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Sample records for chokokoritsu taiyo denchi

  1. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Komatsu, Yasumitsu; Shirai, Sadaharu.

    1989-09-29

    In the solar cell module of this invention, such junctions as CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} are contained as a photoelectromotive force part coexists with air in a closed space which consists of glass, metal parts and a bonding resin layer; the photoelectromotive force part is coated either with a fluorine resin or a silicone resin. The fluorine resin contains a fundamental skeleton of an alternative copolymer of fluoroolefin and a hydrocarbon-based vinyl monomer; the silicone resin has three types, i.e., addition-reacted, condensated or UV-curing type, and the released oxygen is sealed in the closed space. The resin layer which adheres the glass and the metal plate is a thermoplastic resin which is polyethylene modified by copolymerization of acid anhydride. By this, the reliability of the solar cell module was enhanced. 3 figs.

  2. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.

    1990-01-24

    This invention concerns a module frame of solar cell and a solar cell module using this frame. In particular, it concerns a frame and a module useful for the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} based cell. In the existing solar cell module, sealant is packed in between the edges of a glass substrate, a resin layer and a back protective thin film, etc. and a grooved frame of U-shaped section. For the sealant, silicon based resin and butyl rubber based resin are used many times, but either resin has defects such as their overflow from the module structure. In order to solve these defects, this invention proposes to provide stair-shaped protrusions along the four sides of the bottom of the box frame (herein after called the lower frame) of the module and at the same time, provide a groove for pooling the sealant at the portion where such protrusion meets the side wall, furthermore to provide depressions for pooling the sealant at the upper edge inside the side wall of the lower frame or to punch holes at the corners of the bottom of the lower frame. 9 figs.

  3. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi.

    1989-09-06

    In the conventional solar cell module, the cell cost is elevated because the cross sections of the cell edge is surrounded with frames of various shape and the gap is filled with a sealant. In additionn, the top end of the module frame is placed roughly 1 mm above the glass surface; the photoelectromotive force part is covered with such deposits as soils and sands, thus badly affecting the photovoltaic generation. In this invention, weather-proof opaque paint is coated around the surface glass to interrupt the light irradiation to the adhesive resin layer between the glass and the back sheet, thus preventing the degradation of the resin layer. Cost is low because of using a thin film. The light interruption by the deposits can be prevented. The photoelectromotive force element is a n-type CdS film or CdS/CdTe. The resin layer around the glass is a thermoplastic polyolefin which is modified with acid anhydrides. 5 figs.

  4. Sollar cell module; Taiyo denchi mojuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, A.; Mori, T.; Shiotsuka, H.; Kataoka, I.; Yamada, S.

    1997-02-25

    This invention relates to a solar cell module composed of a photovoltaic device with at least one layer of a semiconductor photoactive layer as a photoelectric conversion material and a covering material, in which thermoplastic transparent organic polymer resin of a gel fraction more than 80% is used as the covering material. This polymer resin has a diminution rate of ultraviolet absorption between 5 and 50% when exposed to an atmosphere of a temperature of 150{degree}C for 72 hours. The thermoplastic transparent polymer resin of a gel fraction more than 80% is cross-linked sufficiently and is hard to deteriorate. Therefore, the adhesion between the thermoplastic transparent polymer resin and the uppermost resin film is secured owing to no emergence of the glass fiber and moreover, reinforcement of the thermoplastic transparent polymer resin with glass fiber enable to reduce the thickness of the thermoplastic transparent polymer resin while securing the scratch resistance. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system. Development of technology to manufacture ultra-high efficiency crystal compound solar cells; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The present research is intended to develop hetero-epitaxy technology for compound semiconductors on silicon substrates, and hetero-epitaxy technology for grid mismatch between III-V family compound semiconductors, and realize high-efficiency solar cells on silicon substrates. Based on the InP-based etching using a reactive ion etching device, etching conditions suitable for contact layer removal and element separation were obtained. The InP substrate etched under the optimized condition was found etched ideally. Test samples were made, which use a GaAs layer grown at high V/III ratio as the buffer layer, and its effect on crystallization performance was investigated. As a result, it was found that making the V/III ratio high can achieve reduction in defect density and improvement in crystallization performance. A three-stage growth method was used to improve efficiency of GaAs/Si cells, and heat treatment temperature was optimized for an attempt of improving the cell efficiency. It was revealed that rise in the open terminal voltage contributes to improving the cell characteristics at annealing temperatures higher than 950 degrees C or higher, which has been used on a trial basis during this fiscal year. (NEDO)

  6. Manufacturing facility of solar cell. Taiyo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Takagi, Akira; Ban, Noriji; Ishihara, Mikiji.

    1990-01-09

    When a p-n junction type CdTe solar cell is manufactured by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) , dislocation of the position of its p-n junction interface from the specified position and dislocation of the distribution of impurities in the direction of depth at the p layer and the n layer occur, inhibiting the manufacture of the p-n junction. In order to eliminate the above problem and manufacture a p-n junction type CdTe solar cell with high energy conversion efficiency by the MOCVD, this invention proposes to form a n type CdTe layer as the first layer on a substrate at the first substrate temperature, form a non-dope CdTe layer as the second layer at the second substrate temperature lower than the first substrate temperature, form a p type CdTe layer as the third layer at the third substrate temperature lower than the first substrate temperature and from the thickness that the second layer does not remain as an i layer due to diffusion of the impurities from the first and third layers and yet mutual diffusion of the impurities between the first and third layers is controlled. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Flexible solar cell; Katosei taiyo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.

    1997-06-10

    Polyethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) film used as a sealing resin in manufacturing of a flexible solar cell has a problem that it stretches and shrinks so as to unable to draw out from the roll of the component materials without size change or deflection while controlling the tensile force. This invention aims to present a manufacturing method of a flexible solar cell to enable the drawing out from the roll of the component materials and the winding after sealing. In this invention, an insulating sealant EVA is pressed onto a flexible supporting substrate, followed by pressing a solar cell device onto the exposed surface of the EVA on the supporting substrate. At least a later process of the pressing processes is conducted below 120degC under reduced pressure. The supporting substrate may be a peelable material or may be pressed onto a film with peelable surface so as to expose the EVA by peeling after sealing. Otherwise, the use of a supporting substrate with weatherability and low peelability may afford a flexible solar cell with a weather resisting protective film. 6 figs.

  8. Solar cell module and its manufacturing process. Taiyo denchi module oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.

    1990-01-12

    The reason behind the high power costs of solar cells is expensiveness of solar cell element devices and its modules, and efforts to lower the costs of the former have so far been made, but the same efforts are necessary for the latter too. Concerning CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} solar cells, when the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere available around the element device becomes less, deterioration of its performance occurs. Heretofore, concerning the above two kinds of solar cell modules, a stress was placed on prevention of infiltration of water into the element device and no concern has been paid to the effect of oxygen. Consequently, several issues have remained unsolved like alteration of crude material around the element of module with material which does not react with oxygen or absorb it. In view of the above, this invention proposes to make a solar cell module of the structure that thermosetting resin is set at the peripheral blank part of the substrate with no formation of solar cell element and a box with a flange is applied to that part in the heated and pressurized condition at the time of making protection of the back of the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} solar cell element device. 7 figs.

  9. High efficiency photovoltaic system with LSC. LSC wo mochiita taiyo denchi no kokoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Takazawa, M.; Fujii, T.; Horigome, T. (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Hane, T. (Institute of Technology Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)); Maejima, M. (National Science Museum, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-06

    This paper presents a study of the application of Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) conducted in order to increase the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic system. LSC is a solar concentrator whose structure is very simple, which is a transparent material doped with fluorescent paint. It is already confirmed that the 4 terminal devices which is a conbined LSC and Cds/CdTe solar cells are effective regardless the weather conditions. The output power of CdS/CdTe solar cells with LSC which have some superficial contents were measured experimentally using natural solar radiation as a light source. In the case that LSC {prime} s superficial contents make a slow enlargement, the total conversion efficiency of the cells with LSC decreased. However, if the geometrical condenser percentage of LSC is increased to a level above that of the fixed superficial contents, the total conversion efficiency of the cells with LSC tend to increase. However, because the conversion efficiency decreases accompanied with the size increase of the LSC, it is necessary to improve the ratio of solar concentration by controlling the light distance. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. To the partnership in Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry and solar cell; Kaneka, taiyo denchi de teikei he

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Kanegafuchi Chemical Ind. clarified that the consultation was advanced in the direction in which the business cooperates with BP Amoco Corp. in international oil majors on the solar cell business on 11 th capital. In full amount fund subsidiary of the bell pool chemistry, the solar cell making and selling company is established in the joint venture in Europe and America, Asia, when the BP Amoco Corp. does capital participation in money mosquito solar tech which is the production marketer of solar cell. The plan which develops the amorphous solar cell of low cost which the bell pool chemistry developed in the world. The consultation of the partnership is also arranging prospect in the end June, and it seems to greatly jump by uniting with the BP Amoco Corp. of the largest hand. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Manufacture method of a solar cell. Taiyo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, S.; Hanabusa, A.; Arita, T.; Murosono, M.

    1993-12-24

    Conventional manufacture methods of a CdS/CdTe solar cell have problems that a blurred layer of CdTe printing and a redeposition layer of CdTe firing exist at a CdS contact surface and the contact width between the CdS film and its electrode AgIn film is required to be larger than 0.30 mm in order to reduce the contact resistance and to give a highly efficient solar cell. This invention aims to provide a manufacture method of a solar cell in which a CdS film of the window layer and a CdTe film of the optical absorption layer are stacked successively followed by the formation of a carbon film as an acceptor material on the CdTe film, and the surface of the CdS film is treated by laser irradiation by the use of a mask of the carbon film. Consequently, a clean surface is obtained between the CdS film and the electrode AgIn film so as to reduce the contact resistance and the contact width between the CdS film and the AgIn film can be reduced so that a highly efficient solar cell can be produced. 5 figs.

  12. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell and manufacturing method. Hishoshitsu handotai taiyo denchi oyobi sono seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuku, T. (Taiyo Yuden Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-19

    This invention provides a manufacturing method of a transparent conductive film for an amorphous semiconductor soler cell, which can be easily molded with less cost without using a vacuum film formation process. In other words, in this invention, an ITO, which is practical for use with low ilumination intensity, is obtained by thinly coating a solution mixture of organic indium and organic tin compounds on an amorphous semiconductor layer followed by a heat treatment. In an amorphous semiconductor solar cell comprising a back electrode, amorphous semiconductor layer, a transparent conductive layer and a protective layer laminated sequentially on a surface insulated metal substrate, the said transparent conductive film is one wherein a solution mixture of organic indium and organic tin compounds is thinly coated on an semiconductor layer by means of a dipping process, dried, and heat-treated to form a film.

  13. Installation mechanism of solar cells for an airship. Hikosen'yo taiyo denchi sochaku kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, K. (Tokyo (Japan)); Tanaka, K. (Yokohama (Japan))

    1994-06-10

    This invention aims to present an installation mechanism to equip solar cell units on the envelope of the hull of an airship and the mechanism follows easily expansion and contraction of the envelope material of the hull of the airship and is detachable. This invention presents the installation mechanism of solar cells for an airship, in which a suitable number of supporting connectors are installed on a front part, a back part and both sides of number of elastic supports fixed to each solar cell unit, lead connectors are equipped on the leads of the solar cell units, a solar cell extensible module is formed by mutual connection of the elastic supports and the leads via the supporting connectors and lead connectors in a detachable way, and the solar cell extensible modules are installed on the envelope of the hull of the airship so that the solar cell extensible modules cover the envelope without direct fixation of the elastic support to the envelope. 7 figs.

  14. Solar cell panel and its connection method. Taiyo denchi panel narabini sono setsuzoku hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, A.; Hasunuma, M.; Kuroki, K. (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-14

    The wiring operation after a solar cell panel is installed outdoors is dangerous of an electrical shock because the solar cell generates power as soon as it receives the sunlight. An object of the invention is to secure safety in the wiring operation after the outdoor installment of a solar cell panel. The invention concerns a method of the installment of a solar cell panel, in which a solar cell panel with a shading measure on its light-receiving surface is installed outdoors and the shading measure is removed after the wiring operation to lead the photovoltaic power generated at the panel to the load. The shading measure includes a light-shielding peelable surface protective membrane, a surface protective material composed of an opaque material attachable on and removable from the panel, a membrane applied with an opaque material and removable mechanically after the wiring operation, a membrane applied with water-soluble material mixed with an opaque material and removable with washing with water after the wiring operation, and a membrane composed of paraffin or vaseline which is opaque at a room temperature and transparent at a high temperature. 4 figs.

  15. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Present situation and perspective of space solar cells. Uchuyo taiyo denchi no genjo to kongo no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzjki, A.; Saga, T.; Hisamatsu, T. (Sharp Corp., Osaka, (Japan))

    1991-09-05

    The following items are descrided: (1) Although CdTe and GaAs are the excellent meterials for solar cells in terms of conversion efficiency, no candidates superior to Si has been discovered when they are judged comprehensively from manufacturing techniques and prices; (2) Space solar cells are demanded of such characteristics as being high in output, hard to deteriorate because of rediation, light in weight and high in reliability. The materials that have reached the level of practical use are those three, namely, Si, GaAs, and InP. The two kinds other than Si have higher conversion efficiency and less rediation-induced deterioration, but disadvantages in weight and price. Monocrystal silicon is currently the mainstream for space solar cell use, and the other two kinds are believed to be used in satellites for some special applications in the form of complementing the silicon crystals. Descriptions are given also on various space solar cells underdevelopment in laboratory stages and the development of the solar power generating satellte technology to begin under the auspices of the Ministry of International Trede and Industry. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. 28th Solar Energy Promotion Committee Meeting - 3rd Solar Cell Liaison Meeting. Report for fiscal 1990; Dai 28 kai taiyo energy suishin iinkai dai 3 kai taiyo denchi renrakukai. 1980 nendo hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-05-14

    The above events took place in Tokyo in the period May 14-17, 1991, when a total of 89 essays were presented. In relation with the thin film/a-Si systems, 55 presentations were given, which were 'Novel preparation technique termed Chemical Annealing for making a-Si:H with a rigid and stable Si-network,' 'Interface characteristics of a-Si:H films prepared by VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition),' 'Preparation of amorphous superlattices by continuous method and characterization of the interface,' etc. In relation with the thin film/compound systems, 8 presentations were given, which were 'Preparation of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells by selenization method,' 'Deposition of CuInSe{sub 2} films by ICB (ionized cluster beam) technique and their optical characterization,' 'Large-area CdS/CdTe solar cells,' etc. In relation with the crystal/compound systems, 8 presentations were given, which were 'Lattice strain relaxation processes in GaAs grown on Si,' 'Optical transmission studies of tandem solar cells,' etc. In relation with the crystal/Si systems, 18 presentations were given, which were 'Effect of electric field on effective minority carrier lifetime,' 'Computer analysis of surface recombination velocity for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,' etc. (NEDO)

  18. Manufacture method of CuInSe sub 2 solar cell. CuInSe sub 2 taiyo denchi no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-04-28

    Energy conversion efficiency of CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell is very sensitive to a ratio of Cu/In composition and its control is important on manufacture of the cell. The invention aims to provide a CuInSe{sub 2} thin film solar cell and its manufacture method to give a prescribed Cu/In compositional ratio precisely and to enable production of large area cell and low cost. The invention concerns a manufacture method of a CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell, in which Cu-In alloy foil with a prescribed ratio of Cu/In composition is prepared and pressed onto the electrode film on the substrate surface to form a alloy film with a prescribed thickness, on which selenium is deposited from vapor and heated to form a CuInSe{sub 2} film. CdS is stacked on the CuInSe{sub 2} film to form a photovoltaic conversion layer and to afford a CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell. Zinc oxide may be stacked on the above CdS film and a film made of a transparent conductive material is stacked on the zinc oxide layer to give a solar cell. The invention also includes a manufacturing method in which ZnCdS film is formed on the CuInSe{sub 2} film prepared by the above method. 3 figs.

  19. Indirect solar-pumped laser diode using a solar cell; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita taiyoko kansetsu reikigata handotai laser no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Y.; Yugami, H.; Naito, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of a stabilizing circuit using commercial electricity, those of a stabilizing circuit using solar cells, relation between the quantity of solar radiation and the maximum output of a semiconductor laser diode (LD), and simulation results of annual LD output in Sendai City. The stabilizing circuit for the solar-cell driven LD was structured such that the output of the solar cell panels was guided to a DC/DC converter, that the voltage was set at a prescribed value and that the current was stabilized with the use of power MOSFET. The solar cells used in the experiment were monocrystal silicone solar cells with the maximum output of 53W each. In the experiment, the LD was protected by stabilizing the current at a set value when an excess current was supplied to the stabilizing circuit. As a result of the simulation of the annual LD output from the meteorological data of Sendai City, it was predicted that a solar cell of approximately 1kW was able to provide an annual output of 102MJ and that the efficiency was highest with four sheets of the solar cell. Consequently, consistency proved to be essential between the LD and the solar cell output. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Development of measurement device for evaluation of solar cell module output. 2; Taiyo denchi module shutsuryoku hyokayo sokuteiki no kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoda, M.; Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Enhancement in design efficiency may be attained as well as utilization in maintenance if on-the-spot data is made available, for the purpose of flexibly dealing with changes in design or matching with a house structure, in calculating the power generation output of a solar cell (PV) module. Under the circumstances, a small-sized compound measuring device was produced as a prototype which, using an I-V curve tracer, measured output and condition of a roof at the time of installation, compared with the optimum operation and predicted the power generation. The device was structured with the main body consisting of a computing part, measurement controller and power supply and with various sensor modules. The electron load control method was employed in order to measure I-V characteristics of the PV module, since it was desirable to use a variable load and to cover the range from the release voltage of a solar cell to the short-circuit state through the maximum output point. The reference module method was used for the system evaluation. The device was presumably applicable to a PV system design by incorporating a sensor module for measuring design environment data, which was essential at the time of a system design, in addition to those for measuring output. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Control method for light deterioration of amorphous solar cell. Temperature effect method; Amorphous taiyo denchi no hikari rekka yokuseiho. Ondo kokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes a proposed method for suppressing light deterioration (temperature effect method), in which an annealing effect was always expected by laminating an NEM element and a heat insulation material on the back side of a-Si solar cell module and thereby raising the temperature in the back side of the module, and also describes an outdoor exposure test device completed for the method. The NEM element consisted of conductive potassium titanate and high molecular polymer and was a self temperature-controlling organic exothermic body that required no outside temperature control device. It was provided with a heat generating temperature of 45-75{degree}C as the exothermic property of the element and capable of generating heating temperature arbitrarily according to the purpose. The NEM element varied a resistance value against the ambient temperature and kept the element temperature constant. Measurement was commenced starting April 19, 1996, using the completed outdoor exposure test device and a measuring circuit. The deterioration phenomenon was and from then on continuously examined under the following conditions: (1) measurements were those of clear days only, and (2) measurements to be used were those between 10:00 and 14:00 with the quantity of solar radiation on a constant level. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T.; Kitamura, A. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K.; Mizumoto, T. [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  3. Photovoltaic array capacity determined by considering the environmental factors for load patterns; Fuka pattern ni taisuru kankyo inshi wo koryoshita taiyo denchi array yoryo no kettei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, N.; Higuchi, T.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    Effectiveness of the spectral method was confirmed for system interconnection type photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, and PV array capacity determined in harmony with the power load was investigated. In this study, system interconnection type PV power generation systems with polycrystalline Si and amorphous Si PV cell modules were discussed. The output electric energy evaluated by the spectral method was compared with that evaluated by the conventional method only considering the cell temperature. Obtained results are as follows. For the polycrystalline Si, the differences between solar supply rates in summer evaluated by the both methods and measured value were less than 2%, which resulted in the accurate determination. For the amorphous Si, however, the difference less than 3% was obtained by the spectral method and that less than 11% was obtained by the conventional method. The spectral method provided higher accuracy. When constructing a system with large array capacity, it was found that the optimum design of PV power generation system can be performed using the spectral method with less array capacity than using the conventional method. 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1997. Technological development for practical application of a solar energy power generation system/development of technology to manufacture thin film solar cells (development of technology to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new construction) (development of technology to manufacture micro light collection type solar cells); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    These technological developments are intended to demonstrate module efficiency of a micro light collection type solar cell of 15% by fiscal 2000, and obtain prospect on the module manufacturing cost of 140 yen per watt. Discussions given during fiscal 1997 are as follows: development has been performed on a design method to decide construction of a non-tracking micro light collection type module; in the state of cells being integrated on the module, the cells are arranged minutely and discretely, whereas, with discussions on a method to form them and assessment of the optical system as the main objective, single crystal silicon solar cells with a size smaller than 5 mm were fabricated on a trial basis; problems of forming micro cells by using the wafer cutting process were clarified; micro cells operating on light collection were fabricated trially to extract technological problems in light collecting operation and discuss technical problems in mass production; and development was performed on an evaluation method to analyze the cells' light collecting operation, and discussions were given on a method to estimate power generation amount from the light collection type modules. (NEDO)

  5. Changes of the temperature coefficients of the characteristics which accompany degradation and recovery of a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no hikari (denryu) rekka oyobi kaifuku ni tomonau tokusei ondo keisu no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, T.; Koyanagi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Takahisa, K.; Kojima, T. [electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Pursuant to the measuring of temperature dependency of the characteristics such as conversion efficiency, during the process of degradation in a-Si solar cells due to light and electric current and the process of recovery by annealing, this paper describes changes in temperature coefficients, correlation between the characteristic parameters and the degradation, and the results of the examination of their characteristics. The conversion efficiency {mu} degraded approximately by 45% of the initial value each by the irradiation under a light intensity with 3 SUN accelerated and by the infusion of current at 20mA/cm{sup 2}; and then, the efficiency recovered to 70-75% of the degradation by subsequent annealing. In addition, in the temperature dependency at 80{degree}C against at 20{degree}C, Isc slightly increased while Vcc greatly decreased. This slight increase in Isc was mainly due to the decrease in the width of the forbidden band, while the decrease in Vcc was due to the increase in the reverse saturation current. The temperature dependency of {mu}N was negative, becoming small in accordance with the degradation. The temperature dependency of FF/FFO was negative initially both in light and current, but it decreased with the degradation and turned to positive. The temperature coefficients of I-V parameters reversibly changed corresponding to the degradation and recovery of these parameters and stayed in a good correlation. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Valuation of the quantity of electric output from photovoltaic generation system in case of PV module applied to installing to vertical direction; Taiyo denchi wo suichoku ni haichishita baai no hatsudenryo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In general, it is most efficient and economical to install photovoltaic (PV) modules with proper slope. There are room spaces on the wall except ground or roof. The PV modules were installed on the vertical wall, to consider the compensative method for this weak point. When modules were installed vertically, there is an advantage that reflecting solar light as well as incident solar light can be utilized compared with the installation with slope. The PV modules were installed on the roof of building with inclination of 90{degree} facing to south using the roof material as a reflecting material (S90), and with inclination of 15{degree} facing to south (S15), to compare their output. The output ratio, S90/S15 was 0.42. When it was very fine, this value increased to 0.60. When using plated steel plate as the reflecting material, this value increased to 0.74, which provided 10 to 30% larger output than the roof material. From these results, about 50% of module output of S15 can be expected for S90. If receiving larger reflection, there would only a slight difference in the module output between S15 and S90. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Studies of flat-plate solar air collectors with absorber plates made of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules; Amorphous taiyo denchi module wo shunetsuban to shita heibangata kukishiki shunetsuki no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Ito, S.; Miura, N. [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light/heat hybrid air type heat collector has been developed in which heat is collected by solar cell panels. In Type 1 heat collector provided with a glass cover, two modules are connected in series and placed under a glass cover to serve as a heat collecting plate, each module built of a steel plate and two thin-film amorphous solar cells bonded to the steel plate. Air runs under the heat collecting plate. Type 2 heat collector is a Type 1 heat collector minus the glass cover. Air is taken in by a fan, runs in a vinyl chloride tube, and then through the heat collector where it is heated by the sun, and goes out at the exit. Heat collecting performance was subjected to theoretical analysis. This heat collector approximated in point of heat collection a model using a board painted black, which means that the new type functions effectively as an air-type heat collector. Operating as a photovoltaic power generator, the covered type generated approximately 20% less than the uncovered type under 800W/m{sup 2} insolation conditions. Type 1 has been in service for five months, and Type 2 for 2 months. At present, both are free of troubles such as deformation and the amorphous solar cell modules have deteriorated but a little. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Development of technology of the practical use of the photovoltaic power generation system. ; Studies on the practical use of new type solar cells (studies on the manufacturing technology of layer built solar cells (manufacturing technology of amorphous/compound layer cells)). Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. ; Shingata taiyo denchi no jitsuyoka kenkyu (sekisogata taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu (amorphous/kagobutsu sekiso cell seizo gijutsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    To develop the layer built solar cell combined the amorphous silicon with the compound semi-conductor of which conversion efficiency is over 13%, its structure and the techniques to paint the large area are studied. In the a-Si pseudo-cell integrated patterning, the bottom cell power is higher when it is placed parallel. The reliability test of the module of CdS/CdTe cell is done, result of this test shows that the performance does not change after 2400 h. By raising CdTe firing temperature and thinning porous layer, the conversion efficiency is 11.3% in 1.07 cm{sup 2} CdS/CdTe cell. By examining the screen printing in 10 cm{sup 2} substrate, the conversion efficiency is 6.7% when the optimum CdS width is 2.95mm. The forming experiment by the painting machine is done. As the result of this, CdS film is smoother than by screen printing and the conversion efficiency does not change. As the cell becomes largeer the firing case is improved to reduce the temperature difference in the substrate to 31 centigrade. The sub module which is 30*40cm{sup 2}is designed and manufactured, its conversion efficiency is 6.2%. 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1994 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development of photovoltaic power generation system practicalization technology - Research on practicalization of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Technology for higher quality - Development of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell manufacturing technology); 1994 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu (kohinshitsuka gijutsu (CuInSe{sub 2} taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The aim is to develop solar cells that exhibit conversion efficiency of 12% in a 10cm times 10cm-large minimodule. When a substrate made of soda lime glass with an SiO{sub 2} coating thereon is used, high reproducibility is achieved in the manufacture of CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) thin-film solar cells. For the manufacture of a high-quality Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}(CIGS) light absorbing thin-film layer, it is necessary to develop high-quality precursor film manufacturing and gas phase selenization technologies. A laminated precursor film formed by sputtering is selenized in a H{sub 2}Se gas atmosphere for the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} and CIGS light absorbing thin-film layers, and 16 ZnO/CdS/CIS-structured thin film solar cells built into a 10cm times 10cm-large substrate exhibit conversion efficiency of 11.6%. A CIGS cell using a sulfur-containing Zn compound buffer layer exhibits conversion efficiency of 12.1%. Conditions for the manufacture of a ZnO:Al transparent conductive film are studied. Dependence of CIS-based solar cell output characteristics on temperature and irradiation may be compensated for under the JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) compensatory formula. The CIS-based thin-film solar cell suffers but a little reduction in output due to temperature rise, and may be therefore said to be excellent. (NEDO)

  10. Development of solar, fuel, storage, alcoholic, and biomass technologies. (Part 1. Development of coal and geothermal energies). (Part 3. Research and development of industrial technologies); Study on practical application of amorphous solar cell (1). Study on practical application of amorphous solar cell production technology. (Study on practical application of high quality production technology). Taiyo ko hatsuden system jitsuyo ka gijutsu kaihatsu (4); Amorphous taiyo denchi no jitsuyo ka kenkyu (1). Amorphous taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyo ka kenkyu. (ko hinshitsu seizo gijutsu no jitsuyo ka kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this study is the estabilishment of elemental technologies for high efficient cells by employing tandem structure of compound semiconductor and amorphous silicon/compound semiconductor, and the targets are the cell area of 1 cm{sup 2} and the efficiency of 13% or more. The research and deveopment of tandem structure were carried out using only the a-Si solar cell as the top cell. Computer simulation was adopted for the study of the output of the tandem cell to elucidate the optimum condition. Tandem cell efficiency of 10.69% was achieved by combining with a permeation type a-Si solar cell. The optimization of sintering conditions for improvement was studied to improve the characteristics of CdS/CdTe cell for use as the bottom cell. In the basic studies on CuInSe{sub 2}, monofilm formation technology and juction formation with CdS were investigated. As regards elemental study on common film formation technology, elemental studies on common film formation technology for CdS, CdTe and CIS were performed. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Improvement of the efficiency characteristics on the photovoltaic generation system based on a generation control circuit. Part 3. Research on architectural systematization of energy conversion devices; Dosaten seigyo kairo wo mochiita taiyo denchi hatsuden koritsu no kaizen. 3. Energy henkan no kenchiku system ka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Ito, N.; Kimura, G.; Fukao, S.; Sunaga, N.; Tsunoda, M.; Muro, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In introducing a photovoltaic power generation system to urban homes, the general practice is to install a large number of solar cell panels on the roof. However, as is often the case, a part of the solar cell panels is in the shadows (partial shadows) of neighboring homes, electric poles, cables and trees. Under the circumstances, studies were made on the numerous changes in the lowered generating capacity of individual solar cells by the partial shadows. Developed by the authors were the generation point control principle, in which the generation point was individually controlled on serially connected plural solar cell modules, and a practical circuit system based on that principle with the effects verified in a field test. In the test, the generated power of the system was 476W without partial shadows, and was 323W with partial shadows and without the operation of the generation point control circuit, increasing to 406W with partial shadows and with the operation of the circuit. As a result, compared with the case where no generation point control circuit was employed, the effectiveness of the proposed circuit was evident. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Method for estimation of the output electric power of PV module with considering environmental factors. Method for estimation of output using I-V curves; Kankyo inshi wo koryoshita taiyo denchi module no shutsuryoku keisanho. I-V tokusei curve ni yoru keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Based on the basic quality equation of photovoltaic (PV) cell, a quality equation of PV module has been constructed by considering the spectral distribution of solar radiation and its intensity. A calculation method has been also proposed for determining the output from current-voltage (I-V) curves. Effectiveness of this method was examined by comparing calculated results and observed results. Amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystal Si PV modules were examined. By considering the environmental factors, differences of the annual output between the calculated and observed values were reduced from 2.50% to 0.95% for the a-Si PV module, and from 2.52% to 1.24% for the polycrystal Si PV module, which resulted in the reduction more than 50%. For the a-Si PV module, the environmental factor most greatly affecting the annual output was the spectral distribution of solar radiation, which was 3.86 times as large as the cell temperature, and 1.04 times as large as the intensity of solar radiation. For the polycrystal PV module, the environmental factor most greatly affecting the annual output was the cell temperature, which was 7.05 times as large as the spectral distribution of solar radiation, and 1.74 times as large as the intensity of solar radiation. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Fuel cell; Nenryo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    More than 100 sets of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) have been installed by now, and accumulated operation performance exceeding 40 thousand hours, which is regarded as a development target, has been achieved. Further, there are also PAFCs that have achieved continuous operation performance exceeding 9,000 hours, thus being most approachable to practical use. On the other hand, developments of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), which operate at high temperatures, have high power generation efficiencies due to the capability of operating associatively with gas turbines or vapor turbines, and may use coal gasified gases as fuels, are carried out for an aim of realizing the practical use at the begging of the 21st century. Further, in recent years, researches and developments of the polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have been accelerated mainly in vehicle business for the purpose of using PEFC as power sources for movable bodies, and researches and development for accelerative development of cell stacks and power generation systems are executed. In this paper, situations of the researches and developments in respect to the above-mentioned four kinds of fuel cells are summarily introduced. (NEDO)

  14. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of high-reliability CdTe solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Koshinraisei CdTe taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for reliable CdTe solar cell modules, large in area and high in efficiency. In the study of large-area CdS thin film fabrication, a conversion efficiency of 12.5-14.2% was achieved in a cell in a large-area substrate using a mist method-aided process of continuous CdS film fabrication. In the study of large-area CdTe thin film fabrication, the optimization was studied of the base-forming CdS film fabrication conditions and of the CdTe film fabrication conditions in a method using a CdTe powder processed by dry kneading, and a conversion efficiency peak was found to exist when the CdS film thickness was in the range of 700-900 angstrom. In the fabrication of large-area submodules, a large-area substrate was taken up, and TCO (transparent conducting oxide) film was fabricated by the mist method, CdTe film by the normal pressure CSS method, electrodes by the screen printing method, and CdTe film patterns by the blast method. As the result, a conversion efficiency of 11.0% was achieved. In a cost estimation for large-area CdTe solar cell modules, 140 yen/Wp (conversion efficiency: 11.0%, annual production: 100 MW) was obtained. (NEDO)

  15. Solid electrolyte fuel cell. Kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, R. (Yuasa Battery Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-09-22

    The honeycomb structure has been proposed for the solid electrolyte fuel cell to increase the output power of the cell. However, the honeycomb structure has a shortcoming or difficulty in formation of air electrode, fuel electrode and solid electrolyte membrane as well as in fabrication of air manifold and fuel manifold. This invention solves the problem. In the solid electrolyte cell whose power generation component is composed by laminating the solid electrolyte membrane and the air electrode on the surface of the hollow polygonal column shape fuel electrode, the power generation component and the current conductive component are put together by inserting the metal oxide between the air electrode on the surface of the power generation component and the surface of the current conductive component. With this structure, the parallel connection of a number of solid electrolyte fuel cells by means of electro-conductive component metal oxide in the current conductive component can be achieved, resulting an increase in output power. Examples of the said metal oxide are LaMnO3, LaCoO3, CaMnO3 or LaCrO3 doped with Sr or Ca. 9 figs.

  16. Space photovoltaic power generation. Uchu taiyo hatsuden ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-07-20

    Introduction is made of space photovoltaic power generation which is the ultimate clean energy source. This is a system to obtain electric energy from the solar cells placed on a geostatic orbit and transmit the power onto the earth by microwave. The US formulates a plan of placing 60[times]5GW power generation satellites to obtain 300GW power on the earth in 2000. As for the scale of space structure, the array of solar cells is dimensionally 10km[times]5km and the power transmitting antenna is 1km in diameter. The electric energy is amplified to microwave and power-transmitted by wireless onto the earth. The ground rectenna which receives it is dimensionally 10km[times]13km. The biggest difficulty consists in transportation of construction materials onto the orbit. In Japan, activity comprises three matters, which are research committee organized three years ago by the Agency of Industrial Science and technology, 10MW class model conceptually designed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and experiment conducted by Kyoto University on the power transmission by wireless. Pertaining to the research on the space power generation, the following two points are judged still unclarified: Reason for which the electric power companies did not apply the power transmission by wireless regarded as high in transmission efficiency. Influence of the microwave on the ionosphere and biosystem. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Automatic vending machine using solar cells. Taiyo denchishiki jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.

    1992-11-04

    An object of the invention is to save the electric power used in an automatic vending machine supplied from a commercial power source and to provide an automatic vending machine of energy saving efficiency. The invention concerns an automatic vending machine using a solar cell panel, in which solar cells are installed on the outside box and a part of electric power consumed in the automatic vending machine is supplied from the photovoltaic power generated by the light in the solar cells and the other part of the consumed electric power is supplied from a commercial power source or the whole consumed electric power is supplied from the solar cells. Monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar cells of high conversion efficiency are preferable in the solar cell panel installed on the upper surface of the automatic vending machine while amorphous solar cell with transparency of about 30% is preferable in the solar cell panel installed on the front signboard side of the machine. The invention usually enables a saving of about 16% of the consumed electric power compared with an automatic vending machine with a similar specification. 3 figs.

  18. Solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell system. Kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, R. (Yuasa Battery Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-09-17

    To improve the solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell for higher output, provision of manifolds for air and fuel in honeycomb structure has been proposed. The method of making them in the honeycomb structure has a problem of difficulty in the fabrication. This invention is concerned with a structure, wherein the structural body of the power generating member and that of the electric conducting member are connected between the air electrode on the surface of the structural body of the power generating member and that on the surface of the structural member of the electric conducting member with interposed conductive metal oxide, and the interconnecting member of the power generating structural member body is connected to the air electrode on the surface of the structural member of another power generating member. As a result of this structure, high output solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell can be fabricated by connecting the structural bodies of the power generating members and those of the conducting members in regular succession. Strontium or calcium doped LaMnO3, LaCoO3, CaMnO3, and LaCrO3 are used as the metal oxides. 10 figs.

  19. Proceedings of JSES/JWEA Joint Conference (1996); Taiyo/furyoku energy koen ronbunshu (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-27

    The proceedings has 10 papers on photovoltaic power systems, 9 on characteristics of solar cells, 5 on residential use photovoltaic power systems, 3 on solar cars, 6 on solar hybrids, 9 on solar energy storage, 5 on passive solar energy, 4 on power generation/hydrogen production, 5 on wind power, 5 on wind power/wave power, 7 on insolation/meteorology, 3 on heat collection, 9 on air cooling/conditioning, 4 on hot water supply systems, 6 on heat pumps, and 5 on the application to biotechnology. As a special lecture, `The development of a new electric vehicle, EcoVehicle, and the environment` was given by National Institute for Environmental Studies. This was taken notice of as a new concept of electric vehicles. Namely, technologies were collected which are useful for improving electric vehicle performance, and technologies which can use due to the electric vehicle were adopted. The vehicle was so designed as to make good use of characteristics of electric vehicles. As a result, born was `EcoVehicle,` a two-seater having a car width of 1.2m and a car length of 3.3m. The vehicle was installed with polycrystalline solar cells on the roof and spoiler, and has a maximum output of 60W. It can travel 1000km per year when assuming annual duration of sunshine to be 1800 hours.

  20. Survey on commercial use of fuel cells; Nenryo denchi ni kansuru jitsuyoka no tame no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The basic survey was carried out for the future approach to R & D of fuel cells. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is in the stage of demonstration research and field test supported by subsidy after the end of Sunshine project. Its reliability and durability problems are being solved, and its cost reduction is only one problem for practical use. Distributed systems or on-site systems will be used utilizing its excellent environmental characteristics. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide one (SOFC) and polymer electrolyte one (PEFC) under development were thus surveyed. The following are surveyed: (1) Contribution to a human society such as improvement of energy demand/supply structure and environmental protection, (2) Technological items such as outlook for R & D, validity of developmental issues, comparison between various R & D and significance in industrial promotion, (3) Economic items such as profitability and feasible period, and (4) Social items such as sociability, compatibility to needs, possibility of locations, international meaning, market scale and promotion scenario. 90 refs., 67 figs., 96 tabs.

  1. Housebuilders` concept of photovoltaic power generation system; Jutaku meka ga kangaeru taiyo hikari hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, O. [Misawa Homes Institute of Research and Development Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-30

    The author of this article is an executive of a consolidated research institute of a big house building company. Hence he requests readers strongly not to consider solar batteries for housing from the viewpoint of profitability to be applied to the commercial photovoltaic generation system. Since those who purchase houses decide their purchase after judging comprehensively the performance such as heat insulation and earthquake resistance, plan, design, the function such as agreeableness and safety, comfort of living, cost, etc. of a house, he stresses that the photovoltaic power generation system for housing is to be developed as one of the systems composing a house. Besides he also stresses importance of considering solar batteries as roofing material. Taking into account several conditions to be considered in case when solar batteries are introduced into housing, development of a roofing type photovoltaic power generation module is desirable. Also electric power generated by solar batteries can be sold to power supply companies, when it becomes surplus. The annual power consumption by a single house, 3,600 KWh, can be taken care of by photovoltaic power generation. The problem is cost, but its big reduction is expected by introduction of amorphous solar batteries into the market. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Prospects to solar energy power generation in space. Uchu taiyo hatsuden eno tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Solar energy power generation in space uses large arrays of solar cells developed on a geosynchronous orbit to obtain electric energy, which is transmitted to the earth using microwaves. The idea had already been advocated in 1968, which was followed a decade later by joint discussions done by NASA and DOE. The concept intended to take care of the U.S. power demand by using 60 power plant satellites, each having an output of 5 GW. This expanse of the scale, regarded reasonable even today, calls for the solar cell arrays in space spreading over an area of 10 km [times] 5 km if silicon solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 15% are used, and rectenna on the ground (a received wave converting facility) forming an ellipse of 10 km [times] 13 km (assuming a location at the north latitude of 36[degree]). Although there are a number of problems in the idea such as transportation means to lift construction materials into the space and effect of microwaves on the ionosphere and the ecosystems, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology organized a 'committee for investigating and studying the space power generation systems' in the fiscal year 1991, and has been moving discussions forward since then. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Nickel oxide-hydrogen secondary cell. Nickel sankabutsu suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, Keneichi; Kanda, Motoki; Sato, Yuji; Hayashida, Hirotaka.

    1989-11-15

    In a nickel oxide - hydrogen secondary cell, if a nickel electrode, which is not chemically treated, is used as a positive electrode, hydrogen will accummulates in a negative electrode consisting of a hydrogen storage alloy in the early stage of charge/discharge cycle, thus reducing the life of the cell. In this invention, by letting the electrolytic solution of the cell contain a compound which supplies the dissolved oxygen to the electrolyte, and reacting the hydrogen in the negative electrode while in the initial charging with dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte solution, accummulation of hydrogen in the negative electrode is prevented. The dissolved oxygen ddoner is an oxides or peroxides which generate oxygen by decomposition. The example is KO {sub 2}, O {sub 3}, H {sub 2} O {sub 2}, BaO {sub 2}, CaO {sub 2}, MgO {sub 2}, K {sub 2} O {sub 2} and Na {sub 2} O {sub 2}. It is preferred that these oxides or peroxides are contained in a microcapsule, gel or porous membrane. 4 figs.

  4. Present situation and subjects of fuel cell development. Nenryo denchi kaihatsu no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshisada (Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-02-10

    This report explains the present situation of the development of phosphoric acid type fuel cells. Tests on New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization {prime} s 1,000kW plant for distribution arrangement and two plants (two electric power companies) to substitute thermal power were completed in 1989. With the success of these tests, Japanese technologies on fuel cells were improved greatly. Two projects on on-site type cells for detached islands and for industry using city gas are on progress. In civil circles, there are several projects on progress such as Tokyo Power Company {prime} s Goi plant of 11MW whose operation is going to be started in 1991. As for development situation abroad, the USA has carried out field tests on a 4.5MW plant and many 12.5KW and 43kW plants for gas utility, and it is now developing a 200kW plant. On the other hand, European countries make researches mainly on aldali type fuel cells, and they make it a policy to purchase elemental cells of phosphoric acid type from Japan and the USA. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. FY 1998 result report on the leading R and D of MGC ultra-high efficiency turbine system technology; 1998 nendo MGC chokokoritsu turbine system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    One of the main subjects for further conserving energy by enhancing efficiency of gas turbine system for power generation, etc. is the heightening of operation temperature. The development is urgently needed of heat-resistant ultra-high temperature members which make high-reliable operation under ultra-high temperature possible. Therefore, an introductory study was made aiming at using MGC materials which does not reduce strength even at high temperature and also has plastic deformability as large-size structure members of gas turbine system for power generation use. In FY 1998, the following were studied: (1) basic study to get material design guidelines for making efficiency of MGC materials higher; (2) construction of the basic data for elucidating the manifestation mechanism of high temperature characteristics of MGC materials; (3) setting of gas turbine specifications which are to be the basis of study work in and after FY 1999; (4) setting of parameters to be evaluated, evaluation criteria, etc., and definition of the evaluation criteria for possibility of establishing an MGC ultra-high efficiency gas turbine system. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Leading research and development of MGC-built superhigh-efficiency turbine system technology; 1998 nendo MGC chokokoritsu turbine system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    To further enhance energy efficiency by improving on the gas turbine system, it is necessary, first of all, to develop superhigh-temperature materials to allow the system to operate at higher temperatures. Described in this report are studies on the application of MGC (melt-growth composite) materials which retain strength and plastic deformation capability even at high temperatures. Various compositions are explored for improvement on fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YAG system is investigated for the study of relations between microstructural control and fracture toughness. Literature on the development of nanocomposites is surveyed, and a preliminary experiment is discussed for improvement on purity by zone melting crystallization. In a study for an advanced manufacture of larger crystals, technologies of crystal growth condition setting and optimization, quality stabilization, productivity improvement, and crystal size enlargement are taken up. Casting and machining technologies are studied to enable crystals to assume complicated shapes. For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the occurrence of properties proper to high temperatures, a study is made on the evaluation of mechanical and physical properties and on the mechanism and control of crystal growth. Also studied are systems (gas turbine cycle, combustor, etc.) to which MGC materials may be applied. (NEDO)

  7. Effective use of active solar system on a residence; Jutakuyo taiyo enerugi akuteibu yuko riyo hoshiki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    In this paper, reduction of primary energy consumed in a residence was calculated for the application of combination and hybrid systems of thermal solar energy and photovoltaic generation. The relation between the cost of each system and reduced energy was investigated. A combination system is more effective than a hybrid system for a residence in cost bases. At present time, the system of which area of panel less than 20 % of the floor area should be a solar system because of high cost of a PV system. And this percentage goes down to 5 % when the cost of PV system down to that of solar system in panel area bases. For a system larger than this, adding PV panel to a solar system, a combination system should be formed. (author)

  8. Elongation of lifetime of photosynthetic biofuel-cells containing immobilized algae; Koteika aiso wo mochiita kogosei biseibutsu denchi no chojumyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, T.; Sawayama, S.; Inoue, S.; Ogi, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    An experimental study is performed for elongation of lifetime of photosynthetic biofuel-cells using the living blue-green algae and a mediator. In the experiment, correlation between a current generated from cultured Anabaena and the life of the cells is investigated. Anabaena is recovered from the cells after the cells are operated for 10 hours in the dark and is cultured for 10 hours under irradiation with a Xe lamp and ventilation of 3 % CO2. Thereafter, immobilized Anabaena is returned into the cells and the cells are again actuated in repetition. Three load resistances 1 K ohm, 700 ohm, 400 ohm are employed and operation time of the current is lengthened under any conditions compared with the case where the cells are continuously operated. Further, provided a generated current is limited to 0.6 mA or lower, the current is not lowered even if the cells are operated for 90 hours. It is concluded that provided Anabaena is cultured after the electricity of 6.4 mA/h per the amount of chlorophyl in Anabaena is taken out, an output of the cells is kept unchanged for a long time. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development of a high temperature solar receiver for high-efficient thermionic conversion systems; Fukugo netsuden henkan system yo chokoon taiyo junetsuki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeoka, T.; Naito, H.; Yugami, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    For thermionic conversion systems (TIC) using concentrated sunlight as heat source, the newly developed solar receiver was tested. Concentrated sunlight aims at the inner surface of the cavity type solar receiver. The emitter of TIC installed in the rear of the solar receiver is uniformly heated over 1700K by thermal radiation from the rear of the solar receiver, emitting thermion. Electric power is generated by collecting the thermion by collector. Mo is used as emitter material, however, because of poor heat absorption of Mo, high-absorptive TiC is used for heat absorption surface to heat Mo by thermal conduction from high-temperature TiC. Functionally gradient material (FGM) with an intermediate layer of gradient TiC/Mo ratios between TiC and Mo is used as emitter material. The emitter is thus uniformly heated at high temperatures of 1723{plus_minus}12K. As a result, the developed solar receiver is applicable to heat the emitter of TIC. Heat flux measurement at the graphite cavity clarified that cavity temperature of as high as 1780K and heat flow of 50W/cm{sup 2} are obtained at 4.7kW in input. 6 figs.

  10. Solar cells and thin film LED using amorphous SiC. Amorphous SiC wo mochiita taiyou denchi oyobi usumaku LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamakawa, Y. (Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science)

    1990-03-25

    This paper introduced the photoelectric properties of amorphous SiC (a-SiC), application to highly efficient solar cells, application to wide area emitting elements such as LED (light emitting diode) and application to OEIC (optoelectronic integrated circuit) which is expected in near future. The light sensitizing effect in which photoconductivity of a-SiC:H film increases 2-3 figures by B dopping, was found. Flexible and wide area thin film LED has been able to manufacture by this discovery. In addition, highly efficient conversion rate has been able to get by the technical development such as solar cells made of a-SiC/ a-Si hetrojunction. Further, wide area sollar cells has been able to manufacture on any substrate by the development of TFLED (thin film light emitting diode). The application of TFLED made of SiC to OEIC is also investigated. 18 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Impressions on being awarded with the fiscal 1995 prizes from the Japan Solar Energy Society; Nihon taiyo energy gakkai jusho shokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-31

    Studies have been made on a microorganism battery which converts solar energy directly into electric energy by utilizing photosynthetic reactions in micro-algae. Electric energy is drawn out from an end of the electronic transmission system for photosynthesis when light is irradiated, and from decomposition of glycogen in organisms when light is shut off. An amorphous solar cell was made capable of restoring output deterioration by annealing. Annealing cycle is important in addition to annealing temperature and time. Investigations were conducted on the relationship between a long-time integral error in irregularly varying insolation intensity and sampling time for the purpose of establishing a measuring method to incorporate it into the Japan Industrial Standard. Development was made on a high-efficiency Fresnel prism having a skylight function, but having no light carrying duct. Awards were given to a solar battery charger applying a counter-flow preventing relay, a solar light/heat hybrid heat pump system, and development of hybrid of hydrogen generation by photovoltaic power (power storage using hydrogen absorbing alloys) with a fuel cell. Cold and hot waste heat recovery by using a seasonal heat storage tank, a water pumping wind mill for irrigation, and water facilities and environmental effects in urban areas also won awards. 3 figs.

  12. Sony Co., Ltd.: An outlook is made for merchandising of the manganese acid lithium ion battery; Mangansan richiumuion denchi no shohinka ni medo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Sony Co., Ltd. sells the manganese acid lithium ion battery that a battery is 1 by 2 as to the next generation lithium ion during 99 years. It is characteristics that a price is restrained because manganese is used for the proper pole material instead of cobalt of the rare metal. It becomes mass production by Koriyama factory where a lithium ion battery is being manufactured improving an existent production line. It is seen when some percents of manufacture cost goes down more than cobalt acid battery of news file before. A manganese acid lithium ion battery uses manganese acid lithium for the proper pole of the battery. The efficiency of the charge of the usual lithium ion battery is good, and composition is easy, and uses cobalt acid lithium, which is easy to produce. One side where a material fee is cheap, the stability at the high temperature of manganese acid is low, and composition is difficult. Only NEC Moli Energy corporation who is the subsidiary company of NEC succeeds in the mass production. NEC Moli Energy corporation is extending market share by the price competition power. It seems to have the possibility that manganese acid becomes the main force with a battery by two by new entering of Sony Co., Ltd. of the lithium ion battery extreme big enterprises. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Study on property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries; Lithium niji denchi no tame no keisha tokusei kobunshi denkaishitsu no sosei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokumi, Z.; Kanemura, S.; Inaba, M.; Takehara, Z.; Yao, K.; Uchimoto, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the fundamental experiments for creating property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries. The rechargeable lithium battery is composed of an anodic composite agent section with high ion conductivity, a separator equivalent section with high mechanical strength (high bridging degree), and a section surpressing the precipitation of metal lithium by contacting with it. The continuous property-gradient polymer electrolyte was tried to be synthesized by means of the plasma polymerization method. As a result, plasma polymerization electrolyte with high ion conductivity could be prepared from the liquid phase by using a monomer with low vapor pressure. Porous material simulating the anodic composite agent was impregnated by the monomer, which was plasma-polymerized. As a result, it was found that the bridging degree decreased from the surface towards the inside of the plasma-polymerized porous material. In addition, polymer was prepared using fluorine-base monomer. Thus, LiF thin film could be prepared through the reaction between the polymer and metal lithium. 3 figs.

  14. Electric discharge performance of electrolytic manganese dioxide relating to key factors in production process. Denkai nisanka mangan no denchi seino ni oyobosu juyo seizo yoin no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, K.; Kumamoto, S.; Hieda, M. (Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Small scale experiment on production of EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) and evaluation on performance of batteries using the EMD were conducted to single out some of the state-of-the-art problems for research subjects in the future. In the experiment, three kinds of anodes were compared, such as graphite, titanium, and a new type of titanium anode having a number of platinum pock-marks mounted on the surface. In the evaluation, electric discharge curves in wet batteries were investigated. The result obtained was as follows: the paraffin layer floated on the high temperature electrolysis bath for preventing the electrolyte vaporization little affects the performance of the EMD obtained with the ordinary titanium anode, but adversely affects the performance in the case of the EMD produced with the graphite anode or the new type titanium anode. Whereas the ordinary titanium anode is passivated under the conditions examined, there is a possibility to lessen the passivation with the new type titanium anode. The neutralization of the EMD deposits is important to control the open-circuit voltage of the battery, but it may be unnecessary in the future. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Report on commissioned business for fiscal 1997. Development of new power storage system for cells and development of technology for distributed power storage (research for a zinc/air cell system for automobiles); 1997 nendo itaku gyomu hokokusho. Shingata denchi denryoku chozo system kaihatsu bunsangata denryoku chozo gijutsu kaihatsu (denki jidoshayo aen kuki denchi system chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the above, it is discussed whether such a system is feasible in Japan. A zinc/air cell system requires some special plants for zinc regeneration, etc. It is necessary to build a zinc refining plant and to install dozens of electrode replacing facilities in an area dozens of kilometers in diameter with the plant at the center. For such a system to be functional, there have to be several tens of thousands of automobile users in a limited area. In Japan, so large a number will not be found anywhere even if the appeal is directed to those in the postal service and electric utilities. There will be no economic success in Japan, different from in Germany. As for the economic comparison between a zinc/air cell system and natural gas system, the two will be equivalent to each other as far as the use of the quick filling stations for the natural gas automobiles remains as it is. When the number in consideration is so large as several tens of thousands, however, the natural gas system will turn out to be economically superior to the zinc/air cell system. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. General report on the results of the development of fuel cell technology such as urban energy center. Evaluation study of life of phosphoric acid fuel cells (fiscal 1995 and 1996); Toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu kenkyu seika sogo hokokusho. Rinsangata nenryo denchi jumyo hyoka kenkyu (1995 kara 1996 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Receiving subsidies from MITI, NEDO carried out this project in fiscal 1995 and 1996 as a joint research with Technology Research Association for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Generation System and others. The project aimed at developing the accelerated test method which can evaluate in a short time the cell life of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) and the lowering of characteristics. The accelerated test method of PAFC life is thought to be a tool indispensable for the promotion of commercialization, but the accelerated test method like the usual material evaluation has not yet been established. To solve this problem, procedures were developed to rationally plan the accelerated test on short stacks of full scale based on the small cell test data. Here, to rationally estimate the operational state under actual conditions based on the data on the accelerated test, it is necessary to fully understand the mechanism of deterioration of PAFC. By conducting in parallel the element study for the basic elucidation of cell deterioration phenomena, obtained was the useful information/knowledge which back up the results of the accelerated test scientifically. 168 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on joint research to develop fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers. Research on evaluating life of phosphoric acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho. Rinsangata nenryo denchi jumyo hyoka kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This paper discusses life evaluation on phosphoric acid fuel cells of urban energy center type for regional energy supply and on-site type to be installed in buildings. Operation characteristics tests and disassembly checks allow to identify factors for voltage decrease, and estimate the life therefrom particularly if the voltage decrease is caused from catalyst activity. The time before 10% decrease value is reached is now about 40,000 hours. The creep analysis method that has been developed recently can predict deformation in full-size reformers nearly exactly, and is effective in operating the reformer and evaluating the life at the design stage. Creep buckling is the critical value, which is caused by ecliptic deformation of internal tubes in the second catalyst layer. In a heat exchanger for fuel gas preheating, carbon in the reformed gas is carbonized and deposited due to catalytic action of nickel in the brazing material that bonds plates and fins in the heat exchanger. Iron also has a possibility of performing catalytic action. In the on-site type 1,000-kW class fuel cells, no structural problems have been presented even after the operation has been stopped. In order to extend time interval between phosphoric acid supply into the cells, it is necessary to reduce difference in the remaining phosphoric acid amounts in the stack lamination direction and in the cell flat surface. (NEDO)

  18. 1992 JSES (Japan Solar Energy Society)/JWEA (Japan Wind Energy Association) Joint Conference. 1992 nendo Nihon Taiyo Energy Gakkai Nihon Furyoku Energy Kyokai godo kenkyu happyokai koen ronbunshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-03

    The proceedings of the conference include the results of research and development of the photovoltaic power generation system, the wind power generation and biomass. As for the photovoltaic power generation system, reports are made on the following: power generation efficiency of the system, output characteristics of solar cell module, interconnected power system, optical properties of solar cells, solar cell array, development of intermittent flow redox batteries to be used for the photovoltaic power generation system. As to solar radiation utilization, studies on the following are made public: an optical/thermal hybrid heat collector which is designed to obtain light and heat at the same time using a solar cell as a heat collecting board, solar car, a silica gel layer used in a solar thermal utilization direct regenerating type adsorption tank, a solar greenhouse, a solar refrigerating system, solar pond, a solar energy ground thermal storage system, a solar-cell blade wind turbine as a composite system, photovoltaic-thermo composite pannels, solar house, passive solar heating. A small wind turbine generation system for mountanious regions is described. As biomass, production of tall-golden-rod is reported.

  19. 1992 JSES (Japan Solar Energy Society)/JWEA (Japan Wind Energy Association) Joint Conference; 1992 nendo Nihon Taiyo Energy Gakkai Nihon Furyoku Energy Kyokai godo kenkyu happyokai koen ronbunshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-03

    The proceedings of the conference include the results of research and development of the photovoltaic power generation system, the wind power generation and biomass. As for the photovoltaic power generation system, reports are made on the following: power generation efficiency of the system, output characteristics of solar cell module, interconnected power system, optical properties of solar cells, solar cell array, development of intermittent flow redox batteries to be used for the photovoltaic power generation system. As to solar radiation utilization, studies on the following are made public: an optical/thermal hybrid heat collector which is designed to obtain light and heat at the same time using a solar cell as a heat collecting board, solar car, a silica gel layer used in a solar thermal utilization direct regenerating type adsorption tank, a solar greenhouse, a solar refrigerating system, solar pond, a solar energy ground thermal storage system, a solar-cell blade wind turbine as a composite system, photovoltaic-thermo composite pannels, solar house, passive solar heating. A small wind turbine generation system for mountanious regions is described. As biomass, production of tall-golden-rod is reported.

  20. FY1995 study on property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries; 1995 nendo lithium niji denchi no tame no keisha tokusei kobunshi denkaishitsu no sosei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Polymer electrolytes are essential materials to develop safe and reliable rechargeable lithium batteries. Nobel 'property-gradient' polymer electrolytes in which ionic conductivity distributes along with their thickness were synthesized by employing plasma polymerization technology. Vinyl monomers bound with oligo-ether side chains via siloxane bond were served as starting monomers for plasma polymerization. Ionic conductivity of formed polymers changed along with their thickness. Monomer solutions containing lithium salt which were impregnated into porous matrix were polymerized by exposing RF plasma and directly gave polymer electrolytes. The polymer electrolytes showed distributing ionic conductivity through its direction of thickness; 'property-gradient' polymer electrolyte were prepared. Metallic lithium surface were covered with thin plasma polymer layer containing fluorine to suppress dendritic lithium deposition during charging. The layer reacted so fast that suppression of the dendritic deposition was not satisfactory. (NEDO)

  1. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. System optimization of solar hydrogen energy system based on hydrogen production cost. 2; Suiso seizo cost wo hyoka shihyo to shita taiyo suiso energy system no saiteki sekkei. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, D.; Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrogen production cost per unit volume, system optimization of solar hydrogen energy system is discussed. Based on the simulation of the I-V characteristics of amorphous Si (a-Si) photovoltaic array, the working point between the array and hydrogen generator was determined. The cost ratio of each design point was calculated. The optimum design points were 500 W/m{sup 2} for the single crystal Si system, and 600 W/m{sup 2} for the a-Si system. When the rating capacity of design point was constant, almost constant cost ratio was obtained independent of the type of photovoltaic cells. It was found that the photovoltaic cells can be fabricated in about 15% lower cost at maximum. It was also found that the optimum design point sifts to the lower insolation site due to reduction of the photovoltaic cell cost. Since the annual hydrogen generation quantity does not depend on the type of photovoltaic cells under the constant rating capacity of design point, hydrogen can be produced in lower cost by using photovoltaic cell of lower cost. 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M. [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N. [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Solid electrolyte membranes and the system to produce hydrogen from thermally decomposed water by solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru mizu no chokusetsu netsubunkai kara no suiso seizoyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigara, K.; Watanabe, K.; Kawamura, K.; Kawada, T.; Mizusaki, J.; Ishigame, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Scientific Measurements

    1996-10-27

    For conversion of solar heat to transportable energy, hydrogen production by direct thermal decomposition of water using concentrated high-temperature solar heat was studied. Water vapor is injected into the tubular target with high melting point and high oxygen permeability at high temperature while heating the target by concentrated solar heat over 2000K. Oxygen in decomposed gas is discharged through an oxygen permeable membrane to extract hydrogen. Solid electrolyte is used as one of the target materials. Oxygen gas in the high-oxygen partial pressure site changes into oxygen ion by accepting two electrons at the target surface, and returns to neutral oxygen gas in the low-oxygen partial pressure site by discharging two electrons at the surface after permeation through oxygen vacancy. In the case of n-type solid electrolyte, to obtain constant permeation of a large amount of oxygen, flow of a large amount of electrons is indispensable in the opposite direction to oxygen ion. Among [(ZrO2)(1-x)(CeO2)x](0.9)(CaO)(0.1), materials of 0.4-0.5 in x seems to be useful as the target material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. FY 1994 Report on the results of the joint research project for optimum introduction of development of fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers; 1994 nendo toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu saiteki donyu chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Described herein are the FY 1994 results of the joint research project for optimum introduction of development of fuel cell technologies for urban energy centers or the like. The necessary economic conditions for introduction of a fuel cell system to be competitive with the conventional system which individually supplies electric power and heat are 250,000 yen/kW as the construction unit cost, 0.10m{sup 2}/kW as the installation area, 5 years as the cell body life, use of an inexpensive fuel gas (2 to 6 yen/Mcal). Moreover, it is an indoor system which shall have the operational characteristics to follow daily demand fluctuations while operating under the optimum conditions in the urban redevelopment area considered. A 5,000kW-class fuel cell plant burning fuel gas (2 yen/Mcal) will need a total floor area of approximately 400,000 m{sup 2} in an energy-intensive office type demand area. These conditions shall be met in order to economically introduce the 5,000kW-class plant. It is also necessary to compare the plant with the competitive cogeneration plants. The specifications for the prototype now under consideration are sufficient for the energy-saving effect, and it is premised that these specifications and characteristics are secured. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1998 research report. Survey on data collection for development of new energy technology (fuel cell); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (nenryo denchi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report is composed of Part 1: the development trend of fuel cells in fiscal 1998, and Part 2: the collected data and appendices. Part 1 includes 4 chapters, (1) The outline of the development trend, (2) Stationary fuel cell, (3) The development trend of fuel cell vehicles, and (4) The development trend of small transportable fuel cells. The report newly includes the development trend of small-capacity fuel cells and the report on 1998 Fuel Cell Seminar notable as an international conference on fuel cell summarizing the trend of fuel cells in fiscal 1998, as compared with the fiscal 1997 report. Part 2 is the collected data on domestic and foreign demonstration operation results of fuel cells, and technical development of every fuel cell. In addition to various collected data on the whole of fuel cells and their use techniques, Part 2 includes the principle, features, system configuration, performance simulation technique, application and market analysis of fuel cells, and the national policy and concerned laws on a subsidy system for introduction of fuel cells, for example. (NEDO)

  8. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  9. 创意坊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨迪

    2014-01-01

    瑞士艺术家Taiyo Onorato和Nico Krebs在他们设计的这一系列的相机中重回人类的石器时代——用龟壳、穿山甲壳和动物角,手工制作了各种不同的摄影器材,很是耐人寻味的设计。

  10. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 7. Examination on design and control of the system partially recovering exhaust heat of heat pump; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 7. Bubuntekina hainetsu kaishu wo koryoshita baai no sekkei seigyoho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The capacity and performance of the existing system that recovers the overall heating and cooling exhaust heat completely into a seasonal storage tank and the system that discharges the exhaust heat slightly to the outside and recovers it partially were compared and investigated. The system uses a central single-duct discharge system as an air-conditioning system. A heat pump and a flat-plate solar collector installed on the roof of a building are used as the heat source. The seasonal storage tank in the ground just under the building is a cylindrical water tank of 5 m deep with the concrete used as body. The upper surface of a storage tank is heat-insulated by a stylo-platform of 200 mm, and the lower side surface by a stylo-platform of 100 mm. Calculation when the difference in temperature used in a seasonal storage tank is set to 35{degree}C and 25{degree}C was performed for the system that has two control methods. The overall exhaust heat recovery system is almost the same in energy performance as the partial exhaust heat recovery system. The partial exhaust heat recovery system is more advantageous on the economic side. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Survey report on a regional new energy vision establishment in Ueki Township. Town of solar energy and energy conservation (vision to build the town by actively living and creating with environment); Uekimachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho. Taiyo energy to sho energy no machi (kankyo to sekkyokuteki ni kyosei kyososuru machizukuri vision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Discussions were given on the new energy vision at Ueki Township in Kumamoto Prefecture. The total energy demand in Ueki Township is 898 x 10{sup 7} Kcal. of which about 44% is accounted for by the transportation department, 34.7% by the industrial department, and 21% by the consumer department. The total available regional new energy amount is estimated to be 52.1 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, which is consisted of stockbreeding wastes energy at 44.1%, solar energy power generation at 33.2% and solar heat utilization at 22.6%. Introduction of wind energy was judged impracticable. The new energy introduction plan calls for introduction of solar energy power generation for lighting and air conditioning of the diamond shaped nursery school, the Yamamoto nursery school, the Ueki Township office building, the multi-purpose sports center, the Ueki Hospital operated by the national health insurance, the multi-purpose health and welfare center, Yoshimatsu Sports Park, and Tahara Sports Park. A subsidy institution by the local government was discussed as the proliferation plan of solar energy power generation systems to be installed in individuals' houses and enterprises, with which introduction to residential houses of about 30% was targeted by 2010. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Rinsangata nenryo denchi no kasoku jumyo shiken hoho no hyojunka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for fuel cells, which are expected as a new clean energy, the R and D are being proceeded with in various fields of the world, but the standardization has not been made both in Japan and abroad. In Japan, the situation is that the information on technical terms, indication method, performance test method, and environment/safety test methods of the phosphorous acid fuel cell power generation is publicly spread. In relation to the international promotion of fuel cells to be predicted, it is necessary to internationally standardize cells themselves which are a key component of fuel cell power generation facilities. Phosphorous acid fuel cells are expected of the earliest commercialization of all, but the common test method to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack has not been established yet. In the R and D, for the purpose of internationally standardizing test methods to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack, a study on the acceleration life test method of phosphoric acid fuel cells was conducted in terms of the technical trend, data, standard, etc. A plan was prepared on general rules of the method to test acceleration life at the cell reaction part of the small cell, and activities also were started for setting up a technical committee for the fuel cell power system in President`s Advisory Committee on Future Technology. 29 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. 重构后的景观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤解; Taiyo Onorato(图); Nico Krebs(图)

    2008-01-01

    Taiyo Onorato和Nico Krebs,对现实中正在流行的结构和构成形态烂熟于心。经过他们重构后的景观,完成了对现实的一次戏谑性的模仿,这表现在,重新描述后的公路景观、户外的卧室、山上种的薯条、泥地里的汽车。

  14. Fiscal 1993 international research cooperation project. Feasibility study of finding out the seeds of international joint research (technology for environmental preservation using biotechnology, technology for effective use unused hydrocarbon resource, technology of solid electrolyte fuel cells for high-efficient electric vehicles); 1993 nendo kokusai kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kokusai kyodo kenkyu seeds hakkutsu no tame no FS chosa (biotechnology ni yoru kankyo taisaku gijutsu, miriyo tanka suiso shigen no yuko riyo gijutsu, kokoritsu denki jidosha no kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is aimed at internationally cooperating in the R and D of industrial technology and improving industrial technology of Japan. For it, the following three technologies were investigated: 1) environmental preservation technology using biotechnology, 2) technology for effective use of unused hydrocarbon resource, 3) solid electrolyte fuel cell (SOFC) technology for high-efficient electric vehicles. In 1), bio-remediation is a choice as the result of trially using technologies for remediation of the environment polluted by pollutant, but it is not a technically completed one, but one which will be improved by trial and error. By the application of gene engineering, the use of gene recombination enables wide spread of decomposition genes. In 2), technical subjects were studied such as superheavy distillate, oil shale, coalhead methane and methane hydrate. In 3), designed were cylinder type and planar type SOFC of 850degC operation and 10kW output. Accumulation and weight of a total SOFC system are 81 liters and 100 kg in cylinder type and 136 liters and 200 kg in planar type. The vehicle can be equipped with the SOFC. 171 refs., 72 figs., 54 tabs.

  15. Development of Mo recycle technique from generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic 99Mo production by the (n,γ) method is proposed in JMTR because of low amount of radioactive wastes and easy 99Mo/99mTc production process. For the development of domestic production, it is necessary to use the enriched 98MoO3, which is very expensive, for high specific activity of 99Mo. A large amount of used PZC/PTC embraced 98Mo is also generated after the decay of 99Mo. JAEA and Taiyo Koko is proposed to recover molybdenum from the used PZC/PTC for an effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. Preliminary experiments of Mo recycling with un-irradiated MoO3 were carried out by the elution and sublimation methods. From the results, Mo recovery rate from the PZC/PTC was more than 95% by two kinds of methods. The prospects are bright for Mo recycle and reduction of radioactive wastes using these methods. (author)

  16. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T P; Sakaguchi, N; Juneja, L R; Wada, E; Yokozawa, T

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of amla extracts and their effects on the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined in rats. Amla in the form of either the commercial enzymatic extract SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi, Japan) (20 or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a polyphenol-rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day) was given orally for 20 days to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Amla extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Amla also showed strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral administration of amla extracts to the diabetic rats slightly improved body weight gain and also significantly alleviated various oxidative stress indices of the serum of the diabetic rats. The elevated serum levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a glycosylated protein that is an indicator of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced dose-dependently in the diabetic rats fed amla. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, yet another oxidative stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were significantly reduced with amla, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in the diabetic rats were significantly improved with amla. Amla also significantly improved the serum adiponectin levels. These results form the scientific basis supporting the efficacy of amla for relieving the oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes. PMID:16176148

  17. PREFACE: International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences: from Non-living to Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Hiroto; Murase, Masatoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    (Institute for Complex and Adaptive Matter, USA), Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (Kyoto University), Institute of Economic Research (Kyoto University) and Kyoto University GCOEs (Global Centers Of Excellence: Physics, Chemistry, and Economics). The workshop was also supported by Niki Glass Company Ltd., THAMWAY Corp., TAIYO NIPPON SANSO, and Quantum Design Japan. The Editors and the Organizing Committee, Masatoshi Murase Kyoto University, Japan Kazuo Nishimura Kyoto University, Japan Kazuyoshi Yoshimura Kyoto University, Japan: Conference Chairman and Chief Editor Hiroto Ohta Kyoto University, Tokyo University of A&T, Japan: Conference Secretary Conference Photograph, 14 October 2010 Conference Photograph Conference Poster Conference Poster

  18. Ionospheric data for two solar cycles available online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report about a project that has as its goal to make a large volume of ionospheric satellite insitu data from the sixties, seventies and early eighties easily accessible for public use The original data exist in various machine-specific, highly compressed, binary encoding on 7- or 9-track magnetic tapes. The intent is to decode the data format and convert all data sets to a common ASCII data format and add solar and magnetic indices for user convenience. The original intent of producing CD-ROMs with these data has meanwhile been overtaken by the rapid development of the internet. Most users now prefer to obtain the data directly online and greatly value web-interfaces to browse, plot and subset the data. Accordingly, the focus has shifted to making the data available online on the anonymous ftp site of NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at ftp://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft data/ and on the development of a web-interface (ATMOWeb, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ atmoweb/) to help users study the data and select interesting time periods. The data considered by this project include data sets from the Alouette I, BE-B (Explorer 22), Alouette 2, DME-A (Explorer 31) , AE-B (Explorer 32), AE-C, -D, -E, OGO-6, ESRO-4, ISIS-I, -2, AEROS-I, -2 Taiyo, ISS-b, Hinotori and DE-2 satellites. The data are primarily electron and ion densities and temperatures measured by Langmuir Probes (LP), Retarding Potential Analyzers (RPA), and Ion Mass Spectrometers (IMS) flown on these satellites. The time resolution of the measurements is typically seconds to minutes. This data base covering almost two solar cycles is a unique asset for studies of the variation and variability of ionospheric parameters. It will be an important element in the quest for a better understanding of ionospheric plasma processes and for improved predictions of ionospheric Space Weather. Current models are still very limited in their predictive capabilities especially at equatorial and auroral

  19. PREFACE Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takanashi, Koki; Sahashi, Masashi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo

    2011-01-01

    IgarashiHitachi, CRL, JapanK TajimaAkita Univ., Japan H ItoKansai Univ., JapanM TakedaJAEA, Japan H IwasakiToshiba, JapanY TakemuraYokohama Nat'l Univ., Japan H KatoYamagata Univ., JapanM TanakaUniv. of Tokyo, Japan M KonotoAIST, JapanA TsukamotoNihon Univ., Japan H KubotaAIST, JapanS YabukamiTohoku Gakuin Univ., Japan Treasury Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M SahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS SaitoTohoku Univ., Japan K IshiyamaTohoku Univ., JapanT TanakaEhime Univ., Japan K NakagawaNihon Univ., JapanN TezukaTohoku Univ., Japan T OgawaTohoku Univ., Japan Executive Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M TakahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS SaitoTohoku Univ., Japan K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Vice-chairY SakurabaTohoku Univ., Japan K MiyakeTohoku Univ., JapanT ShimaTohoku Gakuin Univ., Japan T OgawaTohoku Univ., JapanN TezukaTohoku Univ., Japan S OkamotoTohoku Univ., JapanM TsunodaTohoku Univ., Japan M OoganeTohoku Univ., Japan We are grateful to all the participants for their valuable contributions and active discussions. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from 17 Japanese companies (ASAKA RIKEN CO., LTD, Fujikin Incorporated, Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd, Hitachi Metals, Ltd, IZUMI-TEC CO., LTD, Miwa Electric Industrial CO., LTD, MIWA MFG CO., LTD, NEOARK Corporation, Optima Corporation, PRESTO CO., LTD, SHOWA DENKO K.K., TAIYO YUDEN CO., LTD, TDK Corporation, TEIJIN LIMITED, Ube Material Industries, Ltd, ULVAC, Inc, and V TEX Corporation) and 7 foundations (SENDAI TOURISM & CONVENTION BUREAU, The Iwatani Naoji Foundation, Tohoku University Electro-Related Departments Global COE Program 'Center of Education and Research for Information Electronics Systems', The Murata Science Foundation, Research Foundation for Materials Science, Nippon Sheet Glass Foundation for Materials Science and Engineering, and Aoba Foundation for The Promotion of Engineering).