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Sample records for cholagogues and choleretics

  1. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts.

  2. Effect of inducers and inhibitors of glucuronidation on the biliary excretion and choleretic action of valproic acid in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1982-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) induces an immediate choleresis in the rat which may be attributable to the osmotic properties of VPA-glucuronic acid conjugates in bile. The influence of inducers and inhibitors of glucuronidation of VPA on the biliary excretion and choleretic effect of VPA was studied. Hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity toward VPA was determined in vitro. Pretreatment with phenobarbital (75 mg/kg/day for 4 days) enhanced VPA glucuronidation; borneol (750 mg/kg) decreased VPA conjugation; 3-methylcholanthrene (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) and galactosamine (600 mg/kg) had no effect on glucuronidation of VPA in vitro. Hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid content was decreased by borneol and galactosamine administration and was enhanced by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment. The enzyme inducers increased the plasma disappearance of VPA in vivo but did not augment its biliary excretion or choleretic effect. Borneol and galactosamine, which inhibited the conjugation and plasma disappearance of VPA, decreased its biliary excretion and inhibited the VPA-induced increase in bile flow. Thus, the bile flow rate after VPA administration is closely related to the excretion of VPA-glucuronic acid. These data support the conclusion that the choleretic effect of VPA is due to the osmotic activity of VPA conjugates in bile.

  3. Choleretic and antispasmodic effects of Lippia integrifolia aqueous extract Efeitos colerético e antiespasmódico do extrato aquoso de Lippia integrifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Gorzalczany; Valeria Sülsen; Flavia Redko; Cristina Vescina; Liliana Muschietti; Virginia Martino; Cristina Acevedo

    2008-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia has been assayed for its choleretic and antispasmodic effects. Doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg administered orally in rats significantly increased the bile flow and the bile acid output. The extract also showed a significant reduction of the contractions induced by acetylcholine, CaCl2 and KCl on isolated rat jejunum. The total caffeoyl quinic acids derivatives content, expressed as chlorogenic acid was 0.10% w/v by spectrophotome...

  4. Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Woo; Kang, Hee Eun; Lee, Myung Gull; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Chan; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Geon

    2009-02-01

    Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease.

  5. Choleretic and antispasmodic effects of Lippia integrifolia aqueous extract Efeitos colerético e antiespasmódico do extrato aquoso de Lippia integrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gorzalczany

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia has been assayed for its choleretic and antispasmodic effects. Doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg administered orally in rats significantly increased the bile flow and the bile acid output. The extract also showed a significant reduction of the contractions induced by acetylcholine, CaCl2 and KCl on isolated rat jejunum. The total caffeoyl quinic acids derivatives content, expressed as chlorogenic acid was 0.10% w/v by spectrophotometric determination.O extrato aquoso das partes aéreas de Lippia integrifolia foi ensaiado quanto aos seus efeitos colerético e antiespasmódico. Doses de 250, 500 e 750 mg/kg administradas oralmente em ratos aumentaram significativamente o fluxo biliar e a saída de ácidos biliares. O extrato também exibiu uma significativa redução das contrações induzidas por acetilcolina, CaCl2 e KCl em jejuno isolado de rato. O conteúdo total de derivados dos ácidos cafeoilquínicos, expressado como ácido clorogênico foi de 0.10% w/v através de determinação espectrofotométrica.

  6. Choleretic effect of structural analogs of valproic acid in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1983-03-01

    A comparison of structure-choleretic activity relationship has been made for several branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids including valproic acid. Cumulative bile flow was 13.8, 23.8, 29.4 and 14.9 ml/4hr/kg body weight for dimethyl-, diethyl-, dipropyl- (valproic acid), and dibutyl-acetic acid, respectively, after iv administration of approximately equimolar doses (1100 mumoles/kg). Except for dibutylacetic acid, maximal bile flow increased from control rates of 50-60 to 120-140 microliters/min/kg. Administration of higher doses of 2,2-dimethylbutanoic acid and 2-ethylbutanoic acid did not increase maximal bile flow above 125-140 microliters/min/kg but did prolong the duration of choleresis. Maximal and cumulative bile flows increased with length of carboxylic acid chain for 2,2-dimethyl substituted acids (2,2-dimethylacetic acid to 2,2-dimethylbutanoic acid). If the two methyl groups were on C-3 (3-methylbutanoic acid), no change in bile flow was observed. Straight-chain acids from C-5 to C-11 and pent-4-enoic acid did not alter bile flow. Thus, the effectiveness of several branched-chain carboxylic acids as choleretics parallel their ability as anticonvulsants. In contrast, the straight-chain acids which cause central nervous system depression have no choleretic activity.

  7. Choleretic effect of valproic acid in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1981-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant agent which produced marked choleresis in the rat. Bile flow rate increased from 50 to 60 microliter per min per kg to 120 to 145 microliter per min per kg immediately after i.v. injection of VPA (37.5 to 150 mg per kg; 2 ml per kg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The duration of maximal bile flow was dose-dependent and increased from 30 min (37.5 mg VPA per kg) to approximately 2 hr (150 mg VPA per kg). Choleresis diluted the biliary concentrations of bile acids, Cl-, cholesterol, and phospholipids. VPA did not change the bile/plasma ratio for erythritol suggesting that the increased bile flow is of canalicular origin. VPA did not influence the excretion of bile acids or their osmotic activity, whereas bile salt-independent flow doubled in rats treated with 150 mg VPA per kg. The bile/plasma, bile/liver, and liver/plasma concentration ratios for VPA were 11.7, 1.6, and 7.3, respectively. Approximately 90% of VPA appearing in bile was biotransformed, primarily as a glucuronide. Bile flow correlated with VPA excretion; 16 microliter of bile was produced per micromole VPA which suggests that choleresis is primarily due to the osmotic activity of VPA metabolites in bile. VPA enhanced the excretion of inorganic ions which may also contribute to choleresis. Biliary excretion of phenol-3,6-dibromophthalein disulfonate and ouabain was unaffected. Thus, VPA is an effective choleretic which stimulates bile salt-independent flow of canalicular origin largely as a consequence of the osmotic properties of VPA conjugates in bile.

  8. Effects of Choleretics on Bile Compositions Drained from Patients with Pigment Gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bai-jun; CUI Nai-qiang; LI Dong-hua; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide evidence for three-level prevention of cholelithiasis by means of observing the effects of some choleretics on bile compositions drained from patients with pigment gallstone.Methods: Twenty-seven patients suffering from primary pigment gallstones and having received treatment of choledochostomies plus T-tube or endoscopic nasal bile drainage (ENBD) were divided equally into three UDA group) and combination of LDL and UDA (the LDL+ UDA group) through oral intake(7 patients in each group). Besides, 6 post-operational patients got no treatment with any drug were allocated in the control group. Bile of all the patients was collected before treatment and on the 1, 3, 5, 7th day after the treatment started to detect levels of total bile acid (TBA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic cheno-desoxycholic acid (GCDCA), total bilirubin (TBIL), uncombined bilirubin (UCB), concentration of calcium ion (Ca2+ ) as well as the bacterio-genetic and endogenous β-glucuronidase activity for comparing.Results: Levels of TBA, GCA, TCA and GCDCA got gradually increased in the UDA group and the LDL+ UDA group after treatment ( P<0.05), while those in the LDL group remained unchanged, showing an insignificant difference as compared with those in the control group. In the LDL group and the LDL + UDA group, TBIL gradually increased while UCB gradually decreased in the course of treatment ( P<0.05). Moreover, levels of Ca2+ and endogenous β-glucuronidase activity got significantly lowered (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined use of LDL and UDA could elevate levels of TBA, GCA, TCA, GCDCA, enhance the excretion of TBIL in patients with pigment gallstone after bile drainage, lower levels of UCB and Ca2+ and the activity of endogenous β-glucuronidase in the bile, so as to reduce the possibility of stone formation of bile, and therefore, it could be used to prevent the production of pigment gallstone, especially to prevent post

  9. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Kummer; Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz; Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva; Renata Grespan; Expedito Leite Silva; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman

    2013-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Rutaceae) includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka...

  10. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  11. Bioactive phytoconstituents and plant extracts from genus Heliotropium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium is a genus of herbs and rarely shrubs of family Boraginaceae. Heliotropium species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gout, rheumatism and as antiseptic, febrifuge, cholagogue, anti-inflammatory and healing agents. The alkaloids mainly pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the main constituents of Heliotropium species, which are responsible for several biological activities viz. anti-tumoural, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. Phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and quinones have also been reported in this genus. The present review summarizes the various biological studies done on the extracts and bioactive phytoconstituents from the plants of the genus Heliotropium over the past few decades.

  12. A review of the chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus marrubium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2010-01-01

    The genus Marrubium (Lamiaceae) is comprised of about forty species, distributed in Europe, Asia and Brazil. Some species are traditionally used to treat various diseases, including asthma, pulmonary infections, inflammation and hypotension, as cholagogues and sedative agents, and for pain relief. A literature review on the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, analgesic properties, and anti-hypertensive, antidiabetic, antioxidant properties, among others, particularly related to the presence of diterpenes, sterols, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This review shows the main chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus Marrubium, with emphasis on M. vulgare, which grows in Brazil and has been studied by us and other authors.

  13. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Joyeux, M; Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Sayag, M; Mortier, F; Younos, C; Pelt, J M

    1991-04-01

    Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties. PMID:1891491

  14. Chemical characterization and evaluation of biological activity of Cynara cardunculus extractable compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Patrícia Alexandra Bogango

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean species Cynara cardunculus L. is recognized in the traditional medicine, for their hepatoprotective and choleretic effects. Biomass of C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC), or cultivated cardoon, may be explored not only for the production of energy and pulp fibers, but also for the extraction of bioactive compounds. The chemical characterization of extractable components, namely terpenic and phenolic compounds, may valorize the cultivated cardoon plantation, due to their ant...

  15. Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A. R.; Afsharipour, M.; Mahzouni, P.

    2011-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RH...

  16. Two Traditional Chinese Medicines Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma: An Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Xie, Meng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wenping; Zhao, Haoran; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Bai, Shaojuan; Zhao, Yichen; Chen, Xiaoyi; She, Gaimei

    2016-01-01

    Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: 莪术), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: 郁金), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory. PMID:27057197

  17. A review of the chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus marrubium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2010-01-01

    The genus Marrubium (Lamiaceae) is comprised of about forty species, distributed in Europe, Asia and Brazil. Some species are traditionally used to treat various diseases, including asthma, pulmonary infections, inflammation and hypotension, as cholagogues and sedative agents, and for pain relief. A literature review on the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, analgesic properties, and anti-hypertensive, antidiabetic, antioxidant properties, among others, particularly related to the presence of diterpenes, sterols, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This review shows the main chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus Marrubium, with emphasis on M. vulgare, which grows in Brazil and has been studied by us and other authors. PMID:20942795

  18. 利胆止痛胶囊利胆、退黄和保肝作用%Experimental study of Lidanzhitong Capsule on choleretic, jaundice-relieving and liver protective effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小超; 潘淳; 陈鹏; 王娜; 初贺; 沈志强

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察利胆止痛胶囊的利胆、退黄作用和对大鼠肝损伤的保护作用.方法:采用大鼠胆管引流法观测利胆止痛胶囊对大鼠胆汁量的影响.用异硫氰酸-1-萘酯(alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate,ANIT)造成大鼠黄疸模型,测定血清中谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate aminotransferase,AST)和总胆红素(total bilirubin,TBIL)的含量.制备大鼠四氯化碳肝损伤模型,观察利胆止痛胶囊对肝损伤大鼠血清ALT、AST、碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)、总蛋白(total protein,TP)、白蛋白(Albumin,ALB)的影响,同时观察肝脏病理学改变.用RM6240BD型多道生理信号采集处理系统记录豚鼠离体胆囊平滑肌条的张力.结果:0.36、0.72 g生药/kg利胆止痛胶囊明显增加正常大鼠的胆汁流量.利胆止痛胶囊呈浓度相关性增加豚鼠离体胆囊平滑肌条的张力,0.5g生药/L浓度则无明显影响.0.36、0.72g生药/kg利胆止痛胶囊显著降低TBIL水平(与模型组比较).0.72g/kg的利胆止痛胶囊可降低ALT和AST.0.72生药g/kg的利胆止痛胶囊明显降低四氯化碳肝损伤大鼠血清ALT、AST、ALP水平,0.18~0.72g生药/kg的利胆止痛胶囊对TP和ALB均无明显影响;病理组织学观测显示,与正常组比较,模型组肝小叶结构破坏,肝细胞明显变性坏死和炎性细胞浸润,细胞结构凌乱.中、高剂量的利胆止痛胶囊可改善肝脏损伤,可见部分肝细胞变性坏死和炎性细胞浸润.结论:利胆止痛胶囊具有利胆、退黄和保肝降酶作用.

  19. Ultrasonic studies of the effect of artemisia decoction on the volume and dynamics of gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z F; Wu, X S

    1993-02-01

    This paper deals with the ultrasonic studies of the effect of artemisia decoction (AD) on the volume and motion of gallbladder in 33 cases. Ultrasonic examination shows that AD intravenous infusion has remarkable effects on the contractility of gallbladder. There are 4 patterns of phasic changes in the motion of gallbladder and an increase in frequency of its contraction and relaxation. AD has also certain contraction effects on the gallbladders which can not contract after a fatty meal. The above findings indicate that AD is a good choleretic and has a definite regulating effect on the motility of the gallbladder. The clinical use of AD is conducive to bile flow, stone expelling, inhibiting the deposition of bile solids and reducing the possibility of stone formation. PMID:8504698

  20. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

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    Cermanova, Jolana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kadova, Zuzana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Zagorova, Marie [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hroch, Milos [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Tomsik, Pavel [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka [Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek [Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Laho, Tomas [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Micuda, Stanislav, E-mail: micuda@lfhk.cuni.cz [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  1. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  2. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermanova, Jolana; Kadova, Zuzana; Zagorova, Marie; Hroch, Milos; Tomsik, Pavel; Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka; Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek; Laho, Tomas; Micuda, Stanislav

    2015-05-15

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. PMID:25771127

  3. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Nisha Sharma; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF CLERODENDRUM INFORTUNATUM GAERTN. (VERBENACEAE, FOUND IN TADOBA NATIONAL PARK, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. RAJURKAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendron infortunatum Gaertn (Verbenaceae is an important and widely used medicinal plant, reported to contain active bitter substance like clerodin, has been widely used as tonic and ant-helmintic agent in the countrysides of North India. Though, variously used in Ayurveda, Unani system of medicine and Homeopathy in case of ailments like diarrhea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as vermifuge, laxative and cholagogue, for the removal of ascarids in anus, as external applications on tumours, etc., the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. Leaves and roots are used for external applications on tumours are due to the presence of Clerodolone, Clerodone, Clerodol and a sterol now designated as Clerosterol. Leaves and root extract is useful for the treatment of fresh wound. Percentage of haemoglobin increased due to leaf extract. Pile patient treated with leaf extract gives considerable relief. Sugar percentage reduced in diabetic patient. Slightly warm leaves applied with edible oil on the painful part of human body gives considerable relief within twelve hours. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, glactose, glucose and fructose were also identified from root extract. Pollen viability was assessed on the basis of hanging drop method. Reproductive success was assessed on the basis of fruit and seed set

  5. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kummer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Citrus (Rutaceae includes several species of plants that produce some of the most cultivated fruits in the world, providing an appreciable content of essential oil. In folk medicine, they are used as a cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antitoxic effects. Lemon essential oil has been used since ancient times for its antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, and eupeptic effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka essential oil (CLEO and its main constituent LIM. In the cell viability assay, CLEO and LIM (3, 10, 30, and 90 μg/mL had low cytotoxicity. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, LIM (500 mg/kg decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes and decreased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis revealed that CLEO and LIM (1, 3, and 10 µg/mL promoted a significant reduction of neutrophil migration toward fMLP and LTB4. LIM (500 mg/kg also reduced TNF-α levels but did not alter IL-10 levels in the peritoneal exudate. In conclusion, this study showed that LIM isolated from CLEO had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators present in inflammatory exudate and leukocyte chemotaxis.

  6. 茵陈对肝内胆汁淤积湿热证大鼠利胆退黄作用机制的研究%The Choleretic and Jaundice-relieving Mechanism of Yinchen on Rat with Intrahepatic Cholestasis and Damp-heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰绍阳; 佘世锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过研究茵陈对肝内胆汁淤积湿热证大鼠肝组织中胆盐输出泵(BSEP)基因表达的影响,从分子水平探讨茵陈利胆退黄的作用机制.方法 45只雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组:正常组、模型对照组和茵陈组.检测治疗后大鼠血清生化指标、肝脏组织病理的变化和肝脏BSEP的表达.结果 治疗后茵陈组大鼠体质量增加明显高于模型对照组(P<0.05).茵陈组大鼠血清TB、DB、ALT、AST、ALP、TBA浓度低于模型对照组(P<0.05);HE染色显示茵陈组大鼠肝脏的病理损害轻于模型对照组.免疫组织化学染色显示茵陈组大鼠比模型对照组有更多的BSEP阳性细胞.荧光定量RT-PCR法显示模型对照组大鼠肝组织中BSEP mRNA表达明显低于茵陈组(P<0.05).结论 茵陈能有效改善肝内胆汁淤积湿热证大鼠的肝功能、减轻病理损害,并能上调肝脏BSEP的表达.

  7. Effect of Choleretic and Jaundice-relieving Method on the BSEP expresion in the livers of rats with intrahepatic cholestasis and damp-heat%利胆退黄法对肝内胆汁淤积湿热证大鼠BSEP表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰绍阳; 佘世锋; 张达坤; 陶双友

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过研究利胆退黄法对肝内胆汁淤积湿热证大鼠肝组织中BSEP基因表达的影响,以期进一步从分子水平探讨利胆退黄法的作用靶点及机制.方法:45只雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组:正常组、模型对照组和治疗组.检测治疗后大鼠血清生化指标、肝脏组织病理的变化和肝脏BSEP的表达.结果:治疗后治疗组大鼠体重增加(31.39±3.72 g)明显高于模型对照组大鼠(22.36±3.32 g),P<0.05.治疗组大鼠血清TB、DB、ALT、AST、ALP、TBA分别为13.90±2.88 μmol/L,7.47±2.70μmol/L,75.33±9.42 U/L,216.64±31.20 U/L,226.40±32.86 U/L,19.73±2.10 μmol/L),低于模型对照组(34.72±3.65μmol/L,19.33±3.27 μmol/L,123.73±18.51 U/L,353.78±63.08 U/L,355.49±63.08 U/L,36.15±6.77 μmol/L),P <0.05;HE染色显示治疗组大鼠肝脏的病理损害轻于模型对照组.免疫组织化学染色显示治疗组大鼠比模型对照组表达更多BSEP阳性细胞.荧光定量RT- PCR法显示模型对照组大鼠肝组织中BSEP mRNA表达(2-△△CT值1.49±0.49)明显低于治疗组(2-△△CT值1.96±0.66),P<0.05.结论:利胆退黄法能有效改善肝内胆汁淤积湿热证大鼠的肝功能、减轻病理损害,并能上调肝脏BSEP的表达.

  8. 中药栀子有效成分及药理作用的研究进展%Research Progress in Effective Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Gardenia Jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亭

    2015-01-01

    中药栀子为茜草科植物栀子的干燥成熟果实,其主要有效成分包括环烯醚萜、栀子黄色素、有机酸等. 现代药理研究表明栀子具有抗炎、解热、镇痛、保肝、利胆、降血脂、抗血栓、神经保护、抗阿尔茨海默病等作用. 本文综述了栀子的有效成分及药理作用,为其深入研究提供参考.%Traditional Chinese medicine"Zhizi" is the dry ripe fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which belongs to the family of Rubiaceae. The main effective constituents of gardenia include iridoid, gardenia yellow pigment and organic acid. Modern pharmaco-logical studies showed that the main pharmacological effects of gardenia included anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects, liver protection, cholagogue, antilipidemic effect, antithrombus, nerve protection and anti-Alzheimer' s disease. In this paper, the ef-fective constituents and pharmacological effects of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis were reviewed to provide available information for further research.

  9. ВЗАИМОСВЯЗЬ СОСТОЯНИЯ МИКРОБИОЦЕНОЗА ТОЛСТОГО КИШЕЧНИКА С ВЫРАЖЕННОСТЬЮ СИСТЕМНОЙ ЭНДОТОКСИНЕМИИ И АНТИЭНДОТОКСИНОВОЙ ЗАЩИТЫ У БЕРЕМЕННЫХ С ОБСТИПАЦИОННЫМ СИНДРОМОМ

    OpenAIRE

    Субханкулова, С.; Габидуллина, Р.; Газизов, Р.; Зинкевич, О.; Сафина, Н.; Субханкулова, А.

    2008-01-01

    The composition of bowel microflora, the level of serum endotoxin and indicators anti-endotoxin protection were studied in pregnant women with constipation. Treatment with cholagogue artichoke extract helped to stop constipation in most patients, as well as to improve the composition of microflora of the bowel and reduce the endotoxemia.

  10. The effect of five Taraxacum species on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingarro, D Muñoz; Plaza, A; Galán, A; Vicente, J A; Martínez, M P; Acero, N

    2015-08-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Taraxacum are considered a nutritious food, being consumed raw or cooked. Additionally, these plants have long been used in folk medicine due to their choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This genus, with its complex taxonomy, includes several species that are difficult to distinguish. Its traditional use must be related not only to T. officinale F.H. Wigg., the most studied species, but also to others. The aim of this work is to compare five different common South European species of Taraxacum (T. obovatum (Willd.) DC., T. marginellum H. Lindb., T. hispanicum H. Lindb., T. lambinonii Soest and T. lacistrum Sahlin), in order to find differences between antioxidant and cytotoxic activities among them. Dissimilarities between species in LC/MS patterns, in in vitro and intracellular antioxidant activity and also in the cytotoxicity assay were found. T. marginellum was the most efficient extract reducing intracellular ROS levels although in in vitro assays, T. obovatum was the best free radical scavenger. A relevant cytotoxic effect was found in T. lacistrum extract over HeLa and HepG2 cell lines.

  11. Stress -induced biosynthesis of dicaffeoylquinic acids in globe artichoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moglia, A.; Lanteri, S.; Comino, C.; Acquadro, A.; Vos, de C.H.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leaf extracts from globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) have been widely used in medicine as hepatoprotectant and choleretic agents. Globe artichoke leaves represent a natural source of phenolic acids with dicaffeoylquinic acids, such as cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid), along wi

  12. Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernán

    2006-01-01

    The increasing recognition of the participation of free radical-mediated oxidative events in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular, tumoural, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders, has given rise to the search for new antioxidant molecules. An important source of such molecules has been plants for which there is an ethno-cultural base for health promotion. An important example of this is boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), a chilean tree whose leaves have been traditionally employed in folk medicine and is now widely recognized as a herbal remedy by a number of pharmacopoeias. Boldo leaves are rich in several aporphine-like alkaloids, of which boldine is the most abundant one. Research conducted during the early 1990s led to the discovery that boldine is one of the most potent natural antioxidants. Prompted by the latter, a large and increasing number of studies emerged, which have focused on characterizing some of the pharmacological properties that may arise from the free radical-scavenging properties of boldine. The present review attempts to exhaustively cover and discuss such studies, placing particular attention on research conducted during the last decade. Mechanistic aspects and structure-activity data are discussed. The review encompasses pharmacological actions, which arise from its antioxidant properties (e.g., cyto-protective, anti-tumour promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic actions), as well as those that do not seem to be associated with such activity (e.g., vasorelaxing, anti-trypanocidal, immuno- and neuro-modulator, cholagogic and/or choleretic actions). Based on the pharmacological and toxicological data now available, further research needs and recommendations are suggested to define the actual potential of boldine for its use in humans. PMID:16221469

  13. 栀子化学成分及其药理作用研究进展%Advances in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Gardenia jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥乐; 李红伟; 李颜; 余奇; 万丽丽; 郭澄

    2011-01-01

    栀子(Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.)是茜草科(Rubiaceae)栀子属植物,其干燥成熟果实作为中药栀子,具有泻火除烦、清热利尿、凉血解毒的功效.现代植物化学研究发现,该植物中含有大量的环烯醚萜类化合物,同时还存在一些有机酸、黄酮、香豆素、挥发油、皂苷、木脂素、多糖及其他类化合物;现代药理研究表明栀子具有抗炎、抗氧化、利胆、利尿、抗肿瘤、解热、镇痛、辐射防护、降血脂等多种药理活性,成为研究的热点.因此本文对最近5年有关栀子的化学成分和药理研究的新进展进行分类汇总,为其进一步研究提供参考.%Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, one genus of Gardenia, belongs to the family of the Rubiaceae.The fruit of G.jasminoides is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine named “Zhizi”.It has significant biologic activities including antipyretic, antianxiety, diuretic effcts, Cooling the Blood and Detoxication.Recently, a large quantity of newly-emerging bioactive constituents from G.jasminoides has been reported.The unique constituents iridoid glucosides, and other types of active principles include organic acid, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, volatile oils and fatty acids.They entitle the plant to possess several bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cholagogue, diuretic, anticancer, radiological protection, antiphlogistic, antipyretic, analgesic,and antihyperlipidemic effects.In this paper, we reviewed categorization of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of G.jasminoides from reports since 2004.This review will provide a reference for further studies.

  14. [New approaches to diagnosing and treating hyperkinetic biliary dyskinesia associated with chronic acalculous cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosh, L F; Balakina, I V; Gridneva, L M

    2004-01-01

    Ninety patients aged 21 to 56 years who had chronic non-calculous cholecystitis (CNCC) concurrent with hyperkinetic dyskinesia (HKD) detectable by a stepwise duodenal probing and sonography, by using a choleretic breakfast and by determining the relaxation coefficient (RC) that was equal to the ratio of the volume of the gallbladder (GB) after the use of a spasmolytic to the baseline GB volume. The patients were divided into 3 groups. The authors used as a spasmolytic agent pinaverium bromide (dicetel) in a dose of 50 mg (1 tablet) in Group 1), octylonium bromide (spasmomen) in a dose of 40 mg (1 dragee) in Group 2, and drotaverine (no-spa) in a dose of 40 mg (1 tablet). There was a more significant sonographic increase in the size of GB in Groups 1 and 2 as compared with Group 3. In the acute drug test and during long-term treatment as well, the highest spasmolytic effect was noted in patients receiving dicetel (Group 1) and spasmomen (Group 2) as compared with that in Group 3 patients taking drotaverine. With this, RC was 1.25 +/- 0.2, 1.6 +/- 0.15, and 1.08 +/- 0.1, respectively. No adverse reactions occurred in the patients having selective calcium blockers (SCBs) whereas the patients receiving no-spa were found to have the following side effects: dry mouth (n = 3), transient constipation (n = 1), and numb tongue (n = 1). Thus, the study has provided evidence for the fact that SCBs have some advantage over myotropic spasmolytic agents in the treatment of CNCC with the signs of HKD. PMID:15540426

  15. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the regioisomers of dihydroxybutylether in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Li, Li; Fu, Yao; Jin, Yi; Guo, Lixin; Xu, Haiyan

    2012-12-12

    Dihydroxybutylether (DHBE), a strong choleretic drug, is a mixture of three regioisomers: 4-(3-hydroxybutoxy)-2-butanol (I), 3-(4-hydroxy-2-butoxy)-1-butanol (II) and 3-(3-hydroxylbutoxy)-1-butanol (III). A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of dihydroxybutylether (DHBE) regioisomers in human plasma. After plasma samples were deproteinized with 10% perchloric acid, the post-treatment samples were analyzed on a Capcell Pak C(18) MGII column interfaced with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization mode. Methanol and water was used as the mobile phase with a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1mL/min. Acetaminophen was used as an internal standard (IS). Multiple selected reaction monitoring was performed using the transitions m/z 163→55 and m/z 152→110 to quantify DHBE regioisomers and IS, respectively. Five DHBE isomers (a, b, c, d and e) were separated under the present chromatographic condition. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5.0-200ng/mL for DHBE isomers a, b and c, and 10.0-400ng/mL for DHBE isomers d and e. The intra- and inter-day precision was within 13.6% in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD%) and the accuracy within 7.3% in terms of relative error. This simple and sensitive and easily reproducible LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of DHBE regioisomers in healthy male Chinese volunteers after an oral dose of 1.0g DHBE.

  16. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  17. Laparoscopic cholelithotomy and polypectomy of gallbladder polyps for cholelithiasis and/or cholecystic polyps: An analysis of 53 cases%腹腔镜保胆取石术和息肉切除术临床分析53例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新保; 张辉; 张洪义; 刘承利; 何晓军; 肖梅; 张宏义; 冯志强

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the indications, methods, and therapeutic effect of laparoscopic cholelithotomy and polypectomy in treating cholecystolithiasis and polyps.METHODS: The clinical data for 53 patients with cholelithiasis and cholecystic polyps who were treated by laparoscopic cholelithotomy and polypectomy between January 2009 and September 2011 were analyzed. Of the 53 patients, 39 suffered from only cholecystolithiasis (including 12 with a single stone and 27 with multiple stones), 8 suffered from cholecystic polyps (including 3 with adenomatous polyps and 5 with cholesterol polyps), and 6 simultaneously suffered from cholecystolithiasis and cholecystic polyps. Of 39 patients suffering from cholecystolithiasis, 2 had liver cirrhosis, 1 had primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and 3 had acute cholecystitis. Before the stones were removed, the bottom of the gallbladder was incised in 37 of 39 cases with cholelithiasis, and the neck of the gallbladder was incised in the remaining two patients. Of 8 patients with cholecystic polyps, 5 had cholesterol polyps and underwent polyp removal, and the other 3 had adenomas of the gallbladder and underwent partial cholecystectomy around the adenoma. In six patients with combined cholecystolithiasis and cholecystic polyps, the bottom of the gallbladder was excised to remove the stones and polyps. The incisions were sutured continuously with a 4/0 prolene suture in 10 cases, and interrupted or continuous suturing was performed with a 3/0 absorption suture in the other 43 cases. Both choledochoscopy and laparoscopy were used in 33 cases, and only laparoscopy was used in the other 20 patients during operation to see if the stones and polyps had been removed. Celiac drainage tube was placed under the right hepatic lobe in 19 cases during operation and was removed one to five days later. Thirty-three patients with cholecystolithiasis took choleretic drugs for one week to 4 weeks after operation, and the other 12 cases with

  18. [The Codex of the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of the University of Athens, Part. I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philianos, Skevos; Skaltsa, Hélène

    2015-06-01

    This work concerns the first part of a manuscript written in the 18th century and stored in the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of the University of Athens. This part includes an introduction based on the theories of Hippocrates and Galen concerning the four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, which should be in balance. During the seasons and depending of the age, these humors are converted to each other. Blood increases in the spring and in children, phlegm is growing in winter and in old man, yellow bile in adulthood and black bile in the fall and the third age. The disease is due to the increase or decrease in these fluids. Many formulas with purgative and cholagogue effects are described for each humor. The chapter ends with advice on the necessary diet, hygiene and lifestyle to keep health care. PMID:26189314

  19. 腹腔镜胆囊切开取石(息肉)术93例报告%The clinical analysis of laparoscopic cholelithotomy and polypectomy of gallbladder : with a report of 93 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新保; 张洪义; 张辉; 张宏义; 刘承利; 肖梅; 冯志强

    2012-01-01

    stone and 44 patients with multiple stones, 16 cases suffered from cholecystic polyps including 10 patients with single polyp(3 adenomatous polyps and 7 cholesterol polyps) and 6 patients with multiple polyps (cholesterol polyps), and 12 cases simultaneously suffered from cholecystolithiasis and cholecystic cholesterol polyps. Especially, in the 65 cases suffered from cholecystolithiasis,2 cases simultaneously combined with liver cirrhosis,2 cases with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 1 case with liver metastases from rectal cancer, and 5 cases complicated with acute cholecystitis. Results: The operation time was 60-180 (106±35) min. The operation had been performed successfully on 92 cases,only one case was carried out laparoscopic cholecystecto-my on the 5 th postoperative day because of bile leakage due to rupture of cholecystic incision. Mild bile leakage occurred in only one case and was cured by abdomen drainage for 5 days. The rest cases recovered smoothly. All the patients were cured and their mean postoperative hospital stay was 2-12(4.1±2.7) days,and subsequently fully follow up was performed from 3 to 42 months after operation. Only 2 cases,whose gallbladder incisions had been sutured continuously with 4-0 prolene without subsequent choleretic drug therapy, had muddy stone recurrence in 12 and 18 postoperative months respectively, and then their stones disappeared after taking choleretic and removing calculus drugs for one month. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cholelithotomy and polypectomy can preserve gallbladder function and be in favor of maintaining normal digestive function of the patients. If a patient with cholecystlithiasis, simultaneously taking diseases ofliver cirrhosis or hepatic carcinoma, had recurrent attacks of acute cholecystitis, and thus his normal living was seriously affected due to the gallbladder stones, removal of calculus by laparoscopy combined with choledochoscopy could be operationed for him under the circumstances of acceptable

  20. Severe acute cholestatic hepatitis of unknown etiology successfully treated with the Chinese herbal medicine Inchinko-to (TJ-135)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Ohwada; Isao Kobayashi; Nobuo Harasawa; Kyoichiro Tsuda; Yosikatsu Inui

    2009-01-01

    Severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology is difficult to treat and often progresses to subacute fulminant hepatitis or late-onset hepatic failure. A 45-year-old wellnourished, healthy man had progressive fatigue and his liver function tests showed severe liver dysfunction. The etiology of sever acute cholestatic hepatitis was unknown. The liver function tests normalized gradually, which excluded high persistent total bilirubin after starting on predonine. A liver biopsy showed chronic active hepatitis with mild fibrosis (A2, F1). Oral Inchinko-to, a Chinese herbal medicine, at 7.5 g daily was prescribed. The treatment was effective with no adverse effects. We present a successfully treated case and discuss hepatoprotective and choleretic effects of Inchinko-to.

  1. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  2. Quelques vertus médicinales de Cassia occidentalis L. (Césalpiniacées en basse Cóte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aké Assi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available SOME MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS  L. (CAESALPINIACEAE IN THE LOWER IVORY COAST About 40 species of Cassia, a great number of which have been introduced, grow in different parts of intertropical Africa, in all types o f vegetation. The 14 species in the Ivory Coast are herbs, shrubs or trees. The local pharmacopoeia uses six of these species for various therapeutic preparations. The currently most used species is Cassia occidentalis L. commonly called Faux Kinkéliba. In the forest area of the Lower Ivory Coast, 11 medical preparations made from different parts of the plant are used. With its considerable ability to spread, this South American plant has become a pantropical one. It is found chiefly in the vicinity of villages. C. occidentalis is used for the relief and treatment of a variety of pains and diseases, for example as a cicatrizant, abortifacient, febrifuge, diuretic, laxative or cholagogue and tonic, and in cases of asthma, cataract, jaundice and kwashiorkor.

  3. 秦艽1-羟基-2-甲基-2-(E)-丁烯基-4-焦磷酸还原酶基因(GmHDR)的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase gene (GmHDR)from Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑文; 孔维维; 郑鹏; 化文平

    2015-01-01

    Secoiri doids,such as gentiopicroside,are the main active compounds in “Qinj iao”,a traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots of Gentiana macrophylla.These compounds have widely biological and pharmacological effects,such as stomachic,choleretic,anti-hepatotoxic activities,anti-inflammatory,antifungal and antihistamine activities.Secoiridoids belonged to monoterpenoid,were biosynthesized via the secoiridoid pathway (sometimes also called“ridoid pathway”)in high plant.1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR)is one of the key enzymes in the pathway of iridoid biosynthesis.In this paper,we cloned the gene sequence of HDR from G.macrophylla,and analyzed the characteristic of sequence and expression patterns in order to know its roles in secoiridoid biosynthesis.Based on our library generated by high-through sequencing of G.macrophylla transcriptome,we cloned HDR gene from G.macrophylla(named as GmHDR)by RT-PCR.And the GmHDR coding amino acid sequence characterization,such as physicochemical characteristics,signal peptide,transit peptide, subcellular localization,conserved domain and secondary structure,analyzed with bioinformatics methods.Then we also detected the expression patterns of GmHDR in different parts of G.macrophylla by real time PCR.One 1 630-bp length sequence of GmHDR gene was obtained from G.macrophylla.GmHDR contains a completed open read-ing frame (ORF)of 1 392 bp,which encoded a polypeptide with 463 amino acids.GmHDR,the encoding protein by GmHDR,has high homology (identities ≥ 84%)to HDR proteins from Rauvolfia verticillata,Tanacetum parthenium and other plants.One neighbor joining tree was constructed to show evolution ship between GmHDR and HDR proteins from other plants using MEGA5.2 soft.The phylogenetic tree also gave a same conclusion that Gm-HDR had a closed relation with HDR proteins from Catharanthus roseus and Rauvolfia verticillata.Further analysis with bioinformatics methods showed

  4. MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Govind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs are now used for the prevention and treatment of various liver disorders. Although experimental studies have been conducted on a number of these plants and their formulations, however, only some plants have clearly shown the hepatogenic / hepatoprotective effects against liver diseases or hepatotoxicity caused by variety of hepatotoxic agents such as chemicals, drugs, pollutants, and infections from parasites, bacteria or viruses (e.g., hepatitis A, B and C, etc. Indeed, to obtain satisfactory herbal drugs for treating severe liver diseases, the medicinal plants must be evaluated systematically for properties like antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc., antihepatotoxicity activity (antioxidants and others, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. A combination of different herbal extracts / fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals which possess strong antioxidant property, leading to antihepatotoxic activity.

  5. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on intrahepatic cholestasis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰娟; 徐小微; 吕芳芳; 赵年丰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intrahepatic cholestasis in rats, and to explore its mechanism.Method Rats suffering from intrahepatic cholestasis were treated with UDCA. Their serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), total cholesterol (TCH), bile flow, total bile acid excretion, total Na+ and TCH of bile were measured before and after treatment. In addition, the changes of liver tissue under microscrope were observed and recorded.Results Compared with the control group, serum ALT, ALP, TBIL, DBIL, γ-GT and TCH of rats in the treatment group decreased, while bile flow, total bile acid excretion, total Na+ and TCH decreased significantly. Degeneration of hepatocytes, infiltration of inflamed cells and proliferation of small bile ducts in the treatment group were improved under microscope.Conclusion UDCA may have therapeutic effects on cholestatic hepatitis. The mechanism may involve in its hydrophilicity, choleretic effect and immune modulation.

  6. The role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P J; Southern, K W; Bowler, I M; Irving, H C; Robinson, P J; Littlewood, J M

    1996-02-01

    This was a prospective open study that examined the quantitative and qualitative analysis of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (DISIDA) in detecting liver involvement in cystic fibrosis (CF). Forty-four adult and pediatric patients (median age, 12.1 years; range, 1.1-36.3 years) were divided into three groups: group 1, no evidence of liver involvement (n = 8); group 2, biochemical evidence of liver involvement on two or more occasions (n = 26); and group 3, clinical evidence of liver disease (n = 10). In groups 1 and 2, the most common qualitative scintigraphic finding was focal intrahepatic retention of tracer (26/34 patients, 12 of whom had normal findings on ultrasonography). This finding corresponds to focal cholestasis and may warrant treatment with the choleretic agent ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In the group 3 patients, the abnormal qualitative scintigraphic appearances (heterogeneous uptake of tracer and nodular liver outline) added little to the findings on ultrasonography; however, these patients had a prolonged mean hepatic clearance time compared with those in groups 1 and 2 (one-way ANOVA; P < .015). It is proposed that scintigraphy with DISIDA has a role in the detection of early liver involvement in cystic fibrosis. PMID:8591853

  7. Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Bangpungtongsung-San, a Traditional Herbal Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangpungtongsung-san (BPS is a traditional Korean herbal formula used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiobesity, and choleretic agent, which consists of 18 herbs. As part of a safety evaluation of BPS, the present study evaluated the potential genotoxicity of an aqueous BPS extract using a standard battery of tests, including, the Ames test, chromosomal aberration test, and mouse micronucleus test. The BPS extract was not found to be genotoxic under the conditions of the Ames test. In micronucleus test, oral administration of BPS at doses up to 2,000 mg/kg did not increases the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte. The chromosomal aberration test showed that the BPS extract induced an increase in the number of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in the group treated with BPS at high dose levels (2,500 and 4,000 μg/mL for 6 h, in the presence of the metabolic activation system (S-9 mix, compared with the vehicle control. In conclusion, these results indicate that BPS extract may act as a genotoxic agent.

  8. 藏红花降血脂作用的研究进展%Research progress of hypolipidemic effect to saffron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素莲; 黄伟; 熊玉卿; 胡晓

    2015-01-01

    藏红花是鸢尾科番红花属球根类草本植物,具有利胆保肝、抵御癌症侵袭、干预心血管类疾病以及调节免疫功能等作用。藏红花还有降血脂的功效。本文综述藏红花降血脂作用方面的研究进展。%Saffron is an irides saffron crocus bulbous herbs, many studies found that saffron have choleretic and hepatic protective effect, anti -tumor effect, intervention of cardiovascular diseases effect and regulate immune function.Recently scientific findings discovered that saffron can be used to reducing blood fat, so it must be studied extensively.This ar-ticle summarizes the research progress of saffron on reducing blood fat, in order to provide the basis for the development and clinical application of saffron.

  9. Drug: D00734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00734 Drug Ursodeoxycholic acid (JP16/INN); Ursodiol (USP); Actigall (TN); Urso (T...estive organ agents 236 Cholagogues 2362 Bile acids D00734 Ursodeoxycholic acid (JP16/INN); Ursodio...ycholic acid D00734 Ursodeoxycholic acid (JP16/INN); Ursodiol (USP) USP drug clas...sification [BR:br08302] Gastrointestinal Agents Gastrointestinal Agents, Other Ursodiol D00734 Ursodeoxycholic acid (JP16/INN); Ursod...iol (USP) CAS: 128-13-2 PubChem: 7847799 DrugBank: DB01586 LigandBox: D00734 NIKKAJ

  10. Stress-induced biosynthesis of dicaffeoylquinic acids in globe artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Lanteri, Sergio; Comino, Cinzia; Acquadro, Alberto; de Vos, Ric; Beekwilder, Jules

    2008-09-24

    Leaf extracts from globe artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) have been widely used in medicine as hepatoprotectant and choleretic agents. Globe artichoke leaves represent a natural source of phenolic acids with dicaffeoylquinic acids, such as cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid), along with its biosynthetic precursor chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as the most abundant molecules. This paper reports the development of an experimental system to induce caffeoylquinic acids. This system may serve to study the regulation of the biosynthesis of (poly)phenolic compounds in globe artichoke and the genetic basis of this metabolic regulation. By means of HPLC-PDA and accurate mass LC-QTOF MS and MS/MS analyses, the major phenolic compounds in globe artichoke leaves were identified: four isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid, three isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, and the flavone luteolin 7-glucoside. Next, plant material was identified in which the concentration of phenolic compounds was comparable in the absence of particular treatments, with the aim to use this material to test the effect of stress application on the regulation of biosynthesis of caffeoylquinic acids. Using this material, the effect of UV-C, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid treatments on (poly)phenolic compounds was tested in different globe artichoke genotypes. UV-C exposure consistently increased the levels of dicaffeoylquinic acids in all genotypes, whereas the effect on compounds from the same biosynthetic pathway, for example, chlorogenic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside, was much less pronounced and was not statistically significant. No effect of methyl jasmonate or salicylic acid was found. Time-response experiments indicated that the level of dicaffeoylquinic acids reached a maximum at 24 h after UV radiation. On the basis of these results a role of dicaffeoylquinic acids in UV protection in globe artichoke is hypothesized. PMID:18710252

  11. Tratamento cirúrgico da atresia de vias biliares: a experiência do hospital municipal jesus, 1997-2000 Surgical treatment of biliary atresia: the hospital municipal jesus experience 1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    2001-04-01

    . METHODS: Eight patients were prospectively evaluated after being submitted to portoenterostomy (Kasai I in a 3 years period (1997-2000. Seven of then operated by the same surgeon. All patients reserved to prophylactic antibiotics, oral choleretics and underwent a monthly follow-up for the first six months, and all of them were periodically submitted to laboratory, ultra-sonographic and endoscopid evaluations, following a pre-established schedule. RESULTS: We could obtain a stable biliary drainage for more than 6 post-operative months in 5 patients. There were 4 post-operative deaths (1 hepatic insuficiency, 1 cholangitis and 2 esophageal varices ruptures. All three patients with an insuficient biliary drainage died. Four of the five patients with a good and stable biliary drainage are anicteric and in good shape, one of them shows a serious residual hepatic fibrosis. We detected a generally late referral of patients and we could not obtain hepatic transplantation as necessary. CONCLUSION: Portoenterostomy is a satisfactory operation if we can obtain a satisfactory and stable post-operative biliary drainage. In cases without satisfactory biliary excretion quality of life is unsatisfactory and death occurs in the 2nd year, without hepatic transplantation. It is urgent to offer pediatric hepatic transplantation in a higher scale in Brazil and to educate doctors to send urgently icteric babies more than 15 days old to specialized units to be evaluated and treated precociously enough.

  12. Genre and ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genres are everywhere and we all know how to use them. However, they are also elusive and hard to describe. We act and interact through genre, understand through genre, and organize through genre, but we have a hard time defining individual genres, and an even harder time understanding what a genre...... is and what a genre does. Therefore, genre is a central concept in many areas of scholarship today and is interlinked with many other central scholarly concepts, but its core function is still a subject of debate, and its connections with other core concepts remain sorely under-examined. Genre and … explores...... these connections in a series of articles that each analyzes the relationship between genre and one other central scholarly concept: conversation, rhetoric, categorization, paratext, interpretation etc., with examples spanning from Sherlock Holmes and avantgardistic literature to car commercials. The authors...

  13. Science and Technology and Counterterorrism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J

    2002-04-03

    Major scientific and technological breakthroughs played a pivotal role in our ability to win the Cold War. The possibility of a different type of war, in response to terrorism, has long been recognized. Indeed, countermeasures to address specific terrorist acts have been developed and are deployed, for example, at special sporting and political events. The current threat environment, however, has created an intense and compelling set of concerns; consequently, the challenge to the scientific Community to develop new concepts and products on an accelerated timeframe is clear. Also, the spectrum of terrorist threats is broad. It includes the use of conventional, chemical, biological, and nuclear and radiological weapons, not to mention cyber-based attacks. The imperatives for advances have been amplified now that attacks are clearly possible within the U.S. borders. For example, advanced sensors and detectors that are able to monitor the proliferation of all the above warfare agents and their movement at entry points into the U.S. are clearly needed. The investments over the last decades in research and development efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories in nonproliferation have led unique technologies and detection capabilities that have proved useful; yet, many challenges remain. In particular, the development of accurate, robust, and low cost techniques that are easily deployable by first responders, law enforcement agencies, and military personnel is urgently needed. Advancements are needed in radiation, nuclear proliferation, and next-generation biological detection, as well as photonics and optics for global surveillance, information. science to convert data into useful forms, and forensic attribution. Current research and development efforts highlighting technical challenges, especially to the materials science community, will be presented.

  14. Fun and Games and Boredom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-08-01

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, thus, their viability. "How can serious videogames attract and maintain players," the argument goes, "if they aren't as much fun as commercial titles, or even any fun at all?" This article examines the argument that, to be effective, serious videogames should be overtly fun and comparable to commercial off-the-shelf videogames. It explores differences between game developer- and researcher-led projects and discusses ways serious videogames can avoid boring and alienating players. It concludes that direct comparisons between serious and commercial game entertainment values may be misdirected.

  15. Prescription and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón-Guzmán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge about the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in Mexico is sparing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of prescription and consumption of solid oral drugs dispensed as unitary doses (UD in a third level private hospital of Mexico. A retrospective study of a 60-month period (from 2007 to 2011 was carried out to know the pattern of drugs dispensed as UD in a third level hospital. Results: Among the principal drugs consumed were analgesic, antihypertensive, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, and diuretics. The dispensation of drugs per year was as follows: 181 drugs with 85,167 UD in 2007; 199 with 90,519 UD in 2008; 193 with 101,479 UD in 2009; 195 with 100,798 UD in 2010; and 198 with 103,913 UD in 2011. Conclusion: The findings confirmed that prescription and consumption of unitary doses in the hospitalization service increased, and revealed the extensive use of analgesics as the principal prescribed drug in this kind of hospital.

  16. Prebiotic and...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    _ Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic: A nondigestible food ingredient that benefits the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth and/ or activity of 1 or more indigenous prebiotic bacteria. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotic in treatment acute diarrhea is still lacking. Prebiotics is not helpful to prevention of diarrhea. there is a paucity of data on the use of Prebiotics in the prevention of ADD (antibiotic – associated diarrhea. Probiotic: An oral supplement or a food product that contains a sufficient number of viable microorganisms to alter the micro flora of the host and has the potential for beneficial health effects. Result of published randomized controlled trials (RCT have indicated that there is modest benefit of giving probiotics in preventing acute gastroenteritis but have good therapeutic benefit in treatment of acute diarrhea. LGG is the most effective. Probiotics also more effective  when given early in the course of diarrhea and are most helpful for otherwise healthy children with watery diarrhea secondary to vial gastroenteritis but no invasive bacterial infection. Probitic can be use to reduce the incidence of ADD specially when started in initiate of treatment. Probiotics is associated with a significant reduced risk of diarrhea lasting more than 3 days.  

  17. REE and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jihua

    2005-01-01

    [1]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.2 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1992, 1-116.[2]Guangzhou Marine Geology Survey, Reports of Pacific Geological Investigation, Vol.3 (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 1-175.[3]Xu Dongyu, Chen Zongtuan, Meng Xiangying, Late Cenozoic Palaeoenvironments and Events in the Central Pacific Ocean (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 1-11.[4]Bischoff, J. L., Heath, G. R., Leinen, M., Geochemistry of deep-sea sediments from the Pacific manganese nodule province: Domes, A, B and C, in: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province (eds. Bischoff, J. L., Piper, D. Z.), New York: Plenum Press, 1979, 397-436.[5]Riech, V., Grafenstein, R. V., Sedimentological and geochemical trends in deep-sea sedimentation of the Clarion-Chipperton block southeast of Hawaii since the early Miocene, in: Manganese Nodules and Sediments in the Equatorial North Pacific Ocean, Sonne Cruise SO25, 1982 (eds. Von Stackelberg, U., Beiersdorf, H.), Hannover: Burdesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe und Geologischelandes(a)mster in der Bundesrepublic Deutschland, 1987, 71-104.[6]Johnson, G. C., Toole, J. M., Flow of deep and bottom water in the Pacific at 10°N, Deep-Sea Reseach, 1993, 40(2): 371-394.[7]Marine Geology Department of Tongji University, Introduction to Palaeo-oceanography (in Chinese), Shanghai: Tongji University Press, 1989, 45-147.[8]Seibold, E., Berger, W. H., The Sea Floor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993, 97-125.[9]Rea, D. K., The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: The geologic history of wind, Rev. Geophys., 1994, 32: 159-195.[10]Menard, H. W., Marine Geology of the Pacific, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964.[11]Chamley, H., Clay Sedimentology, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989, 259-289.[12]Piper, D. Z., Rare earth

  18. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your meals: butter, margarine, sour cream, cream cheese, peanut butter gravy, sour cream, cream cheese, grated cheese avocados, ... immune system. whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts Limit to 400 mcg per day. ...

  19. Fun and Games and Boredom

    OpenAIRE

    Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious videogames can be effective. Support for serious videogames, however, is not universal. An informal Web search reveals numerous skeptics. Critics question serious videogames' entertainment value and, t...

  20. Fun and games and boredom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious videogames use entertainment to teach, train, or change behavior. What began in the 1970s as tentative attempts to create learning software is now a recognized videogame genre and an emerging health science. Although more research is needed, a growing body of literature suggests serious vide...

  1. Apples and Oranges and Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    Private high schools have higher test scores than public schools. Does this mean they are better? Most studies of public versus private schools have explored the full range of income and achievement, one recently finding little if any difference that could not be accounted for by demographic differences. In this article, the author discusses the…

  2. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  3. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  4. 76 FR 28662 - Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters and Commercial and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... and Process Heaters and Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units AGENCY: Environmental... Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'' and ``Standards...: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters'': Mr. Brian Shrager, Energy...

  5. Caffeine and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Caffeine and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine Depression and Migraine Diet Do I ...

  6. Globalisation and schooling: equity and access issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This review essay focuses on the prominence given to globalisation and discourses of globalisation in education reforms and pedagogy, as well as the way conceptual thinking in this area has changed and developed, due to competing ideologies, forces of globalisation and political, economic and cultural transformations. It analyses and evaluates the shifts in methodological approaches to globalisation and its effects on education policy and pedagogy. It focuses on forces of globalisation, ideology, social inequality and implications for equity and access to quality education.

  7. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... importation of certain cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and... cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products...

  8. Aging and training and development willingness: employee and supervisor mindsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van Vianen; B.A.G.W. Dalhoeven; I.E. de Pater

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined individual and situational factors that impact the relationship between age and employee training and development willingness. We proposed that the relationship between age and training and development willingness would be moderated by employees' entity self-theory and per

  9. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  10. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  11. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  12. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men For Women For Seniors Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD ... of Pediatrics (AAP) agree: Well-planned vegetarian and vegan eating patterns are healthy for infants and toddlers. ...

  13. Shape classification and analysis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fona

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION TO SHAPE ANALYSISCASE STUDIESCOMPUTATIONAL SHAPE ANALYSISADDITIONAL MATERIALORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK BASIC MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTSBASIC CONCEPTSLINEAR ALGEBRADIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRYMULTIVARIATE CALCULUSCONVOLUTION AND CORRELATIONPROBABILITY AND STATISTICSFOURIER ANALYSISGRAPHS AND COMPLEX NETWORKS SHAPE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSINGIMAGE REPRESENTATIONIMAGE PROC

  14. Measuring and monitoring eutrophication and hypoxia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Heidemeier, J.

    . These could include specific gauges for indicators of societal benefits and wellbeing (e.g. human and eco- system health, economic conditions and long term sustainability) and effects on ecosystem services. Baseline for remediation The most important...

  15. Laser and photonic systems design and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Nof, Shimon Y; Cheng, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    New, significant scientific discoveries in laser and photonic technologies, systems perspectives, and integrated design approaches can improve even further the impact in critical areas of challenge. Yet this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research arenas. Laser and Photonic Systems: Design and Integration brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to increase understanding of the ways in which systems perspectives may influence laser and photonic innovations and application integration.By bringing together chapters from leading scientists and technologists, ind

  16. GLOBALIZATION AND REGIONALIZATION: SINGAPORE'S TRADE AND FDI

    OpenAIRE

    SIOW YUE CHIA

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore economy has undergone rapid growth and structural transformation from a Third World laggard to a First World sophisticated and dynamic economy. It has overcome constraints of land and natural resources by adopting free trade and investment strategies and building on its global and regional maritime and air links. However, despite its very high per capita income, Singapore's technological, innovative and entrepreneurial capabilities are not on par with the most advanced economies...

  17. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Bøgh Andersen, Lotte; Bro, Louise Ladegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance....... Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  18. Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris

    2004-10-30

    The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.

  19. Annual review and directors' report and accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of Midlands Electricity PLC (MEB) presents a financial review of the Group and the directors' and auditors reports. Historical and current cost profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and cash flow statements are tabulated. The Group's financial history and regulatory accounts are also presented. (UK)

  20. Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    , 2008 and 2011: Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Futures, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, Science and Public Policy, and Foresight. Methodologically, the paper draws on the principles of Elsevier’s Scopus and Thompson Reuter’s Web of Science. The chapter concludes...

  1. Culture and religion: social and philosophy analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Zuev, Kostiantyn

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the problem of interconditionality, interrelation and interference of culture, religion and society, their development and existence. The conclusion is drawn that evolution of culture, civilization and society are connected with the following stages of religion's evolution: polydemonism (primitive society with appropriating type of economy, emergence and formation of consciousness and spiritual culture), polytheism (agrarian society with producing type of economy, cul...

  2. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  3. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  4. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  5. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  6. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    Because of global land surface warming, extreme temperature events are expected to occur more often and more intensely, affecting the growth and development of the major cereal crops in several ways, thus affecting the production component of food security. In this study, we have identified rice...... crops for the key physiological processes such as leaf initiation, shoot growth and root growth and for the most susceptible phenological phases such as sowing to emergence, anthesis and grain filling. Our summary shows that cardinal temperatures are conservative between studies and are seemingly well...... and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...

  7. Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gurfil, Pini

    2016-01-01

    This volume is designed as an introductory text and reference book for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of astronomy, astrodynamics, satellite systems, space sciences and astrophysics. The purpose of the book is to emphasize the similarities between celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and to present recent advances in these two fields so that the reader can understand the inter-relations and mutual influences. The juxtaposition of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics is a unique approach that is expected to be a refreshing attempt to discuss both the mechanics of space flight and the dynamics of celestial objects. “Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics: Theory and Practice” also presents the main challenges and future prospects for the two fields in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. The book presents homogenous and fluent discussions of the key problems, rendering a portrayal of recent advances in the field together with some basic concepts and essential in...

  8. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  9. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  10. Cognitive hacking and intelligence and security informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes research on cognitive and semantic attacks on computer systems and their users. Several countermeasures against such attacks are described, including a description of a prototype News Verifier system. It is argued that because misinformation and deception play a much more significant role in intelligence and security informatics than in other informatics disciplines such as science, medicine, and the law, a new science of intelligence and security informatics must concern itself with semantic attacks and countermeasures.

  11. Research and development and management of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions current state of affairs on research and development and prospect : activity of business, field like information and materials, energy and resource, public welfare, general industry technology. It introduces policy on promotion of research and development such as propel of special research and development business, propel strategy for 10 priority tasks, reinforcement of basic research, promotion of information industry and propel for technical development of business.

  12. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  13. [SOX2 defect and anophthalmia and microphthalmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fu-xiang; Fan, Xian-qun

    2012-11-01

    As a severe congenital developmental disorder, anophthalmia and microphthalmia are usually accompanied with vision impairment and hypoevolutism of the orbit in the affected side. Many genes are involved in anophthalmia and microphthalmia, in which, SOX2 is an important one. The defect of SOX2 causes multiple system disorders, including anophthalmia and microphthalmia. We describe the relationship between the SOX2 defect and anophthalmia/microphthalmia, in order to offer some proposals for the differential diagnosis, treatment and research of anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

  14. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  15. Library and information sciences trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the development, trends and research of library and information sciences (LIS) in the digital age. Inside, readers will find research and case studies written by LIS experts, educators and theorists, most of whom have visited China, delivered presentations there and drafted their articles based on feedback they received. As a result, readers will discover the LIS issues and concerns that China and the international community have in common. The book first introduces the opportunities and challenges faced by the library and information literacy profession and discusses the key role of librarians in the future of information literacy education. Next, it covers trends in LIS education by examining the vision of the iSchool movement and detailing its practice in Syracuse University. The book then covers issues in information seeking and retrieval by showing how visual data mining technology can be used to detect the relationship and pattern between terms on the Q&A of a social media site....

  16. Regulations And Control Of Food And Drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective control of processed food and medicines is crucial for the maintenance of public health. Issues of wholesomeness, quality, efficacy and safety are of paramount concern to both consumers and regulatory agencies alike. Laws and regulatory are put in in place to ensure minimum standards of practice by the various operators in the food and pharmaceutical sub-sectors, such as will guarantee that the regulated products (food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, chemicals and bottled water) they deal in satisfy all the parameters of quality, wholesomeness, efficacy and safety. National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) was established to enforce all relevant laws and regulations on food and drugs among other-regulated products. NAFDAC has put in place appropriate administrative structures and procedures in its efforts to fulfill its mandate. Finally, the agency is in the process of extending its regulatory and control activities to cover irradiated food products in order to safeguard public health

  17. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琨

    2013-01-01

    Pride and Prejudice is Jane Austen’s great masterpiece. It discusses love and marriage between middle class and upper class in Britain in 19th century. This thesis aims at analyzing love and marriage in Pride and Prejudice. There are three chapters in this thesis. Chapter one portrays the social background of the author and the social background of Pride and Prejudice. Chapter two describes the concept of love and marriage in Britain in 19th century and four marriages in the novel. Chapter three analyses Jane Austen’s concept of love and marriage:love and marriage are closely connected with property and social status;however, an ideal marriage should be based on true love. Marriages that based on money and social status can not lead to a happy life.

  18. Science and technology and global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of R ampersand D and technological innovation on economic development are discussed with reference to the current and probable future status of various industrialized countries in highly competitive marketing areas such as micro- electronics. An assessment is made of international trends in approaches towards: corporate planning, organizing, sizing, on-the-job training and the modelling of employee attitudes; methods for dealing with risk and uncertainty in non-linear and complex global economic markets; research and development orientation and investment; and government policy making regarding education, economic growth and technological innovation

  19. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  20. Occuptional Health and Safety and Employer Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued and supported by a number of case studies that investment in human factors and occupational health and safety can pay. But any employer has a number of possible in-vestments, and many of these may have a larger marginal utility than health and safety. In addition it is often...

  1. Occupational Health and Safety and Employer Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued and supported by a number of case studies that investment in human factors and occupational health and safety can pay. But any employer has a number of possible in-vestments, and many of these may have a larger marginal utility than health and safety. In addition it is often...

  2. Singularity and Community: Levinas and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and extends Levinas's ideas of singularity and community as multiplicity and argues that his identification of language and discourse as the means to create ethical communities provides tangible possibilities for rebuilding genuine democracy in a humane world. These ideas help us reimagine school and classroom as communities…

  3. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  4. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  5. Promise and Peril: Assessment and Urban Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John C.; Nettles, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an historical review of state-level assessment research and practice and discusses current objectives and outcomes of state-level assessment policies throughout the United States. Considers possible explanations for the gap between assessment policy objectives and outcomes, and implications for urban institutions of higher education.…

  6. Culture and creativity in organizations and societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    If you want to learn about how leadership and culture jointly influence creativity in organizations and societies, this book provides you with the insight you are looking for. The authors have presented and applied concepts such as "value innovation", creative intelligence", "disciplined creativity......", and "creative leadership" to describe skills that leaders need to be able to facilitate organizational and societal development....

  7. Teaching and Learning through Story and Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Suzanne

    1993-01-01

    Reviews "Stories Lives Tell," Carol Witherell and Nel Noddings; and "Turning the Soul," Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon, which include autobiographical accounts of participation in narrative and dialogical activities in formal and extra-school contexts. The books raise questions about the benefits and limitations of this approach for educational…

  8. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  9. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  10. Third World and disarmament: shadow and substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress of world nuclear and conventional disarmament is discussed in relation to Third World countries. Subjects covered include, the Test Ban Treaty, demiliterisation of the sea-bed, chemical and biological weapons, strategic arms limitation, the arms race, disarmament and development, and the attitudes of specific countries - France, China, Israel, Latin America, Southern Asia and Southern Africa towards disarmament. (U.K.)

  11. Gay and Lesbian Adolescents and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Gerald P.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the primary reciprocal exchanges and transactions gay and lesbian youth and their families face as they confront the person-environmental risks involved in a society that assumes that all members are heterosexual. Focuses on issues related to "coming out" and recommends social work approaches for working with gay and lesbian adolescents…

  12. Quilts and Tangrams: Linking Literature and Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohning, Gerry; Williams, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that by making quilt squares with tangrams, children link geometry and children's literature. Provides background on quilts and tangrams, and provides guidelines for teachers. Points out that children gain communication and mathematical thinking skills as they manipulate and explore relationships among pieces. Contains an annotated…

  13. Insurance and Prevention: Why and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungarelli, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Stressing importance of insurance coverage for the buildings and contents of libraries, this article covers insurance history, the modern insurance industry, examples of loss experiences, prevention and preparedness, risk management, appraisals and valuations of property, insurance options, and lack of recognition of protective and preventive…

  14. Cinderella and Science: Career Counseling and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyden-Hilliard, Mary Ellen

    The need for educational and career counseling for girls and women is described in this paper. Expectations, the "Cinderella syndrome", independence, and adolescence are discussed. Factors which reduce girls' aspirations and options are identified. Career counseling that concerns itself with strength, independence, role model equality, and sharing…

  15. Indicators and SEA:Chinese and European Experiences and Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per,

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ...

  16. Sums and Differences vs. Integrals and Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Gilbert

    1990-01-01

    Offers an approach to the understanding and to the teaching of the fundamental theorem of calculus. Stresses teaching the relation between a function and its derivative and the functions themselves. (YP)

  17. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers Online Q& ... a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus Updated! How do people catch Zika virus? ...

  18. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  19. Sport and exercise participation: motivation and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Koenraad J., 1941-; Speak, Mike A.

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings of the Sport Psychology Conference organised by the Centre for Physical Education and Sport, and the Physical Education and Sports Science Unit of the University of Hong Kong ; sponsored by the Hong Kong Sports Development Board.

  20. Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit provides comprehensive and preventive health care services for children under age 21 who...

  1. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties

  2. Identity and integration in Israel and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiftach Millo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Expression of non-conforming sexual orientation and gender identitydepends on social, legal, cultural and political opportunities whichprovide space for exploration and the emergence of new identities.People’s protection will also depend on these.

  3. Quality and reliability management and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Integrating development processes, policies, and reliability predictions from the beginning of the product development lifecycle to ensure high levels of product performance and safety, this book helps companies overcome the challenges posed by increasingly complex systems in today’s competitive marketplace.   Examining both research on and practical aspects of product quality and reliability management with an emphasis on applications, the book features contributions written by active researchers and/or experienced practitioners in the field, so as to effectively bridge the gap between theory and practice and address new research challenges in reliability and quality management in practice.    Postgraduates, researchers and practitioners in the areas of reliability engineering and management, amongst others, will find the book to offer a state-of-the-art survey of quality and reliability management and practices.

  4. Heat and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions

  5. Brazil, oil and statoil: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Linchausen, Harald Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed some light on what challenges Brazil faces concerning its oil reserves. It also considers Statoil’s situation and attempts to analyse the challenges both face. Hotelling’s rule and Dunning’s OLI framework are presented and used in order to complete this analysis. The thesis starts by looking at the history of petroleum in Brazil and Norway. Next, the theoretical framework is outlined. The challenges for both Brazil and Statoil are presented and anal...

  6. Establishment and development political and electoral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Valeria Alexe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Political marketing is a whole set of theories and methods that can serve to political organizations and public authorities, both to define the objectives and programs and to influence public behavior. Political marketing proves its usefulness from organizing political structures, continuing to benefit political market and going in governance. Besides, grinding, political offers or programs or people, the best political marketing can provide the best way of promoting and refining human resources as appropriate communication tactics.

  7. Establishment and development political and electoral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Valeria Alexe

    2014-01-01

    Political marketing is a whole set of theories and methods that can serve to political organizations and public authorities, both to define the objectives and programs and to influence public behavior. Political marketing proves its usefulness from organizing political structures, continuing to benefit political market and going in governance. Besides, grinding, political offers or programs or people, the best political marketing can provide the best way of promoting and refining human resour...

  8. Mergers and acquisitions: valuation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of various aspects of mergers and acquisition transactions in the petroleum industry were presented. Incentives to mergers and acquisitions were reviewed and discussed, among them value opportunity, critical size, incremental tax pools, financial distress, shareholder dissatisfaction, strategic infrastructure position, complementary assets, and undeveloped land inventory. Current trends in mergers and acquisitions were highlighted. An industry checklist for risk assessments discussing financial position, engineering forecasts, and taxation was also included

  9. Society and High Skills: contributions and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Aline Casseb da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research is to investigate and understand the importance of investing in high-skilled individual and how the family influences that context. For this, we seek the concepts of intelligence and high ability / giftedness to determine the characteristics of this individual and also to demonstrate through a literature and society and the family influence the behavior of a gifted person.

  10. Guided Imagery and Music - And Beyond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music.......4 original research articles, one essay, a classical article and two clinical papers documenting the development of theory, research and clinical practice within the receptive music therapy model [The Bonny Method of] Guided Imagery and Music....

  11. Science and Technology and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.

    1988-01-01

    Dealing with science and technology and economic development, this paper describes the relationship between technological capability and the degree of economic development. It analyzes the structure of the Philippine economy and the structural changes that have taken place since the 1970. It also investigates the impact of economic developments and technological advances in other countries on the Philippine economy. A discussion on possible research collaboration among PIDS, DOST and regional...

  12. Public And Private Leadership And Performance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Christine (Mihaescu) Demeter; Ana-Claudia Țapardel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to make a comparing between the private and public leadership. We analyze (1) whether there are differences between public and private sector leadership based on some variables related to job complexity of a manager (including the managerial behaviour, job autonomy, and job clarity), decision-making vs policymaking process and the stakeholders vs political influence, and (2) to assess the degree of their effects on the managerial competences and performance manageme...

  13. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  14. Skeletal Aging and Osteoporosis Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this book is on mechanical aspects of skeletal fragility related to aging and osteoporosis. Topics include: Age-related changes in trabecular structure and strength; age-related changes in cortical material properties; age-related changes in whole-bone structure; predicting bone strength and fracture risk using image-based methods and finite element analysis; animal models of osteoporosis and aging; age-related changes in skeletal mechano responsiveness; exercise and physical interventions for osteoporosis.

  15. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  16. Tax and spending incentives and enterprise zones

    OpenAIRE

    Peter S. Fisher

    1997-01-01

    Firm-specific incentives and enterprise zones are the two most rapidly growing weapons in states' and localities' competitive arsenal. What incentives have states and localities adopted, which of these incentives are spreading, and what are the prominent successes and failures? What has been the experience with "clawback" provisions, assurances from recipients that they will actually create the jobs and other economic benefits they promise?

  17. Multimedia encryption and watermarking encryption and watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko; Socek, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    ""Multimedia Encryption and Watermarking"" presents a comprehensive survey of contemporary multimedia encryption and watermarking techniques, which enable a secure exchange of multimedia intellectual property. Part I, Digital Rights Management (DRM) for Multimedia, introduces DRM concepts and models for multimedia content protection, and presents the key players. Part II, Multimedia Cryptography, provides an overview of modern cryptography, with the focus on modern image, video, speech, and audio encryption techniques. This book also provides an advanced concept of visual and audio sharing tec

  18. Light and Color in Nature and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Samuel J.; Cummins, Herman Z.

    1983-02-01

    An introduction to the science of light and color and its applications to photography, art, natural phenomena, and other related areas. Explains the origin of phenomena commonly encountered in nature and art, emphasizing the physical aspects but also touching on aspects of physiology and psychology that directly influence how visual images are perceived. Covers the effect of mixing color, the notion of color spaces, how atoms and molecules affect light, how light can be measured, the effect of using a lens, and many other topics. Requires little or no mathematical background. Includes questions and references for further reading.

  19. Polyphony and Polyphasia in Self and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Renedo, A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this paper is to contribute towards an understanding of the link beween plurality of self and knowledge. The paper relates the concept of cognitive polyphasia with Bakhtin’s views on positioning and the polyphony of the person, and Hermans and Kempen’s concept of the dialogical self. It links dialogical epistemology and ontology to argue that, (i) polyphony and polyphasia of self and knowledge are two sides of the same process, and (ii) our ability to position ourselves in rela...

  20. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  1. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.Tc superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB2, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  2. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  3. Microgravity science and applications projects and payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of work conducted by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA is presented. The goals of the program are the development and implementation of a reduced-gravity research, science and applications program, exploitation of space for human benefits, and the application of reduced gravity research for the development of advanced technologies. Space research of fluid dynamics and mass transport phenomena is discussed and the facilities available for reduced gravity experiments are presented. A program for improving communication with the science and applications communities and the potential use of the Space Station for microgravity research are also examined.

  4. Radiation and health. Benefit and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on radiation and health covers the following topics: The world of radiation and waves; a sight into biology; if radiation hits the body; a sight into the internal radiation diagnostics; radiation hazards; the not always beloved sun; mobile phones, microwave ovens and power poles; healing with and due to radiation; radiation and food; radiation in the environment; generation and interactions of radiation in more detail; radiation effects in the cell - closer insight; radiation doses and measurement; epidemiology and its pitfalls; the system of radiation protection radiation accidents.

  5. Gifts and exchanges problems, frustrations, and triumphs

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S; Denning, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This important book explores the many questions challenging librarians who work with gifts and exchanges (G&E) as part of their daily responsibilities. Too often, because of shrinking library budgets, library gifts are considered burdensome and unprofitable drains on both financial and personnel resources. However, Gifts and Exchanges: Problems, Frustrations, . . . and Triumphs gives you solutions that will allow you to embrace your library's gifts as rewards. In this book, you will discover the latest ways of disposing unwanted materials, planning and holding book sales and auctions, and oper

  6. Institutionalism "Old" and "New."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  7. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  8. Discrete and continuous simulation theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to discovering glitches inherent in complex systems-be it a railway or banking, chemical production, medical, manufacturing, or inventory control system-developing a simulation of a system can identify problems with less time, effort, and disruption than it would take to employ the original. Advantageous to both academic and industrial practitioners, Discrete and Continuous Simulation: Theory and Practice offers a detailed view of simulation that is useful in several fields of study.This text concentrates on the simulation of complex systems, covering the basics in detail and exploring the diverse aspects, including continuous event simulation and optimization with simulation. It explores the connections between discrete and continuous simulation, and applies a specific focus to simulation in the supply chain and manufacturing field. It discusses the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the basic and traditional form of simulation. It addresses future trends and technologies for simulation, with par...

  9. Childhood cancer and vitamins: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-02-01

    Discussions of pediatric nutrition and cancer usually focus on important issues of ensuring an adequate nutrient intake (enteral and parenteral) during and after the early treatment phase of care. However, information is available that suggests that vitamin status may have additional roles in the care of children with cancer. Over the last decade, investigators have reported findings that suggest that maternal preconception and perinatal vitamin intake and status influence the cancer risk of the infant and child. Others have shown a relationship between vitamin and antioxidant status and the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects for children undergoing chemotherapy. Vitamin D has potential anti-cancer activity and vitamin D status is suboptimal in many children in North America. Each of these issues is briefly presented from a perspective of prevention and treatment of childhood cancer.

  10. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety. PMID:17267711

  11. Grading and Reporting Health and Health Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget C. Booske, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Report cards are widely used in health for drawing attention to performance indicators. We developed a state health report card with separate grades for health and health disparities to generate interest in and awareness of differences in health across different population subgroups and to identify opportunities to improve health. We established grading curves from data for all 50 states for 2 outcomes (mortality and unhealthy days and 4 life stages (infants, children and young adults, working-age adults, and older adults. We assigned grades for health within each life stage by sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomics, and geography. We also assigned a health disparity grade to each life stage. Report cards can simplify complex information for lay audiences and garner media and policy maker attention. However, their development requires methodologic and value choices that may limit their interpretation.

  12. Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Kissal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findings of abuse. Health professionals who support elder-especially nurse- shouldn’t only deal with this subject but also they should be educated about diagnosing, reporting and attempting. This paper’s aim is to inform people about the evaluation of risk-factors, findings and prevention of elder abuse and neglect and to increase sensitivity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 357-364

  13. Trust and Confidence and the Digital Economy: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Cordell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and technological change continue to profoundly affect economic growth and wealth creation. Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs have been a key enabler and driver of globalization, which is likely to continue as trade and investment barriers continue to fall and communications become ever cheaper, easier and more functional. "National" economies, created by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, will continue to blend into a 21st century integrated, digital world economy, with an increasingly global division of labour. Every economy requires a physical, institutional and legal infrastructure, as well as understandable and enforceable marketplace rules, in order to function smoothly. In this paper the authors maintain that such an infrastructure must be developed for the new digital economy and society, one which provides trust and confidence for all those who operate in or are affected by it. An infrastructure that is an amalgam based on hardware, software, networks and a way of doing business which offers predictability, dispute resolution, legal recourse, policing powers against fraud,authentication, etc. The building of such an infrastructure is a necessary condition for the development and efficient functioning of a global, digital economy.

  14. Sodomy and kingcraft in Urania and Antony and Cleopatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E

    1992-01-01

    Despite his description of sodomy as a horrible crime that a king is "bound in conscience neuer to forgiue," James I pursued the affections of a string of young and handsome "favourites" on whom he lavished gifts, titles, and power. Relying on the evidence of the King's own letters and frank comments from his Puritan critics, most historians assume that his relations with some of these men were sexual. The King's friendship with Robert Carr (who was later made Earl of Somerset), coupled with his estrangement from Queen Anne, may have been an inspiration for at least two literary accounts of kingship confounded by sex: Lady Mary Wroth's Urania (1621) and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra (1608). Wroth describes a duke who is made politically vulnerable by his love for a young man that leaves him "issue-les." The rise and fall of this disloyal companion closely resembles that of Somerset and would seem to indicate Wroth's belief that the King's relationship with the Earl was sexual. Antony and Cleopatra is in many ways a reflection of Jacobean court extravagance and decadence. Cleopatra, despite her sex, seems to fill the same role in political and sexual scandal as did Somerset; and Antony's vacillation between pleasure and duty recalls a certain Renaissance discourse on sodomy and "kingcraft". PMID:1431069

  15. Space and time in masking and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Maria; Polat, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Masking and crowding are major phenomena associated with contextual modulations, but the relationship between them remains unclear. We have recently shown that crowding is apparent in the fovea when the time available for processing is limited, pointing to the strong relationship between crowding in the spatial and temporal domains. Models of crowding emphasize the size (acuity) of the target and the spacing between the target and flankers as the main determinants that predict crowding. Our model, which is based on lateral interactions, posits that masking and crowding are related in the spatial and temporal domains at the fovea and periphery and that both can be explained by the increasing size of the human perceptive field (PF) with increasing eccentricity. We explored the relations between masking and crowding using letter identification and contrast detection by correlating the crowding effect with the estimated size of the PF and with masking under different spatiotemporal conditions. We found that there is a large variability in PF size and crowding effects across observers. Nevertheless, masking and crowding were both correlated with the estimated size of the PF in the fovea and periphery under a specific range of spatiotemporal parameters. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, crowding and masking share common neural mechanisms that underlie the spatiotemporal properties of these phenomena in both the fovea and periphery. These results could explain the transfer of training gains from spatiotemporal Gabor masking to letter acuity, reading, and reduced crowding.

  16. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  17. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... Is it safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  18. Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  19. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  20. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  1. Model Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mangani, P

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - G.E. Sacks - Model theory and applications, and H.J. Keisler - Constructions in model theory; and, Seminars - M. Servi - SH formulas and generalized exponential, and J.A. Makowski - Topological model theory.

  2. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  3. Diet and Lifestyle Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  4. Dieting and Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  5. Hypnosis and the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Maurice

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and value of hypnosis; rating scales and their clinical relevance; the role of self-hypnosis; and clinical studies related to anxiety, hysteria, enuresis, asthma, and pain and painful procedures. (RH)

  6. Colloid Transport and Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    different colloidal materials and their applications in chemistry, physics, biological, medical sciences and environment. Graduate students, academic and industrial researchers and medical professionals will discover recently developed colloidal materials and their applications in many areas of human...

  7. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  8. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... daily. Lower your intake of processed meats, smoked, nitrite-cured, and salt-preserved foods; emphasize plant-based ...

  9. Electrochemical and mechanical polishing and shaping method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Jones, William David (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Benson, Carl M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for the shaping and polishing of the surface of a material selected from the group consisting of electrically semi-conductive materials and conductive materials. An electrically non-conductive polishing lap incorporates a conductive electrode such that, when the polishing lap is placed on the material's surface, the electrode is placed in spaced-apart juxtaposition with respect to the material's surface. A liquid electrolyte is disposed between the material's surface and the electrode. The electrolyte has an electrochemical stability constant such that cathodic material deposition on the electrode is not supported when a current flows through the electrode, the electrolyte and the material. As the polishing lap and the material surface experience relative movement, current flows through the electrode based on (i) adherence to Faraday's Law, and (ii) a pre-processing profile of the surface and a desired post-processing profile of the surface.

  10. Pest and disease monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straw, Nigel; Lonsdale, David [Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper summaries the findings of surveys of pests and diseases carried out at pure and mixed plots of willow and poplar varieties twice a year during each growing season. The main causes of damage recorded were leaf rust, defoliation by insects, and leaf disease, distortion and chlorosis as well as frost damage, aphid infestation, and shoot dieback. Leaf rust for willow and poplar clones are plotted, and details of leaf rust and defoliation in pure and mixed plots are tabulated.

  11. State Expenditure on Science and Technology and Research and Development 2002 and 2003. Volumes 1 & 2

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This annual publication is a comprehensive report on the government allocations and expenditure and performance of science & technology and research & development in the public sector. The activities covered include research and development, training, education and information; technology transfer and technical services (including information and advice). This edition presents a comprehensive account of the latest State science and technology and research and development performance in 2002 a...

  12. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  13. Bioenergy and the poor: bioenergy and agriculture promises and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Karekezi, Stephen; Kithyoma, Waeni

    2006-01-01

    "This brief delineates two broad categories for bioenergy development — the exploitation of existing agricultural wastes and the establishment of energy plantations—and suggests high-priority steps for developing bioenergy in ways that benefit the poor... Once developing countries have optimized the use of existing agricultural wastes for energy generation and put in place adequate revenue-sharing, regulatory, and policy frameworks, they can consider the option of dedicated energy plantations...

  14. Bayesian reasoning with ifs and ands and ors

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Nicole; Baratgin, Jean; Oaksford, Mike; Over, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The Bayesian approach to the psychology of reasoning generalizes binary logic, extending the binary concept of consistency to that of coherence, and allowing the study of deductive reasoning from uncertain premises. Studies in judgment and decision making have found that people’s probability judgments can fail to be coherent. We investigated people’s coherence further for judgments about conjunctions, disjunctions and conditionals, and asked whether their coherence would increase when they we...

  15. Pride and prejudice in Pride and prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董在媛

    2011-01-01

    Darcy and Elizabeth are the representative characters in Pride and Prejudice who filled with pride and prejudice.Jane Austen who was a British famous novelist,she had created the representative characters(Darcy and Elizabeth);what's more,she had something

  16. Correlations and Fluctuations: Status and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker; Koch, Volker

    2008-04-15

    We will provide an overview of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. Observables, which have been discussed in the literature will be briefly reviewed and put in context with experiment and information from Lattice QCD. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region.

  17. Energy and Rural People and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Increasing energy dependency, high energy prices, and depleting energy sources have necessitated review of the nature of U.S. energy--who owns it; how we manage it; how and why we consume it; and what should be done about these patterns. Given the power wielded by the oil companies, the pressure of the national standard of living, and the lack of…

  18. Desire and Seduction: Multiculturalism and festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the question how ethnic identities are framed at festivals and which role consumption and commoditization play in this process. It looks at three kinds of festivals, multicultural, ethnic and neighbourhood festivals, and is based on observations at several festivals as well as

  19. Teaching and Learning Communication, Language and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this book, Ann Browne draws on research findings and good practice to provide practical and guidance about working with young children aged 3-5 years in nursery and reception classes. The author covers all of the key theoretical issues, providing a wealth of classroom examples. Practical suggestions for activities and resources include ways of…

  20. Reading and Writing and Cognitive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeWeghe, Rick, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a closer look at teaching in classrooms by reviewing a recent article by Carol Booth Olson and Robert Land, literacy researchers and National Writing Project site directors. In "A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for English Language Learners in Secondary School" (EJ776476), Olson and Land report…

  1. RFIC and MMIC design and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, I D

    2001-01-01

    This book gives an in-depth account of GaAs, InP and SiGe, technologies and describes all the key techniques for the design of amplifiers,ranging from filters and data converters to image oscillators, mixers, switches, variable attenuators, phase shifters, integrated antennas and complete monolithic transceivers.

  2. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  3. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  4. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Dapp

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  5. Activation Theory and Uses and Gratifications Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, E. D.

    Uses and gratifications research involves a critical appraisal of conceptual and theoretical issues in mass communication and is concerned with what audience members do with the media. Activation theory understands people as active manipulators of their environment. (Activation refers to that level of psychological and physiological excitement an…

  6. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  7. Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Michael F.

    This analytical report was developed from existing statistical data to illuminate the role of women and minorities in science and engineering. Two issues are addressed: whether there is a problem related to the employment of women in these fields, and whether women and minorities are underutilized in these fields. Sections of the first part of the…

  8. Approaches and methods for monitoring and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van B.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of many agricultural innovation networks is to realize a system innovation. With system innovation, whole production and consumption systems change, including social relationships, division of roles, formal rules and values, and the technical artefacts and infrastructure. This type of innova

  9. Vocational Business and Office Education. Banking and Savings and Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serviss, Emalee; Patton, Bob

    Eleven instructional units (divided into two sections) are provided in this curriculum guide for a one-year course for 12th grade students or adults who are interested in pursuing a career in the banking or savings and loan field. Unit titles in section 1 are Human Relations and Self Improvement, Relationship with Other People, and Coping with…

  10. Occupational Therapy and overweight and obese people: Knowledge and sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Tereza Barbosa Lopes da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide phenomenon that affects both the rich and poor populations. It results from the action of environmental factors, dietary habits, physical activity and psychological conditions on individuals genetically predisposed to present excess adipose tissue. The impact of obesity can be measured by its influence on the quality of life. Occupational therapy has developed a significant role within the interdisciplinary treatment of obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe the experience of the work of occupational therapists in an interdisciplinary group for adult and elderly people presenting overweight and obesity in an extension project of a private university in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state. The Occupational Therapy team performed weekly interdisciplinary care, assessment, planning, organization of the therapeutic setting and occupational therapy intervention. The team was composed by an occupational therapy teacher, a scholar and five volunteer undergraduate students. The service group was open to new components, caregivers, and family and community members. Playful, cognitive, bodily, physical and productive occupational therapy activities were used in the sessions. These activities favored positive outcomes in mental, emotional and social dimensions. Thus, the project enabled the visibility of Occupational Therapy at the university, as well as the growth and expansion of academic and occupational knowledge on therapeutic intervention in obesity.

  11. Estuarine and lagoon biodiversity and their natural goods and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, A.; Elliott, M.; West, R. J.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Assessing and monitoring ecosystem quality status and service provision of aquatic ecosystems is an increasingly important area of scientific, socio-economical and political interest. Contributions from two related meetings organized by the Estuarine & Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and the Euro-Mediterranean Lagoon Federation (EUROMEDLAG) address this area of interest in estuaries and lagoons, dominant types of transitional waters, by an integration of holistic and reductionistic approaches. In this context, we synthesise the key points raised by the contributions given at the two meetings to emphasise that transitional waters have emergent properties, which support their classification as an aquatic realm different from both freshwater and marine ones. They provide crucial ecosystem services, such as food provision and support for nutrient cycling, whose value and underlying mechanisms have been addressed with particular reference to estuarine ecosystems. The experimental studies show the mechanistic relationships and the responses of ecosystem functions and biodiversity to contrasting/changing environmental conditions with human activities as key drivers affecting both biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision.

  12. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  13. New and smart materials - why and how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The semiotic properties are becoming more and more important since consumers more increasingly select between products based on the meaning they associate to the product appearance. Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols and described by authors like Pierce and Saussure. Customer preferences also keep...... the new materials are interesting. Why? Because we can achieve a long range of new and improved physical properties like durability, weight, strength, appearance, environment and the unit cost can be reduced. Furthermore do the new materials open for more advanced and sophisticated semiotic properties...

  14. Combinatorial and computational mathematics present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungpyo; Kim, Ki Hang; Roush, Fred W

    2001-01-01

    This book describes and summarizes past work in important areas of combinatorics and computation, as well as gives directions for researchers working in these areas in the 21st century. It contains primarily survey papers and presents original research by Peter Fishburn, Jim Ho Kwak, Jaeun Lee, K H Kim, F W Roush and Susan Williams. The papers deal with some of the most exciting and promising developments in the areas of coding theory in relation to number theory, lattice theory and its applications, graph theory and its applications, topological techniques in combinatorics, symbolic dynamics

  15. Multimedia encryption and authentication techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Furht, Borko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Encryption and Authentication Techniques and Applications covers current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use encryption and authentication to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in their fields, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for thos

  16. Digital and discrete geometry theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the modern methods for geometric problems in the computing sciences. It also covers concurrent topics in data sciences including geometric processing, manifold learning, Google search, cloud data, and R-tree for wireless networks and BigData.The author investigates digital geometry and its related constructive methods in discrete geometry, offering detailed methods and algorithms. The book is divided into five sections: basic geometry; digital curves, surfaces and manifolds; discretely represented objects; geometric computation and processing; and a

  17. Nanoscale and microscale phenomena fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    The book is an outcome of research work in the areas of nanotechnology, interfacial science, nano- and micro-fluidics and manufacturing, soft matter, and transport phenomena at nano- and micro-scales. The contributing authors represent prominent research groups from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The book has 13 chapters and the entire work presented in the chapters is based on research carried out over past three years. The chapters are designed with number of coloured illustrations, figures and tables. The book will be highly beneficial to academicians as well as industrial professionals working in the mentioned areas.

  18. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    An important task of the nephrologists during the last century, it has been the search of elements and means that allow us, with the adequate precision, to correlate the functional deterioration of the kidney, and the patient's clinical reality. And the continuous searching of factors and markers that injure them, the prognosis, and early diagnosis, to be able to predict the degree of the organs and patient's survival. Almost parallel survival presage in the natural history of the illness, almost one century ago. In the second half of the XX century, in the developed countries, appear modifications of the social, cultural, and sanitary conditions, that make appear some very different partner-sanitary and epidemic circumstances, and take place like they are, among others: 1. An increase of per cápita private rents, what takes place to increase of the level of social life and the population's health. With increment of the longevity, and smaller incidence and prevalence of classic process, as malnutrition, infections, infantile mortality, so increasing the weight of the cardiovascular diseases and death. This is potentiated for the increment and the incidence of environmental cardiovascular risk's factors (like high caloric and fatty-rich diets, smoke, alcohol, disappearance of the physical work, inactivity, etc). And that situations are also product of the change of the outline of human and social values and guides. 2. Access of the whole population to a sanitary attention of more quality and effectiveness. It allows the biggest survival of patients that suffer vascular crisis, (as angina, miocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident), that few years ago they have had a higher morbimortality and an inferior survival (2). 3. The execution of big epidemic studies has been able to, not only characterize and test with scientific evidence to numerous factors and markers, that induce renal and cardiovascular prejudicial changes, but risk and death probability

  19. Functional and Dysfunctional Sensorimotor Anatomy and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Klein, Andrew P; Mark, Leighton P; Tuna, Ibrahim; Agarwal, Mohit; DeYoe, Edgar

    2015-06-01

    The sensorimotor system of the human brain and body is fundamental only in its central role in our daily lives. On further examination, it is a system with intricate and complex anatomical, physiological, and functional relationships. Sensorimotor areas including primary sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary motor, and higher order somatosensory cortices are critical for function and can be localized at routine neuroimaging with a familiarity of sulcal and gyral landmarks. Likewise, a thorough understanding of the functions and dysfunctions of these areas can empower the neuroradiologist and lead to superior imaging search patterns, diagnostic considerations, and patient care recommendations in daily clinical practice. Presurgical functional brain mapping of the sensorimotor system may be necessary in scenarios with distortion of anatomical landmarks, multiplanar localization, homunculus localization, congenital brain anomalies, informing diffusion tensor imaging interpretations, and localizing nonvisible targets. PMID:26233857

  20. Contractor and government - Teamwork and commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures being implemented at NASA to improve cooperation with contractors and increase productivity are reviewed from the NASA point of view. The goals of the U.S. space program for the coming 25 years are listed, and the importance of the commercial utilization of space in these plans is stressed. Consideration is given to the ongoing American Productivity Center White-Collar Productivity-Improvement Project, the implementation of the recommendations of the 1984 NASA/Contractor Conferences in present and future contracts, and the use of incentive contracts to create situations in which both NASA and the contractor benefit from increased productivity. Future plans call for increased industry responsibility in managing and operating the STS; steamlining of Shuttle operations; advanced design-to-cost procedures, increased commonality, better NASA-contractor communications, and more use of CAD/CAM and robotics for the Space Station; and accommodation of greatly expanded private investment and exploitation of space.

  1. Modeling and Optimization : Theory and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terlaky, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of contributions that were presented at the Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications Conference (MOPTA) held at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA on August 13-15, 2014. The conference brought together a diverse group of researchers and practitioners, working on both theoretical and practical aspects of continuous or discrete optimization. Topics presented included algorithms for solving convex, network, mixed-integer, nonlinear, and global optimization problems, and addressed the application of deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques in energy, finance, logistics, analytics, healthcare, and other important fields. The contributions contained in this volume represent a sample of these topics and applications and illustrate the broad diversity of ideas discussed at the meeting.

  2. Interdisciplinarity and nursing research: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration is widely recognized and considered essential for optimizing the development of knowledge and practice. However, interdisciplinarity is commonly accepted as an unquestioned good; rarely examined as both a source of benefit as well as difficulty for nursing and other disciplines. The aim of this article is to critically examine the opportunities and challenges that interdisciplinarity can provide for research in nursing and other disciplines. Based on a North American perspective, I describe the emergence of uni-disciplinary nursing research and the knowledge exchanges that occurred between nursing and other disciplines. I discuss the rise of interdisciplinary research, outline several examples of nursing participation in interdisciplinarity, and highlight the prominent benefits and difficulties associated with interdisciplinary research. I argue that authentic collaboration is required to conduct meaningful interdisciplinary research and describe how this can be promoted. PMID:25590876

  3. Interdisciplinarity and nursing research: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco A. Carnevale

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary collaboration is widely recognized and considered essential for optimizing the development of knowledge and practice. However, interdisciplinarity is commonly accepted as an unquestioned good; rarely examined as both a source of benefit as well as difficulty for nursing and other disciplines. The aim of this article is to critically examine the opportunities and challenges that interdisciplinarity can provide for research in nursing and other disciplines. Based on a North American perspective, I describe the emergence of uni-disciplinary nursing research and the knowledge exchanges that occurred between nursing and other disciplines. I discuss the rise of interdisciplinary research, outline several examples of nursing participation in interdisciplinarity, and highlight the prominent benefits and difficulties associated with interdisciplinary research. I argue that authentic collaboration is required to conduct meaningful interdisciplinary research and describe how this can be promoted.

  4. Atmospheric and Soil Carbon and Halophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    World population is anticipated to grow 40% within 40-50 years (2008 baseline) with unprecedented demands for energy, food, freshwater, and clean environments. At 43% of the total landmass, exploiting the Earth's arid and semi-arid lands becomes a matter of necessity. Compared with glycophyte agriculture, we view seawater and brackish water halophyte saline agriculture in its nascent stage and see the need to explore and farm on a massive scale. Halophyte farming costs should be the same as glycophyte cellulosic biomass farming; processing for cellulosic matter should also be applicable. Halophyte life cycle analyses (LCA) within the fueling debate are incomplete, yet glycophyte LCA favors biomass fueling. The Biomass Revolution is in progress. The capacity, cost, and logistics required for biomass replacement of petroleum-based fuels, however, will require all feedstock sources and regional cooperative productivity, technical investments, and both the participation and cooperation of the American farmer and global farm community.

  5. Reading, writing, and doctoring: literature and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, R

    2000-05-01

    Literature and medicine share an inherently enduring relationship. Doctors turn to literature--both its plots and its forms--to understand what occurs in their patients' lives, to increase their own narrative competence, to interpret accurately the texts of medicine, to develop empathy, and to deepen their capacities for reflection and self-knowledge. Together, these skills, attitudes, and bodies of knowledge contribute to the effective practice of medicine. Literature is now taught in almost three quarters of the medical schools in the United States. Different goals, agendas, and methods are appropriate at each developmental stage of a physician's training, from the premedical curriculum to the continuing education of a practicing physician. A vigorous and growing scholarship and body of experience is propelling the field of literature and medicine to understand all the more clearly how acts of reading and acts of writing might illuminate acts of doctoring.

  6. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  7. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  8. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  9. Population and Employment Densities: Structure and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.; Song, Shunfeng

    1994-01-01

    We examine spatial patterns and their changes during the 1970s for the Los Angeles region, by estimating monocentric and polycentric density functions for employment and population. Downtown Los Angeles is clearly identified as the statistical monocentric center of the region, and it is the most consistently strong center in the polycentric patterns. Polycentric models fit statistically better than monocentric models, and there was some shift in employment distribution toward a more polycentr...

  10. Pure and Public, Popular and personal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    and the exclusions of the public sphere. I argue that the ideals of a pure aesthetic and a public sphere neglect issues that are crucial to the type of commonality at stake in popular cultural artifacts: personal issues, social conflicts, and what is pleasurable to the senses or has to do with emotions. Third, I...... and inclusive understanding not only of bestselling popular culture but also of aesthetics and the public sphere...

  11. LITERATURE AND PORTUGUESE: HISTORY AND STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Abdala Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on the literary history and its applicability in teaching of literature. The analysis highlights the concept of impact, viewed from an angle and affirmation of communicative structures of symbolic power. Formulations are discussed involving myth and history and its appropriation by literary series; the process of knowing who has access to the world through literary text; the continuity of the literary repertoire and new appropriations in different contexts, which often renewed.

  12. Emergence and Transformation of Clusters and Milieus

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A renewed interest in the location of the productive activity has appeared during the last two decades. The literature analyzes a great number of cases of local productive systems in which all types of activities are produced and which locate in regions and countries with different levels of development (Altenburg and Meyer-Stamer, 1999; Rosenfeld, 1997; Staber, 1997; Porter, 1998). Electronics in Silicon Valley, U.S.A. and Silicon Glen in Scotland, but also in Guadalajara, Mexico and in Pena...

  13. Interdisciplinarity and nursing research: opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Franco A.

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration is widely recognized and considered essential for optimizing the development of knowledge and practice. However, interdisciplinarity is commonly accepted as an unquestioned good; rarely examined as both a source of benefit as well as difficulty for nursing and other disciplines. The aim of this article is to critically examine the opportunities and challenges that interdisciplinarity can provide for research in nursing and other disciplines. Based on a North Am...

  14. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties of the microcapsules, and of films that were prepared under similar conditions, were highly dependent on the non-solvent and the liquid used as a template for the hollow core of the microcapsule. ...

  15. Islamophobia and Interfaith Dialogue: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tutt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Islamophobia is worse now than it was immediately following the September 11th, 2001 attacks in New York and Washington. Since the election of Obama to President, hate groups have expanded, and American Muslims report higher levels of employment discrimination, hate crimes, and attitudes are generally unfavorable towards Muslims in the United States. Looking historically, the example of homophobia, racism towards African Americans, and other movements present models for activists and communit...

  16. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  17. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  18. R and D project and informatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with present situation and view of research and development project by industry, which includes general machinery industry, the steel industry, non ferrous metal industry, petrochemistry industry, auto industry, shipbuilding industry, aerospace engineering industry, daily supplies industry, fine chemistry industry, the ceramic industry, plate glass industry, biology life industry, electron industry, information industry, and semiconductor industry. It also describes project management of R and D and informatization of industry.367

  19. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  20. Nutrition and behavior of coatis and raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Douglas P

    2009-05-01

    Raccoons and coatis are inquisitive members of the Procyonidae family, commonly found in zoos, treated in wildlife rehabilitation centers, and increasing in popularity as pets. Compared with other carnivores, both species have unique adaptations and behaviors associated with their omnivorous lifestyles. It is therefore important for clinicians to have an appreciation of their natural history, diet, and behavior to aid in the formulation of captive diets and feeding strategies to mitigate potential nutritional or behavioral pathologies. PMID:19341947

  1. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  2. Globalization and health: results and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, G A

    2001-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the emergence and consolidation of an economic paradigm which emphasizes domestic deregulation and the removal of barriers to international trade and finance. If properly managed, such an approach can lead to perceptible gains in health status. Where markets are non-exclusionary, regulatory institutions strong and safety nets in place, globalization enhances the performance of countries with a good human and physical infrastructure but narrow domestic markets. Health gains in China, Costa Rica, the East Asian "tiger economies" and Viet Nam can be attributed in part to their growing access to global markets, savings and technology. However, for most of the remaining countries, many of them in Africa, Latin America and Eastern Europe, globalization has not lived up to its promises due to a combination of poor domestic conditions, an unequal distribution of foreign investments and the imposition of new conditions further limiting the access of their exports to the OECD markets. In these developing countries, the last twenty years have brought about a slow, unstable and unequal pattern of growth and stagnation in health indicators. Autarky is not the answer to this situation, but neither is premature, unconditional and unselective globalization. Further unilateral liberalization is unlikely to help them to improve their economic performance and health conditions. For them, a gradual and selective integration into the world economy linked to the removal of asymmetries in global markets and to the creation of democratic institutions of global governance is preferable to instant globalization. PMID:11584731

  3. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  4. JWST planning and scheduling operations and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Wayne M.

    2010-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared space observatory in orbit about the Sun-Earth second Lagrange Point. This paper provides an overview of the expected operational requirements imposed by the observatory's basic science activities (imaging, spectroscopy, coronography) and the operational issues associated with interleaving periodic engineering activities (Wave Front Sensing & Control activities, Momentum Unloads, and orbit Station Keeping) with the science observations. The planning and scheduling operations must maximize the overall science integration time while meeting the mission and observer specified constraints. The "Observation," "Visit," and Observation Template constructs are explained in the context of providing an interface to the Observer that provides the ability to specify complex observations, such as mosaics and cluster targets, while also minimizing specification errors and allowing planning and scheduling flexibility of the observations. The expected nominal planning and scheduling process including the creation and maintenance of the Long Range Plan (~1.25 year duration), the Short Term Schedules (~ three weeks), and the on-board Observation Plan (< 10 days) is described. The event-driven on-board operations of JWST and how the planning and scheduling process monitors and reacts to the onboard execution of the Observation Plan are described. Finally, the methods employed to allow for robust interfacing of scheduled real-time operations (for example, Station Keeping) with the Observation Plan and unplanned, but expected, modifications to the Observation Plan (for example, Target of Opportunity) are described.

  5. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK. PMID:21251021

  6. MODIS and VIIRS Lunar Observations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wang, Zhipeng; Sun, Junqiang; Angal, Amit Avinash; Fulbright, Jon; Butler, James

    2013-01-01

    Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 13 and 11 years since their launch in 1999 and 2002, respectively. The VIIRS instrument on-board the S-NPP launched in 2011 has also operated for nearly 2 years. Both MODIS and VIIRS make observations in the reflective solar and thermal emissive regions and their on-orbit calibration and characterization are provided by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). In addition, lunar observations have been made on a regular basis to support sensor on-orbit calibration. This paper provides a brief overview of MODIS and VIIRS instrument on-orbit calibration and characterization activities. It describes the approaches and strategies developed to schedule and perform on-orbit lunar observations. Specific applications of MODIS and VIIRS lunar observations discussed in this paper include radiometric calibration stability monitoring and performance assessment of sensor spatial characterization. Results derived from lunar observations, such as sensor response (or gain) trending and band-to-band registration, are compared with that derived from sensor OBC. The methodologies and applications presented in this paper can also be applied to other earth observing sensors.

  7. Science and technology and their implications for peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of scientific and technological developments in relation to international peace and security has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the international community, due partly to their enormous potential for the well-being of humanity and also to their enormous implications for instability in the world, an instability characterized as the 'quantitative arms race'. There is a growing concern that, in parallel with 'quantitative disarmament' between the major Powers and the East and West Europe, a new rivalry might develop and extend to the quantitative improvement of weapons, with world-wide consequences. The General Assembly of United Nations has considered this problem and adopted several resolutions on the matter. There has been a great deal of interest in the continuation of international dialogue on the subject

  8. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  9. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts.

  10. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts. PMID:27249079

  11. China Population and Developmenl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) paid great attention to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. One of the top priorities of the ICPD Programme of Action is to provide adolescents with necessary sexual and reproductive health information and services, ensure their right to reproductive health education and services, and help them develop risk-free behaviours and healthy lifestyles.

  12. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and a

  13. Environmental Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalyzers) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization)

  14. Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ovadiya, Mirey; Kryeziu, Adea; Masood, Syeda; Zapatero, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of social protection programming, and programming design and implementation features, that are prominent in fragile and conflict-affected states. The main objective is to build on existing, available information from a sample of fragile and conflict-affected countries and develop operational guidance that addresses policy, design, and implementation issues and ...

  15. 77 FR 65413 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ..., Israel on March 28, 2012, and supplemented on April 18, 2012. 77 FR 26041 (May 2, 2012). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and..., importation, or sale after importation of certain cameras and mobile devices, related software and...

  16. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  17. Islam and Political Violence

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Esposito

    2015-01-01

    The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion?...

  18. Islamic Banking and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    AlFarra, Diaa M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Islamic Banking and Finance has been growing rapidly during the last decades. Descriptive analysis has been used in order to introduce the Islamic banking and finance and how it works. On other hand, clarify the Islamic Banking and Finance Systems and show how it works in part of liability and also profit and loss sharing basis. In addition to that, the main similarities and differences were properly identified, introduced and discussed in the paper. It is obvious that there are many similari...

  19. Social media and activism

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2015-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of the ways in which social media and digital networks are contextualized and examined in relation to social movements and activism. A number of communicative practices that activists deploy are identified and the ways in which information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated practices are embedded in roles and functions relevant to activists and social movements are addressed giving attention to the importance of social ties and networks online and offl...

  20. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  1. Connecting Myokines and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ahima, Rexford S.; Park, Hyeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of the body in non-obese individuals and is now considered to be an endocrine organ. Hormones (myokines) secreted by skeletal muscle mediate communications between muscle and liver, adipose tissue, brain, and other organs. Myokines affect muscle mass and myofiber switching, and have profound effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus contributing to energy homeostasis and the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. In thi...

  2. FAMILIES AND HEALTH INTERACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Lepièce, Brice; Tordeurs, David; Jacques, Denis; Janne, Pascal; Reynaert, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background: In recent years, psychologists of health have attempted to understand the relations between family dynamics and health. The aim of our study is not only to study relations inside families and couples (relations between family of origin, nuclear and ideal family, current and ideal couple) but also outside between families and couples and different health indicator (physical and mental health, consumption of medications, and frequency of medical consultations). Subjects and methods:...

  3. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  4. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  5. Gender and Memory: critical and feminist articulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelya Elena Troncoso Pérez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we reflect critically about the relationship between memory and gender, from a perspective grounded in critical social psychology, feminist theories and memory studies. We review and critique the uses of the notion of memory in feminist approaches and of gender in memory studies. A critical analysis of gender and memory should focus on their joint and mutual constitution, emphasizing the gendered ways in which we remember. We consider it important to problematize uses of "Women's Memory" in essentialist and normalizing terms. The construction of gendered memories operates in a historically dynamic and complex analytical field, so that they may or may not be destabilizing depending on their uses, the intended use, and the historical moment in which they are invoked.

  6. Problems and proofs in numbers and algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Millman, Richard S; Kahn, Eric Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Designed to facilitate the transition from undergraduate calculus and differential equations to learning about proofs, this book helps students develop the rigorous mathematical reasoning needed for advanced courses in analysis, abstract algebra, and more. Students will focus on both how to prove theorems and solve problem sets in-depth; that is, where multiple steps are needed to prove or solve. This proof technique is developed by examining two specific content themes and their applications in-depth: number theory and algebra. This choice of content themes enables students to develop an understanding of proof technique in the context of topics with which they are already familiar, as well as reinforcing natural and conceptual understandings of mathematical methods and styles. The key to the text is its interesting and intriguing problems, exercises, theorems, and proofs, showing how students will transition from the usual, more routine calculus to abstraction while also learning how to “prove” or “sol...

  7. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  8. THALASSAEMIA AND ABERRATIONS OF GROWTH AND PUBERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kyriakou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine dysfunction in Thalassaemia major (TM is a common and disturbing complication, which requires prompt recognition and treatment. The contribution of the underlying molecular defect in TM to the development of endocrinopathies is significant because the patients with the more severe genetic defects have a greater rate of iron loading through higher red cell consumption. TM patients frequently present delay of growth and puberty with reduction of final height. The pathogenesis of growth failure is multifactorial and is mainly due to chronic anemia and hypoxia, chronic liver disease, zinc and folic acid deficiency, iron overload, intensive use of chelating agents, emotional factors, and endocrinopathies (hypogonadism, delayed puberty, hypothyroidism and GH-IGF-1 axis dysregulation. Although appropriate iron chelation therapy can improve growth and development, TM children and adolescents treated intensively with desferrioxamine remain short as well, showing body disproportion between the upper and lower body segment. Body disproportion is independent of prepubertal or pubertal period of greater height gain. Treatment with recombinant GH (rhGH is recommended when GH deficiency is established, and even so, the therapeutic response is often non satisfactory. Growth acceleration is mostly promoted with sex steroids in children with associated pubertal delay. Sexual complications in TM, which include Delayed Puberty, Arrested Puberty and Hypogonadism, present the commonest endocrine complication. Iron deposition on gonadotroph cells of the pituitary leads to disruption of gonadotrophin production which is proven by the poor response of FSH and LH to GnRH stimulation. In the majority of patients gonadal function is normal as most women with Amenorrhea are capable of achieving pregnancy with hormonal treatment and similarly men with azoospermia become fathers. Secondary Hypogonadism appears later in life,    and is manifested in women as

  9. Engineering and Sustainability: Attitudes and Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an extensive survey of engineers and engineering students suggest there is a strong focus on the implementation of sustainability concepts, actions and measures in engineering. The main sustainable technology priorities are using less energy and natural resources, reducing emissions and material wastes, and utilizing renewable, recyclable and recycled materials. Sustainable engineering within organizations is mainly driven by regulatory requirements, rising energy costs and client demand, but challenges to sustainable engineering like economics need to be addressed to increase the incorporation of sustainability in engineering. Nonetheless, about two-thirds of practicing engineers have worked on sustainable products and processes, and over half of engineering students are involved with sustainable design in their studies.

  10. Work and leisure time sitting and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prospective relationships between sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory and metabolic markers need to be better delineated in adults with different physical activity levels. We examined the separate and combined relationships of work and leisure time sitting and moderate to vigorous...... physical activity (MVPA) with cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 2308 adults from the Health2006 cohort were followed for five years. Work sitting, leisure time sitting and MVPA were self-reported and cardiorespiratory fitness (Vo2max) was estimated...... investigated by multiple linear regression analyses, as were the reverse associations with weight status (body mass index and waist circumference). RESULTS: Baseline leisure time sitting predicted increased insulin (p work sitting predicted decreased...

  11. Evaluation and Characterization of Magnets and Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiber, L.E.; Cunningham, J.P.; Golik, S.S. (ORISE); Armstrong, G. (Maverick Systems)

    2006-10-15

    Advanced vehicle, fuel cell, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), and plug in hybrid research and development is conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of this program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally safe highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are done at the system and component levels. This report will discuss component level testing of prototype capacitors and magnets. As capacitor and magnet technologies mature, it is important to ascertain the limitations of these new technologies by subjecting the components to standardized tests to evaluate their capabilities. Test results will assist in the determination of their ability to provide improvements in power electronics and motor designs to meet the FCVT goals.

  12. Clausewitz and Foucault: war and power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Deacon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carl von Clausewitz's On War has influenced theorists across a wide range of disciplines, and one such was the late French philosopher and historian, Michel Foucault. This paper considers what at first sight appears to be Foucault's reversal of Clausewitz, but which oncloser examination can be seen to be an accordance with many striking parallels. It isargued that Foucault's reconceptualisation of modem, or disciplinary, relations of power corresponds remarkably closely with Clausewitz's analysis of war, to the extent that both power and war can be understood in terms of multiple, unstable, interactive and variable relations of force, governed by rationality but often resistant to analysis, the significance of which lies primarily in their fluctuating and reciprocal outcomes and consequences, and not least their moral and psychological components and effects.

  13. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  14. Integral and discrete inequalities and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on one- and multi-dimensional linear integral and discrete Gronwall-Bellman type inequalities. It provides a useful collection and systematic presentation of known and new results, as well as many applications to differential (ODE and PDE), difference, and integral equations. With this work the author fills a gap in the literature on inequalities, offering an ideal source for researchers in these topics. The present volume is part 1 of the author’s two-volume work on inequalities. Integral and discrete inequalities are a very important tool in classical analysis and play a crucial role in establishing the well-posedness of the related equations, i.e., differential, difference and integral equations.

  15. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  16. Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓卿

    2014-01-01

    In Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austin expresses successfully her viewpoints of marriage and love. This paper tempts to make a deep analysis of these four marriages, and shows how one’s character affects one’s attitudes toward love and marriage. We can see the combination of vulgar Collins and common Charlotte results in a practical marriage, and their marriage has no love;the combination of dissolute Wickhame and flirtatious Lydia results in a sex-oriented marriage, this marriage is without love either, the combination of pleasant Bingley and mild Jane results in a conventional marriage with love, the combination of decent Darcy and sensible Elizabeth results not only in a successful marriage, but also they have got something more than Jane-Bingley mar-riage.

  17. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy Mental Health Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Services Physical Therapy Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service Benefits Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service General Information Prosthetic ...

  18. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues.

  19. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species

  20. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  1. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmorris Brisolara, Kari; Ochoa, Helena

    2016-10-01

    This review section covers journal articles and conference papers related to biosolids and sludge management that were published in 2015. The literature review has been divided into the following sections: • Biosolids regulations and management issues; • Biosolids characteristics, quality and measurement including microconstituents, pathogens, nanoparticles and metals; • Sludge treatment technologies including pretreatment and sludge minimization, conditioning and dewatering, digestion, composting and innovative technologies; • Disposal and reuse including combustion/incineration, agricultural uses and innovative uses; • Odor and air emissions; and • Energy issues. PMID:27620088

  2. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  3. Infection and disease: cause and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, C Simon; Douek, Daniel C

    2006-01-01

    Much can be learnt about the mechanisms by which micro-organisms cause disease from the ways that they interact with cells and tissues. This issue of The Journal of Pathology contains articles that address the roles that cell and tissue biology and pathology are playing in the elucidation of these mechanisms. A review of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is followed by a discussion of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Two articles on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection address the association between viral infection and neoplasia, as do reviews on viruses and lymphoma/leukaemia, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8, HHV8). The section on viral disease concludes with an article on morbilliviruses. The intracellular effects of bacteria are addressed in a review of Listeria infection and a further review outlines recent advances in our knowledge of syphilis. Reviews on Helicobacter and gastric neoplasia, innate defences against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, and the function of granulomas in tuberculosis also address aspects of tissue responses to bacterial infection. Following a review of the function of immunoglobulin A in defence against infection, a group of articles considers vaccination and gene therapy approaches, the latter involving consideration of both viral and bacterial strategies. The reviews assembled here bridge several gaps: between microbiology and cellular pathology; between host and infecting organism; and between disease and therapy. It is clear that cell and tissue pathology approaches are of value in all of these spheres, providing cell and tissue relevance to microbiological and immunological observations. PMID:16362991

  4. Risk and Exploration: Earth, Sea and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J. (Editor); Cowing, Keith L. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The NASA History Division is pleased to present the record of a unique meeting on risk and exploration held under the auspices of the NASA Administrator, Sean O Keefe, at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, from September 26-29, 2004. The meeting was the brainchild of Keith Cowing and astronaut John Grunsfeld, NASA's chief scientist at the time. Its goals, stated in the letter of invitation published herein, were precipitated by the ongoing dialogue on risk and exploration in the wake of the Columbia Shuttle accident, the Hubble Space Telescope servicing question, and, in a broader sense, by the many NASA programs that inevitably involve a balance between risk and forward-looking exploration. The meeting, extraordinarily broad in scope and participant experience, offers insights on why we explore, how to balance risk and exploration, how different groups defi ne and perceive risk differently, and the importance of exploration to a creative society. At NASA Headquarters, Bob Jacobs, Trish Pengra, and Joanna Adamus of NASA Public Affairs led the meeting's implementation. The Naval Postgraduate School, commanded by Rear Admiral Patrick W. Dunne, provided a congenial venue. The meeting was broadcast on NASA TV, and thanks are due in this regard to Al Feinberg, Tony Stewart, Jim Taylor, and the planners collaborative: Mark Shaddock and Spotlight Productions, Donovan Gates of Donovan Gates Production, and Michael Ditertay and his staff on this 30-person television crew. Thanks to their efforts, a DVD record of the meeting has also been produced. Thanks are also due to the moderators: Miles O Brien of CNN, Chris McKay of NASA Ames, David Halpern of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and John Grunsfeld, NASA Headquarters. In order to maintain the informal flavor of the meetings, these proceedings are based on transcripts that have been lightly edited for grammar and punctuation. Most references to slides shown during the

  5. Complementary Therapies and Medicines and Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Armour, Mike; Ee, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Complementary therapies and medicines are a broad and diverse range of treatments, and are frequently used by women and their partners during the preconception period to assist with infertility, and to address pregnancy-related conditions. Despite frequent use, the evidence examining the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety for many modalities is lacking, with variable study quality. In this article, we provide an overview of research evidence with the aim of examining the evidence to inform clinical practice. During the preconception period, there is mixed evidence for acupuncture to improve ovulation, or increase pregnancy rates. Acupuncture may improve sperm quality, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this results in improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Acupuncture can be described as a low-risk intervention. Chinese and Western herbal medicines may increase pregnancy rates; however, study quality is low. The evaluation of efficacy, effectiveness, and safety during the first trimester of pregnancy has most commonly reported on herbs, supplements, and practices such as acupuncture. There is high-quality evidence reporting the benefits of herbal medicines and acupuncture to treat nausea in pregnancy. The benefit from ginger to manage symptoms of nausea in early pregnancy is incorporated in national clinical guidelines, and vitamin B6 is recommended as a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. The safety of ginger and vitamin B6 is considered to be well established, and is based on epidemiological studies. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce back pain and improve function for women in early pregnancy. There is little evidence to support the use of cranberries in pregnancy for prevention of urinary tract infections, and chiropractic treatment for back pain. Overall the numbers of studies are small and of low quality, although the modalities appear to be low risk of harm. PMID:26866600

  6. SSL and TLS Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Oppliger, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    SSL (secure socket layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are widely deployed security protocols that are used in all kinds of web-based e-commerce and e-business applications and are part of most contemporary security systems available today. This practical book provides a comprehensive introduction to these protocols, offering you a solid understanding of their design. You find discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using SSL/TLS protocols compared to other Internet security protocols. This authoritative resource shows how to properly employ SSL and TLS and configure security

  7. Value and Politics of China and Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    The 17th National Congress stressed that the Party must keep to the path of political development under socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since the introduction of the reform and opening up policy, China's economy has developed quickly, supplementing its political construction. Progress in the economy and political development have raised China's confidence and made the Chinese system more attractive to the rest of the world. Though China's political development has been achieved under the correct democratic development viewpoint, difficulties may yet arise, and China may need to look outside to other political achievements; importantly, China has the confidence and determination to make its political development harmonious, orderly and effective.

  8. Preferences and design in insurance and pensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth

    Life insurance and pension decisions are of the more important fnancial settlements to be decided in a household. In this thesis we investigate dfferent aspects of relevance for decision making within a household, especially focusing on life insurance and pension decisions. The focus......-effects. The focus is on the consumption, investment and life insurance demands. In another modeling framework, we modify the utility measurement and propose a combination of forward and backward looking preferences. At last, a model with very explicit preferences for stability in consumption is investigated and we...

  9. Computer systems and networks: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of computers are discussed, both as separate units and in inter-coupled systems. The main elements of modern processor thechnology are reviewed and the associated peripheral components are disscussed in the light of the prevailling rapid pace of developments. Particular emphais is given to the impact of very large scale integrated circuitry in these developments. Computer networks, and considered in some detail, including comon-carrier and local-area networks and the problem of inter-working is included in the discussion. Components of network systems and the associated technology are also among the topics treated. (orig.)

  10. Forest and Range Inventory and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    The state of the art in remote sensing for forest and range inventories and mapping has been discussed. There remains a long way to go before some of these techniques can be used on an operational basis. By the time that the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and Skylab space missions are flown, it should be possible to tell what kind and what quality of information can be extracted from remote sensors and how it can be used for surveys of forest and range resources.

  11. Electrical and electronic principles and technology

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2013-01-01

    This much-loved textbook introduces electrical and electronic principles and technology to students who are new to the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions really help aid your understanding and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have mastered each subject. In total the books contains 410 worked problems, 540 further problems, 340 multiple-choice questions, 455 short-answer questions, and 7 revision tests with answers online.This an ideal text for vocational courses enabling a s

  12. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  13. MEMORY AND PROMISE IN ARENDT AND NIETZSCHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA LEMM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the value and significance that Arendt and Nietzsche attribute to the role played by memory and by the promise in constituting the political and in safeguarding the freedom and plurality of human actionEste artículo compara el valor y el significado que Arendt y Nietzsche otorgan a la memoria y a la promesa para la constitución de lo político así como para la salvaguardia de la libertad y de la pluralidad humana

  14. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans. PMID:26542925

  15. Fraud and plagiarisim in school and career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agud, J L

    2014-10-01

    Between 0% and 94% of university students acknowledge having committed academic fraud. Its forms are varied: cheating on examinations, submitting someone else's work, plagiarism, false citations, false reporting on experiments, tests or findings in the medical history and physical examination, unfair behavior toward fellow students, and many others. The consequences of academic fraud include learning corruption, useless efforts by students and faculty, incorrect performance evaluations and unfair selection for jobs. Since this can be a prelude to future fraud as doctors or researches, the prevalence, risk factors, motivations, clinical appearances, detection and prevention of the disease of academic fraud are here reviewed. PMID:24796637

  16. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans.

  17. Nuclear and Radiochemistry Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lieser, Karl Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete and concise description of the up-to-date knowledge of nuclear and radiochemsitry and applications in the various fields of science. I is based on teaching courses and on research for over 40 years. The book is addressed to any researcher whishing sound knowledge about the properties of matter, be it a chemist, a physicist, a medical doctor, a mineralogist or a biologist. They will all find it a valuable source of information about the principles and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. Research in radiochemistry includes: Study of radioactice matter in na

  18. Fraud and plagiarisim in school and career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agud, J L

    2014-10-01

    Between 0% and 94% of university students acknowledge having committed academic fraud. Its forms are varied: cheating on examinations, submitting someone else's work, plagiarism, false citations, false reporting on experiments, tests or findings in the medical history and physical examination, unfair behavior toward fellow students, and many others. The consequences of academic fraud include learning corruption, useless efforts by students and faculty, incorrect performance evaluations and unfair selection for jobs. Since this can be a prelude to future fraud as doctors or researches, the prevalence, risk factors, motivations, clinical appearances, detection and prevention of the disease of academic fraud are here reviewed.

  19. Neutrino physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plenary reports of Neutrino '80 are presented by experts in neutrino physics and astrophysics. Their International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics was held in Erice (Italy), June 23 through 28, 1980. The proceedings include reviews of part research, the history of neutrino research and coverage of recent results and theoretical speculations. Topics include high- and low-energy neutrino astrophysics, weak charged and neutral currents, low and intermediate weak interactions, neutrino oscillations, and parity violation in atoms and nuclei conservation laws. Weak interactions in lepton-lepton and lepton-nucleon collisions, beam dump experiments, new theoretical ideas, and future developments in accelerators and detectors are also included. The topics are introduced by a historical perspective section and then grouped under the headings of neutrino astrophysics, weak charged currents, weak neutral currents, low and intermediate energy interactions, conservation laws, weak interactions in electron and hadron experiments, and a final section on future accelerator, new neutrino detection technology and concluding remarks

  20. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  1. ITER Instrumentation and Control - Status and Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Instrumentation and Control (IC) System is the term encompassing all hardware and software required to operate ITER. It has two levels of hierarchy; the Central IC Systems and the Plant Systems IC. The Central IC Systems comprise CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication), the Central Interlock System (CIS) and the Central Safety Systems (CSS). The Central IC Systems are 'in-fund', i.e. procured by ITER International Organization, while Plant Systems IC are 'in-kind', i.e. procured by the seven ITER Domestic Agencies. This procurement model, together with the current estimate of 165 Plant Systems IC, poses a major challenge for the realization and integration of the ITER IC System. To address this challenge a main strategic focus of the CODAC group, formed in 2008, has been to establish good relations with the Domestic Agencies. By distributing the required research and development tasks and contracts fairly between the Domestic Agencies we build collaborations for the future at the same time as technical work proceed. The primary goal of ITER IC System is to provide a fully integrated and automated control system for ITER. Standardization of Plant Systems IC is of primary importance and has been the highest priority task during the last year. The target of associated research and development activities is to survey, benchmark and prototype main stream technologies, in order to choose the best and most widely used technology standards for Plant Systems IC. In this paper we elaborate on our approach, both from a technical and a non technical perspective, explain technology evaluation and decisions and finally present the way forward to ensure ITER IC System will contribute and be instrumental in making ITER a success. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation slides. (authors)

  2. ITER Instrumentation and Control - Status and Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Instrumentation and Control (IC) System is the term encompassing all hardware and software required to operate ITER. It has two levels of hierarchy; the Central IC Systems and the Plant Systems IC. The Central IC Systems comprise CODAC (Control, Data Access and Communication), the Central Interlock System (CIS) and the Central Safety Systems (CSS). The Central IC Systems are 'in-fund', i.e. procured by ITER International Organization, while Plant Systems IC are 'in-kind', i.e. procured by the seven ITER Domestic Agencies. This procurement model, together with the current estimate of 165 Plant Systems IC, poses a major challenge for the realization and integration of the ITER IC System. To address this challenge a main strategic focus of the CODAC group, formed in 2008, has been to establish good relations with the Domestic Agencies. By distributing the required Research and development tasks and contracts fairly between the Domestic Agencies we build collaborations for the future at the same time as technical work proceed. The primary goal of ITER IC System is to provide a fully integrated and automated control system for ITER. Standardization of Plant Systems IC is of primary importance and has been the highest priority task during the last year. The target of associated Research and Development activities is to survey, benchmark and prototype main stream technologies, in order to choose the best and most widely used technology standards for Plant Systems IC. In this paper we elaborate on our approach, both from a technical and a non technical perspective, explain technology evaluation and decisions and finally present the way forward to ensure ITER IC System will contribute and be instrumental in making ITER a success. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation transparencies. (authors)

  3. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  4. Climate and culture Changes, lessons, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita T. Winarto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available From generation to generation over the centuries, people in all parts of the world have developed adaptive social-cultural institutions and strategies of natural resource management based on the intimate relationship they had with their environment. At present, recent global warming is threatening people’s lives. Unfortunately, climate change is a natural phenomenon which is neither easy to observe, nor to predict and anticipate accurately. In many places, local people can no longer rely on earlier experiences and existing socio-cultural institutions to adjust to unprecedented changes. We are in urgent need of specific efforts to re-interpret and enrich our knowledge of this natural phenomenon. However, this is not an easy thing to do. People from all kinds of levels and entities in society are simultaneously the cause and the victims of global warming. The problem becomes even more complicated because of various mutually-affecting dimensions like ethics, politics, power, economics, and justice. These are the ultimate challenges scholars of the social sciences and humanities need to address seriously everywhere in the world, including in Indonesia. This article addresses the arguments of what scholars in the social sciences and humanities could and should do in response to climate change. Promoting a new paradigm and ethics in dealing with climate change is urgent and improvements in approaches and research methodologies are necessary. Learning from experiences gained from the way farmers in Java respond to climate change, the author argues that interdisciplinary research across social and natural sciences, and collaborative work with target groups is a promising and significant step (although scholars will have to face many challenges and constraints.

  5. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  6. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  7. Food and water: symbol and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, R

    1988-05-01

    The act of giving food and water to the needy and helpless is a reality that reflects the communitarian aspect of the human family and our commitment to nurture our more vulnerable members. The technology that delivers artificial nutrition and hydration to an irreversibly comatose patient is, some would say, a symbol of that reality. As a symbol, what does it communicate, to whom, and for whose benefit? The critical examination of the ethics surrounding this issue requires the careful navigation of one of the busiest intersections, where ethics, law, technology, medicine, and the Church enter, converge, and exit--each with its own preoccupation and destination. Symbols are a type of representation that point beyond themselves to something else. If the act of giving food and water is symbolic, to what reality does it point? Surely this reality is care--that most human and humane attention that we give to one another at the most basic level of need. But is this care realized when a patient who is dying is tethered to the technology of artificial nutrition and hydration against his or her will? The meaning communicated by this symbol in such a case is intended only for the care givers and society. For patients who have lived in the spirit of Christian faith, the message may be a death-denying one, out of keeping with the hope of resurrection and eternal life. PMID:10315753

  8. Polyphony and Polyphasia in Self and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renedo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose in this paper is to contribute towards an understanding of the link beween plurality of self and knowledge. The paper relates the concept of cognitive polyphasia with Bakhtin’s views on positioning and the polyphony of the person, and Hermans and Kempen’s concept of the dialogical self. It links dialogical epistemology and ontology to argue that, (i polyphony and polyphasia of self and knowledge are two sides of the same process, and (ii our ability to position ourselves in relation to the knowledge of others explains how the meanings, practices and identities that co-exist within individuals and groups are put to use, enabling us to function in multiple relationships and contexts. The paper concludes by suggesting that identity and knowledge are inseparable from both the multiple relationships in which they develop and from processes of self-other positioning. Research on expert knowledge of homelessness amongst professionals working in the UK voluntary sector is briefly examined to illustrate the proposed theoretical argument.

  9. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  10. Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Nuclear and Radiological Forensics and Attribution Program is to develop the technical capability for the nation to rapidly, accurately, and credibly attribute the origins and pathways of interdicted or collected materials, intact nuclear devices, and radiological dispersal devices. A robust attribution capability contributes to threat assessment, prevention, and deterrence of nuclear terrorism; it also supports the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its investigative mission to prevent and respond to nuclear terrorism. Development of the capability involves two major elements: (1) the ability to collect evidence and make forensic measurements, and (2) the ability to interpret the forensic data. The Program leverages the existing capability throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory complex in a way that meets the requirements of the FBI and other government users. At the same time the capability is being developed, the Program also conducts investigations for a variety of sponsors using the current capability. The combination of operations and R and D in one program helps to ensure a strong linkage between the needs of the user community and the scientific development

  11. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L. [Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The socioeconomic development in Latin America was discussed with reference to its abundant and diverse resources. Despite its large population, Latin America represents only 6 per cent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) and a less than 6 per cent of the total world trading. This presentation described the problems of large deficits, poor economic policies, large debt and corruption that provoked inflation, economic slowdown, and foreign debt in Latin America. Policy makers agreed that reforms were needed if Latin American economies were to grow more than 6 per cent a year, and to lower the number of people living in poverty in the region. The second-generation reform for Latin America was meant to promote economic development without inflation. It is based on quality public sector governance; fiscal strengthening; an enhanced legal and regulatory framework; efficient financial markets; and, labour and market reform. This presentation also discussed the oil and gas industry's contention with the perceptions that the economic crisis in Latin America was caused by globalization, international trade and acquisitive industrialized countries. An initiative was launched in 1994 to build an integrated energy data bank, evaluate existing interconnections among Latin American countries, and identify barriers for a larger integration to facilitate and improve commercial activities. It was emphasized that while the United States has a large deficit of oil, Canada and Latin America have large surpluses of energy resources, which if developed efficiently and effectively, can be a leading engine of regional development and an important contributor to global competitiveness. Canada is the largest supplier of energy, including oil, natural gas and electricity to the United States, the world's largest energy consumer and largest oil and gas market. Mexico and Brazil were identified as the other 2 large economies in the region's energy chain, but Mexico is self

  12. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The socioeconomic development in Latin America was discussed with reference to its abundant and diverse resources. Despite its large population, Latin America represents only 6 per cent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) and a less than 6 per cent of the total world trading. This presentation described the problems of large deficits, poor economic policies, large debt and corruption that provoked inflation, economic slowdown, and foreign debt in Latin America. Policy makers agreed that reforms were needed if Latin American economies were to grow more than 6 per cent a year, and to lower the number of people living in poverty in the region. The second-generation reform for Latin America was meant to promote economic development without inflation. It is based on quality public sector governance; fiscal strengthening; an enhanced legal and regulatory framework; efficient financial markets; and, labour and market reform. This presentation also discussed the oil and gas industry's contention with the perceptions that the economic crisis in Latin America was caused by globalization, international trade and acquisitive industrialized countries. An initiative was launched in 1994 to build an integrated energy data bank, evaluate existing interconnections among Latin American countries, and identify barriers for a larger integration to facilitate and improve commercial activities. It was emphasized that while the United States has a large deficit of oil, Canada and Latin America have large surpluses of energy resources, which if developed efficiently and effectively, can be a leading engine of regional development and an important contributor to global competitiveness. Canada is the largest supplier of energy, including oil, natural gas and electricity to the United States, the world's largest energy consumer and largest oil and gas market. Mexico and Brazil were identified as the other 2 large economies in the region's energy chain, but Mexico is self sufficient and

  13. Deafness and Diversity: Reflections and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Concluding a two-part American Annals of the Deaf special issue on deafness and diversity (DAD), the editors provide reflections and guidance to the field regarding d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) children with a disability (DWD; e.g., learning or intellectual disability, autism) and d/Dhh children from homes where parents use a language other than English or American Sign Language (d/Dhh Multilingual Learners; DMLs). Contributing authors addressed the application of theory, research, and practice to five topics: (a) early intervention, (b) communication/language, (c) assessment, (d) transition, (e) teacher preparation. An overview of the main recommendations of the contributors and editors is presented in an effort to advance research and pedagogy with these learners. In conclusion, the editors discuss the "Radical Middle" approach (Easterbrooks & Maiorana-Basas, 2015) to working with students who are DAD: providing learners with all options for academic, social, and emotional success.

  14. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles : Sources and toxicity

    CERN Document Server

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac d...

  15. Deafness and Diversity: Reflections and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Concluding a two-part American Annals of the Deaf special issue on deafness and diversity (DAD), the editors provide reflections and guidance to the field regarding d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) children with a disability (DWD; e.g., learning or intellectual disability, autism) and d/Dhh children from homes where parents use a language other than English or American Sign Language (d/Dhh Multilingual Learners; DMLs). Contributing authors addressed the application of theory, research, and practice to five topics: (a) early intervention, (b) communication/language, (c) assessment, (d) transition, (e) teacher preparation. An overview of the main recommendations of the contributors and editors is presented in an effort to advance research and pedagogy with these learners. In conclusion, the editors discuss the "Radical Middle" approach (Easterbrooks & Maiorana-Basas, 2015) to working with students who are DAD: providing learners with all options for academic, social, and emotional success. PMID:27156921

  16. Growth and Scaling during Development and Regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Life presents fascinating examples of self-organization and emergent phenomena. In multi-cellular organisms, a multitude of cells interact to form and maintain highly complex body plans of well-defined size. In this thesis, we investigate theoretical feedback mechanisms for both self-organized body plan patterning and size control. The thesis is inspired by the astonishing scaling and regeneration abilities of flatworms. These worms can perfectly regrow their entire body plan even from tiny amputation fragments like the tip of the tail. Moreover, they can grow and actively de-grow by more than a factor of 40 in length depending on feeding conditions. These capabilities prompt for remarkable physical mechanisms of self-organized pattern formation and scaling. First, we explore the basic principles and challenges of pattern scaling in mechanisms previously proposed to describe biological pattern formation. Next, we present a novel class of patterning mechanisms yielding entirely self-organized and self-scaling ...

  17. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are ...

  18. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  19. Public And Private Leadership And Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine (Mihaescu Demeter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to make a comparing between the private and public leadership. We analyze (1 whether there are differences between public and private sector leadership based on some variables related to job complexity of a manager (including the managerial behaviour, job autonomy, and job clarity, decision-making vs policymaking process and the stakeholders vs political influence, and (2 to assess the degree of their effects on the managerial competences and performance management. Our study is conducted from the Romanian perspective on public organizations. As the methodology used, in order to identify the perception on political influence in Romanian public administration we conducted a survey among civil servants at central and local level. Our research is based on the empirical analysis of the relevant literature in public administration, leadership and organizational performance.

  20. Physics and mathematical tools methods and examples

    CERN Document Server

    Alastuey, Angel; Magro, Marc; Pujol, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book presents mathematical methods and tools which are useful for physicists and engineers: response functions, Kramers-Kronig relations, Green's functions, saddle point approximation. The derivations emphasize the underlying physical arguments and interpretations without any loss of rigor. General introductions describe the main features of the methods, while connections and analogies between a priori different problems are discussed. They are completed by detailed applications in many topics including electromagnetism, hydrodynamics, statistical physics, quantum mechanics, etc. Exercises are also proposed, and their solutions are sketched. A self-contained reading of the book is favored by avoiding too technical derivations, and by providing a short presentation of important tools in the appendices. It is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics, but it can also be used by teachers, researchers and engineers.

  1. Materials and society — impacts and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, A. R. C.

    1996-06-01

    The needs of today's advanced societies have moved well beyond the requirements for food and shelter, etc., and now are focused on such concerns as international peace and domestic security, affordable health care, the swift and secure transmission of information, the conservation of resources, and a clean environment. Progress in materials science and engineering is impacting each of these concerns. This article will present some examples of how this is occurring and then comment on ethical dilemmas that can arise as a consequence of technological advances. The need for engineers to participate more fully in the development of public policies that help resolve such dilemmas, and so promote the benefits of advancing technology to society, will be discussed.

  2. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  3. Truth, virtue and beauty: midwifery and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J M; Gibbs, M

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, we outline three moments in the history of Western philosophy--Classical Greek, Modernity, Postmodernity--and the ways in which issues of truth, virtue and beauty have been understood within these philosophical formations. In particular, we investigate the ways in which notions of truth, virtue and beauty influenced the orthodoxy of birthing practices at these different moments. Finally, we examine current, critical reflections on the role of the intellectual in postmodern society and use these reflections as a heuristic for understanding the role of the contemporary midwife. We suggest that midwifery must reconcile two divergent demands. The first is to mobilise the positive, instrumental benefits of Western medical science to improve mortality and morbidity outcomes. The second is to remain sensitive to the cultural and social meanings attached to traditional birthing practices and to understand the roles these play in the well-being of mother and child.

  4. Basic interrupt and command structures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrupt and command structures of a real-time system are described through specific examples. References to applications of a real-time system and programing development references are supplied. (auth)

  5. Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Nine original articles comprise this special issue of the Journal of Personality addressing personality-based perspectives of psychopathy. In this introduction to the special issue, we review five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. At the same time, several important debates remain, which are also highlighted in the special issue's articles. These debates center around the necessity and sufficiency of certain psychopathy traits, the role of traits alternatively labeled stable Extraversion, fearless dominance, or boldness, and the validity and utility of separating psychopathy from Machiavellianism as is done in research on the Dark Triad.

  6. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: Disease spectrum and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba P Raychaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle inflammation and weakness are the key features of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs. In addition IIMs are frequently associated with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement. In clinical practice the three common inflammatory myopathies we come across are polymyositis (PM, dermatomyositis (DM and inclusion body myositis (IBM. The Bohan and Peter criteria combine clinical, laboratory, and pathologic features to define PM and DM. They did not recognize inclusion body myositis (IBM or other inflammatory myopathies, such as granulomatous and eosinophilic myositis. Thus the disease spectrum is wide and IIMs are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders. To address these issues in this article we have discussed the currently developing newer classifications of IIMs.

  7. Life is physics and chemistry and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2015-04-01

    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life.

  8. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and ... heart disease and they are less likely to die from heart disease. In general, Asian American adults have lower rates of being overweight or obese, lower rates of ...

  9. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting...... that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass......, instead of focusing on one or the other form of malnutrition. Interventions should also focus on young infants and children, who have a low muscle mass in relation to body weight to start with. Using mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) to select children in need of treatment may represent a simple way...

  10. Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) Databases and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-01

    The online information resources included in this fact sheet were developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, and are designed to provide the public access to information pertaining to MHK technologies, projects, and research.

  11. Materials and society -- Impacts and responsibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood, A.R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The needs of today`s advanced societies have moved well beyond the requirements for food and shelter, etc., and now are focused on such concerns as international peace and domestic security, affordable health care, the swift and secure transmission of information, the conservation of resources, and a clean environment. Progress in materials science and engineering is impacting each of these concerns. This paper will present some examples of how this is occurring, and then comment on ethical dilemmas that can arise as a consequence of technological advances. The need for engineers to participate more fully in the development of public policies that help resolve such dilemmas, and so promote the benefits of advancing technology to society, will be discussed.

  12. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Nanoparticles and Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs have increasingly found practical applications in technology, research, and medicine. The small particle size coupled with their unique chemical and physical properties is thought to underline their exploitable biomedical activities. Its form may be latex body, polymer, ceramic particle, metal particles, and the carbon particles. Due to their small size and physical resemblance to physiological molecules such as proteins, NPs possess the capacity to revolutionise medical imaging, diagnostics, therapeutics, as well as carry out functional biological processes. But these features may also underline their toxicity. Indeed, a detailed assessment of the factors that influence the biocompatibility and toxicity of NPs is crucial for the safe and sustainable development of the emerging NPs. Due to the unique structure, size, and shape, much effort has been dedicated to analyzing biomedical applications of nanotubes.This paper focuses on the current understanding of the biocompatibility and toxicity of NPs with an emphasis on nanotubes.

  13. Colonialism and Language Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Key factors that account for European languages and Christianity being transplanted worldwide are identified. The privileged position of excolonial languages has been consolidated through Western influence on educational policies and linguistic imperialism. The existence of alternative language...

  14. Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and low estrogen levels, which may lead to vaginal dryness and other symptoms ( atrophic vaginitis ). Forgotten tampon or foreign body, which may cause a foul odor. Chemicals found in ... irritate the vagina or the skin around the vagina Less common ...

  15. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...... in young adults than in older individuals, hence, for young adults, the absolute beneficial effect of alcohol is small. Alcohol has differential effects on the risk of mortality and CHD according to drinking pattern. In the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, we found that for the same weekly amount of alcohol...... with risk of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. The beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD is observed among both young adults, middle-aged and elderly, but the magnitude of the absolute beneficial effect is least among the young adults. Both alcohol and smoking are associated with increased risk...

  16. LHRH and LHR genotypes and prostate cancer incidence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Sue Ann; Liu, Stephen V; Pinski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Despite their crucial role in initiating steroid-hormone synthesis, the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones (LH, LHRH) and their receptors have received scant attention in genetic studies of hormone-related diseases. This study included 1,170 men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PC) in Los Angeles County between 1999 and 2003. LHRH and LH receptor genotypes were examined for association with PC survival. Additionally, associations with PC incidence were examined by comparing PC cases to control men of similar age and race/ethnicity. The LHR 312 G allele was found to be associated with increased PC mortality (p=0.01). Ten years after diagnosis, 16% of men carrying two copies of the G allele (genotype GG) had died of PC, compared to 11% of those with genotype AG and 9% of those with AA. In a case-control comparison, this same allele was significantly associated with decreased PC risk: OR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.93) for genotype GG vs. AA. These results suggest that androgens may play opposing roles in PC initiation and progression, and highlight the need to include these important but overlooked genes in future studies of PC etiology, prognosis, and treatment.

  17. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  18. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke) are tobacco use, high blood pressure,and diabetes. Physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet worsen cholesterol levels, blood pressure and diabetes. Increasing age, being male, and family history of ...

  19. Videos, Podcasts and Livechats

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Colon Cancer Congestive Heart Failure Dementia Head and Neck Cancer HIV/AIDS ... varying illnesses including genetic and neurological disorders, cancer, heart and lung conditions and many others. The first ...

  20. Tattoos and Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Looking and feeling your best Tattoos and piercing Tattoos and piercing Some people think piercings and tattoos ... surgery if you want to close the hole. Tattoos top How about henna? You may have seen ...

  1. Critique, generativity, and imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern conceptions of critique express preoccupations with obtaining certainty and truth, with establishing foundations, and with linking knowledge and rationality. Modern conceptions of critique have been challenged, and critique has taken new formats. In particular critique has developed without...

  2. Manicure and Pedicure Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  3. Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has an increasing focus on pharmacoepidemiology related to pharmaceutical use and cancer risk, recurrence and survival, as well as pharmacoepidemiology related to treatment response and adverse outcomes from chemotherapeutic agents and other medications used to treat cancer.

  4. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  5. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  6. Weber and Durkheim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik S.

    Weber and Durkheim is a systematic , comparative analysis of the methodologies of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim.......Weber and Durkheim is a systematic , comparative analysis of the methodologies of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim....

  7. Dietitians and Nutritionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Dietitians and Nutritionists PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They Do ... and occupations. What They Do -> What Dietitians and Nutritionists Do About this section Dietitians and nutritionists counsel ...

  8. Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Milk Hunger and Malnutrition Iron and Your Child Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Nut and Peanut Allergy Weaning Your Child ... in Elementary School 10 Ways to Help Your Child Succeed in Middle School 10 Ways to Help Your Teen Succeed ...

  9. Morphine: Myths and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Families Take the Quiz Morphine: Myths and Reality February, 2013 The mere mention of “Morphine” can ... due to misinformation and lack of training. The reality is that Morphine (and other opiates that work ...

  10. Heteroporphyrin nanotubes and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Wang, Zhongchun

    2006-11-07

    Heteroporphyrin nanotubes, metal nanostructures, and metal/porphyrin-nanotube composite nanostructures formed using the nanotubes as photocatalysts and structural templates, and the methods for forming the nanotubes and composites.

  11. Carbenes and Nitrenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the general methods for carbene and nitrene formation and the reactions in which carbenes and nitrenes are involved such as their reactions with transition metal atoms, alkenes of aromatic compounds, and uncharged oxygen or nitrogen nucleophiles. (CC)

  12. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  13. Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preeclampsia and Eclampsia: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are preeclampsia and eclampsia? Preeclampsia and eclampsia are part of ...

  14. Of Bacon and Bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffioti, Carol Lee

    1977-01-01

    Exercises in sketching a scene of words, focusing, describing elemental structure (using comparison, contrast, analogy, and antithesis), and sketching and writing about still-life arrangements can heighten students' awareness of sense impressions and lead to improved writing skills. (TJ)

  15. Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  16. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... Resources Additional Reading from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Adults: ...

  17. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  18. Corals and Sclerosponges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords...

  19. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  20. Leadership and Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Goethals, George R

    2009-01-01

    This book, a collection of essays from scholars across disciplines, explores leadership of discovery, probing the guided and collaborative exploration and interpretation of the experience of our inner thoughts and feelings, and of our external worlds

  1. Radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the following topics: - Radiological quantities and units - Principles of radiological protection - Limits of doses and activity uptake - Activity discharges and monitoring - Radiation exposure and its calculation - Environmental monitoring - Personnel dosimetry. (orig./RW)

  2. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other common behaviors include restlessness and excessive activity. Religion and spirituality Grief and loss may also cause ... The grieving person’s age and gender The life history of the person who is grieving, including previous ...

  3. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and ... FAQ071, February 2016 PDF Format Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis? ...

  4. Race, Rights and Rebels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Krabbe, Julia

    An analysis of the evolution of the overlapping histories of human rights and development, and an exploration of the alternatives, through the lens of indigenous and other southern theories and epistemologies...

  5. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  6. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual reports are given by CNA subcommittees on codes, standards and practices, economic development, education and manpower, international affairs, nuclear insurance, nuclear safety and environment, public affairs, and technology. (E.C.B.)

  7. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  8. Perovskites and garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, C.P.; Wang, F.F.Y.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and properties of perovskites and garnets are reviewed. Data and information are presented on crystal chemistry, crystal structure, phase equilibria, electrical properties, optical properties, and mechanical properties. (JRD)

  9. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  10. Taste and Smell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  11. Savagery, Show and Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Dan G.

    After 50 grade school children witnessed a violent murder, group therapy and psychodrama sessions were initiated with the children, and parents and teachers were instructed in how to deal with the children's emotions and behavior. (CL)

  12. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ...

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more ...

  14. Plasticity and Geotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Sui

    Plasticity and Geotechnics is the first attempt to summarize and present, in one volume, the major developments achieved to date in the field of plasticity theory for geotechnical materials and its applications to geotechnical analysis and design.

  15. Lasers and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kock, Winston E

    2013-01-01

    Accessible, illustrated introduction covers wave patterns and coherence, summarizes the development of lasers and the phenomenon of wave diffraction, and describes zone plates and properties of holograms. 1981 edition.

  16. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... percent, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  17. Piaget and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Rochel

    1971-01-01

    A review of Science and Education and the Psychology of the Child (Grossman, 1970) by Jean Piaget and Educational Implications of Piaget's Theory (Ginn-Blaisdell, 1970) by Irene J. Athey and Duane O. Rubadeau. (CK)

  18. Materials and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Used radionuclides (Sr-85 and Cs-137) and agriculture characteristics of the selected soils and used methods of sorption and desorption of the radionuclides as well as extraction solutions are described

  19. Uncertainty, rationality, and agency

    CERN Document Server

    Hoek, Wiebe van der

    2006-01-01

    Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency

  20. REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

  1. Children and Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TV, in movies and videos, and/or playing violent video games. Parents should help protect their children from the ... watch TV, movies, and videos with children; restrict violent video games; limit TV; and disapprove of the violent episodes ...

  2. Heteroporphyrin nanotubes and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Wang, Zhongchun

    2007-05-29

    Heteroporphyrin nanotubes, metal nanostructures, and metal/porphyrin-nanotube composite nanostructures formed using the nanotubes as photocatalysts and structural templates, and the methods for forming the nanotubes and composites.

  3. Supersymmetry and Supergravity: Phenomenology and Grand Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, Pran

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of $SU(2) \\times U(1)$, proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. Wh...

  4. Forest Policy, Criteria and Indicators, and Certification

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was presented as a position paper at the International Conference "The Nature and Culture of Forests" in May 2001 at the University of British Columbia, Canada. The conference brought together international scientists and policymakers in the field of Sustainable Forest Management. This paper presents an overall concept for sustainable forest management and the strengths and weaknesses of the components of this framework. It is concluded that an efficient policy framewo...

  5. Innovation, Diffusion, and Trade: Theory and Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Santacreu, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    I develop a multicountry-model in which economic growth is driven mainly by domestic innovation and the adoption of foreign technologies embodied in traded intermediate goods. Fitting the model to data on innovation, output per capita, and trade in varieties for the period 1996-2007, I estimate the costs of both domestic innovation and adopting foreign innovations, and then decompose the sources of economic growth around the world. I find that the adoption channel has been especially importan...

  6. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  7. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta; Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi; Ruth Natalia Teresa Turrini; Maria Júlia Paes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descrip...

  8. Hormones and aggression in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J. Martin

    2003-01-01

    This review is a survey on recent psychobiosocial studies on association between hormones and aggression/violence in children and adolescents, with a special focus on puberty, given the rapid changes in both hormones and behavior occurring during that developmental period. Since it cannot be assumed that all readers have much background knowledge, it inevitably begins with some comments about the concept and multifaceted nature of aggression, as well as with a brief reminding about hormone ca...

  9. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  10. Depression and sleep: pathophysiology and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thase, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between sleep and depression. Most depressive disorders are characterized by subjective sleep disturbances, and the regulation of sleep is intricately linked to the same mechanisms that are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. After briefly reviewing the physiology and topography of normal sleep, the disturbances revealed in studies of sleep in depression using polysomnographic recordings and neuroimaging assessments are discussed. Next, treat...

  11. Metagenomics: Facts and Artifacts, and Computational Challenges*

    OpenAIRE

    Wooley, John C.; Ye, Yuzhen

    2009-01-01

    Metagenomics is the study of microbial communities sampled directly from their natural environment, without prior culturing. By enabling an analysis of populations including many (so-far) unculturable and often unknown microbes, metagenomics is revolutionizing the field of microbiology, and has excited researchers in many disciplines that could benefit from the study of environmental microbes, including those in ecology, environmental sciences, and biomedicine. Specific computational and stat...

  12. Tactical and Strategic Missile Technology and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Brophy, Christopher; Healey, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This brochure explains the Tactical and Strategic Missile Technology and Design program at the Naval Postgraduate School. Sections include: An introduction, description of courses, NPS faculty, research facilities, students eligible, application process, and tuition. The department of Mechanical and Astronautical Engineering offers a missile systems engineering track within the framework of a Master’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering. The program allows students to take courses...

  13. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  14. Essence and Existence in Avicenna and Averroes

    OpenAIRE

    Belo, Catarina

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the views on existence of medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (d. 1037) and Averroes (d. 1198), whose works followed closely the philosophy of Aristotle. In addition to the Aristotelian influence, which permeated all medieval Islamic philosophy, Avicenna and Averroes were also inspired by Islamic theology, known in Arabic as kalām. The distinction between essence and existence is one of the most central and controversial aspects of Avicenna’s philoso...

  15. SME's and sustainable entrepreneurship: theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    CRALS, Evy; Vereeck, Lode

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable entrepreneurship is a spin-off concept from sustainable development. It can be defined as the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development, while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large, or simply as business that takes into account the 3 Ps: people, planet, and profits. Sustainable entrepreneurship became en vogue after the successful 1995 protests agai...

  16. Micro and smart devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthasuresh, G; Pratap, Rudra; Krupanidhi, S

    2014-01-01

    The book presents cutting-edge research in the emerging fields of micro, nano, and smart devices and systems from experts working in these fields over the last decade. Most of the contributors have built devices or systems or developed processes or algorithms in these areas. The book is a unique collection of chapters from different areas with a common theme and is immensely useful to academic researchers and practitioners in the industry who work in this field.

  17. Titanium and titanium alloys fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

  18. Costs and Returns: Economic and Accounting Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, David H.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews economic and accounting bases for costs-of-production (COP) calculations It finds that the problems of circularity of arguments, potential cost· price spirals, and escalating land values are Inherent m all full COP methods of setting support prices Inflation, Income tax regulations, and credit usage Interact to distort the traditional relationships between cash costs and cash returns, thus requiring explicit correction m COP calculations

  19. Personal Bankruptcy and Credit Supply and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Reint Gropp; John Karl Scholz; Michelle White

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines how personal bankruptcy and bankruptcy exemptions affect the supply and demand for credit. While generous state-level bankruptcy exemptions are probably viewed by most policymakers as benefitting less-well-off borrowers, our results using data from the 1983 Survey of Consumer Finances suggest they increase the amount of credit held by high-asset households and reduce the availability and amount of credit to low-asset households, conditioning on observable characteristics. ...

  20. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Heather S.

    2014-01-01

    Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motiv...

  1. Cinema and Language: perceptual and cognitive changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study has aimed to investigate the emergence of film language and aesthetic character of the film and how their characteristics influence the forms of artistic apprehension by society, as a result of seeking the idea that this film aesthetic experience transformed the perception of the viewers. Christian Metz and his theory of language in the film were chosen as the theoretical framework, and as methodology we used bibliographic research.

  2. Tolerance and lymphoid organ structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Elizabeth Burrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Frontiers in Immunologic Tolerance explores barriers to tolerance from a variety of views of cells, molecules, and processes of the immune system. Our laboratory has spent over a decade focused on the migration of the cells of the immune system, and dissecting the signals that determine how and where effector and suppressive regulatory T cells traffic from one site to another in order to reject or protect allografts. These studies have led us to a greater appreciation of the anatomic structure of the immune system, and the realization that the path taken by lymphocytes during the course of the immune response to implanted organs determines the final outcome. In particular, the structures, microanatomic domains, and the cells and molecules that lymphocytes encounter during their transit through blood, tissues, lymphatics, and secondary lymphoid organs are powerful determinants for whether tolerance is achieved. Thus, the understanding of complex cellular and molecular processes of tolerance will not come from 96-well plate immunology, but from an integrated understanding of the temporal and spatial changes that occur during the response to the allograft. The study of the precise positioning and movement of cells in lymphoid organs has been difficult since it is hard to visualize cells within their 3-dimensional setting; instead techniques have tended to be dominated by 2-dimensional renderings, although advanced confocal and 2-photon systems are changing this view. It is difficult to precisely modify key molecules and events in lymphoid organs, so that existing knockouts, transgenics, inhibitors, and activators have global and pleiotropic effects, rather than precise anatomically restricted influences. Lastly, there are no well-defined postal codes or tracking systems for leukocytes, so that while we can usually track cells from point A to point B, it is exponentially more difficult or even impossible to track them to point C and

  3. Genetics, society, and decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowles, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual understanding of the biology of genes and also gives current events and controversies in the field. Basic transmission genetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics are covered, with additional discussions relating to such topics as agriculture, aging, forensic science, genetic counseling, gene splicing, and recombinant DNA. Low level radiation and its effects, drugs and heredity, IQ, heredity and racial variation, and creationism versus evolution are also described. ''Billboard'' style diagrams visually explain important concepts. Boldfaced key terms are defined within the text and in a comprehensive glossary. Selected readings, discussion questions and problems, and excellent chapter summaries further aid study.

  4. Eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunkard, Albert J

    2011-12-01

    In conclusion, 2 types of disordered eating behaviors affect some overweight and obese persons. BED and NES present an excellent opportunity to recognize, treat, and prevent these disorders that, at the least, maintain, and at worst, promote, overweight and obesity. Articles in this volume by Wilson and co-workers and Allison and colleagues discuss current treatment options for BED and NES, respectively. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate the presence of BED and NES in all patients who seek treatment for their obesity. Although the prevalence of these 2 eating disorders is relatively low, both are associated with significant distress and dysfunction that can be ameliorated with effective treatment. PMID:22098802

  5. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff

  6. NSFC Departments and Offices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To organize and formulate the development strategy in related scientific fields;to select priority funding areas and to compile the annual Guide to Programs;to accept and evaluate research proposals and to manage the funded projects of various categories;to take charge of the organization and management of international cooperation projects and the organization and constitution of the expert evaluation system,and to provide consultation on important scientific issues.

  7. Antinuclear and third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this book is about antinuclear, which describes nuclear and nuclear war, the lesson out of history, an idea of neutron bomb and antinuclear through life and thoughts. The second part of this book includes the relationship between human and antinuclear, threat of nuclear, third world and popular literature, for conversion of Japan, an atomic experience and literature and experience and testimony in Nagasaki.

  8. Mycotoxins and phycotoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycotoxins and phycotoxins are toxins produced by fungi and algae, respectively. These hazardous substances play an important role in foodborne diseases of humans and animals. Research on these toxins is multidisciplinary in nature and this monograph exemplifies this broad spectrum of interests. Contributions are presented on the various aspects related to toxin research, viz. microbiology and genetics, biosynthesis, structural chemistry and mechanism of action and the role of toxins in human and animal health. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Nanostructures and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Solid state physics in a nutshell; 3. Bulk materials; 4. Fabrication and characterization at the nanoscale; 5. Real solids: defects, interactions, confinement; 6. Charge transport and nanoelectronics; 7. Magnetism and magnetoelectronics; 8. Photonics; 9. Micro and nanomechanics; 10. Micro and nanofluidics; 11. Bionanotechnology: a very brief overview; 12. Nanotechnology and the future; Appendix: common quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics results; References; Index.

  10. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  11. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  12. Representation and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The introductory chapter adresses the necessity to struggle for voice in a Europe where there is a contest between unilateral and bipartite industrial relations regimes at the workplace and as well as in society and its institutions and discourses more generally.......The introductory chapter adresses the necessity to struggle for voice in a Europe where there is a contest between unilateral and bipartite industrial relations regimes at the workplace and as well as in society and its institutions and discourses more generally....

  13. Mitochondria and neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Aiwu; Hou, Yan; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    The production of neurons from neural progenitor cells, the growth of axons and dendrites and the formation and reorganization of synapses are examples of neuroplasticity. These processes are regulated by cell-autonomous and intercellular (paracrine and endocrine) programs that mediate responses of neural cells to environmental input. Mitochondria are highly mobile and move within and between subcellular compartments involved in neuroplasticity (synaptic terminals, dendrites, cell body and th...

  14. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book, these exp......Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  15. Innovation and Collective Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines different forms of innovation including social innovation, and why innovation and social innovation have become important themes in public policy in a context of the increasing and diverse demands on welfare regimes, and in an era of constrained budgets. It will review different perspectives on innovation and social innovation and the dynamic interaction through collective entrepreneurship in the social and solidarity economy; bringing out process and outcome dimensions of...

  16. Theater and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Husted, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Action research on marginalization and exclusion often seeks to examine relations between recognition, respect, and inclusion, but addressing these topics is difficult. Theatre-based action research opens up a new way to communicate and make visible knowledge and experiences from below that have...... and used to highlight and enlarge both critique and dreams in life outside the labor market. The article also discusses some of the reactions the plays received and the formation of knowledge linked to these processes....

  17. Project Identification and Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren; Lønholdt, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Provides the necessary conceptual framework and tools to assess all appropriate aspects of water and sanitation projects in developing countries. Appeals to graduate environmental engineering students, practitioners, economists, sociologists, and institutional planners working with water and sani......Provides the necessary conceptual framework and tools to assess all appropriate aspects of water and sanitation projects in developing countries. Appeals to graduate environmental engineering students, practitioners, economists, sociologists, and institutional planners working with water...... and sanitation projects in developing countries....

  18. Projection and registration device

    OpenAIRE

    Verlinden, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A projection and recording device, provided with a processing and control unit, a memory for recording images and other data, an input/output interface, a controllable camera, a touch screen for the input and display of data and images, a position determining system for determining the position of at least one object in relation to the projection and recording device, with images recorded by the camera being storable in the memory and displayable on the touch screen, and a projector for proje...

  19. Issues and Ideas: Organization, Administration and Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Irving

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the basic characteristics of organization, administration, supervision, and specific problems of human service organizations and relates them to the concept of power. The author proposes an integration of the two models of supervision so that the administrative and teaching functions will both be served. (Author)

  20. Micro and nano fabrication tools and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gatzen, Hans H; Leuthold, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    For Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) production, each product requires a unique process technology. This book provides a comprehensive insight into the tools necessary for fabricating MEMS/NEMS and the process technologies applied. Besides, it describes enabling technologies which are necessary for a successful production, i.e., wafer planarization and bonding, as well as contamination control.

  1. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  2. Gestalt and Adventure Therapy: Parallels and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsdorf, Rudiger

    This paper calls attention to parallels in the literature of adventure education and that of Gestalt therapy, demonstrating that both are rooted in an experiential tradition. The philosophies of adventure or experiential education and Gestalt therapy have the following areas in common: (1) emphasis on personal growth and the development of present…

  3. Coding and Quantization in Communications and Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Since information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon, in addition to its primary role in communications and networking, it has broadened to find applications in many other areas of science and technology, such as microeconomics, statistics, and neuroscience. This thesis investigates the application of information theoretic viewpoints to two…

  4. Celso Furtado and development: foundation and foresight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candido Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the political and intellectual career of Brazilian economist Celso Furtado, who passed away in November 2004. The author highlights Furtado's decisive role in the construction of relevant public institutions for the country and his original reflections on Brazilian economic thinking and the issue of development.

  5. OAI and NASA's Scientific and Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Rocker, JoAnne; Harrison, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    Details NASA's (National Aeronautics & Space Administration (USA)) involvement in defining and testing the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and experience with adapting existing NASA distributed searching DLs (digital libraries) to use the OAI-PMH and metadata harvesting. Discusses some new digital…

  6. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  7. [PUBLIC MEDICINE AND RESEARCH-- IMPORTANT AND CHALLENGING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, Giora; Shapira, Chen

    2015-06-01

    Fellows who travel to the US are familiar with the American concept of combining clinical medicine and research. Research activity enforces reading, being updated, thinking creatively initiating, opening horizons, and being in contact with researchers all over the world. Thus, performing research is advantageous not only for research itself, the public, the patients and the knowledge, but also for the development of the researcher, the hospital, and the academic institute with which the hospital is affiliated. However, given the huge clinical workload and obligations, along with the shortage of physicians, the time consuming nature of research activity and the difficulties in obtaining research funds, it is certainly not obvious that clinicians can manage to conduct research and publish it. Decision makers, policy determinants and the individual drive to academic progress, encourage research activity by physicians, albeit the external support is commonly theoretical and moral, and is not commonly combined with time or appropriate resource allocation. In the current issue of "Harefuah", physicians from the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center publish their own research and review articles. The hospital is the second largest in the Haifa region, providing services to a population of over a million people. The manuscripts reflect only a small sample of the research and clinical activities of the hospital. PMID:26281075

  8. Literacy and UNESCO: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    At its founding in 1946, UNESCO put literacy at the top of its education and human rights agenda. More than six decades later, UNESCO maintains the mission statement: "UNESCO is at the forefront of global literacy efforts and is dedicated to keeping literacy high on national, regional and international agendas." This chapter briefly describes how…

  9. Soil, resilience, and state and transition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and transition models are based on the assumption that less resilient systems are more susceptible to state changes. The objective of this paper is to show how two different types of soil properties contribute to resilience through their direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes, and ...

  10. Educational Design and Construction: Processes and Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas C.; Gros, Begona; Kinshuk,; Maina, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There are no one-size-fits-all steps for tackling different design challenges within the context of education. There are, however, processes and activities that are often useful. Developing a repertoire so that designers can select and use the most fruitful and fitting approaches for specific situat

  11. Quality and Standards: Clarity, Comparability and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses three central issues relating to quality and standards: clarity, comparability and responsibility. The issue of clarity is that we have reached a point of disjunction between the questions being asked by the public and the answers being provided by quality assurance professionals. The issue of comparability comes in two forms:…

  12. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when buy

  13. Dialogue and Communication between School and Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    This paper discusses school-home dialogue: its benefits; its theoretical underpinnings (Plato, Dewey, Hegel); perspectives on parent involvement, including societal changes that seem to produce barriers to communication between homes and schools (changes in family structure and role, time/schedule problems, distance, and educational bureaucracy);…

  14. Innovation and Change: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1982-01-01

    Lists 10 curriculum innovations and discusses reasons why they are not used extensively today. Reviews current curricular trends in career, environmental, ethnic, bicultural/bilingual, metric/calculator, sex, nonsexist, law-related, and consumer education. Suggests communication, lifelong learning, international cooperation, and values will have…

  15. THz therapy and smoking: facts and hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Parshina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There had been studied an antianginal effect and hemodynamic effects of THz electromagnetic waves of molecular NO spectrum (150.176 ... 150.664 GHz in 19 smokers and 18 non-smokers patients with angina. It had been fixed that antianginal, pulse slowing and antihypertensive effects of THz waves in both groups did not differ.

  16. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  17. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  18. Learning and Memory... and the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ioana; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system and the immune system are two main regulators of homeostasis in the body. Communication between them ensures normal functioning of the organism. Immune cells and molecules are required for sculpting the circuitry and determining the activity of the nervous system. Within the parenchyma of the central nervous system (CNS),…

  19. Humanism and Individualism: Maslow and His Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elaine M.; Podeschi, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the philosophical issue of the individual-society relationship through a focus on Maslow's humanistic psychology and its significant influence on adult education. Analyzes the conflicting viewpoints of Maslow and recent critics, particularly Marxist and postmodern scholars. Concludes that a humanistic perspective is possible, but…

  20. Trade and Investment between Europe and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张滢

    2013-01-01

      Executive Summary Since China has opened its market to the global trade, especially after China joined into the WTO, the Chinese economy has received the extensive concern of the international trade. Many expertsand scholars believed that the fabulous rise of the Chinese international trade may bring opportunities and challenges both for China and the rest of the world. This work presented in this paper is to provide an insightinto trade and investment relations between European Union (EU) and China. The main objective of the research centers on the trends and the prospects of bilateral trade between EU and China. First of all, the author will presented history of EU-China trade relations and general facts of the current EU-China trade and investment.Then, followed the challenges and opportunities of EU-China trade and investment, this paper is also going to forecast the broad prospects of EU-China trade. According to the research, finally, the author satisfactorilycome to the conclusion that EU-China trade and investment needs a sound economic and political system in a long run within the good strategic partnership between these two partners.

  1. Markets and organizations: individualism and economic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Brouwer

    2010-01-01

    Economic theory depicts markets and organizations as opposite allocation mechanisms. Market allocation is based on mobility and organization on instruction. The paper argues that markets and organizations are complements in economies that grow through innovation. Diversity of organizations lies at t

  2. Combined Heat and Power and Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this IEA Information Paper is to help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the challenges facing the incorporation of high efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) into greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) -- and to propose options for overcoming them.

  3. Interventions and Strategies in Counseling and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.

    This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…

  4. Dewey and Taoism: Teleology and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartwell, Crispin

    2009-01-01

    In some ways, the inaugural thought of the Western tradition is Aristotle's, repeated with regard to almost every subject-matter he investigated. We could call this thought teleology, technology, or means-ends rationality. Here is the first sentence of the "Nicomachean Ethics": "Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit,…

  5. Technology and Curriculum: Shadows and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowich, David

    2012-01-01

    The influence of technology in today's classroom is undeniably ubiquitous and scattered, and though the practice of conceptualizing technological application emerges from within an already contested and highly politicized field of human relations, when approached in the context of curriculum, this contestation takes on new significance. In this…

  6. Smoking and Inequalities: Quantifying Policies and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Kulik (Margarete)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for many decades . The strongest and most comprehensive evidence we have on the association between any risk factor and mortality comes from studies of smoking. Smoking is causally related to morbidity and premature mortality

  7. Study and Work Experience: Delinking and Relinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.B.L. van der Meer (Frans-Bauke); A.B. Ringeling (Arthur)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the next section of this paper we will describe our view on what it is that we have to teach and what further ambitions we have with the part-time program. This is based on our insights about what we have to offer and on our ideas about what is needed and asked for. This constitutes a

  8. Waterlogging and submergence stress: affects and acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Ujjal J; Mishra, Sonal; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Submergence, whether partial or complete, imparts some serious consequences on plants grown in flood prone ecosystems. Some plants can endure these conditions by embracing various survival strategies, including morphological adaptations and physiological adjustments. This review summarizes recent progress made in understanding of the stress and the acclimation responses of plants under waterlogged or submerged conditions. Waterlogging and submergence are often associated with hypoxia development, which may trigger various morphological traits and cellular acclimation responses. Ethylene, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid and other hormones play a crucial role in the survival process which is controlled genetically. Effects at the cellular level, including ATP management, starch metabolism, elemental toxicity, role of transporters and redox status have been explained. Transcriptional and hormonal interplay during this stress may provide some key aspects in understanding waterlogging and submergence tolerance. The level and degree of tolerance may vary depending on species or climatic variations which need to be studied for a proper understanding of waterlogging stress at the global level. The exploration of regulatory pathways and interplay in model organisms such as Arabidopsis and rice would provide valuable resources for improvement of economically and agriculturally important plants in waterlogging affected areas. PMID:26177332

  9. CANDU safety and licensing framework and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Safety is a shared responsibility of the Industry, public and the Government. The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safety fundamentals, basic objectives and safety guides lay down the principles from which requirements, recommendations and methodologies for safety design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are derived. Within the framework of the international regulations and those of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), this paper will discuss the overall safety objectives, the defence in depth philosophy guiding CANDU safety, as well as the licensing process defined to meet all applicable CNSC regulations. The application of such philosophy to the ACR design and safety approach will also be discussed along with aspects of its implementation. The role of deterministic analysis, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) in the design and licensing process of the Advanced CANDU Reactor will be discussed. Postulated initiating events and their combinations, acceptance criteria, CANDU margins and limits, supporting methodologies and computer codes used in safety analysis will be reviewed. The paper will also note intrinsic safety characteristics of CANDU, some of the ACR passive safety features built-in by design, CANDU distinctive features with respect to severe core damage, mechanisms of heat rejection in those extreme conditions, emergency coolant injection system features and other post accident mitigating systems. Update on the ACR Canadian and US licensing progress will also be provided. (authors)

  10. Wealth, welfare and sustainable growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Thorvald

    2011-07-01

    This Policy Note discuses, based on modern development theory and wealth accounting, challenges for economic- and fiscal policies in resource-producing countries defined as countries - both developed and developing low income countries - which rely heavily on non-renewable or exhaustible natural wealth.(Author)

  11. Soils and climate: Consequences and potential adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Motavalli, Peter P.

    2008-01-01

    This presention outlines results of research about the consequences and potential adaptation of soils to climate change. This includes findings regarding change in soil organic matter and management practices/techniques for adapting to production. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  12. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田露

    2011-01-01

    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  13. Registration and recognition in images and videos

    CERN Document Server

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Farinella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Computer vision is the science and technology of making machines that see. It is concerned with the theory, design and implementation of algorithms that can automatically process visual data to recognize objects, track and recover their shape and spatial layout. The International Computer Vision Summer School - ICVSS was established in 2007 to provide both an objective and clear overview and an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art  research in Computer Vision. The courses are delivered by world renowned experts in the field, from both academia and industry, and cover both theoretical and practical aspects of real Computer Vision problems.  The school is organized every year by University of Cambridge (Computer Vision and Robotics Group) and University of Catania (Image Processing Lab). Different topics are covered each year.This edited volume contains a selection of articles covering some of the talks and tutorials held during the last editions of the school. The chapters provide an in-depth overview o...

  14. Minority Language and Literature. Retrospective and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dexter, Ed.

    There is an urgent need to recognize that American literature includes a body of diversified writings previously unacknowledged by most literary scholars and critics and that these writings are expressions of vital but neglected cultures within American society. The cultures and literatures of minority groups have been overlooked or…

  15. Information and Knowledge Management: Dimensions and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Though literature on information and knowledge management is vast, there is much confusion concerning the meaning of these terms. Hence, this article should give some orientation and work out the main aspects of information and knowledge management. Method: An author co-citation analysis, which identified the main dimensions of…

  16. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  17. LWD and DCP

    OpenAIRE

    Zia-Siddiki, Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will cover the use of DCP and LWD for soils and aggregates compaction, focusing on INDOT’s recommendations for soil sampling and laboratory testing and its criteria for the DCP blow counts and moisture content. These guidelines also include recommendations for estimating the blow counts and moisture during construction.

  18. Literature and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robert

    The differences, similarities, and common goals of film and literature, as well as the ways in which each form and its associated criticism is able to illuminate the other, are discussed in this book. Individual chapters are "Literature and Film,""Literary Origins and Backgrounds of the Film,""Griffith and Eisenstein: The Uses of Literature in…

  19. Planetary plasmas and fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Mercury are discussed. The main features and physical processes characteristic of the quiet time earth magnetosphere are examined. Jupiter's larger and more distant magnetosphere is compared with the earth's and recent findings are reviewed. The plasma and field environment of Mercury is also discussed and similarities with the earth's magnetosphere are noted

  20. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  1. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  2. Honduras : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report analyzes corporate financial reporting and auditing practices in Honduras in support of the Government's efforts to : (a) improve the business environment and make it more attractive for domestic and foreign direct investment; (b) enhance financial transparency and governance in the corporate sector; and (c) foster economic integration within the Latin America and Caribbean Reg...

  3. Language, Power and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  4. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  5. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  6. Lithuania : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This assessment of accounting and auditing standards and practices in Lithuania was focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the institutional arrangements needed to observe International Accounting Standards (IAS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA). Financial reporting and accounting by Lithuanian enterprises are currently governed by laws and other regulations issued in 1992...

  7. Innovation and collective entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2012-01-01

    different perspectives on innovation and social innovation and the dynamic interaction through collective entrepreneurship in the the social and solidarity economy; bringing out process and outcome dimensions of innovation. And it will develop an understanding of the drivers and barriers to innovation...

  8. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    psychotherapy are about balancing different family and world views through exploring and including the family relationships across categorisations such as generation and geographical positions, while focusing at multiple- and dominant identities. Balancing levity and gravity - optimism and realism is the next...

  9. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach u...... to scholars of religion and be submitted to further hypotheses and tests by cognitive scientists....

  10. Ecofeminism and Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that experiential educators must be concerned about the intersection of human and environmental factors, and that ecofeminism provides a framework for examining this intersection. Defines ecofeminism and discusses its benefits and shortcomings as a foundation for social, educational, and environmental philosophy and practice. Contains 16…

  11. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  12. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.J.; Canada, J.; de Vore, L.; Gleason, K.; Kirvel, R.D.; Kroopnick, H.; McElroy, L.

    1994-04-01

    This issue highlights the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s 1993 accomplishments in our mission areas and core programs: economic competitiveness, national security, energy, the environment, lasers, biology and biotechnology, engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science, computers and computing, and science and math education. Secondary topics include: nonproliferation, arms control, international security, environmental remediation, and waste management.

  13. Theory Summary and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John

    2014-01-01

    This talk reviews some of the theoretical progress and outstanding issues in QCD, flavour physics, Higgs and electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model at the Tevatron and the LHC, and previews some physics possibilities for future runs of the LHC and proposed future hadron colliders.

  14. Social Multimedia and Storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, S.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Shamma, D.A.; Kelliher, A.; Jain, R.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue touches on many significant aspects of multimedia retrieval, including content analysis and understanding, content- and context-based indexing, search and retrieval, HCI technologies, and image and video summarization and visualization. It converges on the nexus of social multimed

  15. Youth Gangs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  16. [Dreams and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tögel, C

    1983-08-01

    This paper deals with the internal relationship between dream and schizophrenia, which has been a subject of discussion in philosophy and medicine since Kant and Griesinger, and shows that it can be supported by Marxist epistemology. A psychological theory of dream and schizophrenia would therefore have an integrative function with regard to psychotherapy and psychiatry. PMID:6635036

  17. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Operations and Maintenance (O and M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O and M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O and M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades

  18. Mechatronics and hybrid technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    R&D international contributions to control and design of novel intelligent mechatronic products and solutions with sensor- and actuator technology.......R&D international contributions to control and design of novel intelligent mechatronic products and solutions with sensor- and actuator technology....

  19. Uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to uranium and thorium content in fluorite. In order to obtain the comprehensive view on uranium and thorium distribution in fluorite 100 fluorite samples of various geologic deposits and ores of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and some geologic deposits of Russia were studied. The uranium and thorium content in fluorite of geologic deposits of various mineralogical and genetic type was defined.

  20. Risk and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Iloiu

    2005-01-01

    Risk exists whenever the future is unknown. This paper deals with the concepts of risk and uncertainty, risk attitudes and reaction to risk. It is explained the distinction between objective risk and subjective risk. Also, it presents risk attitudes and factors affecting them and the economic costs of risk: costs of unexpected losses and costs of uncertainty.

  1. Photogrammetry and Digital Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Technical tour to Lithuania, Poland and Estonia for 13 technical staff and managers of State Land Service, HQ, Latvia. Focus on technical aspects and management of geographical data for map production and administration. Visits to state and local government organisations and newly established...

  2. Safeguards techniques and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current booklet is intended to give a full and balanced description of the techniques and equipment used for both nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance measures, and for the new safeguards measure of environmental sampling. As new verification measures continue to be developed, the material in the booklet will be periodically reviewed and updated versions issued. (author)

  3. Accounting and Auditing : Romania

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Romania is part of a joint initiative by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting, and includes a ...

  4. Georgia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Georgia. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA) and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in ...

  5. Cognition and Hemodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive performance has increasingly become recognized as a major challenge in clinical practice for older adults. Both diabetes and hypertension worsen brain perfusion and are major risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, stroke and dementia. Cerebrovascular reserve has emerged as a potential biomarker for monitoring pressure–perfusion–cognition relationships. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, microvascular disease, and mascrovas...

  6. Track and Field Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Discusses planning and design tips that help ensure track and field facilities are successful and well-suited to both school and community use. Examines approaches to determining the best track surface and ways to maximize track and field flexibility with limited space. (GR)

  7. Yarrowia lipolytica and pollutants: Interactions and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinjarde, Smita; Apte, Mugdha; Mohite, Pallavi; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic, non-pathogenic, ascomycetous yeast species with distinctive physiological features and biochemical characteristics that are significant in environment-related matters. Strains naturally present in soils, sea water, sediments and waste waters have inherent abilities to degrade hydrocarbons such as alkanes (short and medium chain) and aromatic compounds (biphenyl and dibenzofuran). With the application of slow release fertilizers, design of immobilization techniques and development of microbial consortia, scale-up studies and in situ applications have been possible. In general, hydrocarbon uptake in this yeast is mediated by attachment to large droplets (via hydrophobic cell surfaces) or is aided by surfactants and emulsifiers. Subsequently, the internalized hydrocarbons are degraded by relevant enzymes innately present in the yeast. Some wild-type or recombinant strains also detoxify nitroaromatic (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), halogenated (chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons) and organophosphate (methyl parathion) compounds. The yeast can tolerate some metals and detoxify them via different biomolecules. The biomass (unmodified, in combination with sludge, magnetically-modified and in the biofilm form) has been employed in the biosorption of hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solutions. Yeast cells have also been applied in protocols related to nanoparticle synthesis. The treatment of oily and solid wastes with this yeast reduces chemical oxygen demand or value-added products (single cell oil, single cell protein, surfactants, organic acids and polyalcohols) are obtained. On account of all these features, the microorganism has established a place for itself and is of considerable value in environment-related applications. PMID:24780156

  8. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  9. Mathematical and computational modeling and simulation fundamentals and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, Dietmar P F

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation - a highly multi-disciplinary field with ubiquitous applications in science and engineering - is one of the key enabling technologies of the 21st century. This book introduces to the use of Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation in order to develop an understanding of the solution characteristics of a broad class of real-world problems. The relevant basic and advanced methodologies are explained in detail, with special emphasis on ill-defined problems. Some 15 simulation systems are presented on the language and the logical level. Moreover, the reader can accumulate experience by studying a wide variety of case studies. The latter are briefly described within the book but their full versions as well as some simulation software demos are available on the Web. The book can be used for University courses of different level as well as for self-study. Advanced sections are marked and can be skipped in a first reading or in undergraduate courses...

  10. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  11. Systems engineering and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Benjamin S

    2010-01-01

    For senior-level undergraduate and first and second year graduate systems engineering and related courses. A total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. This practical introduction to systems engineering and analysis provides the concepts, methodologies, models, and tools needed to understand and implement a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. The authors focus first on the process of bringing systems into being--beginning with the identification of a need and extending that need through requirements determination, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, evaluation, and validation, operation and support, phase-out, and disposal. Next, the authors discuss the improvement of systems currently in being, showing that by employing the iterative process of analysis, evaluation, feedback, and modification, most systems in existence can be improved in their affordability, effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction.

  12. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  13. Nanostructured and subwavelength waveguides fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Optical waveguides take a prominent role in photonics because they are able to trap and to transport light efficiently between a point of excitation and a point of detection. Moreover, waveguides allow the management of many of the fundamental properties of light and allow highly controlled interaction with other optical systems. For this reason waveguides are ubiquitous in telecommunications, sensing, spectroscopy, light sources, and high power light delivery. Nanostructured and subwavelength waveguides have additional advantages; they are able to confine light at a length scale below the dif

  14. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  15. Regulation and policy: International trends and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, W.S.

    1997-03-01

    As offshore oil and gas resources become exhausted, the associated production platforms and facilities will be decommissioned. The world-wide oil and gas industry is strictly regulated by global, regional and national guidelines which have been developed by governments to find the most responsible framework to perform the decommissioning. In the summer of 1995, the Brent Spar incident brought uncertainty to decommissioning world-wide. In June of 1995, a moratorium prohibiting sea disposal within the North East Atlantic was imposed by the Oslo Commission, and an unsuccessful attempt was made in December of 1995 to impose a world-wide moratorium on sea disposal at the London Convention.

  16. Trees and Fields and Negative Polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    The paper takes as its point of departure a comparison between two kinds of approaches to clause structure, namely tree analyses like the generative analysis and field analyses like the sætningsskema analysis of Danish of Diderichsen (1946) and many others (or like the topologische Modell analysi...... to accounting for negative polarity items in English, Danish and German, both the more straightforward aspects and the more complex ones, e.g. the so-called NPI-verbs as well as the interaction between NPI-elements and because-clauses...

  17. Centrifugal separators and related devices and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.; Todd, Terry A.

    2012-03-06

    Centrifugal separators and related methods and devices are described. More particularly, centrifugal separators comprising a first fluid supply fitting configured to deliver fluid into a longitudinal fluid passage of a rotor shaft and a second fluid supply fitting sized and configured to sealingly couple with the first fluid supply fitting are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems comprising a manifold having a drain fitting and a cleaning fluid supply fitting are described, wherein the manifold is coupled to a movable member of a support assembly. Additionally, methods of cleaning centrifugal separators are described.

  18. Integral and finite difference inequalities and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pachpatte, B G

    2006-01-01

    The monograph is written with a view to provide basic tools for researchers working in Mathematical Analysis and Applications, concentrating on differential, integral and finite difference equations. It contains many inequalities which have only recently appeared in the literature and which can be used as powerful tools and will be a valuable source for a long time to come. It is self-contained and thus should be useful for those who are interested in learning or applying the inequalities with explicit estimates in their studies.- Contains a variety of inequalities discovered which find numero

  19. Exercise and osteoporosis: Methodological and practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Steiger, Peter; Genant, Harry K.

    1994-01-01

    Physical activity may have important implications for enhancing bone density prior to the initiation of space flight, for preserving bone density during zero gravity, and for rehabilitating the skeleton upon return to Earth. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of exercise upon the skeleton have not been proven by controlled trials and no consensus exists regarding the type, duration, and intensity of exercise necessary to make significant alterations to the skeleton. The following sections review our current understanding of exercise and osteoporosis, examine some of the methodological shortcomings of these investigations, and make research recommendations for future clinical trials.

  20. Competition and regulation of transmission and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for natural gas and production is quite similar to the corresponding oil activities. Gas and oil products also compete in the end-user markets as substitutes for each other, which is the main reason why prices on natural gas in the European market largely have been indexed against prices on alternative oil products. The difference between oil and natural gas markets is particularly linked to transportation costs. Natural monopolies are discussed in general and in the European gas market. Finally there is a section on the comprehensive system for transport of gas on and from the Norwegian shelf

  1. Profile and Trends of FTA and Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    that the field of FTA seems to have remained remarkably stable over the last decade. As an academic field, FTA has targeted a small number of journals for its publications, which has helped to further define and focus the field. Finally, the chapter concludes that publications in special issues of international......This chapter presents the profile and trends of the academic discipline of Future-oriented Technology Assessment (FTA) and its approaches. This chapter presents the profile and trends of the academic discipline of FTA and its approaches. This is achieved through analyses of the development, focus...

  2. Management and Leadership. Planning and Orienting

    OpenAIRE

    Horga Maria-Gabriela; Horga Vasile; Ionescu Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so important the ability to lead? Because those who lead organizations make things happen. A leader is one who directs people and their ideas, sets the direction, leadership is a specific process, which resulted in a clear vision and strategy. After determining the orientation, a leader aligns the employees who wish to follow him and then motivates them. The difference between a leader and a manager is that the first directs people and their ideas while the other organizes things, a...

  3. DOE research and development and field facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the roles of DOE's headquarters, field offices, major multiprogram laboratories, Energy Technology and Mining Operations Centers, and other government-owned, contractor-operated facilities which are located in all regions of the United States. It gives brief descriptions of resources, activities, and capabilities of each field facility (sections III through V). These represent a cumulative capital investment of $12 billion and involve a work force of approximately 12,000 government (field) employees and approximately 100,000 contractor employees.

  4. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  5. Mammary gland and radiation: Knowns and unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzhna, Lidia; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2016-08-01

    Effective breast cancer management and decreasing breast cancer fatalities is contingent upon reliable diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities, including those based on ionizing radiation. On the one hand, ionizing radiation is widely used for cancer diagnostics and therapy, on the other hand it is genotoxic cancer-causing agent. Here we discuss recent studies on the effects of low (diagnostic) and high (treatment) doses of ionizing radiation on healthy breast cells, breast cancer cells, and cancer cells resistant to common drug therapies. PMID:27392129

  6. Uranus and Neptune: Shape and Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Helled, Ravit; Anderson, John D.; Schubert, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Both Uranus and Neptune are thought to have strong zonal winds with velocities of several hundred meters per second. These wind velocities, however, assume solid-body rotation periods based on Voyager 2 measurements of periodic variations in the planets' radio signals and of fits to the planets' magnetic fields; 17.24h and 16.11h for Uranus and Neptune, respectively. The realization that the radio period of Saturn does not represent the planet's deep interior rotation and the complexity of th...

  7. Joint development utility and university and utility and research center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Valgas, Helio Moreira [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper shows the background acquired by CEMIG in dealing with projects associated with R and D (Research and Development), carried out as a result of the establishment of contracts or governants with universities and research center for direct application on the solution of problems related to the operation of the system, within the scope of electrical operation planning. The various aspects of a project of this nature such as legal questions, characterization of a contract or a covenant, main developments and new opportunity areas should be covered. Finally the subject shall be dealt with under the Total Quality approach, involving the proposition of control items associated to the process and goals to be reached. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Villa,1,2 Christopher L Connell,3 Silvio Abati4 1Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of General Dentistry, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 4Dental Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano, Italy Abstract: Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Keyword: saliva stimulation, dry mouth, saliva substitutes, sialogogues

  9. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  10. Mining, institutions and sustainability: disagreements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Bebbington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global consumption continues to generate growth in mining. In lesserdeveloped economies, this growth offers the potential to generate newresources for development, but also creates challenges to sustainabilityin the regions in which extraction occurs. This context leads todebate on the institutional arrangements most likely to build synergiesbetween mining, livelihoods, and development, and on the socio-politicalconditions under which such institutions can emerge. Buildingfrom a multiyear, three country program of research projects, Peru, aglobal center of mining expansion, serves as an exemplar for analyzingthe effects of extractive industry on livelihoods and the conditionsunder which arrangements favoring local sustainability might emerge.This program is guided by three emergent hypotheses in human environmentalsciences regarding the relationships among institutions,knowledge, learning, and sustainability. The research combines indepthand comparative case study analysis, and uses mapping andspatial analysis, surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observation,and our own direct participation in public debates on the regulation ofmining for development. The findings demonstrate the pressures thatmining expansion has placed on water resources, livelihood assets,and social relationships. These pressures are a result of institutionalconditions that separate the governance of mineral expansion, waterresources, and local development, and of relationships of power thatprioritize large scale investment over livelihood and environment. Afurther problem is the poor communication between mining sectorknowledge systems and those of local populations. These results areconsistent with themes recently elaborated in sustainability science.

  11. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  12. Promotion and diffusion policy today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the currently available techniques of renewable energy utilisation are are at different stages of development, most of them have meawhile begun to diffuse into the market. What work remains to be done in the way of optimisation and detail improvement (e.g., of wind and solar thermal energy utilisation) or fundamental research into photovoltaics or biogenic hydrogen production will basically always be aimed at reducing the specific costs of these systems. In view of the wide range of possible and necessary measures and the large number of actors who could and should contribute to improving the competitivity of renewable energies the present congress report concentrates on the role of the Federal Government. Major impacts on the future development of renewable energy utilisation will come from activities such as research, development, and demonstration; improvements in basic and advanced training, information, and consulting; elimination of administrative and legal obstacles; elaboration of uniform norms and standards (especially with regard to export activities); remuneration for electricity supplied from renewable sources; and, what forms a main focus of the present paper, financial incentives

  13. Music and language: relations and disconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Music and language provide an important context in which to understand the human auditory system. While they perform distinct and complementary communicative functions, music and language are both rooted in the human desire to connect with others. Since sensory function is ultimately shaped by what is biologically important to the organism, the human urge to communicate has been a powerful driving force in both the evolution of auditory function and the ways in which it can be changed by experience within an individual lifetime. This chapter emphasizes the highly interactive nature of the auditory system as well as the depth of its integration with other sensory and cognitive systems. From the origins of music and language to the effects of auditory expertise on the neural encoding of sound, we consider key themes in auditory processing, learning, and plasticity. We emphasize the unique role of the auditory system as the temporal processing "expert" in the brain, and explore relationships between communication and cognition. We demonstrate how experience with music and language can have a significant impact on underlying neural function, and that auditory expertise strengthens some of the very same aspects of sound encoding that are deficient in impaired populations. PMID:25726271

  14. Psychosis and violence: stories, fears, and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Pamela J

    2008-10-01

    Individuals with psychosis are often feared. In fact, they are themselves likely to be victims of violence; however, the main aim of this review is to provide an overview of the evidence on relations between psychosis and violence to others. The terms psychosis and violence were used in a literature search limited to the Cochrane Library and PubMed, a manual search of 8 journals, and a follow-up of additional references in the articles found. The overview draws on new empirical data and major reviews. Almost all sound epidemiologic data on psychosis and violence dates from 1990. There is consistency on a small but significant relation between schizophrenia and violent acts. Since then there has also been movement toward understanding the nature of associations and progress on strategies for managing individuals who have psychosis and are violent. Public fears about individuals with psychotic illnesses are largely unfounded, although there would be benefit in greater attention to the safety of those in their close social circle. The task for the next 10 years must be the development and application of knowledge to improve specific treatments-that is, interventions that go beyond holding and caring to bring about substantial change.

  15. Nicotine and cannabinoids: parallels, contrasts and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, Maria-Paz; Marco, Eva M; File, Sandra E

    2006-01-01

    After a brief outline of the nicotinic and cannabinoid systems, we review the interactions between the pharmacological effects of nicotine and cannabis, two of the most widely used drugs of dependence. These drugs are increasingly taken in combination, particularly among the adolescents and young adults. The review focuses on addiction-related processes, gateway and reverse gateway theories of addiction and therapeutic implications. It then reviews studies on the important period of adolescence, an area that is in urgent need of further investigation and in which the importance of sex differences is emerging. Three other areas of research, which might be particularly relevant to the onset and/or maintenance of dependence, are then reviewed. Firstly, the effects of the two drugs on anxiety-related behaviours are discussed and then their effects on food intake and cognition, two areas in which they have contrasting effects. Certain animal studies suggest that reinforcing effects are likely to be enhanced by joint consumption of nicotine and cannabis, as also may be anxiolytic effects. If this was the case in humans, the latter might be viewed as an advantage particularly by adolescent girls, although the increased weight gain associated with cannabis would be a disadvantage. The two drugs also have opposite effects on cognition and the possibility of long-lasting cognitive impairments resulting from adolescent consumption of cannabis is of particular concern.

  16. Culture and hallucinations: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela

    2014-07-01

    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient's cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations.

  17. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally. PMID:26797512

  18. Risk, pregnancy and complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary

    2010-05-01

    Since the 1990's sociologists such as Giddens and Beck have highlighted the complexities of contemporary western societies in relation to risk. The "risk society" is one in which the advantages of scientific and technological developments are overshadowed with risks and dangers: leading to a world dominated by anxiety and uncertainty. Although a complex set of interrelated phenomena the risk society can be summarised under three main changes: including globalisation, scepticism about expert knowledge, Thompson: 27 and the degree of autonomy individuals have in our detraditionalised society to determine their own life choices (Beck: 13). The discourses of the "risk society" inevitably impact on women during pregnancy and the potential influence this discourse may have in relation to healthcare choices, particularly in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are explored. In this paper it is argued that the apparently growing use of CAM during pregnancy and childbirth could be interpreted as a response by women to these discourses, that decisions made with regard to CAM may signify a desire for personal fulfilment and a need for autonomy and active participation in healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. PMID:20347843

  19. [Stress and allostasis: problems, outlooks and relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriianov, R V; Zhdanov, R I

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of stress and allostasis are discussed in the paper in their interrelation and interpenetration. General adaptation syndrome is considered in the historical aspect of Claude Bernard's, William Cannon's and Hans Selye's contributions to the field, and from the standpoint of an interdisciplinary approach. Key challenges and contradictions of the stress concept are disclosed and discussed. First, the terminology ones, since this term might be understood as stress response, stressor, state of the organism and even the consequences of stress itself. Second, it is ambivalent and contradictory nature of the stress response. From the perception of stress as a reaction to the strong negative impact of environment, researchers became to divide stress onto two types: distress as a non-specific basis of disease, and eustress as a favorable factor that extends the adaptability of human organism. The third problem is connected to the interdisciplinary nature of the stress response, the effects of which being manifested in, at least, four areas: physiology, behavior, subjective experience, and cognitive functions. Particularily, physiologists are very often ignored of a role of cognitive factors in their stress research. The authors in terms of the allostasis theory, more complex adaptation process than homeostasis, resolve contradictories of stress conception observed. The paper proposes a model of allostatic states to describe distress and eustress phenomena.

  20. Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukas, Arthur A; Snyder, Mark; Clary, E Gil

    2016-01-01

    Volunteerism and community involvement have been demonstrated to offer benefits both to communities and to volunteers themselves. However, not every method to encourage these behaviors is equally effective in producing committed volunteers. Drawing on relevant theoretical and empirical literatures, we identify features of efforts that are likely to produce intrinsically motivated other-oriented volunteers and those that may produce extrinsically motivated self-oriented volunteers. In particular, we explore ways to socialize young people to help and ways to build a sense of community focused on particular issues. We also examine requirements for community service and other approaches that highlight self-oriented benefits that volunteers may obtain. Finally, we return to a focus on the importance of intrinsic motivation for promoting sustained involvement in volunteers, even as we acknowledge that volunteers who come with extrinsic or self-oriented reasons can still offer much to communities and can be satisfied when their activities match their motivations. PMID:27064177