associated with chronic acalculous cholecystitis]. (United States)

    Bartosh, L F; Balakina, I V; Gridneva, L M


    Ninety patients aged 21 to 56 years who had chronic non-calculous cholecystitis (CNCC) concurrent with hyperkinetic dyskinesia (HKD) detectable by a stepwise duodenal probing and sonography, by using a choleretic breakfast and by determining the relaxation coefficient (RC) that was equal to the ratio of the volume of the gallbladder (GB) after the use of a spasmolytic to the baseline GB volume. The patients were divided into 3 groups. The authors used as a spasmolytic agent pinaverium bromide (dicetel) in a dose of 50 mg (1 tablet) in Group 1), octylonium bromide (spasmomen) in a dose of 40 mg (1 dragee) in Group 2, and drotaverine (no-spa) in a dose of 40 mg (1 tablet). There was a more significant sonographic increase in the size of GB in Groups 1 and 2 as compared with Group 3. In the acute drug test and during long-term treatment as well, the highest spasmolytic effect was noted in patients receiving dicetel (Group 1) and spasmomen (Group 2) as compared with that in Group 3 patients taking drotaverine. With this, RC was 1.25 +/- 0.2, 1.6 +/- 0.15, and 1.08 +/- 0.1, respectively. No adverse reactions occurred in the patients having selective calcium blockers (SCBs) whereas the patients receiving no-spa were found to have the following side effects: dry mouth (n = 3), transient constipation (n = 1), and numb tongue (n = 1). Thus, the study has provided evidence for the fact that SCBs have some advantage over myotropic spasmolytic agents in the treatment of CNCC with the signs of HKD.

  13. Studies on the Pharmacologic Effects and Acute Toxicity of Peppermint Oil%薄荷油药理作用和急性毒性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光亮; 姚道云; 汪远金; 佘玉宝; 范峰


    Objective:To study the pharmacologic effects of peppermint oil. Method: The methods of choleretic test, dissolving gallstone in vitro, isolated smooth muscle test, acute inflammation induced by carrageenin were used. Result: Peppermint oil 120、60、30 mg/kg giving into duodenum could significantly increase the secretion volume of bile in rat, and slightly increase the concentration of cholic acid in bile. Peppermint oil 5, 0.5 and 0.05mg/L has no dissolving effect on cholesterol gallstone and bile pigment gallstone in 4~5 weeks. Peppermint oil could inhibit contraction of isolated ileum and antagonize the contraction induced by histamine and acetylcholine in guinea pigs. It could also suppress paw edema induced by carrageenin in rat and writhing induced by acetic acid in mice, but has no effect on the ear swelling caused by dimethylbenzene and cotton granulation hyperplasia and latent period of pain reaction in tail immersion test in mice. The MID>4000mg/kg as single oral doses and LD50 was 1144.9±78.5 (1069.1~1226.0) mg/kg when administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice. Conclusion: Peppermint oil has the effects of choleretic and relieve smooth muscle spasm, and the effects of anti-inflammation and analgesia were weak, but has no dissolving effect on gallstone in vitro.%目的:研究薄荷油的药理作用。方法:采用大鼠利胆、体外溶石、离体平滑肌、角叉菜胶致炎等方法。结果:薄荷油120、60、30mg/kg十二指肠给药,对大鼠有明显的利胆作用,并能轻度增加胆汁中胆汁酸的排出量。5、0.5、0.05mg/L在4~5周内对胆固醇结石、胆色素结石无明显溶解作用。薄荷油对豚鼠离体回肠有一定的抑制作用,并能拮抗组胺和乙酰胆碱引起的回肠痉挛。对角叉菜胶致大鼠足肿胀和醋酸致小鼠扭体反应有一定的抑制作用,但对二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀、小鼠棉球肉芽肿增生、小鼠温浴致痛反应潜伏

  14. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the regioisomers of dihydroxybutylether in human plasma. (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Li, Li; Fu, Yao; Jin, Yi; Guo, Lixin; Xu, Haiyan


    Dihydroxybutylether (DHBE), a strong choleretic drug, is a mixture of three regioisomers: 4-(3-hydroxybutoxy)-2-butanol (I), 3-(4-hydroxy-2-butoxy)-1-butanol (II) and 3-(3-hydroxylbutoxy)-1-butanol (III). A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of dihydroxybutylether (DHBE) regioisomers in human plasma. After plasma samples were deproteinized with 10% perchloric acid, the post-treatment samples were analyzed on a Capcell Pak C(18) MGII column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization mode. Methanol and water was used as the mobile phase with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1mL/min. Acetaminophen was used as an internal standard (IS). Multiple selected reaction monitoring was performed using the transitions m/z 163→55 and m/z 152→110 to quantify DHBE regioisomers and IS, respectively. Five DHBE isomers (a, b, c, d and e) were separated under the present chromatographic condition. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5.0-200ng/mL for DHBE isomers a, b and c, and 10.0-400ng/mL for DHBE isomers d and e. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 13.6% in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD%) and the accuracy within 7.3% in terms of relative error. This simple and sensitive and easily reproducible LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of DHBE regioisomers in healthy male Chinese volunteers after an oral dose of 1.0g DHBE.

  15. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Annika Sommerfeld


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  16. [The Codex of the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of the University of Athens, Part. I]. (United States)

    Philianos, Skevos; Skaltsa, Hélène


    This work concerns the first part of a manuscript written in the 18th century and stored in the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of the University of Athens. This part includes an introduction based on the theories of Hippocrates and Galen concerning the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, which should be in balance. During the seasons and depending of the age, these humors are converted to each other. Blood increases in the spring and in children, phlegm is growing in winter and in old man, yellow bile in adulthood and black bile in the fall and the third age. The disease is due to the increase or decrease in these fluids. Many formulas with purgative and cholagogue effects are described for each humor. The chapter ends with advice on the necessary diet, hygiene and lifestyle to keep health care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. A. Malyugina


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The Genus marigold (Tagetes belongs to the family Asteraceae. The native land of this genus is the Central America. The genus marigold contains about 56 species and more than 600 forms and cultivars that are widely distributed around the world. The most distributed species are T. erecta L. and T. patula L. The chemical constituents of marigolds and their biological activity are intensively studied now. These plants contain more than 100 secondary metabolites, e.g. flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenol derivate and others. The biological active carotenoids, flavonoids, essential oil, vitamins that contained in the inflorescences and herbs of Tagetes L. has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and other activity. Tagetes L. genus plants widely used in traditional medicine as wound healing, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and adaptogenic medicines. The essential oil of marigolds has insecticidal properties and used in national economics. Also this plants are used in ophthalmology. The main biological active compounds of Tagetes L. are flavonoids. Composition of the most perspective carotenoid-contain species and cultivars of Tagetes L., such as T. patula nana L. (Gold Kopfen, Orangeflamme and T. erecta L. remains poorly understood. They need to be studied as perspective source of the biological active flavonoids. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine flavonoids contain in the inflorescences of Tagetes erecta L. cultivars “Equinox” and “Hawaii” and Tagetes patula L. cultivars “Gold Kopfen” and “Orangeflamme”. To determine the most perspective cultivars for obtaining the medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tagetes patula L. and Tagetes erecta L. was selected in the present study. Plant material (inflorescences was collected from different regions of Ukraine. About 0.1 of crushed inflorescences was extracted by ethanol about 30 minutes twice, filtered and cooled. Appropriate quantities of

  18. Severe acute cholestatic hepatitis of unknown etiology successfully treated with the Chinese herbal medicine Inchinko-to (TJ-135)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Ohwada; Isao Kobayashi; Nobuo Harasawa; Kyoichiro Tsuda; Yosikatsu Inui


    Severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology is difficult to treat and often progresses to subacute fulminant hepatitis or late-onset hepatic failure. A 45-year-old wellnourished, healthy man had progressive fatigue and his liver function tests showed severe liver dysfunction. The etiology of sever acute cholestatic hepatitis was unknown. The liver function tests normalized gradually, which excluded high persistent total bilirubin after starting on predonine. A liver biopsy showed chronic active hepatitis with mild fibrosis (A2, F1). Oral Inchinko-to, a Chinese herbal medicine, at 7.5 g daily was prescribed. The treatment was effective with no adverse effects. We present a successfully treated case and discuss hepatoprotective and choleretic effects of Inchinko-to.

  19. Acute liver failure related to fluconazole and voriconazole%氟康唑与伏立康唑相关婴儿急性肝衰竭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何翠瑶; 刘成军; 贾运涛; 吕凤俊


    A 2 months and 14 day old boy was hospitalized for drug eruptions and pneumonia. He received an IV infusion of fluconazole 24 mg twice daily because of Candida albicans positive in sputum culture,and plasma 1-3-beta-D dextran 324 ng/ L during the processes of anti-infection and anti-allergic treatment. The boy's liver function was normal and the abdominal ultrasound examination had no abnormality seen before taking fluconazole. On day 5 after administration of fluconazole,the boy developed new rash on the mouth and lower limbs,moderate xanthochromia,pitting edema of skin over the whole body,and obvious abdominal distension after eating foods. Laboratory test showed alanine aminotransferase(ALT)579 U/ L, aspartate aminotransferase(AST)655 U/ L,total bilirubin( TBil)71. 9 μmol/ L,direct bilirubin direct (DBil)48. 7 μmol/ L,and alkaline phosphatase( ALP) 89 U/ L on day 6 after administration of fluconazole. Ultrasound examination showed hepatomegaly and strong echo of strip in right hepatic lobe. On day 7,fluconazole was replaced by IV infusion of voriconazole 28 mg diluted in 5% glucose 15 ml twice daily. On the second day of using voriconazole,laboratory tests revealed the following results:ALT 761 U/ L, AST 717 U/ L,TBil 132. 3μmol/ L,DBil 112. 4 μmol/ L,ALP 104 U/ L,prothrombin time 57 s,partially activated prothrombin 88 s,international normalized ratio 4. 86,blood ammonia 79 μmol/ L and lactic acid 6. 5mmol/ L. The patient was diagnosed as liver failure. Voriconazole was stopped. The boy received the symptomatic treatments which including liver-protecting and cholagogue agents,reducing blood ammonia, supplying coagulation factors,and 2 times of plasmapheresis. The boy was suggested to consider liver transplantation,because of his liver function had no significant improvement during the 5 days' treatment. His parents gave up the treatment and discharged by themselves. The boy was died on the second day of discharging which known from follow-up.%1例2个月14

  20. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

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    Livia Apostol


    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  1. Quelques vertus médicinales de Cassia occidentalis L. (Césalpiniacées en basse Cóte d’Ivoire

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    L. Aké Assi


    Full Text Available SOME MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS  L. (CAESALPINIACEAE IN THE LOWER IVORY COAST About 40 species of Cassia, a great number of which have been introduced, grow in different parts of intertropical Africa, in all types o f vegetation. The 14 species in the Ivory Coast are herbs, shrubs or trees. The local pharmacopoeia uses six of these species for various therapeutic preparations. The currently most used species is Cassia occidentalis L. commonly called Faux Kinkéliba. In the forest area of the Lower Ivory Coast, 11 medical preparations made from different parts of the plant are used. With its considerable ability to spread, this South American plant has become a pantropical one. It is found chiefly in the vicinity of villages. C. occidentalis is used for the relief and treatment of a variety of pains and diseases, for example as a cicatrizant, abortifacient, febrifuge, diuretic, laxative or cholagogue and tonic, and in cases of asthma, cataract, jaundice and kwashiorkor.

  2. 秦艽1-羟基-2-甲基-2-(E)-丁烯基-4-焦磷酸还原酶基因(GmHDR)的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase gene (GmHDR)from Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑文; 孔维维; 郑鹏; 化文平


    Secoiri doids,such as gentiopicroside,are the main active compounds in “Qinj iao”,a traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots of Gentiana macrophylla.These compounds have widely biological and pharmacological effects,such as stomachic,choleretic,anti-hepatotoxic activities,anti-inflammatory,antifungal and antihistamine activities.Secoiridoids belonged to monoterpenoid,were biosynthesized via the secoiridoid pathway (sometimes also called“ridoid pathway”)in high plant.1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR)is one of the key enzymes in the pathway of iridoid biosynthesis.In this paper,we cloned the gene sequence of HDR from G.macrophylla,and analyzed the characteristic of sequence and expression patterns in order to know its roles in secoiridoid biosynthesis.Based on our library generated by high-through sequencing of G.macrophylla transcriptome,we cloned HDR gene from G.macrophylla(named as GmHDR)by RT-PCR.And the GmHDR coding amino acid sequence characterization,such as physicochemical characteristics,signal peptide,transit peptide, subcellular localization,conserved domain and secondary structure,analyzed with bioinformatics methods.Then we also detected the expression patterns of GmHDR in different parts of G.macrophylla by real time PCR.One 1 630-bp length sequence of GmHDR gene was obtained from G.macrophylla.GmHDR contains a completed open read-ing frame (ORF)of 1 392 bp,which encoded a polypeptide with 463 amino acids.GmHDR,the encoding protein by GmHDR,has high homology (identities ≥ 84%)to HDR proteins from Rauvolfia verticillata,Tanacetum parthenium and other plants.One neighbor joining tree was constructed to show evolution ship between GmHDR and HDR proteins from other plants using MEGA5.2 soft.The phylogenetic tree also gave a same conclusion that Gm-HDR had a closed relation with HDR proteins from Catharanthus roseus and Rauvolfia verticillata.Further analysis with bioinformatics methods showed

  3. Clinical Observation of Terra Merita Stomach- Regulating Decoction on Treating Bile Reflux Gastritis%郁金和胃汤治疗胆汁反流性胃炎临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察郁金和胃汤治疗胆汁反流性胃炎的疗效.方法:门诊选取胆汁反流性胃炎115例,按随机数字表法分为两组,运用郁金和胃汤治疗77例为治疗组,用西药治疗的38例为对照组.结果:治疗组治愈率58.44%,有效率93.51%;对照组治愈率23.68%,有效率71.05%.两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:郁金和胃汤具有疏肝利胆、清热化湿、健脾和胃的作用,治疗胆汁反流性胃炎疗效显著.%Objective: To observe the clinical observation of terra merita Stomach - Regulating Decoction to treat bile reflux gastritis.Methods: All 115 outpationt of terra merita stomach were randomly divided into two groups. 77 cases of patients were treated with erra merita Stomach - Regulating Decoction, compared to 45 cases of patients was treated with western medicine. Observing the clinical curative effect of two groups. Results: The cure rate is 58.44% in treatment team and 23.68% in control team, total effective rate is 93.51% in treatment team and and 71.05 % in control team. There is significant difference in two teams ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Erra merita Stomach- Regulating Decoction paly a role in disperse the depressed liver- energy and cholagogue, clean heat dissipating dampness and invigorate the spleen and regulating stomach, the curative effect of treating on bile reflux gastritis is striking.

  4. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice. (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes


    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200 mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  5. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Bangpungtongsung-San, a Traditional Herbal Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Shin


    Full Text Available Bangpungtongsung-san (BPS is a traditional Korean herbal formula used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiobesity, and choleretic agent, which consists of 18 herbs. As part of a safety evaluation of BPS, the present study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of an aqueous BPS extract using a standard battery of tests, including, the Ames test, chromosomal aberration test, and mouse micronucleus test. The BPS extract was not found to be genotoxic under the conditions of the Ames test. In micronucleus test, oral administration of BPS at doses up to 2,000 mg/kg did not increases the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte. The chromosomal aberration test showed that the BPS extract induced an increase in the number of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in the group treated with BPS at high dose levels (2,500 and 4,000 μg/mL for 6 h, in the presence of the metabolic activation system (S-9 mix, compared with the vehicle control. In conclusion, these results indicate that BPS extract may act as a genotoxic agent.

  6. 藏红花降血脂作用的研究进展%Research progress of hypolipidemic effect to saffron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素莲; 黄伟; 熊玉卿; 胡晓


    Saffron is an irides saffron crocus bulbous herbs, many studies found that saffron have choleretic and hepatic protective effect, anti -tumor effect, intervention of cardiovascular diseases effect and regulate immune function.Recently scientific findings discovered that saffron can be used to reducing blood fat, so it must be studied extensively.This ar-ticle summarizes the research progress of saffron on reducing blood fat, in order to provide the basis for the development and clinical application of saffron.%藏红花是鸢尾科番红花属球根类草本植物,具有利胆保肝、抵御癌症侵袭、干预心血管类疾病以及调节免疫功能等作用。藏红花还有降血脂的功效。本文综述藏红花降血脂作用方面的研究进展。

  7. Drug: D08178 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08178 Drug Menbutone (INN); Genabiline [veterinary] (TN) C15H14O4 258.0892 258.269...3 D08178.gif Choleretic veterinary medicine CAS: 3562-99-0 PubChem: 96024868 LigandBox: D08178 NIKKAJI: J8.1

  8. Experience outline of 65 cases of laparoscopic cholelithotomy%腹腔镜保胆取石术65例体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新保; 张洪义; 张辉; 刘承利; 何晓军; 肖梅; 张宏义; 冯志强


    目的 总结腹腔镜下保胆取石术的经验.方法 65例胆囊结石患者,其中胆囊结石合并肝硬化2例,合并肝硬化伴肝癌2例,合并直肠癌术后肝转移1例,合并遗传性球形红细胞增多症及严重脾功能亢进1例;胆囊结石伴急性胆囊炎5例.63例患者行胆囊底部切开取石术,2例行胆囊颈部切开取石术.术中使用胆道镜25例.术后放置腹腔引流管16例.术后服用利胆药物者55例,服药时间为1周至1个月.结果 64例患者手术获得成功,1例术后第5天因胆囊切口裂开漏胆而行腹腔镜胆囊切除术.1例颈部切开取石患者术后出现上腹疼痛,腹腔引流管每天引出约15ml淡黄色腹水,考虑少量胆漏所致,术后5d腹痛缓解,腹腔引流管无液体引出,拔除腹腔引流管后无不适.其余患者术后均恢复顺利.所有患者均获随访,随访3~42个月,其中1例于术后12个月胆囊内复发少量泥沙样结石,给予利胆排石药物治疗1个月后复查腹部超声显示胆囊结石消失.结论 腹腔镜下保胆取石术保留了胆囊及胆囊功能,有利于维护患者消化系统的正常功能.只要胆囊大小基本正常、胆囊壁增厚不明显、胆囊功能基本正常,并且患者及家属保胆愿望强烈,均可进行腹腔镜保胆取石术.%Objective To summarize the experience of 65 cases of laparoscopic cholelithotomy. Methods The clinical data of 65 patients with cholelithiasis treated by laparoscopic cholelithotomy between Jan. 2009 and Feb. 2012 were analyzed. Among them,2 cases were combined with liver cirrhosis,2 cases were with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 1 with liver metastases from rectal cancer, 1 with hereditary spherocytosis and severe hypersplenism, and 5 with acute cholecystitis. Choledochoscope was used in 25 cases during operation. Celiac drainage tube was placed in 16 cases during operation. Choleretic drugs were administrated on 55 cases for 1-4 weeks after operation. Results The

  9. Avaliação da atividade antiinflamatória do coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. em roedores Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Zanusso-Junior


    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (Umbelliferae, conhecido popularmente por coentro, é uma planta doméstica cultivada nas diversas partes do mundo, inclusive no Brasil. As folhas e frutos do coentro são utilizados como condimento em culinária e na medicina popular como analgésica, antirreumática, carminativa e colagoga. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento com o óleo essencial (OEC e o extrato hidroalcóolico (EHC do coentro em modelos experimentais de inflamação em roedores. A atividade antiinflamatória do coentro foi avaliada por meio dos testes de pleurisia em ratos e formação do edema de orelha em camundongos. A pleurisia foi induzida pela carragenina em animais tratados ou não com EHC. O edema de orelha induzido pela aplicação tópica de óleo de cróton e a atividade da mieloperoxidase foi avaliada em camundongos tratados ou não com OEC ou EHC. No teste da pleurisia o tratamento com EHC promoveu significativa diminuição no edema pleural, mas não sobre a migração leucocitária. Além disso, diferentemente ao observado com o tratamento com OEC, o uso tópico de EHC diminui significativamente o edema de orelha e a migração celular induzidos pela aplicação do óleo de cróton. Os dados indicam que EHC apresenta atividade antiinflamatória quando administrado pelas via oral e tópica, enquanto que OEC não apresenta atividade antiinflamatória tópica.Commonly known as coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Umbelliferae is a home plant grown in several parts of the world, including Brazil. Its leaves and fruits have been used as condiment in cooking and in folk medicine as analgesic, antirheumatic, carminative and cholagogue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO and hydroalcoholic extract (HE from coriander on experimental inflammation models in rodents. Coriander anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by pleurisy tests in rats and ear edema formation in mice. Pleurisy was induced


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslanian MA


    Full Text Available Pathology problemof hepatobiliary system (HBS of contagious origin becomes relevant with the increase of disturbance and complications of lipid metabolism and bile pigments among young people. Leading role in prophylaxis and treatment in the context of this pathology belongs to antibacterialc hemotherapeutic agents. However, along with antimicrobial activity, numerous side effects can be observed during treatment with antibacterial agents. According to the recent study on hepatobiliary system (HBS, therapeutic effect can be seen only while using herbal medicine with choleretic action as well as their various compositions.Amountof medicine with the appropriate effect is insufficient, that is why the study was conducted towards finding effective combinations of plant substances of different groups for the purpose of creatingan effective medicine for treatment of hepatobiliary system (HBS of contagious origin. Aim of the work The purpose of study was to examine antibacterial properties of different combinations with flamin and lavender oil in combined medicine during the course of treatment of cholecystitis and cholangitis. Materials and methods. It the result of study 61 microbial strains were distinguished and identified from the pathological material taken from 53 patients with cholecystitis and cholangitis. All distinguished clinical microbial strains taken from the patients were tested for sensitivity to combined medicine in the form of tablets with flamin and lavender oil. Minimal inhibitory concentration for S. aureus АТСС 25923 amounted to 250-350 ug/ml, for E. coli АТСС 25922 - 350±50,0 ug/ml, for P. aeruginosa АТСС 27853 750±100,0 ug/ml, for Р. vulgaris АТСС 4636 - 850±100,0 ug/ml, minimal inhibitory concentration to the tablets № 2 та № 3 amounted to > 1000 мкг/мл. Minimal inhibitory concentration for B. subtilis АТСС 6633 amounted to 250±50,0 ug/ml, for C. albicans ATCC 885/653 300±50,0 ug


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A


    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico da atresia de vias biliares: a experiência do hospital municipal jesus, 1997-2000 Surgical treatment of biliary atresia: the hospital municipal jesus experience 1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus


    . METHODS: Eight patients were prospectively evaluated after being submitted to portoenterostomy (Kasai I in a 3 years period (1997-2000. Seven of then operated by the same surgeon. All patients reserved to prophylactic antibiotics, oral choleretics and underwent a monthly follow-up for the first six months, and all of them were periodically submitted to laboratory, ultra-sonographic and endoscopid evaluations, following a pre-established schedule. RESULTS: We could obtain a stable biliary drainage for more than 6 post-operative months in 5 patients. There were 4 post-operative deaths (1 hepatic insuficiency, 1 cholangitis and 2 esophageal varices ruptures. All three patients with an insuficient biliary drainage died. Four of the five patients with a good and stable biliary drainage are anicteric and in good shape, one of them shows a serious residual hepatic fibrosis. We detected a generally late referral of patients and we could not obtain hepatic transplantation as necessary. CONCLUSION: Portoenterostomy is a satisfactory operation if we can obtain a satisfactory and stable post-operative biliary drainage. In cases without satisfactory biliary excretion quality of life is unsatisfactory and death occurs in the 2nd year, without hepatic transplantation. It is urgent to offer pediatric hepatic transplantation in a higher scale in Brazil and to educate doctors to send urgently icteric babies more than 15 days old to specialized units to be evaluated and treated precociously enough.

  13. Drug: D07693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f Choleretic CAS: 23464-76-8 PubChem: 51091993 LigandBox: D07693 NIKKAJI: J228.971G ATOM 26 1 C1a C 13.3700 -18.6...200 2 N1d N 14.5600 -17.9200 #+ 3 C1b C 15.8200 -18.6200 4 C1b C 16.9400 -17.9200 5 O7a O 18.1300 -18.6...200 6 C1a C 14.5600 -16.5200 7 C1a C 14.5600 -19.3200 8 C7a C 19.3481 -17.9299 9 C1b C 20.5295 -18.6...250 10 O6a O 19.2898 -16.5206 11 C1b C 21.7224 -17.9200 12 C1b C 22.9349 -18.6200 13 C1b ...C 24.1473 -17.9200 14 C1b C 25.3597 -18.6200 15 C1b C 26.5722 -17.9200 16 C1b C 27.7846 -18.6200 17 C1b C 28

  14. 'Fragilization and Resistance' and 'Neighborhood and Shechina'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha L. Ettinger


    Full Text Available Com-passion involves transformational affects, and among them these major three: primary fascinance (that precedes or is in parallel to fascinum and might counter-balance control and submission by its transformational value, primary compassion (that precedes and might counter-balance abjection and abandonment, and primary awe (that might counter-balance shame and fear. These affects are primordial accesses to the other and to the Cosmos. Through them the other and the Cosmos do not turn into objects - their dynamic difference is preserved during cognizing. By way of these affects, the subtle human subjectivizing processes and the early positions are not "schizophrenic-paranoid". To be a subject without turning the other and the Cosmos into an object ― that is the question.

  15. Stitch and hem and line and flight (United States)

    Thorp, John Daniel

    Stitch and hem and line and flight appears in four formats. There is this present one, which adheres to the manuscript design requirements as outlined by The Graduate School at The University of Utah; there is another which is a book six inches high by nine inches wide, printed in three colors, with text aligned to its gutter; and there is a broadside printed from the same forms of standing metal type on a single twelve-inch-high by nineteen-inch-wide page, where all spreads are registered to the same points so that all lines of all sections overlap exactly, excluding the last lines of the longest section, which are left immediately readable. The second and the third formats were produced in editions of fifty each, and copies are available to the reader through the Special Collections Library at the J. Willard Marriott Library. The text in the book you're holding is built from scans taken from the original letterpress pages, and so honors typos not caught before production during proofreading, but does not honor the final runs of production which overprint eight typos and overprint one duplicated "no." The text here stands as an uncorrected and reformatted transcript of the letterpress-printed pages, since all "characters must be clear and sharp. Smudged, indistinct, or blurred letters are not acceptable." The present format cannot ask (at least not in the same way) if the techniques and repetitive labor of hand printing can be read just as one might read any of the other more familiar small crises in a work: the line break, the influence of a culture or history on that work, anagnorisis, exegesis, etc. The present format doesn't seem to ask questions like: what happens to a love song when you can't read it or hear it? How does a line or letter make itself mean when cast in metal, stood up and pressed onto paper? Still, the present format is concerned with how a line sits on a page and how a line is like love is like highs is like sand. The text all these formats

  16. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is and what a genre does. Therefore, genre is a central concept in many areas of scholarship today and is interlinked with many other central scholarly concepts, but its core function is still a subject of debate, and its connections with other core concepts remain sorely under-examined. Genre and … explores...... these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  17. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  18. Science and Technology and Counterterorrism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J


    Major scientific and technological breakthroughs played a pivotal role in our ability to win the Cold War. The possibility of a different type of war, in response to terrorism, has long been recognized. Indeed, countermeasures to address specific terrorist acts have been developed and are deployed, for example, at special sporting and political events. The current threat environment, however, has created an intense and compelling set of concerns; consequently, the challenge to the scientific Community to develop new concepts and products on an accelerated timeframe is clear. Also, the spectrum of terrorist threats is broad. It includes the use of conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear and radiological weapons, not to mention cyber-based attacks. The imperatives for advances have been amplified now that attacks are clearly possible within the U.S. borders. For example, advanced sensors and detectors that are able to monitor the proliferation of all the above warfare agents and their movement at entry points into the U.S. are clearly needed. The investments over the last decades in research and development efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories in nonproliferation have led unique technologies and detection capabilities that have proved useful; yet, many challenges remain. In particular, the development of accurate, robust, and low cost techniques that are easily deployable by first responders, law enforcement agencies, and military personnel is urgently needed. Advancements are needed in radiation, nuclear proliferation, and next-generation biological detection, as well as photonics and optics for global surveillance, information. science to convert data into useful forms, and forensic attribution. Current research and development efforts highlighting technical challenges, especially to the materials science community, will be presented.

  19. Kinetics and

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    Mojtaba Ahmadi


    Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.

  20. Fun and Games and Boredom. (United States)

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe


    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.

  1. Diet and Nutrition and HIV (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... code here Enter ZIP code here Living with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson for Veterans ...

  2. Prescription and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón-Guzmán


    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011 was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.

  3. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi


    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  4. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua


    [1]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.2 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1992, 1-116.[2]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.3 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 1-175.[3]Xu Dongyu, Chen Zongtuan, Meng Xiangying, Late Cenozoic Palaeoenvironments and Events in the Central Pacific Ocean (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 1-11.[4]Bischoff, J. L., Heath, G. R., Leinen, M., Geochemistry of deep-sea sediments from the Pacific manganese nodule province: Domes, A, B and C, in: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province (eds. Bischoff, J. L., Piper, D. Z.), New York: Plenum Press, 1979, 397-436.[5]Riech, V., Grafenstein, R. V., Sedimentological and geochemical trends in deep-sea sedimentation of the Clarion-Chipperton block southeast of Hawaii since the early Miocene, in: Manganese Nodules and Sediments in the Equatorial North Pacific Ocean, Sonne Cruise SO25, 1982 (eds. Von Stackelberg, U., Beiersdorf, H.), Hannover: Burdesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Geologischelandes(a)mster in der Bundesrepublic Deutschland, 1987, 71-104.[6]Johnson, G. C., Toole, J. M., Flow of deep and bottom water in the Pacific at 10°N, Deep-Sea Reseach, 1993, 40(2): 371-394.[7]Marine Geology Department of Tongji University, Introduction to Palaeo-oceanography (in Chinese), Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1989, 45-147.[8]Seibold, E., Berger, W. H., The Sea Floor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993, 97-125.[9]Rea, D. K., The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Rev. Geophys., 1994, 32: 159-195.[10]Menard, H. W., Marine Geology of the Pacific, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.[11]Chamley, H., Clay Sedimentology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989, 259-289.[12]Piper, D. Z., Rare earth

  5. Diet and Nutrition and HIV (United States)

    ... Performance VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Center for Innovation (VACI) Agency Financial Report (AFR) Budget Submission Recovery ... meats to soups, salads, and sauces. Add dried milk powder or egg white powder to foods (like ...

  6. Apples and Oranges and Bananas (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    Private high schools have higher test scores than public schools. Does this mean they are better? Most studies of public versus private schools have explored the full range of income and achievement, one recently finding little if any difference that could not be accounted for by demographic differences. In this article, the author discusses the…

  7. Fun and games and boredom (United States)

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious vide...

  8. Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  9. Cat and Dog Bites (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Pets and AnimalsPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Cat and Dog Bites Cat and dog bites are ...

  10. Ignorance and Science: Dilemmas, Perspectives, and Prospects. (United States)

    Smithson, Michael


    Discusses scientific ignorance and uncertainty. Highlights include approaching knowledgeable ignorance, including a taxonomy of ignorance and uncertainty frameworks and measures; social constructivism, subjectivity, and scientific realism; strategies for working with scientific ignorance; and frameworks for ignorance representation. (Contains 43…

  11. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph


    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  12. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server


    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  13. Aging and training and development willingness: employee and supervisor mindsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; Dalhoeven, B.A.G.W.; de Pater, I.E.


    In this study, we examined individual and situational factors that impact the relationship between age and employee training and development willingness. We proposed that the relationship between age and training and development willingness would be moderated by employees' entity self-theory and per

  14. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... (United States)


    ... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products containing the... cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products...

  15. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation. (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael


    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  16. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  17. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  18. Advertising and Adulation:East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the United States, Americans are constantly focusing their attention and admiration on successful people. Everyone avidly reads about and talks about popular stars, musicians and heroes. Michael Phelps, Madonna, and President Barack

  19. Shape classification and analysis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fona



  20. Dick and Jane and Technology Education. (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    Science education and technology education have a common lineage. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, technology involves both process and content. It cuts across and unifies curricula and should be taught across all grade levels. (JOW)

  1. Laser and photonic systems design and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Nof, Shimon Y; Cheng, Gary J


    New, significant scientific discoveries in laser and photonic technologies, systems perspectives, and integrated design approaches can improve even further the impact in critical areas of challenge. Yet this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research arenas. Laser and Photonic Systems: Design and Integration brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to increase understanding of the ways in which systems perspectives may influence laser and photonic innovations and application integration.By bringing together chapters from leading scientists and technologists, ind

  2. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Bøgh Andersen, Lotte; Bro, Louise Ladegaard;


    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance....... Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  3. Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars


    , 2008 and 2011: Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Futures, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, Science and Public Policy, and Foresight. Methodologically, the paper draws on the principles of Elsevier’s Scopus and Thompson Reuter’s Web of Science. The chapter concludes...

  4. Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris


    The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.

  5. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy


    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  6. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni


    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  7. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  8. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno


    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  9. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.


    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  10. Diabetes and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  11. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  12. Depression and Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  13. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  14. Healthy Eating and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  15. Diet and cancer (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  16. Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gurfil, Pini


    This volume is designed as an introductory text and reference book for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of astronomy, astrodynamics, satellite systems, space sciences and astrophysics. The purpose of the book is to emphasize the similarities between celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and to present recent advances in these two fields so that the reader can understand the inter-relations and mutual influences. The juxtaposition of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics is a unique approach that is expected to be a refreshing attempt to discuss both the mechanics of space flight and the dynamics of celestial objects. “Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics: Theory and Practice” also presents the main challenges and future prospects for the two fields in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. The book presents homogenous and fluent discussions of the key problems, rendering a portrayal of recent advances in the field together with some basic concepts and essential in...

  17. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics. (United States)

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L


    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  18. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K


    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  19. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo


    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  20. Cognitive hacking and intelligence and security informatics (United States)

    Thompson, Paul


    This paper describes research on cognitive and semantic attacks on computer systems and their users. Several countermeasures against such attacks are described, including a description of a prototype News Verifier system. It is argued that because misinformation and deception play a much more significant role in intelligence and security informatics than in other informatics disciplines such as science, medicine, and the law, a new science of intelligence and security informatics must concern itself with semantic attacks and countermeasures.

  1. [SOX2 defect and anophthalmia and microphthalmia]. (United States)

    Ye, Fu-xiang; Fan, Xian-qun


    As a severe congenital developmental disorder, anophthalmia and microphthalmia are usually accompanied with vision impairment and hypoevolutism of the orbit in the affected side. Many genes are involved in anophthalmia and microphthalmia, in which, SOX2 is an important one. The defect of SOX2 causes multiple system disorders, including anophthalmia and microphthalmia. We describe the relationship between the SOX2 defect and anophthalmia/microphthalmia, in order to offer some proposals for the differential diagnosis, treatment and research of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.



    Katsaras,George; Kourlaba, Georgia


    Introduction: The episodes of violence and aggression in schools is a common and growing in frequency phenomenon. Research has shown that the engagement with school bullying is a major risk factor as far as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are concerned. The aim was to review literature about school bullying and cyberbullying as well as the suicidality in children and adolescents.  Material and Methods: It was used bibliography search in the databases PubMed and Scopus, reviews of the l...

  3. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  4. 77 FR 20417 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain cameras and mobile...

  5. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Pride and Prejudice is Jane Austen’s great masterpiece. It discusses love and marriage between middle class and upper class in Britain in 19th century. This thesis aims at analyzing love and marriage in Pride and Prejudice. There are three chapters in this thesis. Chapter one portrays the social background of the author and the social background of Pride and Prejudice. Chapter two describes the concept of love and marriage in Britain in 19th century and four marriages in the novel. Chapter three analyses Jane Austen’s concept of love and marriage:love and marriage are closely connected with property and social status;however, an ideal marriage should be based on true love. Marriages that based on money and social status can not lead to a happy life.

  6. Library and information sciences trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ronald


    This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site....

  7. Particle and Field Symmetries and Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, A


    The development of Noncommutative Geometry is creating a reworking and new possibilities in physics. This paper identifies some of the commutation and derivation structures that arise in particle and field interactions and fundamental symmetries. The requirements of coexisting structures, and their consistency, produce a mathematical framework that underlies a fundamental physics theory. Among other developments in Quantum theory of particles and fields are the symmetries of gauge fields and the Fermi-Bose symmetry of particles. These involve a gauge covariant derivation and the action functionals; and commutation algebras and Bogoliubov transforms. The non commutative Theta form introduces an additional and fundamental structure. This paper obtains the interrelations of various structures, and the conditions for the symmetries of Fermionic/Bosonic particles interacting with Yang Mills gauge fields. Many example physical systems are being solved, and the mathematical formalism is being created to understand t...

  8. Promise and Peril: Assessment and Urban Universities. (United States)

    Cole, John C.; Nettles, Michael J.


    Provides an historical review of state-level assessment research and practice and discusses current objectives and outcomes of state-level assessment policies throughout the United States. Considers possible explanations for the gap between assessment policy objectives and outcomes, and implications for urban institutions of higher education.…

  9. Singularity and Community: Levinas and Democracy (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    This article explores and extends Levinas's ideas of singularity and community as multiplicity and argues that his identification of language and discourse as the means to create ethical communities provides tangible possibilities for rebuilding genuine democracy in a humane world. These ideas help us reimagine school and classroom as communities…

  10. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development....

  11. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  12. Teaching and Learning through Story and Dialogue. (United States)

    Rice, Suzanne


    Reviews "Stories Lives Tell," Carol Witherell and Nel Noddings; and "Turning the Soul," Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon, which include autobiographical accounts of participation in narrative and dialogical activities in formal and extra-school contexts. The books raise questions about the benefits and limitations of this approach for educational…

  13. Sport and Tourism Between Modernity and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Michał


    Full Text Available The text presents and analyses manifestations of modernity and postmodernity in the field of competitive and recreational sport, physical education, leisure, and tourism. The paper builds upon an extensive literature survey and presents the concept and key features of postmodern societies and the modernity-postmodernity debate in sports with reference to postmodern tendencies in tourism. We have attempted to determine the proportions of tradition, modernity, and postmodernity in contemporary sport and tourism, keeping in mind that, similarly to contemporary societies as a whole, sport is undoubtedly a mixture of traditional, modern, and Fordist elements with postmodern and post-Fordist features. We present and discuss the prevailing belief that the key elements of leisure sport are mostly postmodern and focused on the notion of individualisation and freedom expressed especially in alternative sports, while commercialised mainstream sport follows the regular mass-media show-business development path, maintaining a significant amount of modern concepts, such as the importance of national identities. Special attention is also paid to the Olympic Games as a specific and very efficient mixture of modernity and postmodernity. More so than at any point in the past, and despite the actual proportions of modernity and postmodernity that it contains, contemporary sport has become an integral part of postmodern societies and their lifestyle, with technology-determined individualisation of sport consumption and leisure sport participation.

  14. Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. (United States)

    Reid Chassiakos, Yolanda Linda; Radesky, Jenny; Christakis, Dimitri; Moreno, Megan A; Cross, Corinn


    Today's children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan ( that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use.

  15. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K


    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  16. Project campus and maternal and child clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra


    Full Text Available This article aims to illustrate the activities of the process of cooperation between the University of Pavia , Italy and the Juan de Castellanos de Tunja University Foundation . The first involved the signing of an agreement in April 2012, related to the formulation of hypotheses to project the new University Campus and some preliminary ideas for the construction of a Mother and Child University Hospital , level IV , hinged to the campus ; projects then emerged from anthropological reflections on creating spaces provided to address structural elements in a culture in this case to: create, teach , learn and apply science with other knowledge and related health and disease. This experience , still ongoing , is part of the main aims of cooperation , which is an opportunity for scientific research and methodological experimentation and innovation , both in terms of architectural solutions and technical control of the project. In fact , it appears that any architectural project in territorial contexts (climate, soil, subsoil and culture , environmental, social and diverse climate , requires a study and knowledge of the resources and potential of the place where you go to work, to enrich and value the traditions and local identities and transformations stays mixed . Through this activity , it was possible to gather and exchange processes experiment applied between experts from different disciplines and thesis students , thus consolidating an interesting interplay of scientific competition between two universities , which enriches professional , academic and social heritage.

  17. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  18. Quality and reliability management and its applications

    CERN Document Server


    Integrating development processes, policies, and reliability predictions from the beginning of the product development lifecycle to ensure high levels of product performance and safety, this book helps companies overcome the challenges posed by increasingly complex systems in today’s competitive marketplace.   Examining both research on and practical aspects of product quality and reliability management with an emphasis on applications, the book features contributions written by active researchers and/or experienced practitioners in the field, so as to effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and address new research challenges in reliability and quality management in practice.    Postgraduates, researchers and practitioners in the areas of reliability engineering and management, amongst others, will find the book to offer a state-of-the-art survey of quality and reliability management and practices.

  19. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) (United States)

    ... interventions that focus on the interplay between emotional, mental, social, spiritual, and behavioral factors and their influence on health. Examples include prayer, tai chi, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, and yoga. Some techniques that were considered CAM in the ...

  20. Identity and integration in Israel and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiftach Millo


    Full Text Available Expression of non-conforming sexual orientation and gender identitydepends on social, legal, cultural and political opportunities whichprovide space for exploration and the emergence of new identities.People’s protection will also depend on these.

  1. Chapter and Verse: Books, Poetry and Booktalking. (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara


    Discusses the ways in which poetry can be used to highlight literary aspects of children's books, such as characterization, locale, mood and archetypes. Suggestions are offered for the selection and use of poetry by teachers and librarians. (23 references) (CLB)

  2. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  3. Establishment and development political and electoral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Valeria Alexe


    Full Text Available Political marketing is a whole set of theories and methods that can serve to political organizations and public authorities, both to define the objectives and programs and to influence public behavior. Political marketing proves its usefulness from organizing political structures, continuing to benefit political market and going in governance. Besides, grinding, political offers or programs or people, the best political marketing can provide the best way of promoting and refining human resources as appropriate communication tactics.

  4. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)


    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  5. Society and High Skills: contributions and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Aline Casseb da Silva


    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to investigate and understand the importance of investing in high-skilled individual and how the family influences that context. For this, we seek the concepts of intelligence and high ability / giftedness to determine the characteristics of this individual and also to demonstrate through a literature and society and the family influence the behavior of a gifted person.

  6. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan


    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  7. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M


    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 ...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  8. Words and Music: Oral and Literary


    Joe Allard


    Most scholarly and critical work concerning medieval Icelandic literature over the past one hundred and fifty years has assumed that the eleventh and twelfth centuries witnessed a shift in the practice and mode of learning in Iceland from an oral tradition, what Walter Ong terms ‘primary orality’ (Ong 1982: 13), to a mainly literate and literary one. The argument goes that with the invention and development of a method of writing Old Norse/Icelandic after the advent of Christianity, Ic...

  9. Guided Imagery and Music - And Beyond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music.......4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music....

  10. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel


    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting ...... in the absence of wasting and even in overweight children. Thus, food supplementation should be used with caution in populations where stunting is not associated with wasting and low fat stores....

  11. Creativity and destructiveness in art and psychoanalysis


    Marsden, P. M.


    This paper focuses on the creativity of the patient in analysis and compares it to that of the artist. Taking artists’ descriptions of their practices as its starting point, the paper suggests that the relationship between patient and analyst parallels that between artist and medium. Psychoanalysis and artistic process can both be seen in terms of a complex interplay between oneness and separateness in which aggression and destructiveness play an essential part. The paper includes a discussio...

  12. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server


    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  13. Multimedia encryption and watermarking encryption and watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko; Socek, Daniel


    ""Multimedia Encryption and Watermarking"" presents a comprehensive survey of contemporary multimedia encryption and watermarking techniques, which enable a secure exchange of multimedia intellectual property. Part I, Digital Rights Management (DRM) for Multimedia, introduces DRM concepts and models for multimedia content protection, and presents the key players. Part II, Multimedia Cryptography, provides an overview of modern cryptography, with the focus on modern image, video, speech, and audio encryption techniques. This book also provides an advanced concept of visual and audio sharing tec

  14. Gifts and exchanges problems, frustrations, and triumphs

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S; Denning, Catherine


    This important book explores the many questions challenging librarians who work with gifts and exchanges (G&E) as part of their daily responsibilities. Too often, because of shrinking library budgets, library gifts are considered burdensome and unprofitable drains on both financial and personnel resources. However, Gifts and Exchanges: Problems, Frustrations, . . . and Triumphs gives you solutions that will allow you to embrace your library's gifts as rewards. In this book, you will discover the latest ways of disposing unwanted materials, planning and holding book sales and auctions, and oper

  15. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I


    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  16. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others


    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  17. Growth and development: hereditary and mechanical modulations. (United States)

    Mao, Jeremy J; Nah, Hyun-Duck


    Growth and development is the net result of environmental modulation of genetic inheritance. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and fibrogenic cells: the first 2 are chiefly responsible for endochondral ossification, and the last 2 for sutural growth. Cells are influenced by genes and environmental cues to migrate, proliferate, differentiate, and synthesize extracellular matrix in specific directions and magnitudes, ultimately resulting in macroscopic shapes such as the nose and the chin. Mechanical forces, the most studied environmental cues, readily modulate bone and cartilage growth. Recent experimental evidence demonstrates that cyclic forces evoke greater anabolic responses of not only craniofacial sutures, but also cranial base cartilage. Mechanical forces are transmitted as tissue-borne and cell-borne mechanical strain that in turn regulates gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and matrix synthesis, the totality of which is growth and development. Thus, hereditary and mechanical modulations of growth and development share a common pathway via genes. Combined approaches using genetics, bioengineering, and quantitative biology are expected to bring new insight into growth and development, and might lead to innovative therapies for craniofacial skeletal dysplasia including malocclusion, dentofacial deformities, and craniofacial anomalies such as cleft palate and craniosynostosis, as well as disorders associated with the temporomandibular joint.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudinei Lombardi


    Full Text Available Education and teaching are determined by the mode of production of material life. The way the men make their material life, and their relationships in this context – the relations of production and the productive forces - are essential to learn the way the men live, think, and transmit their thoughts and knowledge that they have about life and about natural and social reality. This is the premise present in Marx and Engel’s works that must guide the scholars of education in the effort to situate it in the Capitalist mode of production of existence.

  19. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else


    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  20. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies......An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  1. Childhood Overweight and Obesity (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  2. Institutionalism "Old" and "New." (United States)

    Selznick, Philip


    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  3. Carbohydrates and Depression. (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.


    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  4. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  5. Hypnosis and the Child. (United States)

    Place, Maurice


    Discusses the nature and value of hypnosis; rating scales and their clinical relevance; the role of self-hypnosis; and clinical studies related to anxiety, hysteria, enuresis, asthma, and pain and painful procedures. (RH)

  6. Estrogen and Bazedoxifene (United States)

    ... frequent and stop and women may experience other symptoms and body changes). Estrogen and bazedoxifene tablets are also used to prevent osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and ...

  7. Spaying and Neutering (United States)

    ... of unwanted dogs and cats, including puppies and kittens, are euthanized. The good news is that responsible ... to prevent the birth of unwanted puppies and kittens. Spaying and neutering prevent unwanted litters and may ...

  8. Model Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mangani, P


    This title includes: Lectures - G.E. Sacks - Model theory and applications, and H.J. Keisler - Constructions in model theory; and, Seminars - M. Servi - SH formulas and generalized exponential, and J.A. Makowski - Topological model theory.

  9. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  10. Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Kissal


    Full Text Available Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findings of abuse. Health professionals who support elder-especially nurse- shouldn’t only deal with this subject but also they should be educated about diagnosing, reporting and attempting. This paper’s aim is to inform people about the evaluation of risk-factors, findings and prevention of elder abuse and neglect and to increase sensitivity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 357-364

  11. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    Alcohol is used all over the world and in most Western societies, the average intake is high. Alcohol is associated with more than 60 diseases and globally, 4% of all deaths are attributable to alcohol. The aim of the present thesis is to study associations between alcohol intake and risk...... with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...... that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...

  12. Childhood cancer and vitamins: prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Stallings, Virginia A


    Discussions of pediatric nutrition and cancer usually focus on important issues of ensuring an adequate nutrient intake (enteral and parenteral) during and after the early treatment phase of care. However, information is available that suggests that vitamin status may have additional roles in the care of children with cancer. Over the last decade, investigators have reported findings that suggest that maternal preconception and perinatal vitamin intake and status influence the cancer risk of the infant and child. Others have shown a relationship between vitamin and antioxidant status and the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects for children undergoing chemotherapy. Vitamin D has potential anti-cancer activity and vitamin D status is suboptimal in many children in North America. Each of these issues is briefly presented from a perspective of prevention and treatment of childhood cancer.

  13. Discrete and continuous simulation theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita


    When it comes to discovering glitches inherent in complex systems-be it a railway or banking, chemical production, medical, manufacturing, or inventory control system-developing a simulation of a system can identify problems with less time, effort, and disruption than it would take to employ the original. Advantageous to both academic and industrial practitioners, Discrete and Continuous Simulation: Theory and Practice offers a detailed view of simulation that is useful in several fields of study.This text concentrates on the simulation of complex systems, covering the basics in detail and exploring the diverse aspects, including continuous event simulation and optimization with simulation. It explores the connections between discrete and continuous simulation, and applies a specific focus to simulation in the supply chain and manufacturing field. It discusses the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the basic and traditional form of simulation. It addresses future trends and technologies for simulation, with par...

  14. Trust and Confidence and the Digital Economy: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Cordell


    Full Text Available Globalization and technological change continue to profoundly affect economic growth and wealth creation. Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs have been a key enabler and driver of globalization, which is likely to continue as trade and investment barriers continue to fall and communications become ever cheaper, easier and more functional. "National" economies, created by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, will continue to blend into a 21st century integrated, digital world economy, with an increasingly global division of labour. Every economy requires a physical, institutional and legal infrastructure, as well as understandable and enforceable marketplace rules, in order to function smoothly. In this paper the authors maintain that such an infrastructure must be developed for the new digital economy and society, one which provides trust and confidence for all those who operate in or are affected by it. An infrastructure that is an amalgam based on hardware, software, networks and a way of doing business which offers predictability, dispute resolution, legal recourse, policing powers against fraud,authentication, etc. The building of such an infrastructure is a necessary condition for the development and efficient functioning of a global, digital economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the effect of globalization in general and from the viewpoint of the small and medium sized companies in the Republic of Macedonia, as a typical developing economy. Our survey of 100 managers and business owners from small and medium sized enterprises indicates that they tend to perceive the globalization with more conservative glasses as negative, or at the best, as a neutral phenomenon to their overall business prospects. However, to harvest the apparent opportunities of the globalization and to achieve the desired internationalization of their businesses, they call for intensive regional cooperation seeing it as a gateway to much harsher realms of the globalized market. The literature review and the examples from some other countries support these conservative standing of our managers and offer practical explanations why the approach towards the globalization is conservative and often even negative. Small business is important provider of new jobs, ideas and business concepts. However, with the opening of the global market it is a constant pursue for customers all around the world, having to meet their diverse and rapidly changing needs and facing extremely shortened delivery terms and product lifecycles. Many small companies, particularly from the developing countries are not adequately prepared to face the reality of this challenge. On the other hand, the big multinational companies receive more than hefty incentives to invest into the developing countries and that creates additional negative sentiments towards the globalization among the local companies.

  16. Sodomy and kingcraft in Urania and Antony and Cleopatra. (United States)

    Hanson, E


    Despite his description of sodomy as a horrible crime that a king is "bound in conscience neuer to forgiue," James I pursued the affections of a string of young and handsome "favourites" on whom he lavished gifts, titles, and power. Relying on the evidence of the King's own letters and frank comments from his Puritan critics, most historians assume that his relations with some of these men were sexual. The King's friendship with Robert Carr (who was later made Earl of Somerset), coupled with his estrangement from Queen Anne, may have been an inspiration for at least two literary accounts of kingship confounded by sex: Lady Mary Wroth's Urania (1621) and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra (1608). Wroth describes a duke who is made politically vulnerable by his love for a young man that leaves him "issue-les." The rise and fall of this disloyal companion closely resembles that of Somerset and would seem to indicate Wroth's belief that the King's relationship with the Earl was sexual. Antony and Cleopatra is in many ways a reflection of Jacobean court extravagance and decadence. Cleopatra, despite her sex, seems to fill the same role in political and sexual scandal as did Somerset; and Antony's vacillation between pleasure and duty recalls a certain Renaissance discourse on sodomy and "kingcraft".

  17. Space and time in masking and crowding. (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri


    Masking and crowding are major phenomena associated with contextual modulations, but the relationship between them remains unclear. We have recently shown that crowding is apparent in the fovea when the time available for processing is limited, pointing to the strong relationship between crowding in the spatial and temporal domains. Models of crowding emphasize the size (acuity) of the target and the spacing between the target and flankers as the main determinants that predict crowding. Our model, which is based on lateral interactions, posits that masking and crowding are related in the spatial and temporal domains at the fovea and periphery and that both can be explained by the increasing size of the human perceptive field (PF) with increasing eccentricity. We explored the relations between masking and crowding using letter identification and contrast detection by correlating the crowding effect with the estimated size of the PF and with masking under different spatiotemporal conditions. We found that there is a large variability in PF size and crowding effects across observers. Nevertheless, masking and crowding were both correlated with the estimated size of the PF in the fovea and periphery under a specific range of spatiotemporal parameters. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, crowding and masking share common neural mechanisms that underlie the spatiotemporal properties of these phenomena in both the fovea and periphery. These results could explain the transfer of training gains from spatiotemporal Gabor masking to letter acuity, reading, and reduced crowding.

  18. Measuring and managing pain and performance. (United States)

    Simmonds, Maureen J


    Pain and movement dysfunction are invariant sensory and motor expressions of health disorders. They are also complex, inter-related problems and may be accompanied by fatigue and depressed mood. Optimum management is predicated on the appropriate selection, application and interpretation of assessment measures. Research on pain and physical function using physical performance tests has shown that regardless of whether pain and impairment is a consequence of musculo-skeletal injury or systemic disease such as cancers, pain-free individuals outperform those with pain in terms of movement speed and endurance ability across a variety of performance tests (e.g. walk and reach tests, and repeated sit-to-stand and trunk flexion tests). Slow movements are characterized by fractionated and extraneous movement patterns. They are also associated with a relatively high level of muscle activity (amplitude and duration) throughout the task compared to fast movements. Slow movements are also relatively inefficient in terms of physiological energy and time burden. For a similar level of effort, individuals with pain are able to perform significantly less work. Our research has shown that individuals with pain move slower across a range of self-selected movement speeds i.e. slow, preferred and fast speeds. It is also apparent that patients systematically over estimate expected pain during task performance at faster speeds. Preliminary work using speed targeted treatment shows promise in terms of improving physical performance and reducing the burden of illness and physical dysfunction.

  19. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J


    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  20. Electrochemical and mechanical polishing and shaping method and system (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Jones, William David (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Benson, Carl M. (Inventor)


    A method and system are provided for the shaping and polishing of the surface of a material selected from the group consisting of electrically semi-conductive materials and conductive materials. An electrically non-conductive polishing lap incorporates a conductive electrode such that, when the polishing lap is placed on the material's surface, the electrode is placed in spaced-apart juxtaposition with respect to the material's surface. A liquid electrolyte is disposed between the material's surface and the electrode. The electrolyte has an electrochemical stability constant such that cathodic material deposition on the electrode is not supported when a current flows through the electrode, the electrolyte and the material. As the polishing lap and the material surface experience relative movement, current flows through the electrode based on (i) adherence to Faraday's Law, and (ii) a pre-processing profile of the surface and a desired post-processing profile of the surface.

  1. College Stores and Computers and Students and Faculty. (United States)

    Newcomb, Jack, Ed.


    Information on the computer industry and computer use by students, faculty, and the publishing industry that may be useful in planning college store merchandising is compiled from a variety of sources. (MSE)

  2. Serotonin and emotion, learning and memory. (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Liy-Salmeron, Gustavo


    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamien, 5-HT) has been linked to emotional and motivational aspects of human behavior, including anxiety, depression, impulsivity, etc. Several clinically effective drugs exert effects via 5-HT systems. Growing evidence suggests that those effects play an important role in learning and memory. Whether the role of serotonin is related to memory and/or behavioral or emotional aspects remains an important question. A key question that remains is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) directly or indirectly participate and/or contribute to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis. The major aim of this paper is to re-examine some recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT receptors and transporter in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for memory. We particularly address evidence involving 5-HT systems in behavioral, pharmacological, molecular, genetic and imaging results and memory. Finally, this paper aims to summarize a portion of the evidence about serotonin, memory and emotion from animal and human studies and provide an overview of potential tools, markers and cellular and molecular candidate mechanisms. It should be noted that there are several subjects that this paper only briefly touches upon, presenting only what may be the most salient findings in the context of memory, emotion and serotonin.

  3. Reading and Writing and Cognitive Strategies (United States)

    VanDeWeghe, Rick, Ed.


    This article takes a closer look at teaching in classrooms by reviewing a recent article by Carol Booth Olson and Robert Land, literacy researchers and National Writing Project site directors. In "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" (EJ776476), Olson and Land report…

  4. Methods and Strategies: Math and Science Night (United States)

    Sullivan, Joan; Hatton, Mary


    Family Math and Science Nights engage students and parents in active investigations tied to the curriculum in a fun, informal environment. Through this program, families actively explore math and science ideas, discover together through guided inquiry, and apply their discoveries to solve a problem at the end. All activities are hands-on, use…

  5. Pride and prejudice in Pride and prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Darcy and Elizabeth are the representative characters in Pride and Prejudice who filled with pride and prejudice.Jane Austen who was a British famous novelist,she had created the representative characters(Darcy and Elizabeth);what's more,she had something

  6. Current and future inspection and maintenance challenges (United States)

    Bhagat, Pramode K.; Bessette, Lorence; Leonelli, Fredrick


    Ever-increasing diversity of civilian aircraft inventory and continued technological advancements in aircraft materials, aircraft flight control equipment, testing equipment, and software methodologies are impacting aircraft inspection and maintenance practices. Current procedures deal mainly with issues related to structural and electrical or electronic integrity to assure continued airworthiness of operational aircraft. Techniques and methodologies for these are widely available, and training needs are well defined. Advances in technology, however, are yielding new and different aircraft, which require more sophisticated electronic instruments for navigation and control.A major issue is the continued reliability and airworthiness of avionics and development of adequate safeguards for these aircraft. Built-in test equipment, maintenance across terminals, and data bases defining inspection needs that are based on operational data, and software integrity, are also rapidly becoming important considerations in aircraft maintenance. In this era of declining funds and personnel resources, a cost-effective approach requires a fresh look at all phases of the current inspection and maintenance practices, including oversight and management. This paper provides a perspective on issues and challenges facing a civilian regulatory agency, specifically, the aircraft maintenance division in the FAA.

  7. Coatings and Biodegradable and Bioasorbable Films (United States)


    the plasticizing effects of vegetable oil macromonomers as incorporated into emulsion polymers for efficient almost zero VOC film formation and the...coating and packaging needs. Specifically focusing on the plasticizing effects of vegetable oil macromonomers as incorporated into emulsion polymers for...focused on research and development of environmentally responsible biobased technology such as vegetable oil derived monomers and cosolvent-free

  8. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu


    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  9. RFIC and MMIC design and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, I D


    This book gives an in-depth account of GaAs, InP and SiGe, technologies and describes all the key techniques for the design of amplifiers,ranging from filters and data converters to image oscillators, mixers, switches, variable attenuators, phase shifters, integrated antennas and complete monolithic transceivers.

  10. Desire and Seduction: Multiculturalism and festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.


    This article addresses the question how ethnic identities are framed at festivals and which role consumption and commoditization play in this process. It looks at three kinds of festivals, multicultural, ethnic and neighbourhood festivals, and is based on observations at several festivals as well as

  11. Diet and colorectal cancer risk and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Kampman, E.


    Unhealthy dietary and other lifestyle factors account for 20–45% of all colorectal cancer cases. Being overweight or obese, having a high intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer, while a high intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables, foods containin

  12. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University (United States)

    Halsey, A. H.


    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  13. Fuels and Lubricants. Selecting and Storing. (United States)

    Parady, W. Harold; Colvin, Thomas S.

    The manual presents basic information for the person who plans to operate or service tractors, trucks, industrial engines, and automobiles. It tells how to select the proper fuels and lubricants and how to store them properly. Although there are no prerequisites to the study of the text, a general knowledge of engines and mobile-type vehicles is…

  14. Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors (United States)

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte


    This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

  15. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.


    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  16. Correlations and Fluctuations: Status and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker; Koch, Volker


    We will provide an overview of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. Observables, which have been discussed in the literature will be briefly reviewed and put in context with experiment and information from Lattice QCD. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region.

  17. Sugar and Spice vs. Snips and Snails. (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia


    Discusses differences between girls and boys, focusing on pitfalls and perils specific to each gender, offering research on differences in their development and educational experiences, explaining how the different sexes self-blame, and noting good news for girls related to equal educational opportunities. The paper concludes that the problems of…

  18. Biofuels and Fisheries: Risks and Opportunities . (United States)

    A rapidly developing biofuels industry in the U.S. and around the globe poses novel environmental challenges and opportunities, with implications for teh health and sustainability of fisheries. Changes in land uses and agricultural practices for production of biofuel feedstocks ...

  19. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah


    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  20. Approaches and methods for monitoring and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van B.C.


    The aim of many agricultural innovation networks is to realize a system innovation. With system innovation, whole production and consumption systems change, including social relationships, division of roles, formal rules and values, and the technical artefacts and infrastructure. This type of innova

  1. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery. (United States)

    Mould, R F


    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  2. Rituals and Routines: Supporting Infants and Toddlers and Their Families (United States)

    Gillespie, Linda; Petersen, Sandra


    The words "routine" and "ritual" are sometimes used interchangeably. Yet there are some important differences. Routines are repeated, predictable events that provide a foundation for the daily tasks in a child's life. Teachers can create a predictable routine in early childhood settings for infants and toddlers, and they can individualize those…

  3. Occupational Therapy and overweight and obese people: Knowledge and sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes da Silva


    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide phenomenon that affects both the rich and poor populations. It results from the action of environmental factors, dietary habits, physical activity and psychological conditions on individuals genetically predisposed to present excess adipose tissue. The impact of obesity can be measured by its influence on the quality of life. Occupational therapy has developed a significant role within the interdisciplinary treatment of obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe the experience of the work of occupational therapists in an interdisciplinary group for adult and elderly people presenting overweight and obesity in an extension project of a private university in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state. The Occupational Therapy team performed weekly interdisciplinary care, assessment, planning, organization of the therapeutic setting and occupational therapy intervention. The team was composed by an occupational therapy teacher, a scholar and five volunteer undergraduate students. The service group was open to new components, caregivers, and family and community members. Playful, cognitive, bodily, physical and productive occupational therapy activities were used in the sessions. These activities favored positive outcomes in mental, emotional and social dimensions. Thus, the project enabled the visibility of Occupational Therapy at the university, as well as the growth and expansion of academic and occupational knowledge on therapeutic intervention in obesity.

  4. Digital and discrete geometry theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li


    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the modern methods for geometric problems in the computing sciences. It also covers concurrent topics in data sciences including geometric processing, manifold learning, Google search, cloud data, and R-tree for wireless networks and BigData.The author investigates digital geometry and its related constructive methods in discrete geometry, offering detailed methods and algorithms. The book is divided into five sections: basic geometry; digital curves, surfaces and manifolds; discretely represented objects; geometric computation and processing; and a

  5. Combinatorial and computational mathematics present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungpyo; Kim, Ki Hang; Roush, Fred W


    This book describes and summarizes past work in important areas of combinatorics and computation, as well as gives directions for researchers working in these areas in the 21st century. It contains primarily survey papers and presents original research by Peter Fishburn, Jim Ho Kwak, Jaeun Lee, K H Kim, F W Roush and Susan Williams. The papers deal with some of the most exciting and promising developments in the areas of coding theory in relation to number theory, lattice theory and its applications, graph theory and its applications, topological techniques in combinatorics, symbolic dynamics

  6. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI


    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  7. Nanoscale and microscale phenomena fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer


    The book is an outcome of research work in the areas of nanotechnology, interfacial science, nano- and micro-fluidics and manufacturing, soft matter, and transport phenomena at nano- and micro-scales. The contributing authors represent prominent research groups from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The book has 13 chapters and the entire work presented in the chapters is based on research carried out over past three years. The chapters are designed with number of coloured illustrations, figures and tables. The book will be highly beneficial to academicians as well as industrial professionals working in the mentioned areas.

  8. Chromone and Flavonoid Alkaloids: Occurrence and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J. Marles


    Full Text Available The chromone and flavonoid alkaloids represent an unusual group of structurally diverse secondary metabolites, derived from the convergence of multiple biosynthetic pathways that are widely distributed through the plant and animal kingdoms. Many of them have been discovered through bioassay-guided chemical investigations of traditional medicines, suggesting potential therapeutic significance. Their unique structures and varied pharmacological activities may provide important new leads for the discovery of drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Potential therapeutic indications are as diverse as cancer and viral infections, inflammation and immunomodulation, neurological and psychiatric conditions, and diabetes.

  9. Pure and Public, Popular and personal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit


    In the article I reexamine the traditional aesthetical and political critiques of popular culture and reevaluate the social and communicative potential of bestselling cultural artifacts such as highly popular television series. First, I sketch the alleged aesthetic and social problems of popular...... and the exclusions of the public sphere. I argue that the ideals of a pure aesthetic and a public sphere neglect issues that are crucial to the type of commonality at stake in popular cultural artifacts: personal issues, social conflicts, and what is pleasurable to the senses or has to do with emotions. Third, I...

  10. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization. (United States)

    Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas


    The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  11. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko


    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  12. Gender and distance between intention and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Araújo


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the perceptions of men and women on the compatibility between paid jobs and family, from the standpoint of gender relations. Based upon the results of a survey carried out in Brazil in 2004, it is examined whether there is a rapport between more equalitarian perceptions regarding gender and more shared attitudes regarding household work. There is also an attempt to identify the weight and the extent to which various factors (e.g. cultural, socioeconomic, and demographic are relevant to the existence of values and routine practices that entail the perception of more balanced and symmetrical marital relations.

  13. Direct and indirect laryngoscopy: equipment and techniques. (United States)

    Collins, Stephen R


    Visualization of the larynx by direct or indirect means is referred to as laryngoscopy and is the principal aim during airway management for passage of a tracheal tube. This paper presents a brief background regarding the development and practice of laryngoscopy and examines the equipment and techniques for both direct and indirect methods. Patient evaluation during the airway examination is discussed, as are predictors for difficult intubation. Laryngoscope blade design, newer intubating techniques, and a variety of indirect laryngoscopic technologies are reviewed, as is the learning curve for these techniques and devices.

  14. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  15. Pychoanalysis and art, Freud and Leonardo. (United States)

    Blum, H P


    Freud was the first to apply psychoanalysis to art, choosing for his subject the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci. Observing Leonardo's partly fused image of the Virgin and St. Anne, he inferred that the artist had depicted his two mothers, his biological mother and his stepmother. This very early analytic discourse on parent loss and adoption changed the course of the interpretation of art. Freud explored the psychology of art, the artist, and aesthetic appreciation. Confronting the age-old enigma of the Mona Lisa, he proposed a daring solution to the riddle of the sphinxlike smile of this icon of art. His paper prefigures concepts of narcissism, homosexuality, parenting, and sublimation. Lacking modern methodology and theory, Freud's pioneering insights overshadow his naive errors. In this fledgling inquiry, based on a childhood screen memory and limited knowledge of Leonardo's artistic and scientific contributions, Freud identified with this Renaissance genius in his own self-analytic and creative endeavor.

  16. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior. (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M


    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  17. Contractor and government - Teamwork and commitment (United States)

    Griffin, G. D.


    Procedures being implemented at NASA to improve cooperation with contractors and increase productivity are reviewed from the NASA point of view. The goals of the U.S. space program for the coming 25 years are listed, and the importance of the commercial utilization of space in these plans is stressed. Consideration is given to the ongoing American Productivity Center White-Collar Productivity-Improvement Project, the implementation of the recommendations of the 1984 NASA/Contractor Conferences in present and future contracts, and the use of incentive contracts to create situations in which both NASA and the contractor benefit from increased productivity. Future plans call for increased industry responsibility in managing and operating the STS; steamlining of Shuttle operations; advanced design-to-cost procedures, increased commonality, better NASA-contractor communications, and more use of CAD/CAM and robotics for the Space Station; and accommodation of greatly expanded private investment and exploitation of space.

  18. Interdisciplinarity and nursing research: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A


    Interdisciplinary collaboration is widely recognized and considered essential for optimizing the development of knowledge and practice. However, interdisciplinarity is commonly accepted as an unquestioned good; rarely examined as both a source of benefit as well as difficulty for nursing and other disciplines. The aim of this article is to critically examine the opportunities and challenges that interdisciplinarity can provide for research in nursing and other disciplines. Based on a North American perspective, I describe the emergence of uni-disciplinary nursing research and the knowledge exchanges that occurred between nursing and other disciplines. I discuss the rise of interdisciplinary research, outline several examples of nursing participation in interdisciplinarity, and highlight the prominent benefits and difficulties associated with interdisciplinary research. I argue that authentic collaboration is required to conduct meaningful interdisciplinary research and describe how this can be promoted.

  19. Interdisciplinarity and nursing research: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco A. Carnevale


    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is widely recognized and considered essential for optimizing the development of knowledge and practice. However, interdisciplinarity is commonly accepted as an unquestioned good; rarely examined as both a source of benefit as well as difficulty for nursing and other disciplines. The aim of this article is to critically examine the opportunities and challenges that interdisciplinarity can provide for research in nursing and other disciplines. Based on a North American perspective, I describe the emergence of uni-disciplinary nursing research and the knowledge exchanges that occurred between nursing and other disciplines. I discuss the rise of interdisciplinary research, outline several examples of nursing participation in interdisciplinarity, and highlight the prominent benefits and difficulties associated with interdisciplinary research. I argue that authentic collaboration is required to conduct meaningful interdisciplinary research and describe how this can be promoted.

  20. Modeling and Optimization : Theory and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terlaky, Tamás


    This volume contains a selection of contributions that were presented at the Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications Conference (MOPTA) held at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA on August 13-15, 2014. The conference brought together a diverse group of researchers and practitioners, working on both theoretical and practical aspects of continuous or discrete optimization. Topics presented included algorithms for solving convex, network, mixed-integer, nonlinear, and global optimization problems, and addressed the application of deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques in energy, finance, logistics, analytics, healthcare, and other important fields. The contributions contained in this volume represent a sample of these topics and applications and illustrate the broad diversity of ideas discussed at the meeting.

  1. Measurement Errors and Uncertainties Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G


    Measurement Errors and Uncertainties addresses the most important problems that physicists and engineers encounter when estimating errors and uncertainty. Building from the fundamentals of measurement theory, the author develops the theory of accuracy of measurements and offers a wealth of practical recommendations and examples of applications. This new edition covers a wide range of subjects, including: - Basic concepts of metrology - Measuring instruments characterization, standardization and calibration -Estimation of errors and uncertainty of single and multiple measurements - Modern probability-based methods of estimating measurement uncertainty With this new edition, the author completes the development of the new theory of indirect measurements. This theory provides more accurate and efficient methods for processing indirect measurement data. It eliminates the need to calculate the correlation coefficient - a stumbling block in measurement data processing - and offers for the first time a way to obtain...

  2. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors]. (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C


    An important task of the nephrologists during the last century, it has been the search of elements and means that allow us, with the adequate precision, to correlate the functional deterioration of the kidney, and the patient's clinical reality. And the continuous searching of factors and markers that injure them, the prognosis, and early diagnosis, to be able to predict the degree of the organs and patient's survival. Almost parallel survival presage in the natural history of the illness, almost one century ago. In the second half of the XX century, in the developed countries, appear modifications of the social, cultural, and sanitary conditions, that make appear some very different partner-sanitary and epidemic circumstances, and take place like they are, among others: 1. An increase of per cápita private rents, what takes place to increase of the level of social life and the population's health. With increment of the longevity, and smaller incidence and prevalence of classic process, as malnutrition, infections, infantile mortality, so increasing the weight of the cardiovascular diseases and death. This is potentiated for the increment and the incidence of environmental cardiovascular risk's factors (like high caloric and fatty-rich diets, smoke, alcohol, disappearance of the physical work, inactivity, etc). And that situations are also product of the change of the outline of human and social values and guides. 2. Access of the whole population to a sanitary attention of more quality and effectiveness. It allows the biggest survival of patients that suffer vascular crisis, (as angina, miocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident), that few years ago they have had a higher morbimortality and an inferior survival (2). 3. The execution of big epidemic studies has been able to, not only characterize and test with scientific evidence to numerous factors and markers, that induce renal and cardiovascular prejudicial changes, but risk and death probability

  3. Concussion and football: a review and editorial. (United States)

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M


    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Abdala Junior


    Full Text Available Reflections on the literary history and its applicability in teaching of literature. The analysis highlights the concept of impact, viewed from an angle and affirmation of communicative structures of symbolic power. Formulations are discussed involving myth and history and its appropriation by literary series; the process of knowing who has access to the world through literary text; the continuity of the literary repertoire and new appropriations in different contexts, which often renewed.

  5. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka


    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  6. Matter and Elementary Particles : Interactions and Qualities


    Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel


    The elementary interactions of nature are discussed, based on the structure of the atom. Elementary particles are categorized by their qualities, especially their spin and statistics, but as well charge and compound forms among others. The connection to CP-behaviour and the different elementary interactions are discussed, as well as some open questions and ideas in modern elementary particle physics.The modern physical understanding of matter is reviewed, parting from Quantum Mechanics and Ge...

  7. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring


    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  8. Emergence and Transformation of Clusters and Milieus


    Vazquez-Barquero, Antonio


    A renewed interest in the location of the productive activity has appeared during the last two decades. The literature analyzes a great number of cases of local productive systems in which all types of activities are produced and which locate in regions and countries with different levels of development (Altenburg and Meyer-Stamer, 1999; Rosenfeld, 1997; Staber, 1997; Porter, 1998). Electronics in Silicon Valley, U.S.A. and Silicon Glen in Scotland, but also in Guadalajara, Mexico and in Pena...

  9. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  10. Globalization and health: results and options. (United States)

    Cornia, G A


    The last two decades have witnessed the emergence and consolidation of an economic paradigm which emphasizes domestic deregulation and the removal of barriers to international trade and finance. If properly managed, such an approach can lead to perceptible gains in health status. Where markets are non-exclusionary, regulatory institutions strong and safety nets in place, globalization enhances the performance of countries with a good human and physical infrastructure but narrow domestic markets. Health gains in China, Costa Rica, the East Asian "tiger economies" and Viet Nam can be attributed in part to their growing access to global markets, savings and technology. However, for most of the remaining countries, many of them in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, globalization has not lived up to its promises due to a combination of poor domestic conditions, an unequal distribution of foreign investments and the imposition of new conditions further limiting the access of their exports to the OECD markets. In these developing countries, the last twenty years have brought about a slow, unstable and unequal pattern of growth and stagnation in health indicators. Autarky is not the answer to this situation, but neither is premature, unconditional and unselective globalization. Further unilateral liberalization is unlikely to help them to improve their economic performance and health conditions. For them, a gradual and selective integration into the world economy linked to the removal of asymmetries in global markets and to the creation of democratic institutions of global governance is preferable to instant globalization.

  11. Saints and Sainthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas


    Saints are central for personal devotion, as intercessors and mediators between humanity and God, and as models for emulation. Relationships with and images of saints and holy figures are by no means fixed, but have developed, mirrored and challenged different times and cultures. Sainthood is a p...

  12. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 63 RIN 2060-AQ25; 2060-AO12 Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'': Mr. Brian Shrager, Energy...

  13. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor


    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  14. China Population and Developmenl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) paid great attention to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. One of the top priorities of the ICPD Programme of Action is to provide adolescents with necessary sexual and reproductive health information and services, ensure their right to reproductive health education and services, and help them develop risk-free behaviours and healthy lifestyles.

  15. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)


    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and a

  16. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks. (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan


    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts.

  17. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin


    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  18. Women and radicalization


    Badran, Margot


    The paper focuses on women and radicalization within the context of Muslim societies (majority, minority, and half Muslim) societies and groups, mainly in Asia and Africa. The basic argument advanced in this paper is that Islamic feminism with its gender-egalitarian discourse and practices has a major role to play in the empowerment of Muslim women—and of men and society as a whole—and should be brought to bear in devising policy, strategy, and tools.

  19. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA


    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  20. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R


    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  1. Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Challenges (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya


    Nanotechnology seeks to exploit novel physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and other properties, which arise primarily due to the nanoscale nature of certain materials. A key example is carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which exhibit unique electrical and extraordinary mechanical properties and offer remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing, and data storage technology, sensors, composites, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization, and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. This presentation will provide an overview and progress report on this and other major research candidates in Nanotechnology and address opportunities and challenges ahead.

  2. Farm Health and Safety (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  3. Theory and Computation (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Flexible computational infrastructure, software tools and theoretical consultation are provided to support modeling and understanding of the structure and properties...

  4. Adventure and Extreme Sports. (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin


    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  5. Biosolids and Sludge Management. (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena


    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kyriakou


    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction in Thalassaemia major (TM is a common and disturbing complication, which requires prompt recognition and treatment. The contribution of the underlying molecular defect in TM to the development of endocrinopathies is significant because the patients with the more severe genetic defects have a greater rate of iron loading through higher red cell consumption. TM patients frequently present delay of growth and puberty with reduction of final height. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial and is mainly due to chronic anemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid deficiency, iron overload, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, and endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism and GH-IGF-1 axis dysregulation. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. Body disproportion is independent of prepubertal or pubertal period of greater height gain. Treatment with recombinant GH (rhGH is recommended when GH deficiency is established, and even so, the therapeutic response is often non satisfactory. Growth acceleration is mostly promoted with sex steroids in children with associated pubertal delay. Sexual complications in TM, which include Delayed Puberty, Arrested Puberty and Hypogonadism, present the commonest endocrine complication. Iron deposition on gonadotroph cells of the pituitary leads to disruption of gonadotrophin production which is proven by the poor response of FSH and LH to GnRH stimulation. In the majority of patients gonadal function is normal as most women with Amenorrhea are capable of achieving pregnancy with hormonal treatment and similarly men with azoospermia become fathers. Secondary Hypogonadism appears later in life,    and is manifested in women as

  7. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef


    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  8. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austin expresses successfully her viewpoints of marriage and love. This paper tempts to make a deep analysis of these four marriages, and shows how one’s character affects one’s attitudes toward love and marriage. We can see the combination of vulgar Collins and common Charlotte results in a practical marriage, and their marriage has no love;the combination of dissolute Wickhame and flirtatious Lydia results in a sex-oriented marriage, this marriage is without love either, the combination of pleasant Bingley and mild Jane results in a conventional marriage with love, the combination of decent Darcy and sensible Elizabeth results not only in a successful marriage, but also they have got something more than Jane-Bingley mar-riage.

  9. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities. (United States)

    Martin, Ambroise


    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  10. Occupational Health and Safety and Employer Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå


    It is often argued and supported by a number of case studies that investment in human factors and occupational health and safety can pay. But any employer has a number of possible in-vestments, and many of these may have a larger marginal utility than health and safety. In addition it is often...... difficult to calculate the exact pay off for human factors and health and safety – how to calculate higher motivation for instance. The economic benefit as a possible driving force for improvement of occupational health and safety is likely to exist but it must be considered a relatively weak force. Another...... possible motivator is state regulation but it does not by itself constitute a strong motivator as the frequency of inspections and the level of fines are low in most countries. But as a signal about legitimacy it is an important factor. It is the necessity to secure legitimacy which seems to be the most...

  11. Occuptional Health and Safety and Employer Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå


    It is often argued and supported by a number of case studies that investment in human factors and occupational health and safety can pay. But any employer has a number of possible in-vestments, and many of these may have a larger marginal utility than health and safety. In addition it is often...... difficult to calculate the exact pay off for human factors and health and safety – how to calculate higher motivation for instance. The economic benefit as a possible driving force for improvement of occupational health and safety is likely to exist but it must be considered a relatively weak force. Another...... possible motivator is state regulation but it does not by itself constitute a strong motivator as the frequency of inspections and the level of fines are low in most countries. But as a signal about legitimacy it is an important factor. It is the necessity to secure legitimacy which seems to be the most...

  12. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph


    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  13. Engineering and Sustainability: Attitudes and Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen


    Full Text Available The results of an extensive survey of engineers and engineering students suggest there is a strong focus on the implementation of sustainability concepts, actions and measures in engineering. The main sustainable technology priorities are using less energy and natural resources, reducing emissions and material wastes, and utilizing renewable, recyclable and recycled materials. Sustainable engineering within organizations is mainly driven by regulatory requirements, rising energy costs and client demand, but challenges to sustainable engineering like economics need to be addressed to increase the incorporation of sustainability in engineering. Nonetheless, about two-thirds of practicing engineers have worked on sustainable products and processes, and over half of engineering students are involved with sustainable design in their studies.

  14. Work and leisure time sitting and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart


    physical activity (MVPA) with cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 2308 adults from the Health2006 cohort were followed for five years. Work sitting, leisure time sitting and MVPA were self-reported and cardiorespiratory fitness (Vo2max) was estimated......BACKGROUND: Prospective relationships between sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory and metabolic markers need to be better delineated in adults with different physical activity levels. We examined the separate and combined relationships of work and leisure time sitting and moderate to vigorous...... investigated by multiple linear regression analyses, as were the reverse associations with weight status (body mass index and waist circumference). RESULTS: Baseline leisure time sitting predicted increased insulin (p work sitting predicted decreased...

  15. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy]. (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz


    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.


    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  17. Problems and proofs in numbers and algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Millman, Richard S; Kahn, Eric Brendan


    Designed to facilitate the transition from undergraduate calculus and differential equations to learning about proofs, this book helps students develop the rigorous mathematical reasoning needed for advanced courses in analysis, abstract algebra, and more. Students will focus on both how to prove theorems and solve problem sets in-depth; that is, where multiple steps are needed to prove or solve. This proof technique is developed by examining two specific content themes and their applications in-depth: number theory and algebra. This choice of content themes enables students to develop an understanding of proof technique in the context of topics with which they are already familiar, as well as reinforcing natural and conceptual understandings of mathematical methods and styles. The key to the text is its interesting and intriguing problems, exercises, theorems, and proofs, showing how students will transition from the usual, more routine calculus to abstraction while also learning how to “prove” or “sol...

  18. Integral and discrete inequalities and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming


    This book focuses on one- and multi-dimensional linear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It provides a useful collection and systematic presentation of known and new results, as well as many applications to differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. With this work the author fills a gap in the literature on inequalities, offering an ideal source for researchers in these topics. The present volume is part 1 of the author’s two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i.e., differential, difference and integral equations.

  19. Orthopaedic research and education foundation and industry. (United States)

    Wurth, Gene R; Sherr, Judy H; Coffman, Thomas M


    Members of orthopaedic industry commit a significant amount of funds each year to support research and education programs that are directly related to their product(s). In addition, industry supports organizations such as the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation. The relationship between the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and industry began in the early 1980s. The support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation from industry primarily has come in the form of unrestricted grants. These grants best can be looked at as an investment rather than a contribution. This form of giving, once called corporate philanthropy is more accurately referred to as strategic philanthropy. Members of industry make these investments to enhance their reputations, build brand awareness, market their products and services, improve employee morale, increase customer loyalty, and establish strategic alliances. The specialty of orthopaedics is among the leaders in medicine in the amount of funding raised within the specialty for research and education programs. This is because of the amount of support from members of industry and the surgeons. During the past 15 years, 40% of the annual support to the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation has come from industry and the balance has come from surgeons and members of lay public. Future industry support of the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and other organizations within the specialty of orthopaedics will be dependent on the continued demonstration of tangible returns in areas described.

  20. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery. (United States)

    Werner, Emmy E


    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.

  1. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  2. LHCOPN and LHCONE: Status and Future Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Edoardo; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    The LHC Optical Private Network (LHCOPN), linking CERN and the Tier 1s, and the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) which links these to the Tier 2 community both successfully supported the data transfer needs of the LHC community during Run 1 and have now evolved to serve the networking requirements of the new computing models for Run 2. We present here the current status and the key changes, notably the delivered and planned bandwidth increases, the ongoing work to better address the needs of the Asia-Pacific region, developments to improve redundancy and progress made for provisioning point-to-point links.

  3. Predicting Sets and Lists: Theory and Practice (United States)


    Since receding horizon control plans for longer horizons it achieves better plans and minimizes the chances of getting stuck [Knepper and Mason 2009...A. Roth , G. Schoenebeck, and K. Talwar 2010. Constrained non-monotone submodular maximization: Offline and secretary algo- rithms. CoRR, abs/1003.1517...2007. 6th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on, Pp. 225– 234. IEEE. 6.2.3, 6.2.5 Knepper, R. A. and M. T. Mason 2009. Path diversity is only part

  4. Value and Politics of China and Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuhua


    The 17th National Congress stressed that the Party must keep to the path of political development under socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since the introduction of the reform and opening up policy, China's economy has developed quickly, supplementing its political construction. Progress in the economy and political development have raised China's confidence and made the Chinese system more attractive to the rest of the world. Though China's political development has been achieved under the correct democratic development viewpoint, difficulties may yet arise, and China may need to look outside to other political achievements; importantly, China has the confidence and determination to make its political development harmonious, orderly and effective.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the value and significance that Arendt and Nietzsche attribute to the role played by memory and by the promise in constituting the political and in safeguarding the freedom and plurality of human actionEste artículo compara el valor y el significado que Arendt y Nietzsche otorgan a la memoria y a la promesa para la constitución de lo político así como para la salvaguardia de la libertad y de la pluralidad humana

  6. Fraud and plagiarisim in school and career. (United States)

    Agud, J L


    Between 0% and 94% of university students acknowledge having committed academic fraud. Its forms are varied: cheating on examinations, submitting someone else's work, plagiarism, false citations, false reporting on experiments, tests or findings in the medical history and physical examination, unfair behavior toward fellow students, and many others. The consequences of academic fraud include learning corruption, useless efforts by students and faculty, incorrect performance evaluations and unfair selection for jobs. Since this can be a prelude to future fraud as doctors or researches, the prevalence, risk factors, motivations, clinical appearances, detection and prevention of the disease of academic fraud are here reviewed.

  7. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health (United States)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  8. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation. (United States)

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian


    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans.

  9. Nuclear and Radiochemistry Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lieser, Karl Heinrich


    This handbook gives a complete and concise description of the up-to-date knowledge of nuclear and radiochemsitry and applications in the various fields of science. I is based on teaching courses and on research for over 40 years. The book is addressed to any researcher whishing sound knowledge about the properties of matter, be it a chemist, a physicist, a medical doctor, a mineralogist or a biologist. They will all find it a valuable source of information about the principles and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. Research in radiochemistry includes: Study of radioactice matter in na

  10. Electrical and electronic principles and technology

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird


    This much-loved textbook introduces electrical and electronic principles and technology to students who are new to the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions really help aid your understanding and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have mastered each subject. In total the books contains 410 worked problems, 540 further problems, 340 multiple-choice questions, 455 short-answer questions, and 7 revision tests with answers online.This an ideal text for vocational courses enabling a s

  11. SSL and TLS Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Oppliger, Rolf


    SSL (secure socket layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are widely deployed security protocols that are used in all kinds of web-based e-commerce and e-business applications and are part of most contemporary security systems available today. This practical book provides a comprehensive introduction to these protocols, offering you a solid understanding of their design. You find discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using SSL/TLS protocols compared to other Internet security protocols. This authoritative resource shows how to properly employ SSL and TLS and configure security

  12. Preferences and design in insurance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth

    Life insurance and pension decisions are of the more important fnancial settlements to be decided in a household. In this thesis we investigate dfferent aspects of relevance for decision making within a household, especially focusing on life insurance and pension decisions. The focus......-effects. The focus is on the consumption, investment and life insurance demands. In another modeling framework, we modify the utility measurement and propose a combination of forward and backward looking preferences. At last, a model with very explicit preferences for stability in consumption is investigated and we...

  13. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages. (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A


    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  14. New and smart materials - why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changing over time and an important question to producers are therefore which appearance preferences the customers will demand in the future. A model for how to perform foresight and translate this into consumer trends is presented together with a facility called the future tool that support designers....... The semiotic properties are becoming more and more important since consumers more increasingly select between products based on the meaning they associate to the product appearance. Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols and described by authors like Pierce and Saussure. Customer preferences also keep...

  15. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future. (United States)

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru


    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  16. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk (United States)

    Key, T J


    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  17. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future (United States)

    MORITA, Akio; SORA, Shigeo; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; HARADA, Kanako; SUGITA, Naohiko; SAITO, Nobuhito; MITSUISHI, Mamoru


    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care. PMID:27464471

  18. Climate and culture Changes, lessons, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita T. Winarto


    Full Text Available From generation to generation over the centuries, people in all parts of the world have developed adaptive social-cultural institutions and strategies of natural resource management based on the intimate relationship they had with their environment. At present, recent global warming is threatening people’s lives. Unfortunately, climate change is a natural phenomenon which is neither easy to observe, nor to predict and anticipate accurately. In many places, local people can no longer rely on earlier experiences and existing socio-cultural institutions to adjust to unprecedented changes. We are in urgent need of specific efforts to re-interpret and enrich our knowledge of this natural phenomenon. However, this is not an easy thing to do. People from all kinds of levels and entities in society are simultaneously the cause and the victims of global warming. The problem becomes even more complicated because of various mutually-affecting dimensions like ethics, politics, power, economics, and justice. These are the ultimate challenges scholars of the social sciences and humanities need to address seriously everywhere in the world, including in Indonesia. This article addresses the arguments of what scholars in the social sciences and humanities could and should do in response to climate change. Promoting a new paradigm and ethics in dealing with climate change is urgent and improvements in approaches and research methodologies are necessary. Learning from experiences gained from the way farmers in Java respond to climate change, the author argues that interdisciplinary research across social and natural sciences, and collaborative work with target groups is a promising and significant step (although scholars will have to face many challenges and constraints.

  19. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. (United States)

    Key, T J


    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  20. Primary care and genetics and genomics. (United States)

    Scott, Joan; Trotter, Tracy


    With the recent expansion of genetic science, its evolving translation to clinical medicine, and the growing number of available resources for genomics in primary care, the primary care provider must increasingly integrate genetics and genomics into daily practice. Because primary care medicine combines the treatment of acute illness with disease prevention and anticipatory guidance, the primary care provider is in an ideal position to evaluate and treat patients for genetic disease. The notion that genetic knowledge is only rarely needed will have to be replaced with a comprehensive approach that integrates "genetic thinking" into every patient encounter. Genomic competencies will need to be added to the primary care provider's repertoire; such competencies include prevention, assessment, evaluation, and diagnosis of genetic conditions; the ordering and interpreting of genetic tests; communication with families; appropriate referrals; and the management or comanagement of care. The process of deciding when to order genetic tests, what tests to order, and how to interpret the results is complex, and the tests and their results have specific risks and benefits, especially for pediatric patients. The longitudinal nature of primary pediatric care provides the opportunity to obtain and continually update the family history, which is the most powerful initial genetic "test." The ongoing provider-family relationship, coupled with the astounding number of advances in genetic and genomic testing, also necessitates a constant re-evaluation of past diagnosis or nondiagnosis.

  1. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae. (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg


    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  2. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention. (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus


    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  3. Polyphony and Polyphasia in Self and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renedo, A.


    Full Text Available The purpose in this paper is to contribute towards an understanding of the link beween plurality of self and knowledge. The paper relates the concept of cognitive polyphasia with Bakhtin’s views on positioning and the polyphony of the person, and Hermans and Kempen’s concept of the dialogical self. It links dialogical epistemology and ontology to argue that, (i polyphony and polyphasia of self and knowledge are two sides of the same process, and (ii our ability to position ourselves in relation to the knowledge of others explains how the meanings, practices and identities that co-exist within individuals and groups are put to use, enabling us to function in multiple relationships and contexts. The paper concludes by suggesting that identity and knowledge are inseparable from both the multiple relationships in which they develop and from processes of self-other positioning. Research on expert knowledge of homelessness amongst professionals working in the UK voluntary sector is briefly examined to illustrate the proposed theoretical argument.

  4. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ralf


    Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  5. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L. [Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC (United States)


    The socioeconomic development in Latin America was discussed with reference to its abundant and diverse resources. Despite its large population, Latin America represents only 6 per cent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) and a less than 6 per cent of the total world trading. This presentation described the problems of large deficits, poor economic policies, large debt and corruption that provoked inflation, economic slowdown, and foreign debt in Latin America. Policy makers agreed that reforms were needed if Latin American economies were to grow more than 6 per cent a year, and to lower the number of people living in poverty in the region. The second-generation reform for Latin America was meant to promote economic development without inflation. It is based on quality public sector governance; fiscal strengthening; an enhanced legal and regulatory framework; efficient financial markets; and, labour and market reform. This presentation also discussed the oil and gas industry's contention with the perceptions that the economic crisis in Latin America was caused by globalization, international trade and acquisitive industrialized countries. An initiative was launched in 1994 to build an integrated energy data bank, evaluate existing interconnections among Latin American countries, and identify barriers for a larger integration to facilitate and improve commercial activities. It was emphasized that while the United States has a large deficit of oil, Canada and Latin America have large surpluses of energy resources, which if developed efficiently and effectively, can be a leading engine of regional development and an important contributor to global competitiveness. Canada is the largest supplier of energy, including oil, natural gas and electricity to the United States, the world's largest energy consumer and largest oil and gas market. Mexico and Brazil were identified as the other 2 large economies in the region's energy chain, but Mexico is self

  6. Of Bacon and Bananas. (United States)

    Saffioti, Carol Lee


    Exercises in sketching a scene of words, focusing, describing elemental structure (using comparison, contrast, analogy, and antithesis), and sketching and writing about still-life arrangements can heighten students' awareness of sense impressions and lead to improved writing skills. (TJ)

  7. Toe Injuries and Disorders (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  8. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  9. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  10. Street Drugs and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... Is it safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  11. Treating Children and Adolescents (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  12. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server


    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  13. Aggregation and Averaging. (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  14. Corals and Sclerosponges (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords...

  15. Weber and Durkheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik S.

    Weber and Durkheim is a systematic , comparative analysis of the methodologies of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim.......Weber and Durkheim is a systematic , comparative analysis of the methodologies of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim....

  16. Savagery, Show and Tell. (United States)

    Dallas, Dan G.

    After 50 grade school children witnessed a violent murder, group therapy and psychodrama sessions were initiated with the children, and parents and teachers were instructed in how to deal with the children's emotions and behavior. (CL)

  17. Dipterocarpacae: mycorrhiza and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, W.T.M.


    Research on mycorrhizae of Dipterocarpaccae is described, involving inventories of both mycorrhizae and sporocarps in natural forest and experimental work in nurseries, green houses, laboratories and gnotobiotic systems. An assessment is made of dipterocarp mycorrhizal specificity and a discussion i

  18. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  19. Piaget and Education (United States)

    Gelman, Rochel


    A review of Science and Education and the Psychology of the Child (Grossman, 1970) by Jean Piaget and Educational Implications of Piaget's Theory (Ginn-Blaisdell, 1970) by Irene J. Athey and Duane O. Rubadeau. (CK)

  20. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit


    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  1. Mathematical and statistical analysis (United States)

    Houston, A. Glen


    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  2. Assessment and Testing. (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline


    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  3. Perovskites and garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, C.P.; Wang, F.F.Y.


    The preparation and properties of perovskites and garnets are reviewed. Data and information are presented on crystal chemistry, crystal structure, phase equilibria, electrical properties, optical properties, and mechanical properties. (JRD)

  4. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  5. Leadership and Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Goethals, George R


    This book, a collection of essays from scholars across disciplines, explores leadership of discovery, probing the guided and collaborative exploration and interpretation of the experience of our inner thoughts and feelings, and of our external worlds

  6. Morphine: Myths and Reality (United States)

    ... and Families Take the Quiz Morphine: Myths and Reality February, 2013 The mere mention of “Morphine” can ... due to misinformation and lack of training. The reality is that Morphine (and other opiates that work ...

  7. Adolescent growth and development. (United States)

    Chulani, Veenod L; Gordon, Lonna P


    Adolescence is a developmental stage defined by physical and psychosocial maturation. This article reviews normal pubertal development and the evaluation and management of adolescents with suspected pubertal abnormalities and provides an overview of adolescent psychosocial development.

  8. Netupitant and Palonosetron (United States)

    ... any of the ingredients in netupitant and palonosetron capsules. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. ...

  9. Critique, generativity, and imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole


    Modern conceptions of critique express preoccupations with obtaining certainty and truth, with establishing foundations, and with linking knowledge and rationality. Modern conceptions of critique have been challenged, and critique has taken new formats. In particular critique has developed without...

  10. Secondhand Smoke and Children (United States)

    ... and is retained in clothing, hair, curtains, and furniture. Many people find ETS unpleasant, annoying, and irritating ... children of non-smoking mothers. Modest impairment in school performance and intellectual achievement has also been demonstrated. ...

  11. Harvesting Culture and Literacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THROUGH efforts to wipe out illiteracy and spread cultural and scientific knowledge in Panjin, Liaoning Province, rural illiterate and semi-literate women were able to read and write by the end of 1991. Many of

  12. SWMM news and notes (United States)

    Stormwater management modelers now have a new publication:Storm Water Management Modelling News and Notes. SWMM News and Notes features articles concerning new developments and research in the stormwater field, as well as new product reviews, dissertations, and books.

  13. Fats and Your Child (United States)

    ... in oily fish like tuna and salmon 2. Saturated fats: Found in meat and other animal products, such ... lard, cheese, and milk (except skim or nonfat), saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  14. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  15. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... in Balance › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

  16. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte


    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  17. Preeclampsia and Eclampsia (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preeclampsia and Eclampsia: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are preeclampsia and eclampsia? Preeclampsia and eclampsia are part of ...

  18. Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacogenomics (United States)

    NCI has an increasing focus on pharmacoepidemiology related to pharmaceutical use and cancer risk, recurrence and survival, as well as pharmacoepidemiology related to treatment response and adverse outcomes from chemotherapeutic agents and other medications used to treat cancer.

  19. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ...

  20. Diet and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  1. Lasers and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kock, Winston E


    Accessible, illustrated introduction covers wave patterns and coherence, summarizes the development of lasers and the phenomenon of wave diffraction, and describes zone plates and properties of holograms. 1981 edition.

  2. Blood Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  3. Uncertainty, rationality, and agency

    CERN Document Server

    Hoek, Wiebe van der


    Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency

  4. Behaviorism and Neuroscience. (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.


    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  5. Atherosclerosis and Stroke (United States)

    ... After Stroke Inspirational Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Atherosclerosis and Stroke Updated:Oct 24,2016 Excerpted and ... cause difficulty walking and eventually gangrene. Stroke and atherosclerosis There are two types of ischemic stroke caused ...

  6. Thermal Stress and Toxicity (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  8. Teenagers and sleep (United States)

    ... and with their health , including: Depression and low self esteem Sleepiness and trouble concentrating Decline in school performance ... associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents. Sleep . 2011;34(6):797-800. PMID: 21629368 ...

  9. Growth and Development (United States)

    ... and Milk Hunger and Malnutrition Iron and Your Child Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Nut and Peanut Allergy Weaning Your Child ... in Elementary School 10 Ways to Help Your Child Succeed in Middle School 10 Ways to Help Your Teen Succeed ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small ... Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type ...

  11. Arthritis and IBD (United States)

    ... pain and stiffness in the lower spine and sacroiliac joints (at the bottom of the back). Interestingly, and ... addition to causing arthritis of the spine and sacroiliac joints, ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation of the eyes, ...

  12. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  13. Bending and Focusing with Plasmas and Crystals - Potential and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F


    This talk review the potential of plasmas and crystals for focusing and bending high-energy charged particle beams. It covers topics like plasma lenses, plasma wigglers, plasma dipoles, crystal channeling & reflection, radiation in crystals, crystal accelerators, crystalline beams and ultimate limitations. Past, ongoing or required R&D efforts are highlighted. Invited presentation at EuCARD'13 "Visions for the Future of Particle Accelerators," CERN, 11 June 2013.

  14. Deafness and Diversity: Reflections and Directions. (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E


    Concluding a two-part American Annals of the Deaf special issue on deafness and diversity (DAD), the editors provide reflections and guidance to the field regarding d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) children with a disability (DWD; e.g., learning or intellectual disability, autism) and d/Dhh children from homes where parents use a language other than English or American Sign Language (d/Dhh Multilingual Learners; DMLs). Contributing authors addressed the application of theory, research, and practice to five topics: (a) early intervention, (b) communication/language, (c) assessment, (d) transition, (e) teacher preparation. An overview of the main recommendations of the contributors and editors is presented in an effort to advance research and pedagogy with these learners. In conclusion, the editors discuss the "Radical Middle" approach (Easterbrooks & Maiorana-Basas, 2015) to working with students who are DAD: providing learners with all options for academic, social, and emotional success.

  15. Data and Statistics: Women and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Women and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Atlas of Heart Disease Facts on Women and Heart Disease Heart disease is the leading cause of death ...

  16. Physics and mathematical tools methods and examples

    CERN Document Server

    Alastuey, Angel; Magro, Marc; Pujol, Pierre


    This book presents mathematical methods and tools which are useful for physicists and engineers: response functions, Kramers-Kronig relations, Green's functions, saddle point approximation. The derivations emphasize the underlying physical arguments and interpretations without any loss of rigor. General introductions describe the main features of the methods, while connections and analogies between a priori different problems are discussed. They are completed by detailed applications in many topics including electromagnetism, hydrodynamics, statistical physics, quantum mechanics, etc. Exercises are also proposed, and their solutions are sketched. A self-contained reading of the book is favored by avoiding too technical derivations, and by providing a short presentation of important tools in the appendices. It is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics, but it can also be used by teachers, researchers and engineers.

  17. Dentistry and medicine, then and now. (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J


    Two factors have, at times, pushed dentistry and medicine together and pulled them apart. The factor acting to create a symbiosis is the common biomedical or scientific foundation for these fields. The factor causing independence deals with socio-cultural matters impacting on the professions and the public. These two factors will be examined at three points in time when the relationship between the two professions was significantly important for the welfare of the public: the 1920s and '30s, the 1960s and '70s, and our own time. Contemporary major discussion about the alignment of dental education, scientific advances, and societal needs point to a need for a new look at how dentistry and medicine relate to one another.

  18. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel


    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting...... and stunting are both associated with increased mortality, especially when both are present in the same child. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these two different forms of malnutrition is needed to design efficient programs. A greatly reduced muscle mass is characteristic of severe wasting...... that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass...

  19. Growth and Scaling during Development and Regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Steffen


    Life presents fascinating examples of self-organization and emergent phenomena. In multi-cellular organisms, a multitude of cells interact to form and maintain highly complex body plans of well-defined size. In this thesis, we investigate theoretical feedback mechanisms for both self-organized body plan patterning and size control. The thesis is inspired by the astonishing scaling and regeneration abilities of flatworms. These worms can perfectly regrow their entire body plan even from tiny amputation fragments like the tip of the tail. Moreover, they can grow and actively de-grow by more than a factor of 40 in length depending on feeding conditions. These capabilities prompt for remarkable physical mechanisms of self-organized pattern formation and scaling. First, we explore the basic principles and challenges of pattern scaling in mechanisms previously proposed to describe biological pattern formation. Next, we present a novel class of patterning mechanisms yielding entirely self-organized and self-scaling ...

  20. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent (United States)

    ... spread during sexual contact. These include chlamydia, gonorrhea (GC), and trichomoniasis. Vaginal yeast infection, caused by a ... fitting clothes and not wearing panty hose. Wearing cotton underwear (rather than synthetic), or underwear that has ...

  1. Materials and society — impacts and responsibilities (United States)

    Westwood, A. R. C.


    The needs of today's advanced societies have moved well beyond the requirements for food and shelter, etc., and now are focused on such concerns as international peace and domestic security, affordable health care, the swift and secure transmission of information, the conservation of resources, and a clean environment. Progress in materials science and engineering is impacting each of these concerns. This article will present some examples of how this is occurring and then comment on ethical dilemmas that can arise as a consequence of technological advances. The need for engineers to participate more fully in the development of public policies that help resolve such dilemmas, and so promote the benefits of advancing technology to society, will be discussed.

  2. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy. (United States)

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M


    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  3. Nutrition and food for health and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh


    None of the nutritional components is by itself good or bad, and none of the foodstuffs is either healthy or unhealthy. Nutrition can lead to either good effects or bad effects, and food can have consequences, making us either healthy or unhealthy. It is the quantity, quality, frequency, and emot......, and emotional satisfaction that determine whether any particular food can help us achieve the aim of maintaining and improving health, and delaying, preventing, or treating a disease......None of the nutritional components is by itself good or bad, and none of the foodstuffs is either healthy or unhealthy. Nutrition can lead to either good effects or bad effects, and food can have consequences, making us either healthy or unhealthy. It is the quantity, quality, frequency...

  4. Colonialism and Language Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert


    Key factors that account for European languages and Christianity being transplanted worldwide are identified. The privileged position of excolonial languages has been consolidated through Western influence on educational policies and linguistic imperialism. The existence of alternative language...

  5. Materials and society -- Impacts and responsibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood, A.R.C.


    The needs of today`s advanced societies have moved well beyond the requirements for food and shelter, etc., and now are focused on such concerns as international peace and domestic security, affordable health care, the swift and secure transmission of information, the conservation of resources, and a clean environment. Progress in materials science and engineering is impacting each of these concerns. This paper will present some examples of how this is occurring, and then comment on ethical dilemmas that can arise as a consequence of technological advances. The need for engineers to participate more fully in the development of public policies that help resolve such dilemmas, and so promote the benefits of advancing technology to society, will be discussed.

  6. Caregiving and Sibling Relationships: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    ... you have with him seems to lead to confrontation and hurt feelings…. Providing care for an aging ... care of yourself and move forward. For more information, call FCA at (800) 445-8106. Date: Saturday, ...

  7. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: Disease spectrum and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba P Raychaudhuri


    Full Text Available Muscle inflammation and weakness are the key features of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs. In addition IIMs are frequently associated with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement. In clinical practice the three common inflammatory myopathies we come across are polymyositis (PM, dermatomyositis (DM and inclusion body myositis (IBM. The Bohan and Peter criteria combine clinical, laboratory, and pathologic features to define PM and DM. They did not recognize inclusion body myositis (IBM or other inflammatory myopathies, such as granulomatous and eosinophilic myositis. Thus the disease spectrum is wide and IIMs are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders. To address these issues in this article we have discussed the currently developing newer classifications of IIMs.

  8. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  9. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles : Sources and toxicity

    CERN Document Server

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin


    This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac d...

  10. [Cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Historical considerations and treatment]. (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Basurto, Lourdes; De la Chesnaye, Elsa; Saldívar, Iván


    Cholesterol is a precursor of steroid hormones and an essential component of the cell membrane, however, altered regulation of the synthesis, absorption and excretion of cholesterol predispose to cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic origin. Despite, the recognition of historical events for 200 years, starting with Michel Chevreul naming «cholesterol»; later on, Lobstein coining the term atherosclerosis and Marchand introducing it, Anichkov identifying cholesterol in atheromatous plaque, and Brown and Goldstein discovering LDL receptor; as well as the emerging of different drugs, such as fibrates, statins and cetrapibs this decade, promising to increase HDL and the most recent ezetimibe and anti-PCSK9 to inhibit the degradation of LDL receptor, however morbidity has not been reduced in cardiovascular disease.

  11. Understanding and Connections between Equations and Graphs. (United States)

    Knuth, Eric J.


    Presents results from a study that examined students' understanding of connections between algebraic and graphical representations of functions. Discusses a possible reason for the inadequate and often absent connections that students made between them. (ASK)

  12. Public And Private Leadership And Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine (Mihaescu Demeter


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to make a comparing between the private and public leadership. We analyze (1 whether there are differences between public and private sector leadership based on some variables related to job complexity of a manager (including the managerial behaviour, job autonomy, and job clarity, decision-making vs policymaking process and the stakeholders vs political influence, and (2 to assess the degree of their effects on the managerial competences and performance management. Our study is conducted from the Romanian perspective on public organizations. As the methodology used, in order to identify the perception on political influence in Romanian public administration we conducted a survey among civil servants at central and local level. Our research is based on the empirical analysis of the relevant literature in public administration, leadership and organizational performance.

  13. Miura Tubes and Assemblages: Theory and Applications (United States)

    Filipov, Evgueni; Paulino, Glaucio; Tachi, Tomohiro


    Origami systems inspired from the Miura-ori pattern are rigid and flat foldable meaning that they can fold completely by deforming only about prescribed fold lines. We investigate origami tubes and assemblages constructed from Miura-ori inspired sheets and use eigenvalue analyses to study their stiffness characteristics. A simplified bar model is used to model the stretching and shear of the flat panel segments and rotational hinges are used to simulate the bending stiffness of the panels and prescribed fold lines. We discuss the small to large deformation bending of thin sheets and show an improved method to estimate stiffness when modeling origami structures. The tube assemblages show interesting behaviors that make them suitable for applications in science and engineering.

  14. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are at High Risk of Developing Complications from ...

  15. Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) Databases and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The online information resources included in this fact sheet were developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, and are designed to provide the public access to information pertaining to MHK technologies, projects, and research.

  16. Tactile Perception and Reading: Theory and Practice (United States)

    Bradtmueller, Weldon; Harodon, Holly


    Examines the concept that all perceptual development seems to involve the tactile or sense of feel and attempts to comprehend this relationship. Its implications for teaching reading and for developing instructional techniques are also considered. (Author/RK)

  17. Life is physics and chemistry and communication. (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther


    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life.

  18. Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates. (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R


    Nine original articles comprise this special issue of the Journal of Personality addressing personality-based perspectives of psychopathy. In this introduction to the special issue, we review five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. At the same time, several important debates remain, which are also highlighted in the special issue's articles. These debates center around the necessity and sufficiency of certain psychopathy traits, the role of traits alternatively labeled stable Extraversion, fearless dominance, or boldness, and the validity and utility of separating psychopathy from Machiavellianism as is done in research on the Dark Triad.

  19. Microcirculation and Hemorheology. (United States)

    Popel, Aleksander S; Johnson, Paul C


    Major experimental and theoretical studies on microcirculation and hemorheology are reviewed with the focus on mechanics of blood flow and the vascular wall. Flow of the blood formed elements (red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells or leukocytes (WBCs) and platelets) in individual arterioles, capillaries and venules, and in microvascular networks is discussed. Mechanical and rheological properties of the formed elements and their interactions with the vascular wall are reviewed. Short-term and long-term regulation of the microvasculature is discussed; the modes of regulation include metabolic, myogenic and shear-stress-dependent mechanisms as well as vascular adaptation such as angiogenesis and vascular remodeling.

  20. LHRH and LHR genotypes and prostate cancer incidence and survival. (United States)

    Ingles, Sue Ann; Liu, Stephen V; Pinski, Jacek


    Despite their crucial role in initiating steroid-hormone synthesis, the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones (LH, LHRH) and their receptors have received scant attention in genetic studies of hormone-related diseases. This study included 1,170 men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PC) in Los Angeles County between 1999 and 2003. LHRH and LH receptor genotypes were examined for association with PC survival. Additionally, associations with PC incidence were examined by comparing PC cases to control men of similar age and race/ethnicity. The LHR 312 G allele was found to be associated with increased PC mortality (p=0.01). Ten years after diagnosis, 16% of men carrying two copies of the G allele (genotype GG) had died of PC, compared to 11% of those with genotype AG and 9% of those with AA. In a case-control comparison, this same allele was significantly associated with decreased PC risk: OR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.93) for genotype GG vs. AA. These results suggest that androgens may play opposing roles in PC initiation and progression, and highlight the need to include these important but overlooked genes in future studies of PC etiology, prognosis, and treatment.

  1. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  2. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A


    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  3. Mitochondria and neuroplasticity


    Cheng, Aiwu; Hou, Yan; Mark P. Mattson


    The production of neurons from neural progenitor cells, the growth of axons and dendrites and the formation and reorganization of synapses are examples of neuroplasticity. These processes are regulated by cell-autonomous and intercellular (paracrine and endocrine) programs that mediate responses of neural cells to environmental input. Mitochondria are highly mobile and move within and between subcellular compartments involved in neuroplasticity (synaptic terminals, dendrites, cell body and th...

  4. Mangroves and estuaries



    Mangroves are forests of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs that grow in the shallow tidal waters of estuaries and coastal areas in tropical regions. They require slow currents, no frost and plenty of fine sediment in which to set their roots. Their muddy waters, rich in nutrients from decaying leaves and wood, are home to sponges, worms, crustaceans, molluscs and algae, and provide shelter for marine mammals, snakes and crocodiles. They act as fish nurseries and help feed life fur...

  5. Project Identification and Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren; Lønholdt, Jens


    Provides the necessary conceptual framework and tools to assess all appropriate aspects of water and sanitation projects in developing countries. Appeals to graduate environmental engineering students, practitioners, economists, sociologists, and institutional planners working with water and sani......Provides the necessary conceptual framework and tools to assess all appropriate aspects of water and sanitation projects in developing countries. Appeals to graduate environmental engineering students, practitioners, economists, sociologists, and institutional planners working with water...... and sanitation projects in developing countries....

  6. NSFC Departments and Offices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ To organize and formulate the development strategy in related scientific fields;to select priority funding areas and to compile the annual Guide to Programs;to accept and evaluate research proposals and to manage the funded projects of various categories;to take charge of the organization and management of international cooperation projects and the organization and constitution of the expert evaluation system,and to provide consultation on important scientific issues.

  7. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob


    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  8. Nanostructures and Nanotechnology (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas


    Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Solid state physics in a nutshell; 3. Bulk materials; 4. Fabrication and characterization at the nanoscale; 5. Real solids: defects, interactions, confinement; 6. Charge transport and nanoelectronics; 7. Magnetism and magnetoelectronics; 8. Photonics; 9. Micro and nanomechanics; 10. Micro and nanofluidics; 11. Bionanotechnology: a very brief overview; 12. Nanotechnology and the future; Appendix: common quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics results; References; Index.

  9. Teaching and Learning Immersion and Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Ciger, Jan


    to the technological complexity and the intrinsically subjective nature of these concepts. This paper describes a pedagogical experiment involving a standard videoconferencing system and presents easily reproducible exercises intended to let students experiment with an immersive system, experience the feeling of tele......-presence, and observe the inherent problems liked to  communication, field of view, or latency issues. The test performed shows that such experimentation have positive pedagogical impacts, both from the learning and students motivation perspectives....

  10. Pragmatism and Political Pluralism - Consensus and Pluralism


    Michele Marsonet


    A pragmatist thinker like Nicholas Rescher deems the idea that social harmony must be predicated in consensus to be both dangerous and misleading. An essential problem of our time is the creation of political and social institutions that enable people to live together in peaceful and productive ways, despite the presence of not eliminable disagreements about theoretical and practical issues. Such remarks, in turn, strictly recall the “practical” impossibility of settling philosophical dispute...

  11. [Diabolus, disease, and Nietzsche: considerations and interpretations]. (United States)

    Barański, J


    Disease shows its dual nature: it carries suffering and pain, but also means trespassing the sluggish limits of healthy life. This trespassing confirms the distance separating man from nature and, at the same time, confirms man's spirituality. Nietzsche's disease and work support this interpretation, so precisely expressed by Thomas Mann in his novel Doctor Faustus: disease contains the diabolus of human biology and human spirituality.

  12. VUV and UV Sources and Spectroscopic Applications (United States)


    photosensitized decomposition of monosilane 480 J. G. EDEN (SiIHl) and germane (GeH 4), both amorphous hydrogenated and micro- crystalline Si films have been...deposition of Si from monosilane is the weak absorption of the precursor in the UV and at the 185 and 254 nm lines of the Hg resonance lamp, in... monosilane . 62 Although this enhancement was attributed to the quality of the epitaxial Ge film actually deteriorates the presence of the Si-Si bond in

  13. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.


    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  14. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server


    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  15. Discovering and Analyzing Network Function and Structure (United States)


    that the numerical linear algebra community has been seeking for a long time: sparse approximate inverses. To explain these, I recall that the classical...accelerate the computation. Our presently best algorithm computes the matrices L and U and applies them to solve a linear system in parallel time O(log6 n...imization, comes from Zhu, Ghahramani and Lafferty [ZGL+03], and only applies to undirected networks. Formally, one is given a network with vertex set

  16. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health. (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E


    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  17. Titanium and titanium alloys fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Manfred


    This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

  18. Micro and smart devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthasuresh, G; Pratap, Rudra; Krupanidhi, S


    The book presents cutting-edge research in the emerging fields of micro, nano, and smart devices and systems from experts working in these fields over the last decade. Most of the contributors have built devices or systems or developed processes or algorithms in these areas. The book is a unique collection of chapters from different areas with a common theme and is immensely useful to academic researchers and practitioners in the industry who work in this field.

  19. Rubella and pregnancy: diagnosis, management and outcomes. (United States)

    Bouthry, Elise; Picone, Olivier; Hamdi, Ghada; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle


    Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in childhood. Rubella infection during pregnancy causes congenital rubella syndrome, including the classic triad of cataracts, cardiac abnormalities and sensorineural deafness. Highly effective vaccines have been developed since 1969, and vaccination campaigns have been established in many countries. Although there has been progress, the prevention and diagnosis of rubella remain problematic. This article reviews the implications and management of rubella during pregnancy.

  20. Cinema and Language: perceptual and cognitive changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The present study has aimed to investigate the emergence of film language and aesthetic character of the film and how their characteristics influence the forms of artistic apprehension by society, as a result of seeking the idea that this film aesthetic experience transformed the perception of the viewers. Christian Metz and his theory of language in the film were chosen as the theoretical framework, and as methodology we used bibliographic research.

  1. Schools and Marketization: Cultural Challenges and Responses. (United States)

    Foskett, Nicholas H.


    Develops an analytical methodology for service organizations by examining four key cultural and managerial developments: understandings of markets and marketing held within the school; organizational responses to the market; use of analytical tools; and development of appropriate marketing strategies. Shows variations in schools' development of a…

  2. Neuroethics and animals: methods and philosophy. (United States)

    Takala, Tuija; Häyry, Matti


    This article provides an overview of the six other contributions in the Neuroethics and Animals special section. In addition, it discusses the methodological and theoretical problems of interdisciplinary fields. The article suggests that interdisciplinary approaches without established methodological and theoretical bases are difficult to assess scientifically. This might cause these fields to expand without actually advancing.

  3. Falsification and Demarcation in Astronomy and Cosmology (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin


    This work inaugurates a critical inquiry into whether the ideas of Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, are used by astronomers and astrophysicists, a practicing community of scientists. It examines four basic components of Karl Popper's philosophy falsification, prohibition, simplicity, and risk taking and the extent that these themes become…

  4. Adult Education and Political and Social Change (United States)

    Mwanakatwe, J. M.


    The author, secretary general of the Republic of Zambia, discusses education (and particularly adult education) as a political imperative in Africa. He cites the problems of illiteracy and of the desire for a democratic system, and suggests that population growth must be adjusted to development potential. (MF)

  5. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.


    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  6. Darwin and Wagner: Evolution and Aesthetic Appreciation (United States)

    Ostergaard, Edvin


    Two of the most influential works of the Western nineteenth century were completed in 1859: Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" and Richard Wagner's opera "Tristan and Isolde." Although created within very different cultural traditions, these works show some striking similarities: both brought about a critical, long-lasting debate and caused…

  7. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S


    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R&D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development.

  8. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  9. Nonlinearity and disorder: Theory and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled Nonlinearity and Disorder: Theory and Applications, held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, October 2-6, 2001. Phenomena of coherent structures in nonlinear systems and disorder are considered opposite in nature. For example one of the most...

  10. Implicit and Explicit Exercise and Sedentary Identity (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.


    We examined the relationship between implicit and explicit "exerciser" and "sedentary" self-identity when activated by stereotypes. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) wrote essays about university students who either liked to exercise or engage in sedentary activities. This was followed by an implicit identity task and an explicit measure of…

  11. Divergence and Convergence in Education and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of institutions the central issue concerns the relation between learning environments. What is the coherence between school-based education and learning in the work-place, and how can they connect? Finally at the third level of the learners and their identities the focus is on the role of vocational educational...

  12. THz therapy and smoking: facts and hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Parshina


    Full Text Available There had been studied an antianginal effect and hemodynamic effects of THz electromagnetic waves of molecular NO spectrum (150.176 ... 150.664 GHz in 19 smokers and 18 non-smokers patients with angina. It had been fixed that antianginal, pulse slowing and antihypertensive effects of THz waves in both groups did not differ.

  13. Structure and interpretation of rhythm and timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.J.


    Rhythm, as it is performed and perceived, is only sparingly addressed in music theory. Existing theories of rhythmic structure are often restricted to music as notated in a score, and as a result are bound to refrain from making statements about music as it is perceived and appreciated by listeners.

  14. Innovation and Change: Yesterday and Today. (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.


    Lists 10 curriculum innovations and discusses reasons why they are not used extensively today. Reviews current curricular trends in career, environmental, ethnic, bicultural/bilingual, metric/calculator, sex, nonsexist, law-related, and consumer education. Suggests communication, lifelong learning, international cooperation, and values will have…

  15. Modeling and control of antennas and telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gawronski, Wodek


    The book shows, step-by-step, the design, implementation, and testing of the antenna/telescope control system, from the design stage (analytical model) to fine tuning of the RF beam pointing (monopulse and conscan). It includes wide use of Matlab and Simulink..

  16. Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.


    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they…

  17. [Health and immigration: new situations and challenges]. (United States)

    Jansà, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia


    The new social and demographic framework in Spain that has appeared since the arrival of new migrant populations, raises the need to improve the knowledge of their health status and to identify preventive measures and priorities in heath services.A bibliographic review of the available information on migration and health in Spain is performed, together with an analysis of their contents from a Public Health point of view. The high proportion of new borns from foreign mothers, the mental needs, deficits in oral and dental health, and the increase of tuberculosis in migrants, together with limited vaccine coverage in children, define the main health needs of these populations. The analysis of health services, reveals a high use of pediatric, obstetric and gynecologic resources by migrant populations. Conclusions; although no particular health needs have been identified for migrants, special attention for tuberculosis, mother and child health and health promotion and prevention, have to be funded for specific migrant populations. Health resources and services have to be reinforced with health agents, human resources, and specialized education for health professionals.

  18. Pride and Prejudice and Causal Indicators (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura


    Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas' (2016) paper in "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives" (hereafter referred to as ARM2016) is an important and timely piece of scholarship, in that it provides strong analytic support to the growing theoretical literature that questions the underlying ideas behind causal and…

  19. Japanese and American Education: Attitudes and Practices. (United States)

    Wray, Harry

    Continuing concern regarding the quality and future of education in both America and Japan prompts many comparisons of their nation's educational systems. Chapter 1, "Japanese Schools' Higher Achievement, Literacy, Efficiency, Discipline, Classroom Management, and Strengths of Civilization," attempts to explain the superior performance…

  20. Combined Heat and Power and Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this IEA Information Paper is to help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the challenges facing the incorporation of high efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) into greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) -- and to propose options for overcoming them.

  1. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites. (United States)

    Flew, Antony


    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  2. Cadmium and children : Exposure and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.


    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis whi

  3. Quality and Standards: Clarity, Comparability and Responsibility (United States)

    Brink, Chris


    This paper discusses three central issues relating to quality and standards: clarity, comparability and responsibility. The issue of clarity is that we have reached a point of disjunction between the questions being asked by the public and the answers being provided by quality assurance professionals. The issue of comparability comes in two forms:…

  4. Employment and Large Cities: Problems and Outlook. (United States)

    Bairoch, Paul


    This article traces the history of the emergence of large cities and examines the outlook for the future. It then answers questions about the effects of city size on general living conditions and on the various aspects of employment and the ways in which it might develop. (CT)

  5. Coatings and Biodegradable and Bioabsorbable Films (United States)


    plasticizing effects of vegetable oil macromonomers as incorporated into emulsion polymers for efficient almost zero VOC film formation and the additional...packaging needs. Specifically focusing on the plasticizing effects of vegetable oil macromonomers as incorporated into emulsion polymers for efficient...research and development of environmentally responsible biobased technology such as vegetable oil derived monomers and cosolvent-free latexes produced via

  6. Wealth, welfare and sustainable growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Thorvald


    This Policy Note discuses, based on modern development theory and wealth accounting, challenges for economic- and fiscal policies in resource-producing countries defined as countries - both developed and developing low income countries - which rely heavily on non-renewable or exhaustible natural wealth.(Author)

  7. Research and Development in Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The year of 2015 was the last fiscal year in the12th Five-year Plan period for CIAE.In the light of annual work arrangement and based on JYK management system,CIAE promoted R&Ds and production activities to a new level and fulfilled the objects set for the year of 2015.

  8. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S


    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  9. Trade and Investment between Europe and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Executive Summary Since China has opened its market to the global trade, especially after China joined into the WTO, the Chinese economy has received the extensive concern of the international trade. Many expertsand scholars believed that the fabulous rise of the Chinese international trade may bring opportunities and challenges both for China and the rest of the world. This work presented in this paper is to provide an insightinto trade and investment relations between European Union (EU) and China. The main objective of the research centers on the trends and the prospects of bilateral trade between EU and China. First of all, the author will presented history of EU-China trade relations and general facts of the current EU-China trade and investment.Then, followed the challenges and opportunities of EU-China trade and investment, this paper is also going to forecast the broad prospects of EU-China trade. According to the research, finally, the author satisfactorilycome to the conclusion that EU-China trade and investment needs a sound economic and political system in a long run within the good strategic partnership between these two partners.

  10. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab


    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  11. [Medicine and truth: between science and narrative]. (United States)

    Materia, Enrico; Baglio, Giovanni


    To which idea of truth may medicine refer? Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is rooted in the scientific truth. To explain the meaning and to trace the evolution of scientific truth, this article outlines the history of the Scientific Revolution and of the parable of Modernity, up to the arrival of pragmatism and hermeneutics. Here, the concept of truth becomes somehow discomfiting and the momentum leans towards the integration of different points of view. The fuzzy set theory for the definition of disease, as well as the shift from disease to syndrome (which has operational relevance for geriatrics), seems to refer to a more complex perspective on knowledge, albeit one that is less defined as compared to the nosology in use. Supporters of narrative medicine seek the truth in the interpretation of the patients' stories, and take advantage of the medical humanities to find the truth in words, feelings and contact with the patients. Hence, it is possible to mention the parresia, which is the frank communication espoused by stoicism and epicureanism, a technical and ethical quality which allows one to care in the proper way, a true discourse for one's own moral stance. Meanwhile, EBM and narrative medicine are converging towards a point at which medicine is considered a practical knowledge. It is the perspective of complexity that as a zeitgeist explains these multiple instances and proposes multiplicity and uncertainty as key referents for the truth and the practice of medicine.

  12. Information and Knowledge Management: Dimensions and Approaches (United States)

    Schlögl, Christian


    Introduction: Though literature on information and knowledge management is vast, there is much confusion concerning the meaning of these terms. Hence, this article should give some orientation and work out the main aspects of information and knowledge management. Method: An author co-citation analysis, which identified the main dimensions of…

  13. Branding and Bricolage. Gender, Consumption and Transition (United States)

    Russell, Rachel; Tyler, Melissa


    The analysis presented here focuses on the relationship between femininity, transition and consumer culture. It explores the relationship between gender and consumer culture in the context of a discussion of the transition from childhood to teenage status for a group of young girls, and seeks to make a critical contribution to contemporary debates…

  14. Forests and climate change: adaptation and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van A.J.; Savenije, H.; Wit, de M.


    ETFRN news No. 50: Forests and Climate Change: adaptation and mitigation. This newsletter contains interesting materials for those who think about the question how to proceed with forests and climate change after Copenhagen, with or without an agreement. Here below are presented some observations fr

  15. Markets and organizations: individualism and economic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.


    Economic theory depicts markets and organizations as opposite allocation mechanisms. Market allocation is based on mobility and organization on instruction. The paper argues that markets and organizations are complements in economies that grow through innovation. Diversity of organizations lies at t

  16. Coding and Quantization in Communications and Microeconomics (United States)

    Xu, Yun


    Since information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon, in addition to its primary role in communications and networking, it has broadened to find applications in many other areas of science and technology, such as microeconomics, statistics, and neuroscience. This thesis investigates the application of information theoretic viewpoints to two…

  17. Gestalt and Adventure Therapy: Parallels and Perspectives. (United States)

    Gilsdorf, Rudiger

    This paper calls attention to parallels in the literature of adventure education and that of Gestalt therapy, demonstrating that both are rooted in an experiential tradition. The philosophies of adventure or experiential education and Gestalt therapy have the following areas in common: (1) emphasis on personal growth and the development of present…

  18. Dialogue and Communication between School and Home. (United States)

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    This paper discusses school-home dialogue: its benefits; its theoretical underpinnings (Plato, Dewey, Hegel); perspectives on parent involvement, including societal changes that seem to produce barriers to communication between homes and schools (changes in family structure and role, time/schedule problems, distance, and educational bureaucracy);…

  19. Celso Furtado and development: foundation and foresight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candido Mendes


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the political and intellectual career of Brazilian economist Celso Furtado, who passed away in November 2004. The author highlights Furtado's decisive role in the construction of relevant public institutions for the country and his original reflections on Brazilian economic thinking and the issue of development.

  20. OAI and NASA's Scientific and Technical Information. (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Rocker, JoAnne; Harrison, Terry L.


    Details NASA's (National Aeronautics & Space Administration (USA)) involvement in defining and testing the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and experience with adapting existing NASA distributed searching DLs (digital libraries) to use the OAI-PMH and metadata harvesting. Discusses some new digital…

  1. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  2. Registration and recognition in images and videos

    CERN Document Server

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni


    Computer vision is the science and technology of making machines that see. It is concerned with the theory, design and implementation of algorithms that can automatically process visual data to recognize objects, track and recover their shape and spatial layout. The International Computer Vision Summer School - ICVSS was established in 2007 to provide both an objective and clear overview and an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art  research in Computer Vision. The courses are delivered by world renowned experts in the field, from both academia and industry, and cover both theoretical and practical aspects of real Computer Vision problems.  The school is organized every year by University of Cambridge (Computer Vision and Robotics Group) and University of Catania (Image Processing Lab). Different topics are covered each year.This edited volume contains a selection of articles covering some of the talks and tutorials held during the last editions of the school. The chapters provide an in-depth overview o...

  3. Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations Doctrine and Theory (United States)


    Bosnia—Herzegovina, Kosovo , East Timor, and of course Iraq and Afghanistan. A notable exception is Guiding Principles for Stabilization and...Galula advises commanders not to waste resources protecting terrain that would be considered critical in a conventional fight but rather to deploy

  4. Learning and Memory... and the Immune System (United States)

    Marin, Ioana; Kipnis, Jonathan


    The nervous system and the immune system are two main regulators of homeostasis in the body. Communication between them ensures normal functioning of the organism. Immune cells and molecules are required for sculpting the circuitry and determining the activity of the nervous system. Within the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS),…

  5. Smoking and Inequalities: Quantifying Policies and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Kulik (Margarete)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for many decades . The strongest and most comprehensive evidence we have on the association between any risk factor and mortality comes from studies of smoking. Smoking is causally related to morbidity and premature mortality

  6. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.


    This issue highlights the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s 1993 accomplishments in our mission areas and core programs: economic competitiveness, national security, energy, the environment, lasers, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science, computers and computing, and science and math education. Secondary topics include: nonproliferation, arms control, international security, environmental remediation, and waste management.

  7. Photogrammetry and Digital Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul


    Technical tour to Lithuania, Poland and Estonia for 13 technical staff and managers of State Land Service, HQ, Latvia. Focus on technical aspects and management of geographical data for map production and administration. Visits to state and local government organisations and newly established pri...

  8. Cyberspace and School Education. (United States)

    Russell, Glenn; Russell, Neil


    Relates the Internet and the concept of cyberspace to education. Addresses the definition of educational cyberspace, cyberspace as culture and continuum, and the origins of cyberspace. Explores related aspects including on-line and off-line cyberspace, hypertexuality and asynchronous communication, and educational cyberspace as dystopia. (CMK)

  9. Language and Politics. (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira


    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  10. Linguistics and Literacy. (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria


    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  11. Breast awareness and screening. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  12. Literature and Film. (United States)

    Richardson, Robert

    The differences, similarities, and common goals of film and literature, as well as the ways in which each form and its associated criticism is able to illuminate the other, are discussed in this book. Individual chapters are "Literature and Film,""Literary Origins and Backgrounds of the Film,""Griffith and Eisenstein: The Uses of Literature in…

  13. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging


    Hayes, Daniel P.


    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  14. Nutritional hormesis and aging. (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel P


    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  15. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.


    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  16. Children and Firearms (United States)

    ... they can watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the ... and Children TV Violence and Children Home Alone Children Music and Music Videos Teen Suicide Violent Behavior in Children and Adolescents Threats by Children: ...

  17. Language, Power and Identity (United States)

    Wodak, Ruth


    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  18. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  19. Nomads and Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    The dissertation describes and analyses Fluxus acivities in Germany, Denmark and Holland during the period 1962-66. Its protagonists are Tomas Schmit, Wolf Vostell and Joseph Beuys (Germany), Arthur Køpcke, Eric Andersen and Henning Christiansen (Denmark) and Willem de Ridder and Wim T. Schippers...

  20. Insomnia and Fatigue (United States)

    ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ... MBC Radiation Therapy for MBC Surgery for MBC Yoga and MBC Side Effects Bone Health and MBC Bone Pain and MBC ...

  1. Mindfulness and Situation Awareness (United States)


    sessions, participants develop both formal and informal mindfulness practices. The formal practices draw from meditative traditions and from yoga , and...Body Scan; and, • Mindful movement [ Yoga ]. Several additions have been made by practitioners, including mindful self-inquiry, dialogue, and...traditions: cognitive psychology and Buddhist philosophy. Ellen Langer uses the word mindfulness to describe a healthy state of cognitive openness

  2. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut


    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  3. Youth Gangs and Schools (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007


    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  4. Georgia : Accounting and Auditing



    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Georgia. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA) and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in ...

  5. Children and TV Violence (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  6. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil


    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio produc

  7. 77 FR 65413 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and..., importation, or sale after importation of certain cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware... America of New York, New York; Sony Electronics Inc. of San Diego, California; Sony Mobile...

  8. Mechatronics and hybrid technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    R&D international contributions to control and design of novel intelligent mechatronic products and solutions with sensor- and actuator technology.......R&D international contributions to control and design of novel intelligent mechatronic products and solutions with sensor- and actuator technology....

  9. Migration and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Søren

    We live in an age of migration and more and more authors have migrant backgrounds. Migration and Literature offers a thorough and thought provoking examination of the thematic and formal role of migration in four contemporary and canonized novelists, Günter Grass, Milan Kundera, Salman Rushdie...

  10. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology. (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling


    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  11. Media and metamedia management

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Xosé; Fernández, Valentín; García, Xosé


    Media and Metamedia Management has contributions from seven prestigious experts, who offer their expertise and the view from their vantage point on communication, journalism, advertising, audiovisual, and corporate, political, and digital communication, paying special attention to the role of new technologies, the Internet and social networks, also from an ethics and legal dimension. A total of 118 authors belonging to 31 universities from Spain, Portugal, England and Ecuador have contributed to this book edited, coordinated and introduced by professors Francisco Campos-Freire and Xosé López-García, from the University of Santiago de Compostela, José Rúas-Araújo, from the University of Vigo, and Valentín A. Martínez-Fernández, from the University of A Coruña. Readers may also enjoy 66 articles, grouped into diverse chapters, on Journalism and cyberjournalism, audiovisual sector and media economy, corporate and institutional communication, and new media and metamedia.

  12. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert


    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  13. Systems engineering and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Benjamin S


    For senior-level undergraduate and first and second year graduate systems engineering and related courses. A total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. This practical introduction to systems engineering and analysis provides the concepts, methodologies, models, and tools needed to understand and implement a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. The authors focus first on the process of bringing systems into being--beginning with the identification of a need and extending that need through requirements determination, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, evaluation, and validation, operation and support, phase-out, and disposal. Next, the authors discuss the improvement of systems currently in being, showing that by employing the iterative process of analysis, evaluation, feedback, and modification, most systems in existence can be improved in their affordability, effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction.

  14. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique


    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  15. Homology and phylogeny and their automated inference (United States)

    Fuellen, Georg


    The analysis of the ever-increasing amount of biological and biomedical data can be pushed forward by comparing the data within and among species. For example, an integrative analysis of data from the genome sequencing projects for various species traces the evolution of the genomes and identifies conserved and innovative parts. Here, I review the foundations and advantages of this “historical” approach and evaluate recent attempts at automating such analyses. Biological data is comparable if a common origin exists (homology), as is the case for members of a gene family originating via duplication of an ancestral gene. If the family has relatives in other species, we can assume that the ancestral gene was present in the ancestral species from which all the other species evolved. In particular, describing the relationships among the duplicated biological sequences found in the various species is often possible by a phylogeny, which is more informative than homology statements. Detecting and elaborating on common origins may answer how certain biological sequences developed, and predict what sequences are in a particular species and what their function is. Such knowledge transfer from sequences in one species to the homologous sequences of the other is based on the principle of ‘my closest relative looks and behaves like I do’, often referred to as ‘guilt by association’. To enable knowledge transfer on a large scale, several automated ‘phylogenomics pipelines’ have been developed in recent years, and seven of these will be described and compared. Overall, the examples in this review demonstrate that homology and phylogeny analyses, done on a large (and automated) scale, can give insights into function in biology and biomedicine.

  16. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate (United States)

    Barreira, S.


    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  17. Coffee and its consumption: benefits and risks. (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M Tauseef


    Coffee is the leading worldwide beverage after water and its trade exceeds US $10 billion worldwide. Controversies regarding its benefits and risks still exist as reliable evidence is becoming available supporting its health promoting potential; however, some researchers have argued about the association of coffee consumption with cardiovascular complications and cancer insurgence. The health-promoting properties of coffee are often attributed to its rich phytochemistry, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ), etc. Many research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses regarding coffee consumption revealed its inverse correlation with that of diabetes mellitus, various cancer lines, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, it ameliorates oxidative stress because of its ability to induce mRNA and protein expression, and mediates Nrf2-ARE pathway stimulation. Furthermore, caffeine and its metabolites help in proper cognitive functionality. Coffee lipid fraction containing cafestol and kahweol act as a safeguard against some malignant cells by modulating the detoxifying enzymes. On the other hand, their higher levels raise serum cholesterol, posing a possible threat to coronary health, for example, myocardial and cerebral infarction, insomnia, and cardiovascular complications. Caffeine also affects adenosine receptors and its withdrawal is accompanied with muscle fatigue and allied problems in those addicted to coffee. An array of evidence showed that pregnant women or those with postmenopausal problems should avoid excessive consumption of coffee because of its interference with oral contraceptives or postmenopausal hormones. This review article is an attempt to disseminate general information, health claims, and obviously the risk factors associated with coffee consumption to scientists, allied stakeholders, and certainly readers.

  18. Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars


    that the field of FTA seems to have remained remarkably stable over the last decade. As an academic field, FTA has targeted a small number of journals for its publications, which has helped to further define and focus the field. Finally, the chapter concludes that publications in special issues of international......This chapter presents the profile and trends of the academic discipline of Future-oriented Technology Assessment (FTA) and its approaches. This chapter presents the profile and trends of the academic discipline of FTA and its approaches. This is achieved through analyses of the development, focus...

  19. Microsurgery and music: parallel ideas and philosophy? (United States)

    Nemeth, Norbert


    Can a philosophic analogy be drawn between music, a major formal area and discipline of the fine arts, and microsurgery, a branch of applied medical science and research? Is an interdisciplinary view of value? Should we look for links beyond the stated boundaries of each of these areas? These are questions that fascinate physicians who, apart from their professional scientific activity, are also involved in making music a way to enrich their lives. In this paper a medical researcher, physician, and composer gives words to his thoughts about the parallel ideas and philosophies of these two disciplines.

  20. Exercise and osteoporosis: Methodological and practical considerations (United States)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Steiger, Peter; Genant, Harry K.


    Physical activity may have important implications for enhancing bone density prior to the initiation of space flight, for preserving bone density during zero gravity, and for rehabilitating the skeleton upon return to Earth. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of exercise upon the skeleton have not been proven by controlled trials and no consensus exists regarding the type, duration, and intensity of exercise necessary to make significant alterations to the skeleton. The following sections review our current understanding of exercise and osteoporosis, examine some of the methodological shortcomings of these investigations, and make research recommendations for future clinical trials.

  1. Sociomateriality and Information Systems Success and Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka


    for their inadequate consideration of the materiality of IS, of its underling technologies and of the entanglement of the social and material aspects of IS development and use. From a sociomaterial perspective IS are not seen as objects that impact organisations one way or another, but instead as relational effects......The aim of this essay is to put forward a performative, sociomaterial perspective on Information Systems (IS) success and failure in organisations by focusing intently upon the discursive-material nature of IS development and use in practice. Through the application of Actor Network Theory (ANT...

  2. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu


    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  3. Centrifugal separators and related devices and methods (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.; Todd, Terry A.


    Centrifugal separators and related methods and devices are described. More particularly, centrifugal separators comprising a first fluid supply fitting configured to deliver fluid into a longitudinal fluid passage of a rotor shaft and a second fluid supply fitting sized and configured to sealingly couple with the first fluid supply fitting are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems comprising a manifold having a drain fitting and a cleaning fluid supply fitting are described, wherein the manifold is coupled to a movable member of a support assembly. Additionally, methods of cleaning centrifugal separators are described.

  4. Capacity and competence: nurse credentialing and privileging. (United States)

    Archibald, P J; Bainbridge, D D


    Ideally, patient needs are carefully matched with nursing skills, but despite the use of tools such as patient classification systems, matching needs with capabilities remains problematic. To effectively confront this problem, hospitals have a model to manage professionals with disparate education, training and experience--the medical staff credentialing and privileging program. Although adaptation of this model requires a significant cultural change for most nursing departments, it offers the benefits of fostering professionalism and increasing accountability in addition to better meeting patient care needs. In return for their initial investment, nurse executives may see results that include a more responsive, professional staff and increased customer satisfaction, both internal and external.

  5. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas. (United States)

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M


    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  6. DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Operations Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities which are located in all regions of the United States. It gives brief descriptions of resources, activities, and capabilities of each field facility (sections III through V). These represent a cumulative capital investment of $12 billion and involve a work force of approximately 12,000 government (field) employees and approximately 100,000 contractor employees.

  7. Trees and Fields and Negative Polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten


    The paper takes as its point of departure a comparison between two kinds of approaches to clause structure, namely tree analyses like the generative analysis and field analyses like the sætningsskema analysis of Danish of Diderichsen (1946) and many others (or like the topologische Modell analysi...... to accounting for negative polarity items in English, Danish and German, both the more straightforward aspects and the more complex ones, e.g. the so-called NPI-verbs as well as the interaction between NPI-elements and because-clauses...

  8. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  9. Integral and finite difference inequalities and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pachpatte, B G


    The monograph is written with a view to provide basic tools for researchers working in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, concentrating on differential, integral and finite difference equations. It contains many inequalities which have only recently appeared in the literature and which can be used as powerful tools and will be a valuable source for a long time to come. It is self-contained and thus should be useful for those who are interested in learning or applying the inequalities with explicit estimates in their studies.- Contains a variety of inequalities discovered which find numero

  10. Regulation and policy: International trends and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, W.S.


    As offshore oil and gas resources become exhausted, the associated production platforms and facilities will be decommissioned. The world-wide oil and gas industry is strictly regulated by global, regional and national guidelines which have been developed by governments to find the most responsible framework to perform the decommissioning. In the summer of 1995, the Brent Spar incident brought uncertainty to decommissioning world-wide. In June of 1995, a moratorium prohibiting sea disposal within the North East Atlantic was imposed by the Oslo Commission, and an unsuccessful attempt was made in December of 1995 to impose a world-wide moratorium on sea disposal at the London Convention.

  11. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'. (United States)

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria


    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair.

  12. Managing care and cure -- up and down, in and out. (United States)

    Mintzberg, Henry


    Managing may be managing, but it is practiced in a wide range of ways in the so-called 'healthcare' system. All or in some cases part of a day in the life of seven managers is described and then analysed, separately and then together. This presents a consistent picture of the varieties as well as the discontinuities in managing this hopefully integrated system.

  13. Mathematical and computational modeling and simulation fundamentals and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, Dietmar P F


    Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation - a highly multi-disciplinary field with ubiquitous applications in science and engineering - is one of the key enabling technologies of the 21st century. This book introduces to the use of Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation in order to develop an understanding of the solution characteristics of a broad class of real-world problems. The relevant basic and advanced methodologies are explained in detail, with special emphasis on ill-defined problems. Some 15 simulation systems are presented on the language and the logical level. Moreover, the reader can accumulate experience by studying a wide variety of case studies. The latter are briefly described within the book but their full versions as well as some simulation software demos are available on the Web. The book can be used for University courses of different level as well as for self-study. Advanced sections are marked and can be skipped in a first reading or in undergraduate courses...

  14. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel


    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  15. Culture and hallucinations: overview and future directions. (United States)

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela


    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient's cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations.

  16. Nutrition and earthquakes: experience and recommendations. (United States)

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Purba, Martalena Br


    In order to sustain life during the occurrence of a natural disaster, it is vital to ensure that people's intake of water and food is adequate (prioritizing first energy, then protein and water-soluble vitamins). Infants, pregnant women, patients, and the elderly are particularly vulnerable to insufficiencies in food intake, even if they are provided with the same quantity of food as others, and providing them with dietary and nutritional support becomes a high priority as their insufficient intake of energy and protein becomes long term. It is necessary to have a system in place for identifying those who are vulnerable and in need of support and providing them with the items (food) and nutritional care that they require. Eating is equivalent to living, and if the vulnerable themselves recognize the importance of food and nutrition, this will help improve the nutritional situation of the entire population. It is recommended that measures be taken in non-emergency periods such as stockpiling food for special dietary uses.

  17. Music and language: relations and disconnections. (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica


    Music and language provide an important context in which to understand the human auditory system. While they perform distinct and complementary communicative functions, music and language are both rooted in the human desire to connect with others. Since sensory function is ultimately shaped by what is biologically important to the organism, the human urge to communicate has been a powerful driving force in both the evolution of auditory function and the ways in which it can be changed by experience within an individual lifetime. This chapter emphasizes the highly interactive nature of the auditory system as well as the depth of its integration with other sensory and cognitive systems. From the origins of music and language to the effects of auditory expertise on the neural encoding of sound, we consider key themes in auditory processing, learning, and plasticity. We emphasize the unique role of the auditory system as the temporal processing "expert" in the brain, and explore relationships between communication and cognition. We demonstrate how experience with music and language can have a significant impact on underlying neural function, and that auditory expertise strengthens some of the very same aspects of sound encoding that are deficient in impaired populations.

  18. Nicotine and cannabinoids: parallels, contrasts and interactions. (United States)

    Viveros, Maria-Paz; Marco, Eva M; File, Sandra E


    After a brief outline of the nicotinic and cannabinoid systems, we review the interactions between the pharmacological effects of nicotine and cannabis, two of the most widely used drugs of dependence. These drugs are increasingly taken in combination, particularly among the adolescents and young adults. The review focuses on addiction-related processes, gateway and reverse gateway theories of addiction and therapeutic implications. It then reviews studies on the important period of adolescence, an area that is in urgent need of further investigation and in which the importance of sex differences is emerging. Three other areas of research, which might be particularly relevant to the onset and/or maintenance of dependence, are then reviewed. Firstly, the effects of the two drugs on anxiety-related behaviours are discussed and then their effects on food intake and cognition, two areas in which they have contrasting effects. Certain animal studies suggest that reinforcing effects are likely to be enhanced by joint consumption of nicotine and cannabis, as also may be anxiolytic effects. If this was the case in humans, the latter might be viewed as an advantage particularly by adolescent girls, although the increased weight gain associated with cannabis would be a disadvantage. The two drugs also have opposite effects on cognition and the possibility of long-lasting cognitive impairments resulting from adolescent consumption of cannabis is of particular concern.

  19. Psychosis and violence: stories, fears, and reality. (United States)

    Taylor, Pamela J


    Individuals with psychosis are often feared. In fact, they are themselves likely to be victims of violence; however, the main aim of this review is to provide an overview of the evidence on relations between psychosis and violence to others. The terms psychosis and violence were used in a literature search limited to the Cochrane Library and PubMed, a manual search of 8 journals, and a follow-up of additional references in the articles found. The overview draws on new empirical data and major reviews. Almost all sound epidemiologic data on psychosis and violence dates from 1990. There is consistency on a small but significant relation between schizophrenia and violent acts. Since then there has also been movement toward understanding the nature of associations and progress on strategies for managing individuals who have psychosis and are violent. Public fears about individuals with psychotic illnesses are largely unfounded, although there would be benefit in greater attention to the safety of those in their close social circle. The task for the next 10 years must be the development and application of knowledge to improve specific treatments-that is, interventions that go beyond holding and caring to bring about substantial change.

  20. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control. (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G


    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  1. Geodiversity and Geoheritage: definitions, values and conservation (United States)

    Gray, Murray


    Geodiversity is the abiotic equivalent of biodiversity, i.e. it describes the variety of physical processes operating on planet Earth and the resultant rocks, minerals, fossils, sediments, soils, landforms, landscapes and habitats found on the planet today. Just as biodiversity is valued, in the "ecosystem services" approach, for the benefits it brings to human societies, so geodiversity brings a great number of goods and services that have been brilliantly exploited by humans over countless generations. In fact, our modern, complex society could not exist without geodiversity. Geoheritage are those parts of geodiversity that are specifically identified as having conservation significance, i.e. that have some specific value to human society and therefore ought to be conserved, particularly if they are threatened by human activities and could therefore be lost or damaged. Geoheritage is often seen as being about identifying and designating sites that have geoscientific value, but it can represent other values and be on scales larger than small sites. This presentation will attempt to define geodiversity and geoheritage and explain the relationship between them, outline that values of geodiversity in terms of the "ecosystem services" approach, and explain how geodiversity and geoheritage can be protected by geoconservation methods.

  2. [Stress and allostasis: problems, outlooks and relationships]. (United States)

    Kupriianov, R V; Zhdanov, R I


    Concepts of stress and allostasis are discussed in the paper in their interrelation and interpenetration. General adaptation syndrome is considered in the historical aspect of Claude Bernard's, William Cannon's and Hans Selye's contributions to the field, and from the standpoint of an interdisciplinary approach. Key challenges and contradictions of the stress concept are disclosed and discussed. First, the terminology ones, since this term might be understood as stress response, stressor, state of the organism and even the consequences of stress itself. Second, it is ambivalent and contradictory nature of the stress response. From the perception of stress as a reaction to the strong negative impact of environment, researchers became to divide stress onto two types: distress as a non-specific basis of disease, and eustress as a favorable factor that extends the adaptability of human organism. The third problem is connected to the interdisciplinary nature of the stress response, the effects of which being manifested in, at least, four areas: physiology, behavior, subjective experience, and cognitive functions. Particularily, physiologists are very often ignored of a role of cognitive factors in their stress research. The authors in terms of the allostasis theory, more complex adaptation process than homeostasis, resolve contradictories of stress conception observed. The paper proposes a model of allostatic states to describe distress and eustress phenomena.

  3. Mining, institutions and sustainability: disagreements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Bebbington


    Full Text Available Global consumption continues to generate growth in mining. In lesserdeveloped economies, this growth offers the potential to generate newresources for development, but also creates challenges to sustainabilityin the regions in which extraction occurs. This context leads todebate on the institutional arrangements most likely to build synergiesbetween mining, livelihoods, and development, and on the socio-politicalconditions under which such institutions can emerge. Buildingfrom a multiyear, three country program of research projects, Peru, aglobal center of mining expansion, serves as an exemplar for analyzingthe effects of extractive industry on livelihoods and the conditionsunder which arrangements favoring local sustainability might emerge.This program is guided by three emergent hypotheses in human environmentalsciences regarding the relationships among institutions,knowledge, learning, and sustainability. The research combines indepthand comparative case study analysis, and uses mapping andspatial analysis, surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observation,and our own direct participation in public debates on the regulation ofmining for development. The findings demonstrate the pressures thatmining expansion has placed on water resources, livelihood assets,and social relationships. These pressures are a result of institutionalconditions that separate the governance of mineral expansion, waterresources, and local development, and of relationships of power thatprioritize large scale investment over livelihood and environment. Afurther problem is the poor communication between mining sectorknowledge systems and those of local populations. These results areconsistent with themes recently elaborated in sustainability science.

  4. Joint development utility and university and utility and research center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Valgas, Helio Moreira [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    This paper shows the background acquired by CEMIG in dealing with projects associated with R and D (Research and Development), carried out as a result of the establishment of contracts or governants with universities and research center for direct application on the solution of problems related to the operation of the system, within the scope of electrical operation planning. The various aspects of a project of this nature such as legal questions, characterization of a contract or a covenant, main developments and new opportunity areas should be covered. Finally the subject shall be dealt with under the Total Quality approach, involving the proposition of control items associated to the process and goals to be reached. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Clinical and molecular cytogenetics and gene mapping: principles and techniques. (United States)

    Francke, U


    This article reviews the history of human cytogenetics with respect to technical advances from chromosome banding to molecular cytogenetics. Technologies such as in situ hybridization, chromosome painting, comparative genomic hybridization and interphase cytogenetics and their applications are discussed. The assignments of genes to chromosome regions by somatic cell genetics is illustrated by molecular analyses of somatic cell hybrid panels. The generation of complete physical maps of human chromosomes, by radiation hybrid mapping of sequence-tagged sites and establishment of chromosome-specific yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) banks and clone overlaps (contigs), is exemplified by studies of chromosome 18. The last section outlines the recent and future advances in clinical cytogenetics made possible by progress in molecular genetics.

  6. Queuing theory and telecommunications networks and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giambene, Giovanni


    This book provides a basic description of current networking technologies and protocols as well as important tools for network performance analysis based on queuing theory. The second edition adds selected contents in the first part of the book for what concerns: (i) the token bucket regulator and traffic shaping issues; (ii) the TCP protocol congestion control that has a significant part in current networking; (iii) basic satellite networking issues; (iv) adding details on QoS support in IP networks. The book is organized so that networking technologies and protocols (Part I) are first and are then followed by theory and exercises with applications to the different technologies and protocols (Part II). This book is intended as a textbook for master level courses in networking and telecommunications sectors.

  7. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.

  8. Early nutrition and immunity - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calder, PC; Krauss-Etschmann, S; de Jong, EC;


    and maintenance of tolerance are lifelong processes which start very early in life, even prenatally. Profound immunologic changes occur during pregnancy, involving a polarization of T helper (Th) cells towards a dominance of Th2 and regulatory T cell effector responses in both mother and fetus. This situation...... is important to maintain pregnancy through avoidance of the rejection of the immunologically incompatible fetus. During the third trimester of human pregnancy, fetal T cells are able to mount antigen-specific responses to environmental and food-derived antigens and antigen-specific T cells are detectable...... immune systems. The introduction of formula and of solid foods exposes the infant to novel food antigens and also affects the gut flora. Nutrition may be the source of antigens to which the immune system must become tolerant, provide factors, including nutrients, that themselves might modulate immune...

  9. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention. (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh


    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.

  10. Economics and Sociology, Epistemology and Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglaras Vasilis


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the Amherst term papers and the early essays of Talcott Parsons, the essays he wrote before he published The Structure of Social Action. In these essays, Parsons attempts to define the theoretical interests of sociology in contrast to those of orthodox economics and positivism. It is argued in this article that the Amherst term papers are of little interest as they do not introduce original ideas, and all the relevant argumentation that is developed in these essays is unsophisticated and fragmentary. In contrast, the essays of the period from 1928 to 1937 present original epistemological analysis and theoretical cohesion. This article also compares the Amherst term papers with 5 of 21 early essays to discover theoretical and epistemological continuities. The comparison shows that there is minimum relevance of the Amherst term papers to the early essays and accentuates certain ideas that can be considered as common to the said essays.

  11. Innovation and entrepreneurship theory, policy and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias G; Bakouros, Yannis L


    This book aims to meet the needs of education and training in modern techniques of innovation and entrepreneurship, and focuses on the detailed presentation of successful business practices. As today's global economic landscape is changing rapidly, the ability of businesses to introduce new products and services to the market faster than their competitors is perhaps their most distinct competitive advantage. This becomes obvious by the significant market share that the most innovative companies gain while increasing profitability. Extensive research in this field has demonstrated that companies that are constantly innovating normally double their profits compared to others. Moreover, establishing successful practices and policies of innovation management, through which ideas evolve from conception through evaluation to implementation and commercialization, become the basis for economic growth at the firm, industry, national, regional, and global levels. Taking Greece as an example, this volume identifies syst...

  12. Proprioception and person perception: politicians and professors. (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini


    Social-categorical knowledge is partially grounded in proprioception. In Study 1, participants describing "hard" and "soft" politicians, and "hard" and "soft" scientists used different "hard" and "soft" traits for the two groups, suggesting that the meaning of these traits is context specific. Studies 2 to 4 showed that both meanings were supported by hard and soft proprioception. Consistent with political stereotypes, perceivers viewing faces while handling a hard ball were more likely to categorize them as Republicans rather than as Democrats, compared to perceivers viewing the same faces while handling a soft ball (Study 2). Similarly, consistent with stereotypes of "hard" and "soft" academic disciplines, perceivers were more likely to categorize photographs of professors as physicists than historians when handling a hard versus soft ball (Study 3). Finally, thinking about Republicans and Democrats led participants to perceive a ball as harder or softer, respectively, suggesting that simulating proprioception might aid social-categorical thinking (Study 4).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Management should not be seen as a panacea also because the profession of manager is a relatively new occupation. To be constructive, top managers of any company must be able to integrate into the decision-making process, both the interests of the producer and the beneficiary. To get remarcable results, but also to have the guarantee of an act of qualitative management, the manager must acquire, in a careful and detailed way the management and its evolution and must have a thorough knowledge of its analytical methods, thus contributing to the development of the company he leads. Management accounting involves necessarily, the knowledge of legal norms regulating the activity of accounting, its optimal organization, its use, management and permanent monitoring the use of funds on the basis of maximum profit and the analysis and provision of necessary capital for the next periods, which is determined by choosing the optimal variant.

  14. Home media and children's achievement and behavior. (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L


    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems.

  15. Heidegger and Hegel: Distance and Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Dastur


    Full Text Available Not being a mere epigonenor disprover ofHegel, Heidegger started a dialogue with Hegel's thought since his Habilitation thesis in 1915 until his last reference to Hegel in 1969. This brief paper intends to point out Heidegger' s ambivalent relationship to Hegel in three fundamental issues in which his agreementis as important as his disagreement: the relationship between being and thought, the identity of being and nothingness, the conception of history. Light is thus shed upon the oppositions between the speculative sentence and the phenomenological tautology, between the oppositional logic and the ontological difference, and between the dialectics of history and the meditation on the history of being and Ereignis.

  16. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.


    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  17. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars (United States)

    Minti, Hari


    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  18. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg


    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  19. Logic and Automata History and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Gradel, Erich; Wilk, Thomas


    Mathematical logic and automata theory are two scientific disciplines with a fundamentally close relationship. The authors of Logic and Automata take the occasion of the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Thomas to present a tour d'horizon of automata theory and logic. The twenty papers in this volume cover many different facets of logic and automata theory, emphasizing the connections to other disciplines such as games, algorithms, and semigroup theory, as well as discussing current challenges in the field. Title: Logic and Automata : History and Perspectives Print ISBN: 9789053565766 Author(s): Flum, Jörg; Gr; del, Erich; Wilke, Thomas eISBN: 9789048501281 Publisher: Amsterdam University Press Dewey: 511.3 Publication Date: 01 Jan, 2007 Pages: 737 Category: Mathematics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:

  20. Hyperprolactinemia and schizophrenia: mechanisms and clinical aspects. (United States)

    Halbreich, Uriel; Kahn, Linda S


    The association between elevated prolactin levels and conventional antipsychotics is well-established. The novel antipsychotic, risperidone, has also been shown to elevate prolactin levels. Patients undergoing treatment with these medications are at high risk for developing hyperprolactinemia, which is associated with decreased bone mineral density, osteoporosis, menstrual disruptions and infertility, galactorrhea, breast cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and sexual impairment. Patients treated with conventional antipsychotics and risperidone should be routinely screened for hyperprolactinemia, and monitored for known sequelae. Optimally, patients with hyperprolactinemia secondary to antipsychotic drug treatment should be switched to a prolactin-sparing antipsychotic. This review will briefly highlight the regulation and function of prolactin secretion, discuss clinical effects of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia, and suggest a course of treatment.

  1. Psychoanalysis and research: some reflections and opinions. (United States)

    McWilliams, Nancy


    The author argues that existing research on the outcome of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic therapies is sufficient to claim a solid basis in scientific evidence for psychodynamically oriented clinical work. She explores sociocultural trends that increase the probability that analytic therapists and academic researchers will misunderstand one another, and she discusses the problematic status of the randomized controlled trial as the "gold standard" of research. She urges readers to educate themselves about what the outcome research actually shows, to support empirical investigations of psychoanalytic theories and practice, to make alliances with therapists of other orientations, and to try to contribute to changing the terms in which policymakers and the public frame their understanding of mental health and mental suffering.

  2. Index and Indexing Assessment: Criteria and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashrafi


    Full Text Available Indexing is one of the most important methods of content representation where by assigning descriptors to the documents, their subject content are made known. Since index and indexing are remarkably significant in information retrieval, its quality and evaluation and provision of criteria and standards had always been the mainstay of researchers in this field. Given the fact that Indexing is a complex process, offering definitions, principles and methods could be step towards optimal use of the information. The present study, while offering a capsule definition of index, will investigate the indexing evaluation criteria and would follow it up with a definition of indexing. Finally a number of standards in the field of indexing are presented and would make its conclusions.

  3. Improve clarifier and thickener design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.B.


    Clarifiers and thickeners are separation devices, common in waste treatment as well as in other chemical operations. These devices separate two phases by differences in their density. Clarifiers and thickeners are essentially identical units; a clarifier produces clean water, while a thickener concentrates a solids slurry as the desired product. A design method for thickeners and clarifiers known as the batch flux curve technique was developed over 20 years ago, but still is not well-known in design and operating circles. An informal survey of major clarifier and thickener manufacturers found that none of the firms surveyed use this method for sizing and maximizing operating conditions. Here, the authors will show the benefits of using this technique, while illustrating it with an example from an actual plant design. The theory and applications will also be covered.

  4. Pharmacology and toxicology of chaconine and tomatine. (United States)

    Nishie, K; Norred, W P; Swain, A P


    The pharmacological responses produced by alpha chaconine and tomatine on guinea pig ileum, on the isolated electrically stimulated frog ventricle, and recordings of EEG, ECG, respiration and blood pressure in the rabbit showed no essential differences from those produced by alpha solanine. The LD50 values of chaconine and solanine in the mouse and rabbit are also similar and suggest that compounds other than these are probably responsible for the predominant toxic effects of certain hybrid potatoes in man and animals. The failure of the three glycoalkaloids to produce a significant teratological effect in the chick embryo lends no support to the hypothesis that they may be the teratogens responsible for certain congenital malformations in man.

  5. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBerjot


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  6. Psychology and the soul. (United States)

    Rank, O


    Otto Rank (1884-1939) wrote the present work at the height of his creative powers, betweenWill Therapy andArt and Artist. Here he presents a sweeping history of psychology-individual and social-from the animistic era to psychoanalysis. An earlier translation (by William D. Turner, 1950) was incomplete and somewhat inaccurate. Unlike Sigmund Freud, his mentor, Rank viewed religion with respect and clarifies its role in individual and communal life through this study of soul-belief through the ages. The book contains important insights on immortality, will, dreams, Judaism and Christianity, Hamlet and Don Juan, Jung and Adler, and Freud himself.

  7. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David


    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  8. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...... Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...... and long-term economic and social integration....

  9. Graphs Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Jean-Claude


    This book provides a pedagogical and comprehensive introduction to graph theory and its applications. It contains all the standard basic material and develops significant topics and applications, such as: colorings and the timetabling problem, matchings and the optimal assignment problem, and Hamiltonian cycles and the traveling salesman problem, to name but a few. Exercises at various levels are given at the end of each chapter, and a final chapter presents a few general problems with hints for solutions, thus providing the reader with the opportunity to test and refine their knowledge on the

  10. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John


    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  11. Applied Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André


    Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.

  12. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P


    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  13. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty. (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco


    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  14. Musical and poetic creativity and epilepsy. (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael


    Associations between epilepsy and musical or poetic composition have received little attention. We reviewed the literature on links between poetic and musical skills and epilepsy, limiting this to the Western canon. While several composers were said to have had epilepsy, John Hughes concluded that none of the major classical composers thought to have had epilepsy actually had it. The only composer with epilepsy that we could find was the contemporary composer, Hikari Oe, who has autism and developed epilepsy at age 15years. In his childhood years, his mother found that he had an ability to identify bird sound and keys of songs and began teaching him piano. Hikari is able to compose in his head when his seizures are not severe, but when his seizures worsen, his creativity is lost. Music critics have commented on the simplicity of his musical composition and its monotonous sound. Our failure to find evidence of musical composers with epilepsy finds parallels with poetry where there are virtually no established poets with epilepsy. Those with seizures include Lord George Byron in the setting of terminal illness, Algernon Swinburne who had alcohol-related seizures, Charles Lloyd who had seizures and psychosis, Edward Lear who had childhood onset seizures, and Vachel Lindsay. The possibility that Emily Dickinson had epilepsy is also discussed. It has not been possible to identify great talents with epilepsy who excel in poetic or musical composition. There are few published poets with epilepsy and no great composers. Why is this? Similarities between music and poetry include meter, tone, stress, rhythm, and form, and much poetry is sung with music. It is likely that great musical and poetic compositions demand a greater degree of concentration and memory than is possible in epilepsy, resulting in problems retaining a musical and mathematical structure over time. The lack of association between recognizable neuropsychiatric disorders and these skills is a gateway to

  15. Environmental and occupational allergies. (United States)

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E


    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma.

  16. Imaging arrangement and microscope (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven


    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  17. Information science and applications

    CERN Document Server


    This proceedings volume provides a snapshot of the latest issues encountered in technical convergence and convergences of security technology.  It explores how information science is core to most current research, industrial and commercial activities and consists of contributions covering topics including Ubiquitous Computing, Networks and Information Systems, Multimedia and Visualization, Middleware and Operating Systems, Security and Privacy, Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence, Software Engineering, and Web Technology.   The proceedings introduce the most recent information technology and ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, illustrated through case studies, and reviews converging existing security techniques.  Through this volume, readers will gain an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in information strategies and technologies of convergence security. The intended readership are researchers in academia, industry, and other research institutes focusing on ...

  18. Jumping and Hopping in Elite and Amateur Orienteering Athletes and Correlations to Sprinting and Running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Jensen, Kurt; Holmberg, Hans-Christer


    PURPOSE: Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations...... with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes. METHODS: We investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations...... to road, path, and forest running and sprinting performance, as well as running economy, velocity at anaerobic threshold, and VO2peak from treadmill assessments. RESULTS: During SJs and CMJs, elites demonstrated superior relative peak forces, time-to-peak forces, and pre-stretch augmentation albeit lower...

  19. Attitudes and persuasion. (United States)

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila


    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.

  20. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration......, employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...