WorldWideScience

Sample records for choice white grease

  1. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  2. The effects of select factors on the pour point, cloud point, and cold filter plugging point of soybean-, choice white grease-, and corn-based biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Kelly

    Soybean-, choice white grease-, and corn-based biodiesel from different sources blended with cold flow modifiers from 0.0% to 4.0% by weight were tested for cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and pour point (PP). The soybean-based blend that showed the best result was four weight percent of TechnolRTM B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver used on B99 obtained from Wacker Oil, which resulted in a CP of -3°C, a PP of -18 °C, and a CFPP of -7°C. The TechnolRTM product slightly improved the CFPP of corn-based biodiesel when used at 2.0 weight percent, reducing it from -1°C to -4°C. No significant improvements were observed on choice white grease-based biodiesel blends. It was shown that, CFPP is not a linear function of the CP; the order of cold flow properties here occasionally follows the trend of the Cloud Point being greater than or equal to the Pour Point which is greater than or equal to the Cold Filter Plugging Point; and the source of the biodiesel also has a significant effect on the cold flow properties.

  3. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  4. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, distillers dried grains with solubles, and choice white grease on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Petry, D B

    2012-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding combinations of wheat middlings (midds), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and choice white grease (CWG) to growing-finishing pig diets on growth, carcass traits, and carcass fat quality. In Exp. 1, 288 pigs (average initial BW = 46.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS, the DDGS diet with 10% midds, or the DDGS diet with 20% midds. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:ME ratios within each phase. Overall (d 0 to 84), pigs fed diets containing increasing midds had decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.02) ADG and G:F, but ADFI was not affected. Feeding 30% DDGS did not influence growth. For carcass traits, increasing midds decreased (linear, P pigs (initial BW = 42.3 kg) were used in an 87-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 2 amounts of midds (0 or 20%) and 3 amounts of CWG (0, 2.5, or 5.0%). All diets contained 15% DDGS. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant SID Lys:ME ratios in each phase. No CWG × midds interactions were observed. Overall (d 0 to 87), feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs increasing CWG had improved ADG (quadratic, P = 0.03) and G:F (linear, P Dietary midds or CWG did not affect ADFI. For carcass traits, feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs fed CWG had decreased (linear, P pig growth performance, carcass yield, and increased jowl fat iodine value. Although increasing diet energy with CWG can help mitigate negative effects on live performance, CWG did not eliminate negative impacts of midds on carcass yield, HCW, and jowl fat iodine value.

  5. The effect of chromium as chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease, or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R; Powell, S; Johnston, S L; Matthews, J O; Bidner, T D; Valdez, F R; Southern, L L

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of Cr as chromium propionate (CrProp) on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and the fatty acid profile of fat from pigs fed no supplemented dietary fat, choice white grease (CWG), or tallow. An experiment was conducted with 108 crossbred Yorkshire gilts assigned in a randomized complete block design based on BW (average initial and final BW were 29 +/- 3 and 109 +/- 7 kg, respectively) and allotted within block to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The treatment arrangement consisted of 2 levels of Cr supplementation (0 and 200 microg/kg in the form of CrProp) and 3 dietary fat sources (no added fat, CWG, or tallow). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 3 pigs per replicate pen. The experiment was conducted over time with 3 replicates in each of 2 trials. A 4-phase grower-finisher feeding program was used. Dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet with no added fat; 2) a C-SBM diet with 4% added tallow; 3) a C-SBM diet with 4% added CWG; 4) diet 1 + 200 microg/kg of Cr as CrProp; and 5) diet 2 + 200 microg/kg of Cr; 6) diet 3 + 200 microg/kg of Cr. Addition of Cr did not affect (P > 0.10) growth performance, but did decrease (P = 0.05) 10th-rib backfat and increase (P = 0.03) percentage of muscle. Gain:feed was increased (P = 0.003) and ADFI was decreased (P = 0.03) by fat addition. Fat addition increased HCW (P = 0.05) and dressing percent (P = 0.03). Average backfat, 9th-rib LM cook loss, and 10th-rib LM drip loss and total loss were decreased (P = 0.02 to 0.04) by tallow. Belly bending on both the teatline and scribe side were increased (P = 0.01 to 0.03) by CWG. Iodine values on belly fat samples were decreased (P = 0.02) by Cr supplementation. In addition, iodine values on belly and loin fat samples were increased (P = 0.001) by CWG. Overall, Cr supplementation decreased backfat and the iodine value of belly fat and increased the percentage of muscle.

  6. Lubricating Grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, G.

    Grease lubrication is a complex mixture of science and engineering, requires an interdisciplinary approach, and is applied to the majority of bearings worldwide. Grease can be more than a lubricant; it is often expected to perform as a seal, corrosion inhibitor, shock absorber and a noise suppressant. It is a viscoelastic plastic solid, therefore, a liquid or solid, dependent upon the applied physical conditions of stress and/or temperature, with a yield value, σ o. It has a coarse structure of filaments within a matrix. The suitability of flow properties of a grease for an application is best determined using a controlled stress rheometer for the frequency response of parameters such as yield, σ o, complex shear modulus, G * , phase angle, δ, and the complex viscosity, η *.

  7. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  8. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  9. Grease lubrication mechanisms in bearing seals

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rolling bearings contain seals to keep lubricant inside and contaminants outside the bearing system. These systems are often lubricated with grease; the grease acts as a lubricant for the bearing and seal and improves the sealing efficiency. In this thesis, the influence of lubricating grease on bearing seal performance is studied. Rheological properties of the grease, i.e. shear stress and normal stress difference, are evaluated and related to the lubricating and sealing performance of the s...

  10. Effects of Hydrocarbon-Based Grease on Rapid Prototype Material Used for Grease Retention Shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Valco, Daniel J.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of hydrocarbon-based greases on specific rapid prototype (RP) materials used to fabricate grease retention shrouds (GRS) were explored in this study. Grease retention shrouds are being considered as a way to maintain adequate grease lubrication at the gear mesh in a prototype research transmission system. Due to their design and manufacturing flexibility, rapid prototype materials were chosen for the grease retention shrouds. In order to gain a better understanding of the short and long term effects grease pose on RP materials, research was conducted on the interaction of hydrocarbon-based grease with RP materials. The materials used in this study were durable polyamide (nylon), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and WaterClear 10120. Testing was conducted using Mobilgrease 28 and Syn-Tech 3913G grease (gear coupling grease). These greases were selected due to their regular use with mechanical components. To investigate the effect that grease has on RP materials, the following methods were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), interference profilometer measurements, digital camera imaging, physical shape measurement, and visual observations. To record the changes in the RP materials due to contact with the grease, data was taken before and after the grease application. Results showed that the WaterClear 10120 RP material provided the best resistance to grease penetration as compared to nylon and ABS RP materials. The manufacturing process, and thus resulting surface conditions of the RP material, played a key role in the grease penetration properties and resilience of these materials.

  11. 7 CFR 2902.31 - Greases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies are: (i) Food grade greases. Lubricants that are designed for use on food-processing equipment as... parts and equipment in locations in which there is exposure of the lubricated part to food. (ii... are designed for use on railroad tracks or heavy crane tracks. (iv) Truck greases. Lubricants that...

  12. Biobased greases: soap structure and composition effects on tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review containing 58 references on bio-based grease. Bio-based grease use is limited but a successful part of the lubricant market and will likely grow considerably due to economic, environmental and legislative factors. There is not one formulation of grease or grease thickener that will be suc...

  13. The Development and Application of Automotive CVJ Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Ming; Ouyang Qiu

    2006-01-01

    The development trend of the CVJ (constant velocity joint) greases is briefly introduced in this paper. Based on the evaluation of various base stocks, thickeners and additives, the formulation and manufacture of the long-life CVJ grease is finalized. Bench tests and vehicle performance evaluation tests tive CVJ. This grease features an outstanding low and high temperature performance, extreme pressure,anti-corrosion and anti-rust properties equivalent to those of similar overseas greases. Compared with the traditional MoS2 containing lithium based CVJ grease, the performance of the new grease is much better.

  14. Synthetic Lubricating Oil Greases Containing Metal Chelates of Schiff Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-15

    greases comprising the addition to said greases of effective amounts of a chelated Schiff base derived from the condensation of approximately stoichiometic amounts of at least one aldehyde and a polyamine.

  15. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  16. White and grey matter relations to simple, choice, and cognitive reaction time in spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Cirino, Paul T; Simic, Nevena; Juranek, Jenifer; Taylor, W Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

    2016-03-01

    Elevated reaction time (RT) is common in brain disorders. We studied three forms of RT in a neurodevelopmental disorder, spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), characterized by regional alterations of both white and grey matter, and typically developing individuals aged 8 to 48 years, in order to establish the nature of the lifespan-relations of RT and brain variables. Cognitive accuracy and RT speed and variability were all impaired in SBM relative to the typically developing group, but the most important effects of SBM on RT are seen on tasks that require a cognitive decision rule. Individuals with SBM are impaired not only in speeded performance, but also in the consistency of their performance on tasks that extend over time, which may contribute to poor performance on a range of cognitive tasks. The group with SBM showed smaller corrected corpus callosum proportions, larger corrected cerebellar white matter proportions, and larger corrected proportions for grey matter in the Central Executive and Salience networks. There were clear negative relations between RT measures and corpus callosum, Central Executive, and Default Mode networks in the group with SBM; relations were not observed in typically developing age peers. Statistical mediation analyses indicated that corpus callosum and Central Executive Network were important mediators. While RT is known to rely heavily on white matter under conditions of typical development and in individuals with adult-onset brain injury, we add the new information that additional involvement of grey matter may be important for a key neuropsychological function in a common neurodevelopmental disorder.

  17. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  18. Narratives of Choice amongst white Australians who undertake Surrogacy Arrangements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on a rhetorical analysis of interviews with fifteen white Australian citizens who had undertaken offshore commercial surrogacy in India. Extending previous research, the findings suggest that genetic relatedness was valorized, and surrogacy constructed as a less tenuous route to family formation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the need for further research on 1) how the contentious nature of offshore commercial surrogacy may prevent full consideration of its ethical implications, 2) the differing belief systems between India and Australia in terms of children as alienable objects, and 3) ongoing consideration of how and when genetic-relatedness is made to matter.

  19. COLORS FERTILE T. UYAR WAYS OF READING IN THE DILEMMA / FIRST CHOICE: BLACK AND WHITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since all light from the sun, which is still dominated by the first light of the sky or the sun. World time gave even at their disposal. They do people, he must realize that, albeit in different forms in the light. the main source of artificial light until it has never been changed. Poetry actually crushed under the light, will be written. He said the poet who want to reach an unknown time, the intention is to go on the road as close to divine theology. Take under the influence of the environment as a soul the dust of the poem depends to spread the spirit of all known. That's why we look at our poets, they move beyond what we see at a glance. The sense of light known by everyone. Special meaning is a reflection of the property. İknci Yeni, has witnessed a time of poetic intensity in the Turkish poetry tradition. Different trends in the world, has seen a time when the break occurred. All transitions have very different reactions in the human world of poets exception. Turgut Uyar, then all the values of the semi-urban stuck together as a personality we can say that to their climate. Light is a double value illuminating or decision they want to see him. Besides the special general sense, it also carries a qualified sense. Particularly striking is filled with black and white images load. White is interesting to carry the same attributes in the black space of the tragic point. This Turgut Uyar, adds a different dimension to the meaning of the poem.

  20. Probe and Sensors Development for Level Measurement of Fats, Oils and Grease in Grease Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Faria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread of food outlets has become an environmental and sanitation infrastructure problem, due to Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG. A grease box is used at the industrials facilities to collect the FOG, in a specific time window, while its quality is good for recycling (e.g., biodiesel and it is economically valuable. After this period, it will be disposed at a cost. For the proper management of the grease boxes, it is necessary to know the quantity of FOG inside the boxes, which is a major problem, as the boxes are sealed and permanently filled with water. The lack of homogeneity of the FOG renders it not detectable by current probes for level detection in liquids. In this article, the design, development and testing of a set of probes for FOG level measurement, based on the principles used in sensors for the detection of liquids inside containers, is described. The most suitable probe, based on the capacitance principle, together with the necessary hardware and software modules for data acquisition and transmission, was developed and tested. After the development phase, the probe was integrated on a metropolitan system for FOG collection and grease box management in partnership with a grease box management company.

  1. Discussion of Influence Factors on Grease Bearing Life Complex Lithium Grease%复合锂基润滑脂轴承寿命影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆日; 李元鸿; 赵丽; 张引

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of the type of base oil, viscosity and reasonable choice of antioxidant and extreme pressure agent combination in to complex lithium grease, can reduce the bearing running noise, control temperature, thus extending bearing life grease.%优化复合锂基润滑脂基础油的种类、黏度以及合理选择抗氧剂和极压剂的组合,能有效降低轴承振动、控制温升,进而延长润滑脂的轴承寿命.

  2. Chemical Analysis of Hydrocarbon Grease from Spin Bearing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    antioxidant but rather to some grease degradation products. (The antioxidant is expected to vaporize and leave the grease under vacuum.) The gas...to 10-3 torr level, phenyl-8- naphthylamIne Is sufficiently volatile to vaporize and leave the grease. The appearance of the solitary, hydrocarbon...Configuration of 2,4- Decadienals Isolated from Oils Containing Linoleic Acid," Nature 185, 310-311 (1960). 7. B. G. Tarladgis, and B. M. Watts

  3. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  4. 7 CFR 2902.24 - Graffiti and grease removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... remove automotive, industrial, or kitchen soils and oils, including grease, paint, and other coatings, from hard surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have...

  5. Field characterization of external grease abatement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Tarek N; Holt, Leon M; Keener, Kevin M; Groninger, John W; Ducoste, Joel J

    2012-03-01

    This study characterized some of the physical and chemical features of large outside field grease abatement devices (GADs). 24-hour measurements of several food service establishments' (FSEs') influent GAD flowrates indicated highly intermittent conditions with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that exceeded the common recommendation (30 minutes) by two to five times. Investigation into the chemical characteristics of GADs indicated highly variable influent and effluent fat, oil, and grease (FOG) concentrations. Low pH and dissolved oxygen values were measured throughout the GAD, indicating the likely occurrence of anaerobic microbial processes. Detailed spatial and temporal observations of the accumulation of FOG and food solids were also discussed. Though the FOG layer remained relatively constant for all GAD configurations investigated, results indicated that commonly-used GAD configurations with a straight submerged inlet tee or no-inlet tee configuration may result in the transport of food solids into the second compartment. The present research showed increased accumulation of food solids in the first compartment with a retro-fit flow distributive inlet. This retro-fit displays promise for potentially improving the separation characteristics of existing GADs.

  6. Investigation of the Ultrafiltration Technique Using Military Greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    eith fiered sample. Table 4 shows the total solid composition of test greases which was measured at before and after filtration using TGA analysis . In...this TGA analysis , about one percent of the solid composition was filtered out of the MIL-G-8 1322D grease, while only 0.4 percent of solid was removed

  7. Wear Debris Analysis of Grease Lubricated Ball Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-12

    fluid and debris were placed in a glass bottle and sealed with a plastic cap using a teflon sealing disk. The grease and cleaning fluid were...manner. 1. Ten 3m-diameter glass beads were placed in a 1/2 ounce bottle . The use of these glass beads aided the agitation process of the grease...AD-A19’ 470 NAVAL AIR ENGINEERING CENTER LAKEHURST NJ SUPPORT EGU -ETC F/B 11/9 WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS OF GREASE LUBRICATED BALL BEARINGS(U

  8. Greased hedgehogs: new links between hedgehog signaling and cholesterol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, R.

    2007-01-01

    Greased hedgehogs: New links between hedgehog signaling and cholesterol metabolism Rainer Breitling * Groningen Bioinformatics Centre, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands email: Rainer Breitling (r.breitling@rug.nl) *Co

  9. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  10. Minuteman III Motor-Generator Bearing Grease Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Compatibility Test Results with GIA and Other Candidate Greases--- 21 3. Corrosion Test Results of Candidate preservative Oils by ASTM D1748 Test Method...Type 1 (Aeroshell 33) ( GIA ) diester Lithium soap Instrument Bearing -40 to 175 °C Shell Alvania Grease RL2 (Shell) PAO Lithium soap... GIA MFK- LS1124 MFK- LS112B Evaporation, ASTM E1131 Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Roll Stability, ASTM D1831 Pass Pass Pass

  11. Future greases in the future; Schmierfettkonzepte fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minis, Karl-Josef [FUCHS EUROPE SCHMIERSTOFFE GMBH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The ongoing discussions concerning the reduced consumption of fossil fuels and subsequent reduction of carbon dioxide emissions finally reached the lubricating manufacturers who are now forced to raise the efficiency of industrial and automotive components. This presentation will show how lubricating manufacturers achieve higher efficiency with longterm available raw material. Besides optimizing the tribological system the lubricating manufacturer is challenged by the shortage, or even loss of existing raw materials. Furthermore, the selection of raw materials is limited by new legistations like, i.e. REACH, the European Directive on End-of-Life Vehicles, GHS (Global Health and Safety), etc. Examples with vehicle components will show how modern greases meet these new requirements. Focus will be set on dramatically higher needs, caused by increasing drive train's electrification, although car manufacturers have not yet decided on which systems they are actually going to bring on the market. However, it has already become obvious that requirements for greases concerning noise behaviour, comfort, pressure, acceleration and friction reduction become more and more important. The situation of the greases' key raw materials will be described the lubricating manufacturer is going to meet this situation. Besides the development of new greases the possibility of reactivating ''forgotten'' and formerly used greases will be examined. Here, focus must be set on appropriate thickener types. Due to the dramatic raw material situation and future increasing demands lubricating greases become more and more a basic machine element to fulfil complex requirements. (orig.)

  12. Upgrading the conventional grease trap using a tube settler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, W; Ng, F L

    2000-08-01

    Grease traps are widely used by most restaurants and food processing industries in Hong Kong to reduce oil and grease to an acceptable level before it can be discharged to public sewers. To meet demanding effluent standards in the future, it is necessary to polish the effluent by upgrading the conventional trap design. This study evaluated the possibility of upgrading traditional grease traps by installing tube settlers inside the trap. Their efficiency of removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil/grease was examined to justify the performance. It was found that installing a tube settler is a feasible and cheap way to upgrade the conventional grease trap, since it improved oil/grease removal efficiency by 8-10% compared to the conventional design. In addition, a remarkable improvement in COD removal was observed following a very short hydraulic detention time after the installation of tube settlers. This ensured acceptable effluent quality under peak flowrates. Two mathematical models were also proposed to facilitate trap design.

  13. San Francisco Biofuel Program: Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolis, Domènec [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Martis, Mary [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jones, Bonnie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Miot, Alex [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ving, Karri [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sierra, Natalie [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States); Niobi, Morayo [San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas.

  14. Shifts in microbial communities in bioaugmented grease interceptors removing fat, oil, and grease (FOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; So, Mark Jason; de Los Reyes, Francis L

    2016-08-01

    To understand the effect of daily bioaugmentation in full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), we compared the microbial communities occurring in two full-scale GIs during bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented cycles. The changes in microbial communities were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. Differences in the microbial community structure between control and bioaugmented cycles were observed in all cases, although the dominant terminal restriction fragments in the biological product were not detected. The addition of bioaugmentation products and changes in the GI microbial ecology were related to differences in GI performance. Understanding the shifts due to bioaugmentation will result in more informed assessments of the benefits of bioadditives on FOG removal in GIs as well as the effects on downstream sewer lines.

  15. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  16. Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.X.; Westerberg, L.G.; Höglund, E.; Lugt, P.M.; Baart, P.

    2014-01-01

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study,

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.602-1 - Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. 101-26.602-1 Section 101-26.602-1 Public Contracts and...-26.602-1 Procurement of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants. (a) The Defense Fuel Supply Center will make annual procurements of lubricating oils, greases, and gear lubricants for ground...

  18. Quantifying fat, oil, and grease deposit formation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits formed in sanitary sewers are calcium-based saponified solids that are responsible for a significant number of nationwide sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) across United States. In the current study, the kinetics of lab-based saponified solids were determined to un...

  19. Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Dhiman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of lubricating soft grease used in rail engines are studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. LIBS spectra of fresh, partially used and fully used grease samples are recorded using time-gated ICCD spectrometer for verification of compositional degradation of the used grease. LIBS spectra of grease samples are analyzed by comparing with emission spectra of elements published by NIST standard database. Many spectral lines of impurity elements like Fe, Cu, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ni, S, Zn, Si, Pb, Ti, Ca and Al present in the grease in ppm or ppb level in trace level concentrations are observed in excess in the used grease mainly due to wear and tear. On the other hand in fresh grease, spectral lines of Ca, Al and Na are observed predominantly.

  20. Consistency-dependent optical properties of lubricating grease studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Lu; Miao Qing; Zhang Cun-Lin; Zhou Qing-Li; Zhao Kun; Shi Yu-Lei; Zhao Dong-Mei; Zhao Song-Qing; Zhao Hui; Bao Ri-Ma; Zhu Shou-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of four kinds of lubricating greases (urea, lithium, extreme pressure lithium, molybdenum disulfide lithium greases) with different NLGL (National Lubricant Grease Institute of America) numbers were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Greases with different NLGL grades have unique spectral features in the terahertz range. Comparison of the experimental data with predictions based on Lorentz-Lorenz theory exhibited that the refractive indices of each kind of lubricating grease were dependent on the their consistency. In addition,molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a libricant additive shows strong absorption from 0.2 to 1.4 THz, leading to higher absorption of MoS2-1ithium grease than that of lithium grease.

  1. Thermal Grease Evaluation for ATLAS Upgrade Micro-Strip Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Ferrère, D; Pernecker, S; Perrin, E; Streit, KP; Weber, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade detector foreseen at the phase 2 upgrade of LHC requires a complete new inner detector using silicon pixel and strip detectors. For both technologies, a specific mechanical and thermal design is required. Such a design may use soft thermal interfaces such as grease between the various parts. One foreseeable use would be between the cooling pipe and the thermal block allowing the strip modules to be decoupled from the mechanical and cooling structure. This note describes the technique used and the results obtained when characterizing a few grease samples. The results have been compared with thermal FEA simulations. A thermal conductivity measurement for each sample could be extracted from the measurements, with a systematic uncertainty of less than 6%. Some samples were irradiated to the expected fluence at sLHC and their resulting thermal conductivity compared with the non-irradiated samples.

  2. REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE FROM AN OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Naseri

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research performed during 1993-1994, the effluent of Behran Oil Refmery, in south of Tehran, which produces different types of industrial oil and greases, was studied and 3 methods of gravity separation, coagulation and flocculation and dissolved air flotation were investigated. In the first phase of the survey, the quality and quantity of the effluent were determined. This showed an average daily flow rate of 302 m3, pH 9.03, and average concentration of 314.84, 3330, 200, 1726 and 34.5 mg/l, respectively for oil, COD, SS, TS and furfural. In the second phase, the efficiency of abovementioned treatment methods were as follows: Applying gravity separation with the detention time of 180 mm, removal percentages for COD, SS and greases were 30.3%, 52.5% and 49.6%, respectively. Applying coagulation and flocculation following gravity separation different coagulants (alum, lime and ferric chloride were used and their treatment efficiencies were evaluated. Lime showed the highest efficiency of 64% and 85.4%, for grease and COD removal, respectively in pH 11. Dissolved air flotation (DAF, which was conducted in the pressure of 3 bars, showed average removal percentages of 9l.96% and 79.17%, for the oil and COD, respectively. So, this system may be chosen as the most efficient one in oil and grease removal producing an effluent which may be fed to a biological treatment unit to remove other pollutants such as ROD and COD.

  3. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxyge...

  4. Grease ice in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models

    OpenAIRE

    Lars H. Smedsrud; Martin, Torge

    2015-01-01

    The first stage of sea-ice formation is often grease ice, a mixture of sea water and frazil ice crystals. Over time, grease ice typically congeals first to pancake ice floes and then to a solid sea-ice cover. Grease ice is commonly not explicitly simulated in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models, though it affects oceanic heat loss and ice growth and is expected to play a greater role in a more seasonally icecovered Arctic Ocean. We present an approach to simulate the grease-ice layer with, as ba...

  5. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  6. Performance and Analysis of Perfluoropolyalkyl Ether Grease Used on Space Shuttle Actuators--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2013-01-01

    Actuators used on the United States space shuttle fleet are lubricated with unspecified amounts of Braycote 601 (Castrol Braycote) grease consisting of a perfluoropolyalkyl ether (PFPAE) base oil thickened with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filler. Each shuttle has four body flap actuators (BFAs) (two on each wing) on a common segmented shaft and four rudder speed brake (RSB) actuators. The actuators were designed to operate for 10 years and 100 flights without periodic relubrication. Visible inspection of two partially disassembled RSB actuators in continuous use for 19 years raised concerns over possible grease degradation due to discoloration of the grease on several places on the surfaces of the gears. Inspection revealed fretting, micropitting, wear and corrosion of the bearings and gears. A small amount of oil dripped from the disassembled actuators. Whereas new grease is beige in appearance, the discolored grease consisted of both grey and reddish colors. Grease samples taken from the actuators together with representative off-the-shelf new and unused grease samples were analyzed by gravimetry for oil content; by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) for metals content; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for base oil decomposition; and by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for determination of the molecular weight distributions of the grease oil. The Braycote 601 grease was stable after 19 years of continuous use in the sealed RSB actuators and was fit for its intended purpose. There were no significant chemical differences between the used grease samples and new and unused samples. Base oil separation was not significant within the sealed actuators. No corrosive effect in the form of iron fluoride was detected. The grey color of grease samples was due to metallic iron. The red color was due to oxidation of the metallic wear particles from the gears and the bearings comprising the actuators.

  7. Vibration control of a structure using Magneto-Rheological grease damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shinya; Sakurai, Tomoki; Morishita, Shin

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes an application study of Magneto-Rheological (MR) grease damper to a structure with three stories. MR fluid is known as one of successful smart materials whose rheological properties can be varied by magnetic field strength, and has been applied to various kinds of device such as dampers, clutches, engine mounts, etc. However, ferromagnetic particles dispersed in MR fluid settle out of the suspension after a certain interval due to the density difference between the particles and their career fluid. To overcome this defect, we have developed a new type of controllable working fluid using grease as the career of magnetic particles. Network of thickener in grease is expected to hold the magnetic particles and prevent them from settled down. No or little sedimentation was observed in MR grease whose characteristics could be controlled by the magnetic field strength. MR grease was introduced into a cylindrical damper and its performance was studied. As a result, it was confirmed that the damping force of MR grease damper could be controlled by the applied electric current to the coil in the cylinder of damper. Furthermore, vibration response of a three-story model structure equipped with MR grease damper was investigated experimentally, and it was shown that MR grease damper worked effectively as a semi-active damper.

  8. Seismic response reduction of a three-story building by an MR grease damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Tomoki; Morishita, Shin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an application of magneto- rheological (MR) grease dampers as seismic dampers for a three-story steel structure. MR fluid is widely known as a smart material with rheological properties that can be varied by magnetic field strength. This material has been applied to various types of devices, such as dampers, clutches, and engine mounts. However, the ferromagnetic particles dispersed in MR fluid settle out of the suspension after a certain interval because of the density difference between the particles and their carrier fluid. To overcome this defect, we developed a new type of controllable working fluid using grease as the carrier of magnetic particles. MR grease was introduced into a cylindrical damper, and the seismic performance of the damper was subsequently studied via numerical analysis. The analysis results of the MR grease damper were compared with those of other seismic dampers. We confirmed that the MR grease damper is an effective seismic damper.

  9. Oil and Grease Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using New Utility Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Abd El-Gawad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to investigate oil and grease pollution that may pollute fresh water and influence aquatic environment. Then removal of oil and grease from manufacturing wastewater befall essential but common techniques not enough. Enzyme and adsorption units representing major developed new laboratory were selected to assess the water quality and humiliation prospective of oil and grease from wastewater. Several components and environmental variables that were dissolved oxygen, bacteriology measure, flow rate and adsorption material amount studied to assess the removal performance of oil and grease. The results elucidated significant variations among different tests which influenced microbial necessary role of oxidation declining develop biological treatment process reached to 72%. The study stressed out natural material (zeolite that enhanced organic reduction under optimal conditions. These conditions were closer spacing and high length of adsorbing unit that led to increase oil and grease contact period with adsorbent and added to increase performance removal reached to 99%.

  10. Comparative Studies on Low Noise Greases Operating under High Temperature Oxidation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Chunhua; Mi Hongying; Feng Qiang; Wu Baojie

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation induction time (OIT) testing by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate the oxidation resistance of lubricating greases. Under the high temperature condition, bearing noise was detected when grease passed the initial stable stage of oxidation. The chemical and physical structure of grease samples before and after high tem-perature oxidation were also analyzed by FT-IR spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), then the effects of oxidation at high temperature on bearing noise were investigated. It is found out that for lithium greases, oxidation of base oil and thickener is the main reason responsible for the increasing bearing noise. As regards the polyurea greases, the change of ifber microstructure at high temperature is the main reason for the increasing bearing noise.

  11. μPIV measurement of grease velocity profiles in channels with two different types of flow restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.X.; Hoglund, E.; Westerberg, L.G.; Green, T.M.; Lundstrom, T.S.; Lugt, P.M.; Baart, P.

    2012-01-01

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling bearings and seals. In this paper the flow of lubricating grease passing restrictions is described. Such flow occurs in rolling bearings during relubrication events where the grease is flowing in the transverse (axial) d

  12. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  13. An Evaluation of Liquid, Solid, and Grease Lubricants for Space Mechanisms Using a Spiral Orbit Tribometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present the findings of the test program performed by The European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL) to evaluate the performance (friction and lifetime) of a number of space lubricants under vacuum using a Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT). Focus was given to a comparison of various popular space oils, a comparison study between the old and new MAPLUB grease formulations, and the performance of commonly used solid lubricants under various conditions. Tests demonstrated that the lifetimes of hydrocarbon NYE oils 2001 & 2001A outperformed those of the perfluroropolyalkylether (PFPE) oils Fomblin Z25 & Z60, though these pairs displayed similar behavior. This relationship was also generally seen for greases; with the lifetimes of the multiple alkylated cyclopentane (MAC)-based greases being extended in comparison to the PFPE-based greases. Testing on greases also demonstrated similar performance between the old (-a) and new (-b) formulations when considering PFPE-based MAPLUB greases, and indeed for all tested PFPE-based non-MAPLUB greases, but significantly shorter lifetimes for the new formulations when considering MAC-based MAPLUB greases. MAPLUB MAC greases containing molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) thickener were also found to display reduced lifetimes. For solid lubricants, lead displayed significantly extended lifetimes over MoS2, speculated to be caused by redistribution of lead from the ball onto all contact surfaces during the test. Friction coefficients were seen to be some 2.5x higher for lead than for MoS2 under similar conditions, a result that corresponds well with conventional bearing tests. The work described was performed under contract for the European Space Agency as part of the Tribology Applications Program, with all funding for testing and apparatus provided by European Space Agency (ESA).

  14. Study on Preparation and Properties of Grease Based on Ultraifne Bentonite Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Guo Xiaochuan; Jiang Mingjun; He Yan

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility for preparation of ultraifne bentonite powder by different milling methods was studied. And the comparison of comprehensive performance between ultraifne bentonite grease and traditional bentonite grease was also investigated. The results indicated that the statistic Z-average size of ultraifne bentonite prepared by sand milling was 250 nm with a narrow size distribution and the lattice structure of ultraifne bentonite maintained good character despite a slight distortion occasioned. The mechanical stability, colloid stability, antiwear ability and friction-reducing property of ultraifne bentonite grease were superior to the traditional one.

  15. Use of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of grease trap wastewater containing fat, oil, and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F; Chen, Yen-Chih

    2012-11-01

    This research investigated the application of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in a grease trap, and evaluated potential impacts of treated effluent on downstream collection system and treatment processes. Results show that after Bio-Amp treatment, FOG deposit formation was reduced by 40%, implicating a potential reduction of sewer line blockages. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total fatty acids were reduced by 39%, 33%, 56%, and 59%, respectively, which represents an overall loading reduction of 9% COD, 5% TN and 40% TP received by the treatment plant from all the dining halls. On the other hand, readily biodegradable COD fractions significantly increased, which implies a potential improvement on Bio-P removal. Overall, the results showed that application of Bio-Amp in grease trap provides potential reduction of sewer line blockages, and can also alleviate downstream treatment burden.

  16. Some azine and azole derivatives as antioxidant additives for lithium lubricating grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Fikry

    2013-06-01

    The structure of these compounds has been confirmed using elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. On the other hand, lithium lubricating grease was prepared and evaluated according to the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI and Egyptian Standard (ES. The antioxidant compounds were tested for the prepared grease with concentration 0.1 wt.%. The efficiency of these compounds has been determined using total acid number. It was found that the prepared lithium grease resists oxidation reaction in the presence of these compounds. A correlation between the chemical structure of these compounds and their efficiency as antioxidants additives was discussed. Data showed that the efficiency of these compounds as antioxidants decreases in the order: compound I > compound II > compound III.

  17. Tribochemistry and EP Activity Assessment of Mo-S Complexes in Lithium-Base Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarunendr Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The blends of bis(1,5-diaryl-2,4-dithiomalonamidodioxomolybdenum(VI complexes in lithium-base grease are evaluated for their extreme pressure activity in a “four-ball test” using 12.7 mm diameter alloy steel ball specimen. The additive, bis(1,5-di-p-methoxyphenyl-2,4-dithiomalonamidodioxomolybdenum(VI and bis(1,5-di-p-chloro-phenyl-2,4-dithiomalonamidodioxomolybdenum(VI exhibited lower values of wear-scar diameter at higher load and higher values of weld load, flash temperature parameter, and pressure wear index as compared with lithium-base grease without additives. The greases fortified with the developed additives prevent rusting and corrosion of bearings while grease containing no additives did not pass these tests as per the standard tests. These greases have also better oxidation protection as compared to the grease that has no additive. The topography and tribochemistry of the wear-scar surface are carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy techniques, respectively.

  18. Fats, oils, and grease : options for plant-level treatment of a national problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, E.; Scherffius, B. [EcoPlus Inc. Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Fats, oils, and grease from restaurants and homes can congeal in sewers and result in damaging runoff into rivers and streams. A growing number of food service establishments are now producing increasing amounts of a specific grease product called brown grease, which is sticky and difficult to remove. Regulations now require haulers to remove the waste and dispose of it. However, many local treatment plants cannot accept or dispose of the amounts of grease currently being produced. A total of volume of 3 to 10 billion gallons per year of contaminated water have been accidentally discharged from sanitary sewers as a result of brown grease accumulations. This paper provided details of the EcoPlus Final Treatment Facility, which can be set up at waste water treatment plants and is able to process brown grease and discharge supernatant water from its process back into city sewers. The EcoPlus process produces 2 waste streams: (1) a low strength aqueous solution that can be disposed of in a sanitary sewer tap; and (2) a granular material that can be disposed of in a landfill for use as a soil conditioner. It was concluded that the granular material can also be used facilitate the incineration of sewage sludge, or burned as an alternative green fuel for power generation. 4 figs.

  19. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  20. Biodegradation of waste grease by Penicillium chrysogenum for production of fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Arti; Ahmad, Razi; Negi, Sangeeta; Khare, Sunil Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present work was to effectively remediate grease waste by Penicillium chrysogenum. For efficient degradation, grease waste was pre-treated using various lipases, among them lipolase was the best. The pretreated grease was used as a substrate by P. chrysogenum resulting into the production of fatty acids. Process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using four variables viz; FeCl2 (mM), spore concentration (spores/ml), time period (days) and amount of grease (g). The optimized conditions viz; FeCl2 1.25mM, culture amount 5×10(11)spores/ml and time period 16days led to the production of 6.6mg/g fatty acid from 10.0g of pre-treated grease mixed with 5.0g wheat bran in 10.0ml czapek-dox medium under solid state fermentation. The fermented media was extracted with hexane and subjected to GCMS analysis, which showed the presence of higher amount of palmitic acid. It was purified by crystallization method and 2.8g of palmitic acid was recovered from 1.0kg grease waste in tray fermentation.

  1. Grease Cowboy Fever; or, the making of Johnny T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, K

    2002-01-01

    Through a mix of theory, memoir and performance narrative, this chapter examines the making of drag persona Johnny T. as part of a king movement where the dominant cultural paradigm of gender is reconsidered and remastered. As seen in Grease, Saturday Night Fever and Urban Cowboy, pop culture icon John Travolta's particular blend of 50s greaser, faggy 70s disco, and 80s country masculinities are shown to be prime drag king conditions, particularly for a dyke who came of age during the 70s Travolta fever. While drawing from personal experience as a king, current trends in the king movement, and gender theory, this essay calls into question the lines between performing masculinity on and off the stage, inviting us to see both the work and play, the parody and realness, the struggle and liberation that make up the transgressive world of drag kinging and gender variance. Drawing upon gender theorists Judith Butler and Judith Halberstam, gender is exposed as a social construction both produced and performed, and as such, drag kinging is framed as an arena where gender is reconfigured.

  2. Quantifying fat, oil, and grease deposit formation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2016-01-01

    Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits formed in sanitary sewers are calcium-based saponified solids that are responsible for a significant number of nationwide sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) across United States. In the current study, the kinetics of lab-based saponified solids were determined to understand the kinetics of FOG deposit formation in sewers for two types of fat (Canola and Beef Tallow) and two types of calcium sources (calcium chloride and calcium sulfate) under three pH (7 ± 0.5, 10 ± 0.5, and ≈14) and two temperature conditions (22 ± 0.5 and 45 ± 0.5 °C). The results of this study displayed quick reactions of a fraction of fats with calcium ions to form calcium based saponified solids. Results further showed that increased palmitic fatty acid content in source fats, the magnitude of the pH, and temperature significantly affect the FOG deposit formation and saponification rates. The experimental data of the kinetics were compared with two empirical models: a) Cotte saponification model and b) Foubert crystallization model and a mass-action based mechanistic model that included alkali driven hydrolysis of triglycerides. Results showed that the mass action based mechanistic model was able to predict changes in the rate of formation of saponified solids under the different experimental conditions compared to both empirical models. The mass-action based saponification model also revealed that the hydrolysis of Beef Tallow was slower compared to liquid Canola fat resulting in smaller quantities of saponified solids. This mechanistic saponification model, with its ability to track the saponified solids chemical precursors, may provide an initial framework to predict the spatial formation of FOG deposits in municipal sewers using system wide sewer collection modeling software.

  3. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  4. Grease Aging Effects on Film Formation under Fully-Flooded and Starved Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Cousseau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several film thickness measurements were performed with three fresh and aged lubricating greases, their base and bled oils under a wide range of operating conditions using a ball-on-disc test rig with optical interferometry. The analysis of the film thickness measurements is in agreement with the observations of several authors and adds some important aspects regarding separate film properties in EHL contacts. At full film lubrication and moderate to high speeds, the bled oil showed a similar behavior of its lubricating greases. At fully-flooded condition, low speeds and thin films, it was observed that the thickener lumps play a major role on film formation, overcoming the bled oil effects. A relationship between thickener type and film formation was evidenced. The same trends were observed under starved lubrication, where the thickener type that contributes the most to locally increase the film thickness follows the order of PP > Ca > Li. The aging process of the greases was shown to change their rheological response in different manners—softening or hardening—depending on the grease formulation. Grease aging increased the film thickness under fully-flooded and starved lubrication, regardless of the level of degradation.

  5. Rheological Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes as an Additive on Lithium Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs as an additive on lithium grease at different concentrations were examined under various settings of shear rate, shear stress, and apparent viscosity. The results indicated that the optimum content of the CNTs was 2%. These experimental investigations were evaluated with a Brookfield Programmable Rheometer DV-III ULTRA. The results indicated that the shear, stress and apparent viscosity increase with the increase of CNTs concentration. The microstructure of CNTs and lithium grease was examined by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicated that the microscopic structure of the lithium grease presents a more regular and homogeneous network structure, with long fibers, which confirms the rheological stability.

  6. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  7. Performance of High-Speed Grease Lubricated Hybrid Ceramic Ball Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 王黎钦; 古乐

    2004-01-01

    To simplify the lubricating system for high-speed bearings and improve its reliability, grease lubricated high-speed hybrid ceramic bearings were theoretically and experimentally researched.Bearings with an outer race of 62 mm and eleven 9.525-mm balls were investigated.Traction coefficient and flash temperature between the bearing races and the balls were calculated and the results show that the traction coefficient of Si3N4 hybrid ceramic bearings is 74% that of the steel AISI 440B ones at 30 000 r/min and 1750 N, and the flash temperature of the hybrid bearings is 49% that of steel ones.Simulating the high-speed bearing rotational conditions, the grease lubricated hybrid ceramic ball bearings were tested and the results show that the power consumption of hybrid ceramic bearing lubricated by grease D at 24 000 r/min and axial load 1750 N is 80% that of steel ones.

  8. Rheological Properties of Extreme Pressure Greases Measured Using a Process Control Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Smith, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in......-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the process and the quality...

  9. On the normal stress effect in grease-lubricated bearing seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, P.; Lugt, P.M.; Prakash, B.

    2014-01-01

    The film formation in lip seals, due to the non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film buildup between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current article, we evaluate this

  10. Effects of Atomic Oxygen and Grease on Outgassing and Adhesion of Silicone Elastomers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of silicone elastomers for seals used in docking and habitat systems for future space exploration vehicles is being conducted at NASA. For certain missions, NASA is considering androgynous docking systems where two vehicles each having a seal would be required to: dock for a period of time, seal effectively, and then separate with minimum push-off forces for undocking. Silicone materials are generally chosen for their wide operating temperatures and low leakage rates. However silicone materials are often sticky and usually exhibit considerable adhesion when mated against metals and silicone surfaces. This paper investigates the adhesion unit pressure for a space rated silicone material (S0383-70) for either seal-on-seal (SoS) or seal-on-aluminum (SoAl) operation modes in the following conditions: as-received, after ground-based atomic-oxygen (AO) pre-treatment, after application of a thin coating of a space-qualified grease (Braycote 601EF), and after a combination of AO pre-treatment and grease coating. In order of descending adhesion reduction, the AO treatment reduced seal adhesion the most, followed by the AO plus grease pre-treatment, followed by the grease treatment. The effects of various treatments on silicone (S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401) outgassing properties were also investigated. The leading adhesion AO pretreatment reduction led to a slight decrease in outgassing for the S0383-70 material and virtually no change in ELA-SA-401 outgassing.

  11. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  12. Free fatty acids degradation in grease trap purification using ozone bubbling and sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotr Kwiatkowski, Michal; Satoh, Saburoh; Fukuda, Shogo; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Nieda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    The oil and fat were treated at first by only ozone bubbling and it was confirmed that the collection efficiency of them became 98.4% when the aeration was used. It showed that the aeration method in a grease trap cleared the standard value of 90% and there was no worry on the oil and fat outflow from a grease trap. The characteristics of sonication process were studied for free fatty acids degradation. The free saturated fatty acids are the most hard-degradable compounds of the fats, oils and greases (FOGs) in the grease trap. The influence of various parameters such as immersion level of an ultrasound probe in the liquid and bubbling of various gases (Ar, O2, air, O3) on the sonochemical and energy efficiency of the sonication process was investigated. The most effective degradation treatment method for saturated free fatty acids was the combination of sonication and low flow rate argon bubbling. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  13. 9 CFR 316.15 - Marking outside containers of inedible grease, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grease, etc. 316.15 Section 316.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... letters not less than 2 inches high, while on tank cars and tank trucks the letters shall be not less than 4 inches high. (b) Inspected rendered animal fat which is intended not to be used for human food...

  14. Thermal conductivity enhancement in thermal grease containing different CuO structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Zhao, Junchang; Wang, Mingzhu; Hu, Yiheng; Chen, Lifei; Xie, Huaqing

    2015-01-01

    Different cupric oxide (CuO) structures have attracted intensive interest because of their promising applications in various fields. In this study, three kinds of CuO structures, namely, CuO microdisks, CuO nanoblocks, and CuO microspheres, are synthesized by solution-based synthetic methods. The morphologies and crystal structures of these CuO structures are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, respectively. They are used as thermal conductive fillers to prepare silicone-based thermal greases, giving rise to great enhancement in thermal conductivity. Compared with pure silicone base, the thermal conductivities of thermal greases with CuO microdisks, CuO nanoblocks, and CuO microspheres are 0.283, 0256, and 0.239 W/mK, respectively, at filler loading of 9 vol.%, which increases 139%, 116%, and 99%, respectively. These thermal greases present a slight descendent tendency in thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. These experimental data are compared with Nan's model prediction, indicating that the shape factor has a great influence on thermal conductivity improvement of thermal greases with different CuO structures. Meanwhile, due to large aspect ratio of CuO microdisks, they can form thermal networks more effectively than the other two structures, resulting in higher thermal conductivity enhancement.

  15. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  16. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

  17. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  18. Interaction of Chloroprene and Nitrile- Butadiene Rubber with Lubricating Greases and Base Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present communication addresses compatibility of two synthetic rubber types, chloroprene and nitrilebutadiene ones, with a number of base oils of petroleum origin and lubricating greases produced thereof. Four base oils,including three naphthenic products with varying degrees of refining and one paraffinic product,were compared with each other in terms of their effect on the rubbers. Degenerative changes occurring in the rubbers on contact with the oils and greases were studied using accelerated ageing tests. Alterations in rubber parameters, such as hardness, weight and glass transition temperature, caused by interaction with oil were monitored. The main physicochemical mechanisms standing behind the changes observed in the rubber properties were found to be (i) migration of plasticizer from rubber into the oil phase, (ii) absorption of oil by rubber,and (iii) oxidation of rubber. An increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) of rubber aged in a base oil or grease was considered as an indirect indication that the plasticizer had migrated out of rubber;the plasticizer accumulation in the oil phase being directly confirmed by gas chromatography. In order to suppress the plasticizer migration, oil additivation with dioctyl adipate (DOA), a common plasticizer used in rubber formulations, was attempted. However, the BOA-additivated oils, while reducing plasticizer migration, were found to cause more swelling than the original oils in the case of chloroprene rubber. As an alternative, replacement of BOA by an alkylated aryl phosphate in nitrile- butadiene rubber formulations was considered, but it did not solve the problem either.The results of this study suggest conclusively that the type of rubber, the plasticizer, and the base oil are all the crucial parameters that should be considered when matching rubber with oil in real- life applications. Interaction of rubber with base oils and with greases produced thereof is largely controlled by (i) solvency of the

  19. Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain barley, bulgur, brown rice, wild rice, or quinoa. J Try whole-wheat pasta instead of regular ... whole-wheat couscous (a quick- cooking grain), or quinoa instead of white rice. Making smart food choices ...

  20. Removal of Organic Based Oil and Grease from Food Service Facility Effluent Using a Laterite Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ajith Hebbar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from food service facilities like restaurants, hostels and cafeteria typically contain floating cooked oil, ghee, and other fatty materials which are of organic in origin. Conventionally, before allowing this effluent to treatment plant or sewer, grease traps and skimming devices are used to separate these floating organic matters. If these are not effectively separated, these may clog sewers or interfere with biological treatment system. But these conventional methods need frequent maintenance and may not be cost effective. Alternatively, in this experimental work, an attempt was made to remove floating oil and grease using adsorption by passing the wastewater through a Laterite grain column. A real scale study unit was set up at the effluent point of a restaurant. The Various parameters like height of the column, grain size, and flow rate were monitored during the experiment. The results showed that the oil and grease could be removed up to an extent of 97.6% proving that Laterite has good adsorption potential.

  1. Fat, oil and grease reduction in commercial kitchen ductwork: A novel biological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, S; Vahdati, M

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has characterised emissions upon cooking a variety of foods in a commercial catering environment in terms of volume, particle size and composition. However, there has been limited focus on the deposition of solid grease in commercial kitchen ductwork, the sustainability of these systems and their implications on the heat recovery potential of kitchen ventilation extract air. This paper reviews the literature concerning grease, commonly referred to as Fat, Oils and Grease (FOG) abatement strategies and finds that many of these systems fall short of claimed performances. Furthermore these technologies often add to the energy cost of the operation and reduce the potential application of heat recovery in the ventilation ductwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel FOG removal system, with a focus on low environmental impact. The novel FOG removal system, utilises the biological activity of Bacillus subtilis and associated enzymes. The biological reagent is delivered via a misting system. The temperature, relative humidity and FOG deposit thickness were measured in the ductwork throughout a 3month trial period. FOG deposit thickness was reduced by 47% within 7weeks. The system was found to be effective at reducing the FOG deposit thickness with minimal energy cost and impact upon the kitchen and external environment. Internal ductwork operating temperature was measured with respect to future heat recovery potential and a reduction of 7°C was observed.

  2. Recycled and Virgin HDPEs as Bleed Inhibitors and Their Rheological Influences on Lubricating Greases Thickened with PP and mPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Dixena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP thickened lubricating grease exhibits high oil bleed tendency at low temperatures, which makes it a promising candidate for low temperature applications. At elevated temperatures, PP thickened lubricating grease exhibits excessive oil bleeding, which limits its use at high temperatures. Excessive oil bleed adversely affects the lubricating performance of the PP thickened grease. The present work is focused on the study of the oil bleed tendency of PP and Maleated Polypropylene (mPP thickened greases at various temperatures by incorporating virgin and recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE into the thickener system. Grease containing various percentages of PP and mPP thickeners were prepared and modified with different percentages of virgin and recycled HDPE. Polymers were characterized through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC techniques. The oil bleed performance of these greases was evaluated by the conical sieve method (ASTM D 6184 at various temperatures. Storage (G′ and loss modulus (G″ of greases was determined by rheometry at 25 °C. Incorporation of HDPE and recycled HDPE in PP thickened grease decreased oil bleeding compared to the base grease.

  3. Oil, grease and used petroleum oil management and environmental economic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pawlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper undertakes to answer the question of how used petroleum oil and grease enter groundwater or to the drain becoming both environmental and economic problems to utility companies.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory methodology was based on modern instrumentation validated further with experimental investigation. Petroleum-contaminated soil samples were analyzed for oil and grease (O/G content, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, and volatile aromatic compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX and naphthalene. Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS was used to analyse BTEX and naphthalene analytes.Findings: The results show that total petroleum hydrocarbon fraction (TPH accounted for oil and grease (O/G and the ratio of [TPH]/[O/G] ranged from 12% to 50%. The results of volatile organic fraction (BTEX accounted for only a small part of total TPH and the ratio of [BTEX]/[TPH] ranged below 1%. The concentration of four samples for TPH test exceeded the regulatory limit of 500 ppm for hydrocarbons. The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID method appear to offer the best basis for standard TPH test in soil and groundwater verification of site cleanup.Research limitations/implications: In the future it will be possible to apply the procedures to other more complicated cases e.g. used oil containing more than 1000 ppm total halogens, which is regulated as hazardous waste.Practical implications: Promising directions for adaptation of appropriate pre-treatment standard processes for recycling programs, pollution prevention and reduction of maintenance cost.Originality/value: The gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID methods appear to offer the best hope for standard TPH test in soil and groundwater verification of site cleanup. Implementation of management standards and a permit policy for O/G and used oil generators will be issued to each facility.

  4. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  5. Preparation of Overbased Calcium Alkylbenzene Sulfonate for Formulating Complex Sulfonate Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yinong

    2015-01-01

    Six kinds of alkylbenzene sulfonic acids were selected to prepare the sulfonates S1—S6. Among them, the sul-fonates S3, S4, and S6 could be incorporated into lubricating grease with good performance in comparison with the grease produced from commercial sulfonates T106-1 and T106-2. The optimized conditions for synthesis of the sulfonates S3, S4, and S6were explored by using different mass ratios of methanol, water and the type of copromoters. It was found out that the appropriate conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S3 included a methanol to M (M is the total mass of alkylbenzene sulfonic acid and base oil) mass ratio of 16%, a water to M mass ratio of 4%, and a copromoter A to M mass ratio of 2%; the appropriate conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S4 included a methanol to M mass ratio of 24%, a water to M mass ratio of 2%, a copromoter B to M mass ratio of 2%; and the optimized conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S6 included a methanol/ M mass ratio of 8%, a water/M mass ratio of 4% and a copromoter B/M mass ratio of 2%. The new sulfonates S3, S4, and S6 produced under the optimized conditions exhibited higher TBN and better antiwear property in camparison with the previous products. Grease samples G9, G10, and G11 were prepared with new sulfonates S3, S4, and S6 successfully and exhibited improved water stability and high temperature performance.

  6. Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with silicon-grease in tracking failure test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liang; Liu, W.; Lei, S. L.; Wang, S. B.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2011-06-01

    Imaging processing method was adopted to investigate the effect of silicon grease on tracking failure of the XLPEsilicon rubber interface by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization at the interface. Three interfaces were set up by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. One filled silicon grease and the other partly filled the grease. As comparison, the third one filled on grease. High voltage (AC 50 Hz) was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm. When the test voltage was raised to a certain value, discharge occurred and discharge light appeared and carbonization accumulated at the interface. The discharge light from discharge to the failure and the carbonization after the failure was recorded with a digital video recorder and then the images were analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that silicon grease at the interface weakens the transportation of charge and enhances the interfacial breakdown strength. However, interfacial discharge and tracking failure easily occur once discharge appears. Image processing method is helpful to understand the tracking failure process and mechanism of XLPE cable joint.

  7. A novel application of Egyptian oil shale as a filler in the production of lithium lubricating grease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wakeel, M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Geology Department; Al Adly, R. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-12-15

    This article reports on the preparation and characterization of six formulations of grease based on soybean soapstock and aromatic extracts using oil shale as a filler. The oil shale that occurs within the Quseir-Safaga district is subjected to a detailed petrography, size distribution, mineralogy, and chemical studies. The total extracted hydrocarbon content, using an organic solvent, is analyzed for molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The physicochemical properties of the aromatic extracts are determined. The processing conditions following the blending are optimized to produce the appropriate lithium soap structure, as well as dispersion of the filler. The work also includes a study of the competitive effectiveness of different grades of aromatic extracts and also various percentages of oil shale, along with an evaluation of their effects on the properties of formulated lubricating greases. The prepared greases are assessed in accordance with National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) and Egyptian Standard (ES). It is concluded that the above-mentioned ingredients can be used for the preparation of lithium greases. (author)

  8. Biodiesel Production from Waste Edible Oils and Grease Containing Free Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Fenghong; Guo Pingmei; Huang Qingde

    2005-01-01

    Till now, most part of the biodiesel is produced from the refined vegetable oils using methanol as feedstock in the presence of an alkali catalyst. However, large amount of waste edible oils and grease are available. The difficulty with alkali-catalyzed esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), polymers and decomposition products. These free fatty acids can quickly react with the alkali catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the ester and glycerine. An esterification and transesterification process is developed to convert the high FFA oil to its monoesters. The first step, the acidcatalyzed esterification with glycerine and these FFA reduces the FFA content of the oil and grease to less than3%, and then an azeotropic distillation solvent is used to remove the water. The major factors affecting the conversion efficiency of the process such as glycerol to free fatty acid molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction duration are analyzed. The second step, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process converts the products of the first step to its monoesters and glycerol, and then the glycerol is recycled for utilization in the first step. Technical indicators of the biodiesel product can meet the ASTM 6751 standard.

  9. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  10. Research on anti-contact fatigue performance of grease containing nano SbSbS4 particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; SONG Bao-yu; QU Jian-jun; LIU Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    Effects of nano SbSbS4particles on contact fatigue life of a steel ball were evaluated on a self-made ball-rod contact fatigue tester. The anti-fatigue mechanisms of SbSbS4 additive were analyzed by means of SEM and EDAX. It was shown that, when the grease contained SbSbS4, contact fatigue life was improved compared with that of base grease. Nanoparticle absorption action, nanoparticle infiltration action, and extreme pressure and anti-friction performance, explained why SbSbS4 increased the contact fatigue life of the steel ball tested.

  11. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  12. Pesticides and oil and grease in selected streams and lakes in northeastern Louisiana, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Benton D.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-month study was begun in April 2001 to determine the concentrations of pesticides or oil and grease in selected stream reaches and lakes within the Ouachita, Tensas, and Black River Basins in northeastern Louisiana. During April through September 2001, six monthly water samples for analysis of pesticides were collected from 22 sites: 17 sites were on 11 streams, and 5 sites were on 5 lakes. During Apirl through July 2001, four monthly samples for analysis of oil and grease were collected from 5 sites: 4 sites were on three streams, and 1 site was on a lake. A total of 131 water samples were analyzed for 17 pesticides (15 insecticides and 2 herbicides). The following classes of pesticides, as classified from the Pesticide Analysis (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6 Laboratory), are reported: organochlorine, nitrogen-phosphorus, and carbamate. The 8 pesticides detected in samples, in decreasing frequency, were as follow: atrazine, molinate, methyl parathion, 4,4'-DDT, carbofuran, diazinon, toxaphene, and 4,4'DDE. Organochlorine pesticides (insecticides) represented the majority (12 out of 17) of the pesticides analyzed. Of those 12 organochlorine pesticides, only 3 (4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, and toxaphene) were detected in the 131 samples. Of the organochlorine pesticides, 4,4'-DDT was detected most frequently (in 11 percent of the samples), and concentrations ranged from 1.22 to 4.70 ng/L (nanograms per liter). Nitrogen-phosphorus pesticides were the most frequently detected and abundant pesticides. Of all the pesticides analyzed, atrazine and molinate (nitrogen-phosphorus herbicides) were the pesticides most frequently detected (in 93 and 21 percent of the samples), had the highest and most wide-ranging concentrations (10.8 to 15,100 ng/L and 10.0 to 11,600 ng/L), and were most widely distributed throughout the study area. Carbofuran, a carbamate insecticide, was detected at 8 of the 22 pesticide data-collection sites and in 9.2 percent of the 131 samples

  13. Biodegradation of waste greases and biochemical properties of a novel lipase from Pseudomonas synxantha PS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianghai; Chen, Siqi; Yang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Lin, Lin; Shen, Yaling; Wei, Wei; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-07-01

    A lipase-producing bacterial strain was isolated from oil-well-produced water in Shengli oilfield (Shandong province, China) and was identified as Pseudomonas synxantha by 16S rDNA sequence analysis (named Pseudomonas synxantha PS1). Strain PS1 showed a maximum lipase activity of 10.8 U/mL after culturing for 48 h at 30 °C, with lactose (4 g/L) as carbon source, tryptone (8 g/L) as nitrogen source, olive oil (0.5%, v/v) as inductor, and the initial pH 8.0. Meanwhile, the lipase gene from P. synxantha PS1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 with the vector pET28a. The novel gene (lipPS1) has an open reading frame of 1425 bp and encodes a 474 aa lipase (LipPS1) sharing the most identity (87%) with the lipase in Pseudomonas fluorescens. LipPS1 preferably acted on substrates with a long chain (C10-C18) of fatty acids. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 8.0 and 40 °C, respectively, towards the optimum substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate. The LipPS1 showed remarkable stability under alkaline conditions and was stable at pH 7.0-10.0 (retaining more than 60% activity). From the organic solvents tests, the lipase was activated by 15% (v/v) methanol (112%), 15% ethanol (127%), and 15% n-butyl alcohol (116%). LipPS1 presented strong biodegradability of waste grease; 93% of waste grease was hydrolyzed into fatty acid after 12 h at 30 °C. This is the first report of the lipase activity and lipase gene obtained from P. synxantha (including wild strain and recombinant strain) and of the recombinant LipPS1 with the detailed enzymatic properties. Also a preliminary study of the biodegradability of waste greases shows the potential value in industry applications.

  14. Lipophilic super-absorbent polymer gels as surface cleaners for oil and grease from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new cleaning technology based on lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels for the removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, n...

  15. Super-Absorbent polymer gels for oil and grease removal from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new surface cleaning technology for removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-ozone depleting, recyclable...

  16. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani; Sadatjo; Maleknia; Shamsedini

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG) in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran). The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collecte...

  17. Integrated Grease-pouring System Design and Reliability Assessment of Engineering Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing; WANG Jian; DAI Ling; YANG Cheng-xian

    2008-01-01

    Because of poor lubrication,the abrasion of the engineering equipment's key connection position(the hinge joint and so on)has become the major factor that affects the mechanical benefit.The excavator WY60 is taken as an example in this paper.The automatic grease-pouring,the working state test,and the alarm for fault of every lubricating point on the machine is accomplished by the control sub-system,the lubricating system and other correlated components.The principle and functions of the system are described.The work condition is analyzed.Finally,we present the plan of the software and the hardware of the system,and.set up thefuzry ossessment model of reliability of the system.

  18. Enhanced water vapour barrier and grease resistance of paper bilayer-coated with chitosan and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xiao, Huining; Qian, Liying

    2014-01-30

    In order to overcome the deficiencies of single layer coating, bilayer coated papers were prepared by two separate coating procedures using various combinations of proteins or polysaccharides with beeswax. Among those combinations, chitosan-beeswax bilayer coated paper showed the best water vapour barrier property. It was observed that as the concentration of chitosan solution increased from 1.0 to 3.0 wt%, its water vapour transport rate (WVTR) decreased from 171.6 to 52.8 g/m(2)/d but using reduced beeswax coating weight (from 10.1 to 4.9 g/m(2)). It also displayed an enhanced performance of grease resistance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that beeswax layer was fitted to chitosan layer so closely that these two layers are indistinguishable. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) further confirmed the existence of an integrated chitosan film between beeswax layer and paper base and a thin composite layer consisting of chitosan and beeswax.

  19. Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P

    2006-02-01

    One of the principal components of the contaminant load in urban stormwater runoff is oil and grease (O&G) pollution, resulting from vehicle emissions. A mulch layer was used as a contaminant trap to remove O&G (dissolved and particulate-associated naphthalene, dissolved toluene, and dissolved motor oil hydrocarbons) from a synthetic runoff during a bench-scale infiltration study. Approximately 80 to 95% removal of all contaminants from synthetic runoff was found via sorption and filtration. Subsequently, approximately 90% of the sorbed naphthalene, toluene, oil, and particulate-associated naphthalene was biodegraded within approximately 3, 4, 8, and 2 days after the event, respectively, based on decreases in contaminant concentrations coupled with increases of microbial populations. These results indicate the effectiveness and sustainability of placing a thin layer of mulch on the surface of a bioretention facility for reducing O&G pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  20. Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Guillermo J; La Motta, Enrique J

    2014-11-01

    US and international regulations pertaining to the control of bilge water discharges from ships have concentrated their attention to the levels of oil and grease rather than to the heavy metal concentrations. The consensus is that any discharge of bilge water (and oily water emulsion within 12 nautical miles from the nearest land cannot exceed 15 parts per million (ppm). Since there is no specific regulation for metal pollutants under the bilge water section, reference standards regulating heavy metal concentrations are taken from the ambient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. The research herein presented discusses electro-coagulation (EC) as a method to treat bilge water, with a focus on oily emulsions and heavy metals (copper, nickel and zinc) removal efficiency. Experiments were run using a continuous flow reactor, manufactured by Ecolotron, Inc., and a synthetic emulsion as artificial bilge water. The synthetic emulsion contained 5000 mg/L of oil and grease, 5 mg/L of copper, 1.5 mg/L of nickel, and 2.5 mg/l of zinc. The experimental results demonstrate that EC is very efficient in removing oil and grease. For oil and grease removal, the best treatment and cost efficiency was obtained when using a combination of carbon steel and aluminum electrodes, at a detention time less than one minute, a flow rate of 1 L/min and 0.6 A/cm(2) of current density. The final effluent oil and grease concentration, before filtration, was always less than 10 mg/L. For heavy metal removal, the combination of aluminum and carbon steel electrodes, flow rate of 1 L/min, effluent recycling, and 7.5 amps produced 99% zinc removal efficiency. Copper and nickel are harder to remove, and a removal efficiency of 70% was achieved.

  1. White Middle Class Identities and Urban Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Dympna; Savage, Mike; Ingram, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The authors review "White middle class identities and urban schooling," by D. Reay, G. Crozier and D. James. This book focuses on the perspectives of white middle-class parents who make "against"-the-grain school choices for their children in urban England. It provides key insights into the dynamics of class practising that are…

  2. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  3. THE ADVERSE EFFECT OF STEEL PARTICLE CONTAMINANTS ON FATIGUE LIFE OF GREASE LUBRICATED BALL BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stathis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rating life of ball bearings is reduced when hard particle contaminants are present in the lubricant. Usually, this life reduction is taken into account in the calculation of modified rating life by using the contamination factor through a general characterization of the lubrication conditions. However, the impact of contaminant’s variables such as size, hardness and concentration level has to be specified in detail. This need is resolved by the present work, where greases contaminated with hard steel particles of different sizes are tested with the purpose of finding a pattern in the relationship between steel particle sizes and the progress of wear inside the bearings. A laboratory rig is utilized for these tests and vibration analysis is performed to estimate the condition and the residual life of the bearings. After the tests, optical inspections performed in a stereoscope verify the predictions of vibration analyses. It was found that large contaminating particles, after their initial deformation, produce high stresses and therefore higher wear of the bearings and that the wear mechanism is closely related to the interruption of the lubricating film in such a way that local overheating caused point melting and adhesion of the particles adhered on the raceways. In case of grease contaminated with steel particles, vibration analysis can indicate the severity of wear and monitor its progress. From the conducted tests of the present work it is proved that the size of the contaminant particles affect strongly the wear process in such a way that the larger steel particle contaminants cause greater damage to the bearing. The vibration levels were higher and the damage was greater as particle size increased. It is difficult to establish an equation that describes and quantifies the wear progress involving all the parameters of size and concentration levels of the steel contaminant particles due to the stochastic nature of the wear mechanisms

  4. Thermal conductance of pressed metallic contacts augmented with Indium foil or Apiezon-N (tm) grease at liquid helium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Spivak, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal conductance of pressed contacts which have been augmented with Indium foil or Apiezon-N (tm) grease was measured over the temperature range of 1.6 to 6.0 K, with applied forces from 22 N to 670 N. The sample pairs were fabricated from OFHC copper, 6061-T6 aluminum, free-machining brass, and 304 stainless steel. Although the thermal conductance was found to increase with increasing applied contact force, the force dependence was less than in earlier work. The addition of Indium foil or Apiezon-NT grease between the contact surfaces resulted in an improvement over uncoated surfaces ranging from a factor of approximately 3 for stainless steel to an order of magnitude for copper contacts.

  5. Elementary Magnet School Students' Interracial Interaction Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Gerald B.; Holifield, Mitchell L.; Holifield, Glenda; Creer, Donna Grady

    2000-01-01

    Investigated elementary students' interracial interaction preferences in four desegregated, urban magnet schools. Data from a sociogram of students' working, playing, and sitting choices indicated that black students were less willing than white students to interact. Racial considerations were more pronounced among girls. There was no trend toward…

  6. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and cosmetics formulations, drug delivery vehicle and waste water treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasmukh A Patel; Rajesh S Somani; Hari C Bajaj; Raksh V Jasra

    2006-04-01

    An overview of nanoclays or organically modified layered silicates (organoclays) is presented with emphasis placed on the use of nanoclays as the reinforcement phase in polymer matrices for preparation of polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites, rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and greases to a great extent by dispersing 1nm thick layered silicate throughout the matrices. The flexibility of interlayer spacing of layered silicates accommodates therapeutic agents which can later on be released to damaged cell. Because the release of drugs in drug-intercalated layered materials is controllable, these new materials have a great potential as a delivery host in the pharmaceutical field. The problem of clean water can be solved by treating industrial and municipal waste water with organoclays in combination with other sorbents like activated carbon and alum. Organoclays have proven to be superior to any other water treatment technology in applications where the water to be treated contains substantial amounts of oil and grease or humic acid.

  7. Mechanism of Friction and Wear in MoS2 and ZDDP/F-PTFE Greases under Spectrum Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay D. Bagi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different greases formulated using MoS2 and a combination of ZDDP and functionalized PTFE (F-PTFE were examined under spectrum loading conditions where loads, frequency, and duration of the steps were treated as variables. Combination of ZDDP and F-PTFE were synergistic resulting in a significant reduction in the wear and friction under spectrum loading condition. Decreasing the time step during the ramp up and ramp down cycles resulted in larger wear for the grease containing MoS2 particles in comparison to ZDDP/F-PTFE in grease. The tribofilm formed on the surface was analyzed using various characterization techniques like SEM, EDS, and Stereo Optical Microscopy. Tribofilms from MoS2 additives had extensive amounts of abrasive and adhesive wear and showed the formation of MoS2 on the surface on the other hand the tribofilms from ZDDP/F-PTFE had smaller amounts of severe wear and exhibited patchy tribofilms of Zn-phosphates as well as sulfides of Zn and Fe.

  8. Impact of Adding Biopreparations on the Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge with Grease Trap Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worwąg Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using biopreparations on efficiency of the co-fermentation process. Commercial bacterial biopreparations DBC Plus Type L, DBC Plus Type R5 and yeast biopreparations were used in the study. The process of cofermentation of sewage sludge with grease trap waste from a production plant that manufactured methyl esters of fatty acids was analysed in the laboratory environment under mesophilic conditions. The sludge in the reactor was replaced once a day, with hydraulic retention time of 10 days. Grease trap waste accounted for 35%wt. of the fermentation mixture. The stabilization process was monitored everyday based on the measurements of biogas volume. Addition of yeast biopreparation to methane fermentation of sewage sludge with grease trap waste caused an increase in mean daily biogas production from 6.9 dm3 (control mixture to 9.21dm3 (mixture M3. No differences in biogas production were found for other cases (mixtures M1, M2. A similar relationship was observed for methane content in biogas.

  9. Impact of Adding Biopreparations on the Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge with Grease Trap Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwąg, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using biopreparations on efficiency of the co-fermentation process. Commercial bacterial biopreparations DBC Plus Type L, DBC Plus Type R5 and yeast biopreparations were used in the study. The process of cofermentation of sewage sludge with grease trap waste from a production plant that manufactured methyl esters of fatty acids was analysed in the laboratory environment under mesophilic conditions. The sludge in the reactor was replaced once a day, with hydraulic retention time of 10 days. Grease trap waste accounted for 35%wt. of the fermentation mixture. The stabilization process was monitored everyday based on the measurements of biogas volume. Addition of yeast biopreparation to methane fermentation of sewage sludge with grease trap waste caused an increase in mean daily biogas production from 6.9 dm3 (control mixture) to 9.21dm3 (mixture M3). No differences in biogas production were found for other cases (mixtures M1, M2). A similar relationship was observed for methane content in biogas.

  10. Fat, oil and grease waste from municipal wastewater: characterization, activation and sustainable conversion into biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Pagano, Michele; Lopez, Antonio; Mininni, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) recovered by the oil/water separator of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled, characterized, activated and converted into biofuel. Free acids (50-55%) and fatty soaps (26-32%) not only composed the main components, but they were also easily separable from the starting waste. The respective free fatty acid profiles were gas-chromatographically evaluated, interestingly verifying that free acids had a different profile (mainly oleic acid) with respect to the soapy fraction (saturated fatty acids were dominant). The inorganic composition was also determined for soaps, confirming that calcium is the most commonly present metal. The chemical activation of this fatty waste was made possible by converting the starting soaps into the respective free fatty acids by using formic acid as activator, coproducing the relevant formates. The activated fatty matter was then converted into biofuel through direct esterification under very mild conditions (345 K, atmospheric pressure) and obtaining thermodynamic conversion in less than 2 h. The process was easily scaled up, isolating at the end pure biodiesel (purity > 96%) through distillation under vacuum, providing a final product conformed to commercial purposes.

  11. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems.

  12. REMOVAL OF OIL AND GREASE FROM THE WASTEWATER OF RAILROAD REPAIR SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Johari

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research have been to determine the wastewater quality of a typical railroad repair workshop and to find a way to reduce the concentrations of present contaminants especially oil and grease. The mean concentrations of oil, COD and SS in the wastewater studied were 287.69, 775.85 and 28723, respectively with average daily discharge to be 30-35 m3. Three successive treatment processes were used and the results showed the first stage was gravity flotation with 90 minutes retention time. Removal efficiencies achieved for COD, SS and oil were determined 43%, 49.4% and 55.5% respectively. The second stage of treatment was coagulation either lime or ferric chloride could be used for this purpose at PHs of 9 and 6. COD and oil removals by lime treatment were 76.6% and 84.4%. The final stage of treatment was DAF at 3 atmospheric pressure, by which 92.5%, 89.5%, 89.92% and 88% removals were achieved for oil, SS and COD, respectively.

  13. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark;

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...... attention between the alternatives in a choice set reflects their stated choice certainty. Based on one of the largest samples of eye tracking data in a DCE to date, we find evidence in favor of our hypothesis. We also link eye tracking observations to model-based choice certainty through parameterization...... of the scale function in a random parameters logit model. We find that choices characterized by more frequent gaze shifting do indeed exhibit a higher degree of error variance, however, this effects is insignificant once response time is controlled for. Overall, findings suggest that eye tracking can provide...

  14. 钛基润滑脂的制备工艺研究%Study on Preparation of Titanium Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婉晴; 郭小川; 宋辉; 王晶

    2015-01-01

    以钛酸四异丙酯、硬脂酸和极性溶剂为原料制备钛基润滑脂,考察基础油和有机酸种类、配比和工艺对钛基脂性能的影响。结果表明:不同种类的有机酸对成脂影响很大,钛皂对不同基础油的稠化能力也不同;以硬脂酸为有机酸、石蜡基油为基础油,最高炼制温度为180~200℃,冷却方式为慢冷时,制得的钛基脂的综合性能较好,其滴点约280℃,远高于一般单皂基润滑脂。红外光谱分析结果表明,该制备工艺形成了钛皂,同时避免了残酸问题。%Titanium greases were prepared by using titanium isopropoxide, organic acid and polar solvent as raw mate⁃rials� The effects of the type of organic acids and base oils, the composition and the process condition on the properties of titanium greases were discussed� The results show that organic acids have large influence on the preparation of titanium greases, and the thickening ability is different for titanium soap on different base oils� By using stearic acid as organic acid and paraffine base oil as base oil, and selecting the highest refining temperature of 180 to 200 ℃ and the slow cooling method, the prepared grease has good comprehensive properties, its drop point is about 280℃, which is higher than the general greases thickened by other single soaps� The infrared spectrum analysis result shows that the titanium soap is formed by using this process, and the problem of residual acid is avoid.

  15. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice prob...

  16. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  17. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E

    2012-12-01

    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change.

  18. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  19. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge and fat, oil, and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabouris, John C; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Engelmann, Michael; Dulaney, James A; Todd, Allen C; Gillette, Robert A

    2009-05-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability of municipal primary sludge, thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS), and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) was assessed using semi-continuous-feed, laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters and compared with the ultimate degradability obtained from 120-day batch digestion at 35 degrees C. In run 1, combined primary sludge and TWAS (40/60%, volatile solids [VS] basis) were fed to digesters operated at mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (52 degrees C) temperatures at loading rates of 0.99 and 1.46 g-VS/L x d for primary sludge and TWAS, respectively, and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 days. The volatile solids destruction values were 25.3 and 30.7% (69 and 83% biodegradable volatile solids destruction) at 35 degrees C and 52 degrees C, respectively. The methane (CH4) yields were 159 and 197 mL at the standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions of 0 degree C and 1 atm/g-VS added or 632 and 642 mL @ STP/g-VS destroyed at 35 degrees C and 52 degrees C, respectively. In run 2, a mix of primary sludge, TWAS, and FOG (21/31/48%, volatile solids basis) was fed to an acid digester operated at a 1-day HRT, at 35 degrees C, and a loading rate of 52.5 g-VS/L x d. The acid-reactor effluent was fed to two parallel methane-phase reactors operated at an HRT of 12 days and maintained at 35 degrees C and 52 degrees C, respectively. After an initial period of 20 days with near-zero gas production in the acid reactor, biogas production increased and stabilized to approximately 2 mL CH4 @ STP/g-VS added, corresponding to a volatile solids destruction of 0.4%. The acid-phase reactor achieved a 43% decrease in nonsaturated fat and a 16, 26, and 20% increase of soluble COD, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia, respectively. The methane-phase volatile solids destruction values in run 2 were 45 and 51% (85 and 97% biodegradable volatile solids destruction) at 35 degrees C and 52 degrees C, respectively. The methane yields for the methane

  20. Preliminary experimental research to detect grease stain of petroleum pipeline by sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma-ray transmission method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Shi Heng

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on the detection of grease stain for petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field of Xinjiang is carried out by gamma-ray transmission method. Experimental provision consists of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs gamma radiator and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The response of grease stain thickness of petroleum pipeline in Karamay oil-field is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00548 d-0.0046, and the response of paraffin thickness is ln(N sub 0 /N)=0.00522d-0.0126. The result of experiment indicates that the response of grease stain thickness is more sensitive than the response of paraffin thickness

  1. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  2. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former....... The construction of the film, however, also allows Haneke to critically comment upon his protagonist’s paranoia and demonstrate its ill-foundedness, for instance by pointing to a possible ‘banal conviviality’ (Paul Gilroy) between people of different ethnicities, cultures and religions....

  3. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  4. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...

  5. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  6. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  7. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2006-01-01

    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  8. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  9. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  10. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...

  11. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  12. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  13. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  14. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  15. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications...

  16. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  17. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  18. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  19. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  20. Effect of Wire Rope Grease Composition on Its Water Resistance%钢丝绳脂组成对抗水性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 王越

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different viscosity of base oils,primary thickeners,auxiliary thickeners,content of adhesives on the performance of water resistance of the steel wire rope greases were studied by using the determination method of grease resistant to water spray.The results indicate that the water resistance of the steel wire rope grease is significantly improved with the increasing of base oil viscosity,especially when the viscosity is in 25~56 mm2/s.Polypropylene is better than Poly Ethylene as the primary thickener in terms of improving the water resistance.As an auxiliary thickener of the steel wire rope greases,the more the number of microcrystalline wax additives,the better the resistance to water is,but this effect will be tended to flatten when the microcrystalline wax content is more than 4%. Along with increasing in the number of grease ad⁃hesive polyisobutylene(PIB)or olefin copolymer(OCP)in proportion,the water resistance of steel wire rope grease is im⁃proved.But when the percentage of grease adhesive is more than 5%,the water resistance becomes worse.Polyisobutylene (PIB)is better than olefin copolymer(OCP)in improving the water resistance of the steel wire rope grease.%应用润滑脂抗水喷雾性测定方法,研究基础油黏度、主稠化剂及辅助稠化剂、黏附剂添加量对钢丝绳脂抗水性能的影响。结果表明:随着基础油黏度的增加,钢丝绳脂的抗水性能有明显改善,尤其是黏度为25~56 mm2/s时改善效果最显著;聚丙烯类主稠化剂在改善钢丝绳脂的抗水性能方面优于聚乙烯类;随着辅助稠化剂微晶蜡添加量的增加,钢丝绳脂抗水性能提高,但微晶蜡质量分数大于4%抗水性能改善效果趋于平缓;随着黏附剂聚异丁烯( PIB)、烯烃共聚物( OCP )添加量的增加,钢丝绳脂抗水性能提高,但黏附剂质量分数大于5%时会导致抗水性能变差;聚异丁烯(PIB)对钢丝绳脂抗水性能

  1. Habitat Choice and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Webster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of habitat choice in reproductive isolation and ecological speciation has often been overlooked, despite acknowledgement of its ability to facilitate local adaptation. It can form part of the speciation process through various evolutionary mechanisms, yet where habitat choice has been included in models of ecological speciation little thought has been given to these underlying mechanisms. Here, we propose and describe three independent criteria underlying ten different evolutionary scenarios in which habitat choice may promote or maintain local adaptation. The scenarios are the result of all possible combinations of the independent criteria, providing a conceptual framework in which to discuss examples which illustrate each scenario. These examples show that the different roles of habitat choice in ecological speciation have rarely been effectively distinguished. Making such distinctions is an important challenge for the future, allowing better experimental design, stronger inferences and more meaningful comparisons among systems. We show some of the practical difficulties involved by reviewing the current evidence for the role of habitat choice in local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis, a model system for the study of ecological speciation, assessing whether any of the proposed scenarios can be reliably distinguished, given current research.

  2. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  3. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...

  4. Analysis on Failure of Hub Bearing Greases at Altiplano Area%高原地区车辆轮毂轴承润滑脂流失失效原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米红英; 陈德友; 郭小川; 刘庆廉; 吴宝杰

    2011-01-01

    The failure of hub bearing grease were analysised by calculating the quantity of grease running off from the hub bearing was? Researching the rheological parameters of the grease, calculating the temperature field of hub bearing using imitating system. Laboratory examination was carried out, the hub bearing field tests were carried out on the plateau freight truck, the test methods of grease' s performance characteristics were studied. It was brought forward that it is effective to cope with the grease running off by improving the lubricating grease's elastic modulus, apparent viscosity and yield shear stresses.%通过轮毂轴承润滑脂流失理论计算及流变学研究、轮毂轴承温度场模拟仿真,分析了车辆轮毂轴承润滑脂流失失效原因,进行了实验室验证试验、行车验证试验及轮毂轴承润滑脂使用性能评定方法研究,提出了解决车辆轮毂轴承润滑脂流失失效的方法.

  5. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  6. Improved biogas production from food waste by co-digestion with de-oiled grease trap waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting food waste (FW) and de-oiled grease trap waste (GTW) to improve the biogas production. A lab-scale mesophilic digester (MD), a temperature-phased anaerobic digester (TPAD) and a TPAD with recycling (TPAD-R) were synchronously operated under mono-digestion (FW) and co-digestion (FW+de-oiled GTW). Co-digestion increased the biogas yield by 19% in the MD and TPAD-R, with a biogas yield of 0.60L/g VS added. Specific methanogenic activity in the TPAD-R was much higher than that in the MD. In addition to methane, hydrogen at a yield of approximately 1mol/mol hexose was produced in the TPAD-R. Alkalinity was consumed more in the co-digestion than in mono-digestion. Co-digestion resulted in more lipid accumulation in each digester. The MD favored the degradation of lipid and conversion of long-chain fatty acids more than the TPAD and TPAD-R.

  7. Evaluating and modeling biogas production from municipal fat, oil, and grease and synthetic kitchen waste in anaerobic co-digestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility of using synthetic kitchen waste (KW) and fat, oil, and grease (FOG) as co-substrates in the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated using two series of biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Ranges of ideal substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio were determined for the FOG (0.25-0.75) and KW (0.80-1.26) as single substrates in the first experiment. The second experiment, which estimated the methane production performances of FOG and KW as co-substrates for WAS co-digestion, was conducted based on the optimal parameters selected from the results of the first experiment. Results indicated that co-digestions with FOG and KW enhanced methane production from 117±2.02 mL/gTVS (with only WAS) to 418±13.7 mL/gTVS and 324±4.11 mL/gTVS, respectively. FOG exhibited more biogas production than KW as co-substrate. Non-linear regression results showed that co-substrate addition shortened the lag phases of organic biodegradation from 81.8 (with only WAS) to 28.3 h with FOG and 3.90 h with KW.

  8. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Aluminum Complex Grease%复合铝基润滑脂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明俊; 郭小川; 熊晓龙

    2011-01-01

    复合铝基润滑脂是一种性能优良的多效润滑脂,尤其是泵送性能良好,适合于集中润滑系统,在冶金等行业获得广泛应用.考察了组成、工艺和添加剂对复合铝基润滑脂性能的影响,复合铝皂对环烷基油的稠化能力优于对石蜡基油的稠化能力,增大基础油黏度有利于改善润滑脂的性能,采用异丙醇铝三聚物比采用异丙醇铝制备复合铝基脂的工艺可靠、产品性能稳定,通过配方和工艺条件优化制备出的复合铝基润滑脂具有良好的性能:高滴点,良好的胶体安定性、机械安定性、氧化安定性,良好的抗水性、抗腐蚀性、抗磨性.%Aluminum complex grease is a kind of multifunction grease. It is suited to central lubrication system for which has good pump ability. It has been used extensively in metallurgy area. The effect of composition, condition and additives on the properties of aluminum complex grease has been discussed. The thickening ability of aluminum complex soap in paraffin oil is superior to that of aluminum complex soap in naphthene oil. Increasing viscosity of base oil can improve the properties of aluminum complex grease. The method of trioxyaluminum tri-isopropylate is superior to that of aluminum isopropylate, because the technology is stable and the property is good. By optimization of composition and condition, the high performance aluminum complex grease has been prepared. It possesses high dropping point, good colloidal stability, shear stability, oxidation stability, water resistance property, anti-corrosion and anti-wear property.

  10. The Choice for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  11. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

    2014-01-10

    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  12. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  13. Choices, Not Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    Following a brief account of the circumstances of migrant workers and the status of migrant education in the United States, this pamphlet describes how the National Education Association (NEA) has impacted and will continue to impact the process of providing educational choices for migrant students. The NEA has consistently testified before…

  14. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  15. Experimental Research on Operation Life of Special Magnetic Grease Seal%特种磁脂密封的寿命试验研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴露; 张秋翔; 蔡纪宁; 李双喜; 李岚

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the seal reliability problems of special magnetic grease in large motor evaporative cooling technolo-gy under the working condition of large diameter and clearance,an experimental device for special magnetic grease seal was designed. The effects of magnetic grease filling dosage,shaft speed,seal gap,cooling water flow and seal series on the seal life were researched through operation tests. The results show that the seal life of special magnetic grease can be im-proved by reducing filling dosage of magnetic grease and increasing seal gap under the same seal bearing capacity. The seal life of special magnetic grease has no obvious change with stable performance within certain range of the speed. When out of the speed,the seal life is gradually reduced with increasing of the speed. The seal life of special magnetic grease can be improved effectively by increasing the flow rate of cooling water and increasing seal series. But the seal life can not be obvi-ously increased with too much of the water flow,and the seal series is limited by the seal axial size. Therefore,comprehen-sive consideration should be given in the selection of these two parameters.%  针对大直径、大间隙工况下大型电机蒸发冷却技术中特种磁脂密封的可靠性问题,设计一种特种磁脂密封试验装置,通过试验研究磁脂填加量、转轴转速、密封间隙、冷却水流量以及密封级数对磁脂密封寿命的影响。结果表明:相同密封承压能力下,降低磁脂填加量、增大密封间隙对提高密封寿命起到显著作用。磁脂密封在一定转速范围内性能稳定,运转寿命无明显变化;当转速超过稳定范围时,随转速的增大,磁脂密封寿命将逐渐降低。增大冷却水流量、增加密封级数能有效提高磁脂密封寿命,但冷却水流量过大对密封寿命提高不明显,而密封级数则会受到密封轴向尺寸限制,为此在二者参数的选取上应给予综合考虑。

  16. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  17. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  18. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  19. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  20. How Happiness Affects Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar D. Kamvar

    2012-01-01

    Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers' pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers' choices reflect those differences. In some cases, happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases, happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is determined by one's temporal focus, such that individuals tend to choose more exciting options when focused on ...

  1. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  2. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  3. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  4. Occupational Choice and the Endogenous Supply of Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    I develop a selection model in which the individual’s supply of ability is endogenous and subject to selection along with occupation. Additionally, I identify and estimate the returns to creative and innovative ability, communication ability, and reading and math ability for white-collar and blue......-collar workers. The model permits a person’s choice of occupation to influence his decision regarding the amount of ability to supply. The empirical results show that the individual’s supply of ability should be allowed to be endogenous to correct for sample selection bias caused by occupational choice....

  5. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  6. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  7. 添加剂在膨润土润滑脂中的应用%Application of Additives in Bentone Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋翊彬; 冯乐刚; 续景

    2011-01-01

    The preparation technology of bentone grease is described.Different types of antioxidants,extreme pressure anti-wear agent,rust inhibitor and preservatives were added into the base grease.By adopting "self-established" oxidation stability method to examine the properties of antioxidants,using four-ball testing machine which can test their P B and P D to observe the extreme-pressure anti-wear property,and employing GB/T 5018 and GB/T 7326 to investigate the anti-rust and anti-corrosion properties,the proper additives were selected to meet the requirements of bentone grease.%文章介绍了膨润土润滑脂的制备工艺,通过在膨润土基础脂中加入不同类型抗氧剂、极压抗磨剂和防锈防腐剂。采用"自拟"建立氧化安定性,考察抗氧剂在基础脂中抗氧化性能;采用四球机测试其PB和PD,考察极压抗磨剂在基础脂中的抗磨极压性能;采用GB/T 5018和GB/T 7326,考察防锈防腐蚀剂在基础脂中防锈防腐蚀特性。最后甄选满足膨润土基础润滑脂抗氧、极压抗磨和防锈防腐蚀的添加剂类型。

  8. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  9. Microbial community adaptation influences long-chain fatty acid conversion during anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease with municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziels, Ryan M; Karlsson, Anna; Beck, David A C; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Bjorn, Annika; Stensel, H David; Svensson, Bo H

    2016-10-15

    Codigesting fats, oils, and greases with municipal wastewater sludge can greatly improve biomethane recovery at wastewater treatment facilities. Process loading rates of fats, oils, and greases have been previously tested with little knowledge of the digester microbial community structure, and high transient fat loadings have led to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation and digester upsets. This study utilized recently-developed quantitative PCR assays for syntrophic LCFA-degrading bacteria along with 16S amplicon sequencing to relate changes in microbial community structure to LCFA accumulation during transient loading increases to an anaerobic codigester receiving waste restaurant oil and municipal wastewater sludge. The 16S rRNA gene concentration of the syntrophic β-oxidizing genus Syntrophomonas increased to ∼15% of the Bacteria community in the codigester, but stayed below 3% in the control digester that was fed only wastewater sludge. Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were the dominant methanogenic genera enriched in the codigester, and together comprised over 80% of the Archaea community by the end of the experimental period. Constrained ordination showed that changes in the codigester Bacteria and Archaea community structures were related to measures of digester performance. Notably, the effluent LCFA concentration in the codigester was positively correlated to the specific loading rate of waste oil normalized to the Syntrophomonas 16S rRNA concentration. Specific loading rates of 0-1.5 × 10(-12) g VS oil/16S gene copies-day resulted in LCFA concentrations below 30 mg/g TS, whereas LCFA accumulated up to 104 mg/g TS at higher transient loading rates. Based on the community-dependent loading limitations found, enhanced biomethane production from high loadings of fats, oils and greases can be achieved by promoting a higher biomass of slow-growing syntrophic consortia, such as with longer digester solids retention times. This work also

  10. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider....... However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...

  11. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  12. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider...

  13. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  14. White Middle Class Identities and Urban Schooling. Identity Studies in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane; Crozier, Gill; James, David

    2011-01-01

    This book examines experiences and implications of "against-the-grain" school choices, where white middle class families choose ordinary and "low performing" secondary schools for their children. It offers a unique view of identity formation, taking in matters like family history, locality and whiteness.

  15. Just Greasing the Wheels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    despite its fundamentally conflictual nature. At least, this is how diplomats have portrayed their profession for hundreds of years. However,the focus of this contribution is how diplomacy in general is seen as mediating among states, peoples and ideas — and why this is an incomplete view. This short...... contribution is therefore concerned with the way in which scholarly understandings of diplomacy as the mediation of estrangement raise — but also evade — questions of power and responsibility....

  16. Wanted: elbow grease

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    In Divonne-les-Bains, an association founded by former CERN personnel is restoring the oldest hydroelectric plant in France. The adventure started more than ten years ago, and now you’re invited to take part…   View of the benzole-powered thermic engine from 1907. Georges Leskens, a spritely 85-year-old, is president of the Divonnelectro association. Georges, a former electrical engineer at CERN, now has a new goal: to bring the Moulin David hydroelectric plant in Divonne-les-Bains, which he found in a derelict state in 2001, back to life. “When I entered the plant for the first time, I found several remarkable period machines… and the extent of the damage,” recalls Georges. “Among other things, the town used the building for storing salt and grit for the roads... so I don’t need to tell you what state the mechanisms were in!” Aware of the historical value of the site (see box), Georges convinced the D...

  17. Technological test for application of grease hardening water-glass sand%脂硬化水玻璃砂应用工艺试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建军; 梅志明; 程乾坤; 乔增国

    2012-01-01

    Since the rate of hardening, intensity and other indexes of the grease hardening sodiam silicate sand are sensitive to ambient temperature, the curing agent proportioning needs to be adjusted in time according to the ambient condition of production process. The variation of the curing agent proportioning for grease hardening sodiam silicate sand with pot life, hardening time and tensile strength at 0 ~ 10℃, 11 ~20℃ , 21 ~30℃ and 30 ~ 40℃ are analyzed by the aid of technological test. The curing agent proportioning at the above temperatures was obtained.%由于脂硬化水玻璃砂硬化速度及强度等指标对环境温度敏感,在生产过程中,需要根据环境条件及时调整固化剂配比,本文通过工艺试验,分析了在0 ~ 10℃、11~ 20℃、21~30℃和30~40℃环境条件下脂硬化水玻璃砂的工艺配比与可使用时间、硬化时间、抗拉强度的关系,得出在上述温度环境下的固化剂配比.

  18. Axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Herrlich, Horst

    2006-01-01

    AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom, shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that: Disasters happen without AC: Many fundamental mathematical results fail (being equivalent in ZF to AC or to some weak form of AC). Disasters happen with AC: Many undesirable mathematical monsters are being created (e.g., non measurable sets and undeterminate games). Some beautiful mathematical theorems hold only if AC is replaced by some alternative axiom, contradicting AC (e.g., by AD, the axiom of determinateness). Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.

  19. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  20. Study on the Processing Technology of Complex Lithium Grease in Laboratory%复合锂基润滑脂实验室制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于唯; 董元虎; 贾文; 樊龙飞

    2013-01-01

      研究实验室制备复合锂基润滑脂的加工工艺,采用单因素变化试验,分析一步法制备复合锂基润滑脂时料浓度、搅拌方式、搅拌速度、温度控制对成脂效果的影响.结果表明,在制作复合锂基润滑脂时,皂化反应前先加1/3~2/3的基础油来溶解脂肪酸,再徐徐加入氢氧化锂溶液进行皂化反应;待脂肪酸反应完全后,加入低分子二元反应完全后升温、脱水,加入剩余基础油进行高温炼制,然后冷却得到复合锂基润滑脂.制作复合锂基润滑脂的皂化应、复合反应、脱水反应、高温炼制阶段,需控制温度分别为110,110,160,220℃,控制反应时间分别为90,60,30,5 min,控制搅拌速度分别为80,80,30~60,30 r/min.%The processing technology of complex lithium grease made in laboratory was studied,and the single factor ex-periment was made to analyze the influence of reactant concentration,agitation modes,stirring speed and temperature con-trol on making lithium base grease of one-step method. Result shows that,during making lithium complex grease,first by using one-third to two-thirds of base oil to dissolve the fatty acid before saponification,the lithium hydroxide monohydrate is put all in the kettle once and slowly for saponiication. After the completion of the fatty acid’s reaction,the low molecule dimeric dibasic acid is put in. After acid completed reaction,heating to dehydrate,the remaining base oil is added in for high-temperature refining,and then cooled to get complex lithium grease. During the processes of saponification reaction, complex reaction,dehydration reaction,high-temperature refining of the grease,the control temperature needed respectively is 110,110,160 and 220℃;the control refining time needed is 90,60,30 and 5 min;and the control stirring speed respec-tively is 80,80,30 to 60 and 30 r/min.

  1. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  2. Career choices of lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.

  3. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  4. Physical white chaos generation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Anbang; Wang, Bingjie; Li, Lei; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    Physical chaos is a fascinating prospect for high-speed data security by serving as a masking carrier or a key source, but suffers from a colored spectrum that divulges system's intrinsic oscillations and degrades randomness. Here, we demonstrate that physical chaos with a white spectrum can be achieved by the optical heterodyning of two delayed-feedback lasers. A white chaotic spectrum with 1-dB fluctuation in a band of 11 GHz is experimentally obtained. The white chaos also has a perfect delta-like autocorrelation function and a high dimensionality of greater than 10, which makes chaos reconstruction extremely difficult and thus improves security.

  5. Deafness, culture, and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, N

    2002-10-01

    The recent controversy surrounding the choice, by a deaf lesbian couple, to have children who were themselves deaf, has focused attention on the ethics of choosing (apparent) disabilities for children. Deaf activists argue that deafness is not a disability, but instead the constitutive condition of access to a rich culture. Being deaf carries disadvantages with it, but these are a product of discrimination, not of the condition itself. It is, however, implausible to think that all the disadvantages which stem from deafness are social in origin. Moreover, though it may be true that being deaf carries with it the important compensation of access to a rich culture, no physical condition is required for such access. Cultures are simply the kind of things to which we are born, and therefore to which the children of deaf parents, hearing or deaf, normally belong. Thus these parents are making a mistake in choosing deafness for their children. Given their own experience of isolation as children, however, it is a mistake which is understandable, and our reaction to them ought to be compassion, not condemnation.

  6. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  7. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  8. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  9. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  10. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  11. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  12. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  13. Carpenter in White Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Inside Hangar S at the White Room Facility at Cape Canaveral, Florida, Mercury astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead (heat shield) of his Mercury capsule nicknamed 'Aurora 7.'

  14. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  15. Robotics Strategy White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-19

    VIRGINIA 23651-1087 REPlY TO A1Tl!NTlON OF ATFC-DS 19 MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Robotics Strategy White Paper 1. The enclosed... Robotics Strategy White Paper is the result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Tank-Automotive...Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). This paper builds on a confederated Anny robotics "strategy" that is described by senior leader

  16. Resurgence as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R

    2016-10-26

    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules).

  17. Influence of Composition of Complex Lithium-based Lubricant Grease on the Microstructure%润滑脂组成对复合锂基润滑脂微观结构影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晖; 陈晓南; 陈哲; 纪红兵

    2011-01-01

    lithium-based grease was characterized by using high resolution SEM.and the effects of different thickener, viscosity of base oil and additives on the performance of the grease from the microstructure were analyzed. The results show that soap-fiber length, thickness and three-dimensional structure determine the extent of the colloidal properties of grease. In the same thickener agent content( 12% ) ,three-dimensional structure of soap fiber of sebacic acid-hydroxy stearic acid grease is more compact than that of the boric acid-hydroxy stearic acid grease, three components of salicylic acid-based grease forms no soap fiber structure but with highest dropping point. The grease prepared by high viscosity base oil shows loose soap fiber structure compared with low viscosity base oil. Additive does not affect the size and shape of the soap fibers in the case of low content.%使用高分辨SEM观察锂基润滑脂的微观结构,对不同稠化剂、基础油黏度、添加剂对润滑脂的性能影响从微观结构的角度进行解释.结果表明,皂纤维的长度、粗细和缠绕程度形成的三维结构决定了润滑脂的胶体性能.在同等稠化剂含量下(质量分数12%),二组分癸羟型皂纤维三维结构比二组分硼羟型更为致密,三组分水杨酸型没有形成皂纤维结构,但滴点最高;高黏度基础油制备的润滑脂的皂纤维结构较低黏度基础油制备的润滑脂皂纤维结构疏松.在较少的含量情况下,添加剂的加入不影响皂纤维的大小和形状.

  18. 基于石蜡基油的锂基润滑脂流变性研究%STUDY ON RHEOLOGY OF LITHIUM LUCRICATING GREASE PREPARED FROM PARAFFIN-CASE MINERAL LUCE CASE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维贵; 郭小川; 蒋明俊; 郭婉晴

    2014-01-01

    以12-羟基硬脂酸锂皂稠化剂和矿物润滑基础油制备了锂基润滑脂。考察了基础油黏度、稠化剂含量及温度对锂基润滑脂的触变性、储存模量、应变幅度和表观黏度等流变学参数的影响,并对其影响机理进行了探讨。结果表明:基础油黏度增大,屈服应力先增大后减小,而表观黏度增大,400SN 的锂基润滑脂结构恢复最慢;皂含量增加,锂基润滑脂的屈服应力和表观黏度增大,结构恢复变慢;锂基润滑脂具有线性黏弹区,超过其屈服应力后,出现明显的剪切变稀,达到流动点,表现出黏性流体性质。%In order to study the rheological properties of lithium lubricating grease systematically, the lithium lubricating greases were prepared using 1 2-hydroxy stearic acid lithium soap thickener and mineral lubricating base oil.The influence of base oil viscosity,thickening agent dosage and tempera-ture on the thixotropy of lithium base grease,storage modulus,strain amplitude,the apparent viscosi-ty,and the corresponding mechanisms were examined.The results show that with increase of soap con-tent in lithium lubricating grease,the apparent viscosity increases while the yield stress shows the tend-ency of lowered after first increase.The 400SN lithium grease is the slowest one to restore its original structure,and that the yield stress and apparent viscosity increase with the soap dosage increasing, while the structure recovery rate decreases.Lithium grease possesses a linear sticky play area.Beyond the yield stress,the shear thinning appears.At the flow pour point,the grease shows its viscous flow properties.

  19. 基础油复配复合锂基脂的制备及性能研究%Study on Complex Lithium Grease Prepared by Compound Basic Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭阳; 胡萍; 骆旎; 张信; 黄樟华

    2016-01-01

    为提高复合锂基脂的高温性能,以500SN矿物油和甲基苯基硅油为复合基础油,以12-羟基硬脂酸、癸二酸、一水氢氧化锂等为稠化剂原料制备复合锂基润滑脂,考察基础油含量、种类及复配比对润滑脂性能的影响。确定润滑脂的最佳配方,并对润滑脂进行热分析和扫描电镜测试和四球摩擦试验。结果表明:当基础油质量分数为86%时,所制备润滑脂综合性能更优;甲基苯基硅油所制备的润滑脂综合性能明显优于矿物油润滑脂;矿物油与甲基苯基硅油复配比例为4∶6时,所制备润滑脂具有较高的滴点;热分析、扫描电镜测试和四球摩擦试验均证明所制润滑脂高温性能良好、减摩抗磨性能优良。%In order to improve the high-temperature behavior of complex lithium greases,the complex lithium greases were prepared by using 500SN mineral oil and methyl phenyl silicone oil as compound basic oils,using 12-hydroxy stearic acid,sebacic acid and lithium hydroxide monohydrate as the raw materials of thickening agent.The effects of the content, type and compound of basic oils on the properties of complex lithium greases were discussed.The best formulation of the complex lithium grease was determined,and thermoanalysis( TG-DSC) ,scanning electron microscope( SEM) and four-ball friction tester were used to analyze the complex lithium greases .The results show that complex lithium grease has good com-prehensive performance when the content of basic oil is 86%,and the performance of the grease prepared by methyl phenyl silicone oil is better that of the grease prepared by mineral oil.When the proportion of mineral oil and methyl phenyl sili-cone oil is 4 ∶6,the prepared grease has high drop point.TG-DSC,SEM and four-ball friction test demonstrates that the prepared grease has good high -temperature behavior and good friction reducing and anti-wear property.

  20. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  1. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrey, E K; Luebbe, M K; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C; Hales, K E

    2015-07-01

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% dietary DM replacing SFC. A completely randomized design was used with steers as the experimental unit, and the model included the fixed effects of diet. Contrast statements were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Final BW and DMI were not affected (P > 0.27) by GLY concentration. Average daily gain and G:F based on live BW did not differ as GLY level increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P > 0.33). Carcass-adjusted final BW and carcass-adjusted G:F were also not affected by GLY concentration (P > 0.22); however, carcass-adjusted ADG tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Calculated dietary NEm and NEg did not differ as GLY increased in the diet (P > 0.37). Hot carcass weight tended to respond quadratically, decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Likewise, dressing percentage tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing to 10% GLY inclusion (P = 0.09). Fat thickness decreased linearly as GLY inclusion increased in the diet (P 0.21). Calculated yield grade (YG) decreased linearly as GLY increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P = 0.04). Based on our results, there was no animal performance benefit for replacing SFC with GLY in diets containing yellow grease, and the only change in carcass merit was a slight improvement in YG.

  2. City Women Confront New Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THE Chinese economic reform has pushed society into a period of transformation. City women—especially career women—once again are confronted with new choices. Compared to Nora’s choice to leave or stay at home, as depicted in the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, the Chinese career women’s choice is obviously more complicated. It involves social roles and the expectations society has about their gender. Several women doctoral students with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences recently talked about this issue.

  3. 磁共振T2WI压脂及T1WI压脂增强序列在肛痈及肛漏诊断中的价值%The Value of Mri T2WI Pressure Grease and Fat Enhanced T1WI Pressure Sequence in Diagnosis of Anus Carbuncle and Anal Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析磁共振T2WI压脂及T1WI压脂增强序列在肛痈及肛漏诊断中的价值。方法:41例肛痈及肛漏患者均行常规及Gd-DTPA增强磁共振检查,经手术证实,对以上各磁共振扫描序列组合对各种类型肛痈、肛漏及其内口的检出率进行统计分析。结果:肛痈32个,肛漏26个。对于肛痈、肛漏检出率,矢状位平扫及增强T1Wl压脂序列与手术结果比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:轴位联合冠状位T2WI压脂序列及T1WI压脂增强扫描序列可明显提高肛痈、肛漏临床诊断正确率,为手术方式的最佳选择提供科学信息。%Objective:To analyze the value of mri T2WI pressure grease and fat enhanced T1WI pressure sequence in diagnosis of anus carbuncle and anal leakage.Method:41 patients with anal carbuncle and anal leakage both conventional and Gd-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance examination,confirmed by surgery,the combination of all mri scanning sequences of various types of anal abscess in mouth,anus leakage and its detection rate were analyzed. Result:Anal carbuncle was 32,anal leakage was 26.For abscess,anal leakage inspection rate,sagittal scan and enhanced T1Wl pressure grease series all had significant difference compared with surgical results(P0.05).Conclusion:Shaft joint coronary bits fat T2WI pressure fat sequence and T1WI enhancement scan sequence can obviously improve the anus carbuncle,anal leakage clinical diagnostic accuracy, provide scientific information for the best choice of the surgical procedure.

  4. How do stereotypes influence choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice.

  5. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  6. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  7. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  8. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  9. Snow White Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 25th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 24 (June 19, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left) and 'Snow White 2' (right). The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. 'Snow White' is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Lucky White Elephant Found

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈法林

    2001-01-01

    white elephant在英语中是“累赘物”的代名词,为此,据说国产的“白象牌电池”曾经在欧美市场曾一度滞销。而缅甸人对white elephant却情有独钟!该国有一传统说法:白象的出现,是国运昌盛的预兆。国家将在辟邪中走向祥和、丰收和繁荣。】

  11. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  12. White Tower, London, England

    OpenAIRE

    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I

    2007-01-01

    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  13. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  14. Indian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Roles in Their Daughters' University Course Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhaita, Priya

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new findings on the experiences of Indian mothers in the roles they play in their daughters' higher education (HE) subject choices. Whilst there are existing studies on White British mothers and parents more generally in terms of parental involvement in education, and a growing number of papers presenting results on…

  15. Choice and no-choice assays for testing the resistance of A. thaliana to chewing insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2008-05-14

    Larvae of the small white cabbage butterfly are a pest in agricultural settings. This caterpillar species feeds from plants in the cabbage family, which include many crops such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussel sprouts etc. Rearing of the insects takes place on cabbage plants in the greenhouse. At least two cages are needed for the rearing of Pieris rapae. One for the larvae and the other to contain the adults, the butterflies. In order to investigate the role of plant hormones and toxic plant chemicals in resistance to this insect pest, we demonstrate two experiments. First, determination of the role of jasmonic acid (JA - a plant hormone often indicated in resistance to insects) in resistance to the chewing insect Pieris rapae. Caterpillar growth can be compared on wild-type and mutant plants impaired in production of JA. This experiment is considered "No Choice", because larvae are forced to subsist on a single plant which synthesizes or is deficient in JA. Second, we demonstrate an experiment that investigates the role of glucosinolates, which are used as oviposition (egg-laying) signals. Here, we use WT and mutant Arabidopsis impaired in glucosinolate production in a "Choice" experiment in which female butterflies are allowed to choose to lay their eggs on plants of either genotype. This video demonstrates the experimental setup for both assays as well as representative results.

  16. Experimental Study on Full Life-cycle Performance of Magnetic Greases in Sea-water%海水环境下磁脂性能的全生命周期试验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 张秋翔; 李双喜; 蔡纪宁

    2015-01-01

    利用磁脂密封试验台,研究在海水环境中磁脂从初始状态到稳定运转直至失效的全生命周期的性能变化。采用电镜和差热反应等方法对分散剂、磁性包覆颗粒以及载液的酸值和分油进行分析,研究磁脂的变化过程,得到其变化规律和磁脂失效的判据。结果表明:磁脂的结块硬化是引起磁脂失效的主要原因;磁脂发生结块硬化时,载液的分油加剧,载液承载作用减弱,出现磁性包覆颗粒分散稀疏带并呈现扩展趋势,但磁性颗粒没有发生氧化反应,分散剂形态仍保持良好。%The change of full life⁃cycle performances of magnetic greases from the initial state to the steady state until the dead end in sea⁃water was investigated by using the magnetic grease seal test bed.By analyzing the dispersant,magnetic coated particles, and the value and oil separation of loading fluid by the methods of SEM,TEM and differential thermal a⁃nalysis,the change process of magnetic greases was researched to find out the law of change of magnetic greases and the criterion of faults prediction of the magnetic greases. The results show that cross⁃linking hardening is the main reason to lead to the invalidation of magnetic greases.When the cross⁃linking hardening happens,the oil separation of loading fluid is increased and the carrying capacity is weakened, magnetic coated particles disperse sparsely and trend to diffusion. But there is no occurrence of oxidation reactions in magnetic particles,and the shape of dispersants is remained in good condi⁃tion.

  17. Snow White II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Jan

    1978-01-01

    Presented as a fairy tale with the characters of Snow White and the seven dwarves, this paper points out some of the professional, emotional, and health characteristics and problems of individual teachers, and ways an administrator might deal with them. (SJL)

  18. Snow White 5 Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera on the 35th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 34 (June 29, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing. This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White 5.' The trench is 4-to-5 centimeters (about 1.5-to-1.9 inches) deep, 24 centimeters (about 9 inches) wide and 33 centimeters (13 inches) long. Snow White 5 is Phoenix's current active digging area after additional trenching, grooming, and scraping by Phoenix's Robotic Arm in the last few sols to trenches informally called Snow White 1, 2, 3, and 4. Near the top center of the image is the Robotic Arm's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe. Snow White 5 is located in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Liquid White Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Marge

    1985-01-01

    A secondary teacher describes how she has her students use liquid white enamel. With the enameling process, students can create lasting, exciting artwork. They can exercise an understanding of design and color while learning the value of careful, sustained craft skills. (RM)

  20. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  1. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  2. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  3. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  4. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are expec

  5. Choice probabilities and response times of binary preferential choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Maarten Willem

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigates human choice behavior. We describe several experiments in which we offer the subject a referential stimulus and later two other stimuli that differ in several aspects from each other and the reference. The subject has to decide which of two alternatives resembles the ref

  6. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  7. White Light Heterodyne Interferometry SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. White Light ...White Light Heterodyne Interferometry SNR J.B. Ashcom Group 91...public release; distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT White light heterodyne interferometry is a powerful technique for obtaining high-angular

  8. The Determinants of Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A. H.; Belot, Michele

    2016-01-01

    , we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social...... pressures, cognitive-affective factors (perceived stress, health attitude, anxiety and depression), and familial, genetic and epigenetic influences on personality characteristics. In addition, our choices are influenced by an array of physiological mechanisms, including signals to the brain from...

  9. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2007-12-01

    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  10. Recent Progress toward white organic light emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yu-Tai

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and stable white organic light emitting diode (WOLED) is highly desirable in potential applications such as lighting, background light source, and full color display.A series of highly fluorescent dyes based on a dipyrazolopyridine skeleton,1,7-diphenyl-l,7-dihydrodipyrazolo[3,4-b,4′,3′-e]pyridine, were synthesized and evaluated as emitting as well as charge-transporting material in the fabrication of electroluminescent devices.Several of the blue derivatives are found to be useful as the source of blue emission in fabricating bright white-emitting devices. The choice of dopants, cathode materials, electron-transporting materials as well as the device configurations greatly affect the emission profile, efficiencies, as well as the device lifetime. The latest progress in achieving a more efficient, color stable, durable white light device will be discussed.

  11. 由扩散泵硅油高沸物制备高温润滑脂的性能%Property of High Temperature Grease with High-boiling Components of Diffusion Pump Silicone Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸国建; 郑乾亮; 沈志晨; 惠逸磷

    2015-01-01

    Two silicone high temperature greases were prepared with high-boiling components of diffusion pump silicone oil as the base oil, and metal fatty acid soap as the thickener. Experiments show that both the physical and chemical indicators of the greases are good. The high-boiling components can be thickened by metal fatty acid soap, among which the silicone grease in which a single lithium-based soap with fatty acids can be used at a temperature not higher than 120℃. The silicone high-temperature lubricant grease of lithium soap with a fatty acid complex can be used below 200℃, temperature up to 250℃ for short-term use.%以制扩散泵用硅油的高沸物为基础油、脂肪酸锂单皂或脂脂酸锂复合皂为稠化剂,制备出2种有机硅高温润滑脂。测试表明,两种润滑脂的理化指标都不错。脂肪酸金属皂能够稠化高沸物,其中用脂肪酸锂基单皂制备的有机硅润滑脂能在温度不高于120℃条件下使用;而用脂肪酸复合锂皂制备的有机硅高温润滑脂可在200℃以下使用,短期使用温度可达250℃。

  12. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...... central for race ideologier, som skabte den australske nation. Denne bog forfølger fundamenterne af hvide Australien på tværs af forskellige lokaliteter. Den placerer også  udviklingen af Australisk hvidhed som led i den bredere kejserlige og globale indflydelse. Som den seneste Undskyldning til Stjålne...

  13. 'Snow White' Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 43, the 43rd Martian day after landing (July 8, 2008). This image shows the trench informally called 'Snow White.' Two samples were delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory, which is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The first sample was taken from the surface area just left of the trench and informally named 'Rosy Red.' It was delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008). The second sample, informally named 'Sorceress,' was taken from the center of the 'Snow White' trench and delivered to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory on Sol 41 (July 6, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  16. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  17. 新型复合锂钙基润滑脂的研制与性能分析%Preparation and Properties Analysis of New Lithium/Calcium Complex Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连惠; 王晓

    2013-01-01

    对新型的复合锂钙基润滑脂的生产工艺过程和产品性能进行了分析,结果表明,采用氢氧化锂油相悬浮液作为锂源,相比传统的单水氢氧化锂在生产复合锂钙基润滑脂的过程中,皂化时间短、稠化剂用量少、生产效率高而且环保节能;新型的复合锂钙基润滑脂与传统复合锂钙基润滑脂相比,具有更高的氧化安定性、更细腻的外观和更优异的性能.%New lithium/calcium complex grease was prepared from oil suspension of lithium hydrate instead of lithium hydroxide monohydrate.The preparation process of the new lithium/calcium complex grease was optimized,and found that the process with oil suspension of lithium hydrate as lithium source shows advantages of short saponification time,less thickener consumption,energy conservative and environmental friendly.As compared with the grease from lithium hydroxide monohydrate,this product has better oxidation stability,more smooth appearance and excellent properties.

  18. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  19. The Multiple-Choice Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De meerkeuzemaatschappij. There are many areas of life where people have more choice than ever before. The leisure industry bombards consumers with a flood of goods and services; the family and the Church have lost their dominant position in the structuring of people's lives; there

  20. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction...

  1. Educational Choice and Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…

  2. Young Adults' Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of Young Adults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from…

  3. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value...

  4. Process algebra with partial choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to bridge the gap between ACP and TCSP. To this end, ACP is extended with two non-deterministic choice operators in a setting of bisimulation semantics. With these operators, we can express safety properties of systems without the use of silent steps, and we can verify

  5. Students' Choices and Moral Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joan F.

    2006-01-01

    Can schools encourage children to become independent moral decision-makers, maintaining controlled environments suitable to instructing large numbers of children? Two opposing responses are reviewed: one holds that the road to morality is through discipline and obedience, the other through children's experimentation and choice-making.…

  6. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive tha

  7. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice op

  8. Differentiated Bayesian Conjoint Choice Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sándor (Zsolt); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevious conjoint choice design construction procedures have produced a single design that is administered to all subjects. This paper proposes to construct a limited set of different designs. The designs are constructed in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account prior uncertainty about

  9. Etude du point critique des paliers lisses alimentés à la graisse Study of Critical Point on Plain Bearings Lubricated by Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delneuville P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré à l'étude du fonctionnement limite des paliers lisses lubrifiés à la graisse ; son but est de permettre la détermination des conditions nécessaires à l'obtention d'un film lubrifiant d'épaisseur suffisante. L'auteur cherche à cette occasion une loi théorique qui permet de départager les régimes de lubrification, non plus empiriquement, mais sur la base de lois statistiques. La formulation finale doit permettre aux utilisateurs de situer correctement les conditions de fonctionnement d'un palier lisse et d'en estimer la sécurité du régime. This article deals essentially with the boundary behaviour of plain bearings lubricated by grease. Its aim is to determine the conditions required to obtain a sufficiently thick lubricating film. The author proposes a theoretical law for separating lubrication types. This law is not empirical but is based on statistical laws. The final formulation should enable users to correctly situate the operating conditions of a plain bearing and to evaluate the safety factor during running.

  10. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  11. A full-scale UASB reactor for treatment of pig and cattle slaughterhouse wastewater with a high oil and grease content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. S. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of an 800m³ full-scale UASB reactor in treating meat-packing plant and slaughterhouse effluents containing high concentrations of oil and grease (O&G (413-645 mg/L, resulting in a COD/O&G ratio of 26-32%. Those macromolecules were considered responsible for the unbalance of the system resulting in a total washout of the biomass. The removal of O&G from the influent using a physicochemical system (coagulation-flocculation improved the physical characteristics of the anaerobic sludge, controlling the biomass washout. Reactor performance was significantly improved when the COD/O&G ratio influent was maintained in the 10%. The COD and O&G removal rates obtained after implantation of the physicochemical system were 70-92% and 27-58%, respectively. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA of the biomass shows towards a tendency stabilisation and adaptation to the substrate influent. Pretreatment of the influent allowed the maximum organic load to be increased (1.46 to 2.43 Kg COD/m³.d and improved the quality of the effluent.

  12. Bioremediation of waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum SNP5 grown in solid medium containing waste grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mathur, Anisha; Singh, Varsha; Nandy, Suchismita; Khare, Sunil Kumar; Negi, Sangeeta

    2012-09-01

    The aim of present work was to bioremediate the waste cooking oil using a novel lipase produced in solid medium containing waste grease and wheat bran by Penicillium chrysogenum. Enzyme extracted with phosphate buffer was purified 10.6 and 26.28-fold after 90% ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, respectively. The partial characterization of enzyme revealed its K(m) and V(max) value for p-nitrophenolpamitate as 0.4mM and 47.61 U/ml, respectively. The relative molecular mass of lipase was 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by zymogram. Purified lipase was most stable at 40°C and at 8.0 pH. Lipase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) and non-ionic surfactant TritonX-100, while suppressed in the presence of SDS. Crude lipase was applied on cooking oil waste and the acid value was 26.92 mg/g. This showed that the enzyme could be employed for the bioremediation of used cooking oil.

  13. Characterization of extracellular polymeric substances and microbial diversity in anaerobic co-digestion reactor treated sewage sludge with fat, oil, grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Rui; Zheng, Yue; Chen, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Min

    2016-07-01

    Performance of co-digesters, treated of sewage sludge (SS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG), were conducted semi-continuously in two mesophilic reactors over 180days. Compared with SS mono-digestion, biogas production and TS removal efficiency of co-digestion were significantly enhanced up to 35% and 26% by adding upper limit FOG (60% on VS). Enhancement in co-digestion performance was also stimulated by the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which was increased 40% in both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) than that of mono-digester. Based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS), analysis of microbial 16S rRNA gene comprehensively revealed the dynamic change of microbial community. Results showed that both bacterial and archaeal undergone an apparent succession with FOG addition, and large amount of consortium like Methanosaeta and N09 were involved in the process. Redundancy analysis showed the acetoclastic genera Methanosaeta distinctly related with biogas production and EPS degradation.

  14. Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet

    2002-01-01

    Last month I was given the opportunity to return to China, to teach in ShenZhen. For a while, I suffered the agony of indecision (优柔寡断) as I weighed upthe pros and cons. I made a list of reasons to go and reasons to stay, and askedfriends and family for their advice. Finally, I found a quiet moment and heard the

  15. William Styron's Sophie's Choice : Choice, Guilt, and Fate

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 久男

    1984-01-01

    Sophie's Choice (1979), William Styron's autobiographical novel, deals, like his other works, with the nature of evil in all mankind: "our proclivity toward hatred and toward massive domination," the grievous proclivity which was embodied on the largest scale in the despotic institutions of slavery and the concentration camps. This paper, though analyzing the obsessions of three main characters, as well as exploring the issue of the form of the first-person narration employed in this book, is...

  16. White matter and behavioral neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M

    2005-12-01

    Although the study of higher brain function has traditionally focused on the cortical gray matter, recent years have witnessed the recognition that white matter also makes an important contribution to cognition and emotion. White matter comprises nearly half the brain volume and plays a key role in development, aging, and many neurologic and psychiatric disorders across the life span. More than 100 disorders exist in which white matter neuropathology is the primary or a prominent feature. A variety of neurobehavioral syndromes may result from these disorders; the concept of white matter dementia has been introduced as characteristic of many patients with white matter involvement, and a wide range of focal neurobehavioral syndromes and psychiatric disorders can also be related to dysfunction of myelinated tracts. Understanding the neurobehavioral aspects of white matter disorders is important for clinical diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and research on brain-behavior relationships. Central to these investigations is the use of modern neuroimaging techniques, which have already provided substantial information on the characterization of white matter and its disorders, and which promise to advance our knowledge further with continued innovation. Diffusion tensor imaging is an exciting method that will assist with the identification of critical white matter tracts in the brain, and the localization of specific lesions that can be correlated with neurobehavioral syndromes. A behavioral neurology of white matter is thus emerging in which clinical observation combined with sophisticated neuroimaging will enable elucidation of the role of white matter connectivity in the distributed neural networks subserving higher brain function.

  17. The white dwarf luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2016-06-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ∼ 10 Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other relevant ingredients are needed to compare theory and observations. In this review we summarize the recent attempts to empirically determine the white dwarf luminosity function for the different Galactic populations. We also discuss the biases that may affect its interpretation. Finally, we elaborate on the theoretical ingredients needed to model the white dwarf luminosity function, paying special attention to the remaining uncertainties, and we comment on some applications of the white dwarf cooling theory. Astrophysical problems for which white dwarf stars may provide useful leverage in the near future are also discussed.

  18. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Phoenix's Snow White Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A soil sample taken from the informally named 'Snow White' trench at NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander work site produced minerals that indicate evidence of past interaction between the minerals and liquid water. This image was taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 103, the 103rd day since landing (Sept. 8, 2008). The trench is approximately 23 centimeters (9 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  1. Business Choice of Enterprises' Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QinZheng; ZouJianjun; ChenShou

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of diversification has become an important approach to enterprise development A successful diversification strategy depends mainly on the correct business choice. Before choosing a new business, we must identify the core competeneies of the enterprise and research the attraction and criticai success factors of the target business. Then we should make sure whether the core competencies match the critical success factors or not.The new business should be useful for cuitivating sustainable competitive advantage.

  2. Racial ideology and explanations for health inequalities among middle-class whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Nagoshi, C; Diala, C

    2001-01-01

    Middle-class whites' explanations for racial inequalities in health can have a profound impact on the type of questions addressed in epidemiology and public health research. These explanations also constitute a subset of white racial ideology (i.e., racism) that in itself powerfully affects the health of non-whites. This study begins to examine the nature of attributions for racial inequalities in health among university students who by definition are likely to be involved in the research, policy, and service professions (the upper middle class). Investigation of the degree to which middle-class whites attribute racial inequalities in cardiovascular health (between themselves and African Americans, American Indians, or Asian Americans) to biological, social, or lifestyle factors reveals that whites tend to attribute their own health to lifestyle choice and to biology rather than to social factors. These results suggest that contemporary middle-class whites' "self-serving" explanations for racial inequalities in health are comprised of two beliefs: implicit biologism (race is an attribute of organisms rather than a social relation) and liberal belief in self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility--some of the core lay beliefs of the worldview that sustains neoliberal capitalism. Contemporary white middle-class explanations for racial inequalities in health appear to include assumptions that justify class inequality. Liberal approaches to racism in public health are bound to miss a key component of racial ideology that is currently used to justify racial and class inequalities.

  3. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  4. Emotional arousal predicts intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Johnson, Eli; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it. Here the authors use an objective measure of arousal-pupil dilation-to investigate if emotional arousal mediates the influence of delayed reward concreteness on choice. They recorded pupil dilation responses while participants made choices between immediate and delayed rewards. They manipulated concreteness through time interval framing: delayed rewards were presented either with the date on which they would be received (e.g., "$30, May 3"; DATE condition, more concrete) or in terms of delay to receipt (e.g., "$30, 7 days; DAYS condition, less concrete). Contrary to prior work, participants were not overall more patient in the DATE condition. However, there was individual variability in response to time framing, and this variability was predicted by differences in pupil dilation between conditions. Emotional arousal increased as the subjective value of delayed rewards increased, and predicted choice of the delayed reward on each trial. This study advances our understanding of the role of emotion in temporal discounting. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  6. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  7. Antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Falbo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the antecedents and consequences of residential choice and school transfers within one of the eight largest urban school districts in Texas. This study is based on survey data from a representative sample of parents of K-12 students enrolled in this district. In addition to demographic characteristics of the family, the parent decision-making model of Schneider, Teske, & Marschall (2000 was examined to determine if aspects of this model were useful in understanding the school choices made at the beginning of the school year and the parents' motivation to move to another school at the end. The results provide some support for the view that residential choice is related to enhanced achievement and satisfaction; while, within-district transfers were used more by better educated White parents who did not qualify as low income. Parents' motivation to move their children to another school was greater when they perceived the school as less receptive to their involvement and their children as less successful in school.

  8. Offshoring White-Collar Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold: to explain why white-collar service work in manufacturing firms is increasingly subject to offshoring and to understand the effects of this process on work integration mechanisms. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of Danish...... manufacturers. First, the chapter finds that drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring, that is, cost minimisation and resource seeking. Second, due to the interdependence of white-collar tasks with the rest...... of the organisation, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms poses higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities compared with blue-collar work. We conceptualise the effects of white-collar work offshoring in a framework relating white-collar work...

  9. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  10. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bwhite dwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  11. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  12. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS316L powder each as feedstock. The rheological analysis are based on viscosity, shear rate, temperature, activation energy, flow behavior index, and moldability index. The optimal feedstock formulation will be injected to form green compact to undergo the solvent extraction process. Solvent extraction variables are based on solvent temperature which are 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C with different organic solvents of n-hexane and n-heptane. Analysis of the weight loss percentage and diffusion coefficient is done on the green compact during the solvent extraction process. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC is used to confirm the extraction of the RWFO in green compacts. It is found that all binder fractions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior or shear thinning where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. After considering the factors that affect the rheological characteristic of the binder formulation, feedstock with binder formulation of 20/20 volumetric ratio between PP and RWFO rise as the optimal binder. It is found that the n-hexane solvent requires less time for extracting the RWFO at the temperature of 60 °C as proved by its diffusion coefficient.

  13. Making Healthy Choices at Fast Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  14. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get enough protein from this group as ... selected are adequate. Protein sources from the Protein Foods Group for vegetarians include eggs (for ovo-vegetarians), beans ...

  15. White Religious Educators Resisting White Fragility: Lessons from Mystics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Decades of work in dismantling racism have not yielded the kind of results for which religious educators have hoped. One primary reason has been what scholars term "white fragility," a symptom of the structural racism which confers systemic privilege upon White people. Lessons learned from Christian mystics point to powerful ways to…

  16. Multiple Pathways to Whiteness: White Teachers' Unsteady Racial Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin T.

    2017-01-01

    Teacher education programs in the US, recognizing the mismatch that exists in preschool provision between mostly white teachers and a very diverse intake of young children, have begun to explore ways of raising racial awareness among pre-service teachers, with the aim of improving non-white children's classroom experiences and outcomes. This paper…

  17. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  18. Vocational Choice: A Decision Making Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry

    2005-01-01

    We propose a model of vocational choice that can be used for analyzing and guiding the decision processes underlying career and job choices. Our model is based on research in behavioral decision making (BDM), in particular the choice goals framework developed by Bettman, Luce, and Payne (1998). The basic model involves two major processes. First,…

  19. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  20. On Becoming an Institution of First Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Frank; Jardine, Doug

    An overview is provided of the marketing and recruitment efforts designed to make Capilano College (CC) an "institution of first choice" in the minds of its community and prospective students. The presentation by Doug Jardine defines what CC means by and hopes to accomplish by becoming a "first choice" institution, indicating that a "first choice"…

  1. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  2. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  3. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D M; Calancha, C; Fujii, K; Graf, N; Haber, H E; Ishikawa, A; Kanemura, S; Kawada, S; Kurata, M; Miyamoto, A; Neal, H; Ono, H; Potter, C; Strube, J; Suehara, T; Tanabe, T; Tian, J; Tsumura, J; Watanuki, S; Weiglein, G; Yagyu, K; Yokoya, H

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  4. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  5. Model choice in nonnested families

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Basilio de Bragança

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the problem of model choice when the statistical models are separate, also called nonnested. Chapter 1 provides an introduction, motivating examples and a general overview of the problem. Chapter 2 presents the classical or frequentist approach to the problem as well as several alternative procedures and their properties. Chapter 3 explores the Bayesian approach, the limitations of the classical Bayes factors and the proposed alternative Bayes factors to overcome these limitations. It also discusses a significance Bayesian procedure. Lastly, Chapter 4 examines the pure likelihood approach. Various real-data examples and computer simulations are provided throughout the text.

  6. The PXIE LEBT Design Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Typical front-ends of modern light-ion high-intensity accelerators typically consist of an ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a Radiofrequency Quadrupole and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT), which is followed by the main linac accelerating structures. Over the years, many LEBTs have been designed, constructed and operated very successfully. In this paper, we present the guiding principles and compromises that lead to the design choices of the PXIE LEBT, including the rationale for a beam line that allows un-neutralized transport over a significant portion of the LEBT whether the beam is pulsed or DC.

  7. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal query....

  8. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  9. White Wedding and Red Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦遥

    2010-01-01

    @@ The most obvious difference between western wedding and Chinese wedding tradition lies in the main color of the ceremony.Western wedding is known as the white wedding in some sense,for its main color is white from bride's gown(礼服)to the decoration of the wedding hall.While,traditional Chinese wedding ceremony is full of the color of red.

  10. A theory of stochastic choice under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Karni, Edi; Safra, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a characterization of stochastic choice\\ud under risk and under uncertainty. We presume that decision makers'\\ud actual choices are governed by randomly selected states of mind, and\\ud study the representation of decision makers' perceptions of the stochastic process underlying the selection of their state of mind. The\\ud connections of this work to the literatures on random choice, choice\\ud behavior when preference are incomplete; choice of menus; and grades of inde...

  11. Experimental Study on Tribological Property of Nano-Grease for High-Speed Railway Axle Box Bearings%高速铁路轴箱轴承纳米润滑脂摩擦学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延经; 何强; 杨立芳; 王世峰; 牛青波

    2015-01-01

    以WS2和Si3 N4纳米颗粒作为高速客车轴箱轴承润滑脂添加剂,依据完全析因试验方案,合成了高速客车轴箱轴承纳米润滑脂。采用四球摩擦磨损试验机对其抗磨减摩和抗极压性能进行了研究,使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了钢球磨斑表面形貌,运用双因素方差分析法探究了WS2-Si3 N4复合纳米颗粒对纳米润滑脂润滑性能影响。研究表明:当WS2添加量为1.5%,Si3 N4添加量为0.1%时,合成的纳米润滑脂PB 值最大,摩擦因数最低,钢球磨斑形貌平整光滑;WS2和Si3 N4纳米颗粒均可提高纳米润滑脂的润滑性能,对复合纳米润滑脂润滑性能的提高交互作用显著。%The WS2 and Si3 N4 nanoparticles are used as additives in lubricating grease of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger cars,the nano-grease of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger cars is synthesized based on full factorial experiment scheme.Its anti-wear,friction-reduction and anti-extreme pressure properties are investigated by using four ball friction and wear tester.The surface morphology of wear scar on steel balls is analyzed by using SEM, the effects of complex nano-particles of WS2 and Si3 N4 on lubricating properties of nano-grease are investigated by u-sing double factors variance analysis method.The results show that the PB value for synthetic nano -grease is maxi-mum,the friction coefficient is minimum,and the surface morphology of wear scar on steel balls is flat and smooth when adding 1.5%WS2 and 0.1%Si3 N4.The WS2 and Si3 N4 nano-particles improve lubricating properties of nano-grease,which have significantly interaction for improving lubricating properties of complex nano-grease.

  12. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour.

  13. Preservation of What? Ideological Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Lundmark

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of these thoughts lie in situations involving choices – but also limited choices. DAUM, Dialekt-, ortnamns- och folkminnesarkivet, the Archive for Dialects, Placenames and Folklore, in Umeå, Sweden, is responsible for the documentation of a huge territory, which we do not regret. Nor do we regret the fact that the archive also grasps a wide range of subjects. We have, however, very few staff, and a feeling of insufficiency is not unusual. One way to conquer this feeling is offered by the ongoing discourse that takes place at our establishment – a discourse that is immaterial yet constitutes a solid ground from which to take bearings in our work with such a vast volume of cultural heritage. My first meeting with DAUM as an employee was full of inspiring brainstorming with the former head Jan Nilsson – an open-minded discussion which still continues with Ola Wennstedt, the present director of the archive. In the 1990s a reorganisation of the establishment (at the national level has been taking place and we have had to analyse the whole organisation and DAUM’s place therein. There were policy questions and economic cutbacks, and priorities had to be established in different spheres of activity. The discourse increased in strength and below I will give some examples of the different kind of questions that I am concerned with as an archivist at DAUM.

  14. 基于PGNAA法检测输油管道油垢厚度的初步实验研究%Preliminary Experiment on Measure the Grease Stain Thickness with PGNAA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小强; 艾尔肯·阿不列木; 赵经武; 马加一; 李长园

    2011-01-01

    为改进石油输送过程中的油垢检测方法,应用PGNAA(瞬发γ射线中子活化分析)法对管道同一横截面处不同探测角度时不同石蜡(模拟油垢)厚度进行γ光子计数,研究发现γ光子计数响应与探测角度有很大关系.探测角度为135°时线性相关系数的平方和测量精度都是最佳,达到0.9986和0.906mm.本工作对PGNAA法检测油垢厚度选择最佳的探测角度提供了实验基础.%In order to improve the measurement method of grease stain thickness in oil pipeline, we use PGNAA (prompt gamma neutron activation analysis) method, and count (Υ) photon for the same crosssectional area of oil pipeline with different thickness of paraffin (simulating grease ). We found that the (Υ) photon counting response was related to detection angle . The value of square of coefficient of linear and measuring accuracy was best with angle of detection was 135° The value was 0.9986 and 0.906mm. This work provided a experimental basis to detect grease stain thickness for choosing the best angle of detection with PGNAA method .

  15. 基于聚-α烯烃油的锂基润滑脂流变性%Rheological of Lithium Lubricating Grease Based on Poly-αOlefins Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维贵; 郭小川; 蒋明俊; 郭婉晴

    2014-01-01

    为系统研究锂基润滑脂的流变性能,以12-羟基硬脂酸锂皂为稠化剂和聚-α烯烃(PAO)油为基础油制备了锂基润滑脂。考察了稠化剂含量、基础油黏度和温度对锂基润滑脂的触变性、储存模量、损耗模量、表观黏度和应变幅度等流变参数的影响,并对其影响机理进行了探讨。实验表明:锂基润滑脂是屈服性假塑性流体,在很小应变范围内以可恢复的弹性变形为主导,达到其屈服应力后,具有明显的剪切变稀现象;达到其流动点后,表现出黏性流体性质。%In order to study the rheological properties of lithium base grease in a systematic way, lithium lubricating grease is prepared with 12-hydroxy stearic acid lithium soap as the thickener and poly-αolefins(PAO)synthetic oil as base oil. The influ-ence factors such as the content of the thickener, base oil viscosity and temperature on the rheological parameters concerning thixot-ropy, storage modulus, loss modulus, apparent viscosity and strain amplitude are studied and the mechanism is also discussed. Ex-perimental results show that the lithium lubricating grease is yield pseudoplastic fluid, which is highly elastic and can restore elastic deformation at very small strain range, has obvious shear thinning phenomenon after reaching the yield stress, and is highly viscous when it reached its yield point.

  16. 复合组分对复合磺酸钙基润滑脂摩擦磨损性能的影响%Influence of Compound Components on Friction and Wear Properties of the Calcium Sulfonate Complex Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢龙; 程型国; 周圆

    2012-01-01

    The four kinds of calcium of sulfonate complex greases were prepared. The influence of calcium 12-hydroxys-tearate and calcium tetraborate on friction and wear behavior of the prepared calcium sulfonate complex greases was evaluated by four-ball tester and SRV friction and wear testing machine,and the chemical states of typical elements on the wear scar of steel ball were analyzed by means of the XPS. It is shown that excellent extreme pressure property of calcium sulfonate complex grease is mainly from layered calcium carbonate in the form of calcite rather than action of the boundary layer of FeS,CaS,Fe3C and CaC2. Antiwear characteristic could be attributed to the polar adsorption film formed by calcium 12-hydroxystearate and calcium tetraborate.%制备4种不同组分的复合磺酸钙基润滑脂,采用四球摩擦磨损机和SVR高频线性振动试验机,考察12-羟基硬脂酸钙、硼酸钙对复合磺酸钙基润滑脂摩擦磨损性能的影响,采用XPS分析钢球磨斑表面主要元素的化学状态.结果表明,复合磺酸钙基润滑脂优良的极压性主要来源于层状结构的方解型碳酸钙沉积膜,而不是FeS、CaS、Fe3C、CaC2反应膜;抗磨性归功于硼酸钙、12-羟基硬脂酸钙所形成的极性吸附膜.

  17. 茂金属聚α烯烃制备的复合锂基润滑脂摩擦学性能研究%TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF METALLOCENE POLY ALPHA-OLEFINS LITHIUM COMPLEX GREASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓颖; 夏延秋

    2016-01-01

    Using metallocene poly alpha-olefins (mPAO)and poly α-olefin (PAO40)as base oils, and complex lithium soap as thickener,a kind of lithium complex greases were prepared. The high-speed reciprocating friction and wear testing machine was used to investigate the effect of molybdenum disulfide,molybdenum dithiocarbamates,zinc silicate additives and their mixtures on the friction and wear properties of complex lithium grease on steel-steel friction pair. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and energy spectrum analysis (EDS)were employed to analyze the worn surfaces. The tribologi-cal properties of the composites are significantly improved with addition of 5% molybdenum dithiocar-bamate,2% molybdenum disulfide or 4% zinc silicate in the lithium grease. The lithium grease using mPAO as base oil has better tribological properties compared to poly α-olefin as base oil.%分别以茂金属聚α烯烃(mPAO)和聚α烯烃(PAO40)为基础油、复合锂皂为稠化剂制备复合锂基润滑脂,采用高速往复摩擦磨损试验机考察 MoDTC,MoS2,ZnSiO4添加剂及其复配剂对复合锂基脂摩擦磨损性能的影响,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和能谱分析仪(EDS)对钢球摩擦副磨斑形貌进行观察和分析。结果表明:在 mPAO 基础脂中分别加入5%MoDTC,2%MoS2,4%ZnSiO4,或1%MoS2+2%ZnSiO4时制备的复合锂基润滑脂具有良好的减摩抗磨性能。

  18. 采用步进式干油阀的智能干油集中润滑系统研究∗%Research on Intelligent Grease Lubrication System with Stepper Motor Valve as Oil Feeder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉刚; 刘新玉; 王占军; 赵润; 宋严科

    2015-01-01

    A scheme of intelligent centralized grease lubrication system using stepper motor valve as oil feeder was pres⁃ented.The connection of main PLC and the configuration program of HMI were introduced,and the mechanical structure of stepper motor valve was illustrated.A scheme that more than one stepper motor is driven by only one driver was designed based on the technological requirements of centralized grease lubrication system and the control characteristic of stepper motor.The isolation circuit of the hardware was also researched.The actual application shows that the fault of the centralized grease lubrication system is reduced by using the stepper motor valve as the oil feeder. By using one driver to drive more than one stepper motor in intelligent grease lubrication system,the cost of the system is reduced, and the complexity of the system is decreased.%提出以步进式干油阀为给油器的智能干油集中润滑系统方案,介绍系统主站PLC的接线方式以及触摸屏的组态程序,并说明步进式干油阀的机械结构。在分析干油集中润滑系统的工艺要求和步进电机控制特性的基础上,提出一个驱动器驱动多个步进电机的驱动方案,并研究硬件的隔离电路。实际应用表明,采用步进式干油阀作为给油器大大降低干油集中润滑系统的故障率;在智能干油集中润滑系统中使用一台驱动器驱动多个步进电机的方式,不仅降低了系统成本,还减少了系统的复杂性。

  19. A link based network route choice model with unrestricted choice set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Frejinger, Emma; Karlstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the path choice problem, formulating and discussing an econometric random utility model for the choice of path in a network with no restriction on the choice set. Starting from a dynamic specification of link choices we show that it is equivalent to a static model...... additive. The model is applied to data recording path choices in a network with more than 3000 nodes and 7000 links....

  20. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  1. Effects of Aging and Tai Chi on a Finger-Pointing Task with a Choice Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. N. Tsang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of aging on performing finger-pointing tasks involving choices and whether experienced older Tai Chi practitioners perform better than healthy older controls in such tasks. Methods. Thirty students and 30 healthy older controls were compared with 31 Tai Chi practitioners. All the subjects performed a rapid index finger-pointing task. The visual signal appeared randomly under 3 conditions: (1 to touch a black ball as quickly and as accurately as possible, (2 not to touch a white ball, (3 to touch only the white ball when a black and a white ball appeared simultaneously. Reaction time (RT of anterior deltoid electromyogram, movement time (MT from electromyogram onset to touching of the target, end-point accuracy from the center of the target, and the number of wrong movements were recorded. Results. Young students displayed significantly faster RT and MT, achieving significantly greater end-point accuracy and fewer wrong movements than older controls. Older Tai Chi practitioners had significantly faster MT than older controls. Conclusion. Finger-pointing tasks with a choice paradigm became slower and less accurate with age. Positive findings suggest that Tai Chi may slow down the aging effect on eye-hand coordination tasks involving choices that require more cognitive progressing.

  2. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  3. Black, White and Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Nooshfar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Development of science and"nart achieved with saving independence, separation"nclassification and studying their details. The other hand"nis combination of these to create a new world with"nwide dimensions and take a place to human needs."nMaterials and Methods: Our attempt is to make"nhealth-care places pleasant and attractive for patients."nWe offer best services, but they are not comfortable"nand happy in these places. They are afraid of the staff,"nequipment and the environment. For this purpose"nwe mixed the brightness and darkness of radiologic"nimages with white and black photographs or paintings"ncomplementary to create analog artistic images that"ncould be converted to digital printing by DICOM"ninterfaces on hard copies."nConclusion: Fear, pictures a bad memory in the"npatient's mind forever. We mixed radiology and"nimaging with photography as a science and art mixture"nto conflict with these problems, it is more effective in"nchildren who are suffering from social and known"ndiseases and can not adapt themselves with their"nsituations. This could create a good memory between"nthe human body image and sentimental experience."nIn the literature, printed radiologic images were used"nas fine art on glass and paper, metal and flowers were"nemployed to mix.* *Wim Delvoye (born 1965 ,Wervik"nand Steven N.Meyers and Merille Raikes

  4. White Light Focusing Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Hulbert, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The NSLS X28C white-light beamline is being outfitted with a focusing mirror in order to increase, as well as control, the x-ray intensity at the sample position. The new mirror is a 50 mm × 100 mm × 1100 mm single crystal silicon cylindrical 43.1mm radius substrate bendable to a toroid from infinite to 1200 m radius. The unique feature of this mirror system is the dual use of Indalloy 51 as both a mechanism for heat transfer and a buoyant support to negate the effects of gravity. The benefit of the liquid metal support is the ability to correct for minor slope errors that take the form of a parabola. A bobber mechanism is employed to displace the fluid under the mirror +/- 1.5 mm. This allows RMS slope error correction on the order of 2 urad. The unique mounting of the mirror ensures the contributions to slope error from errant mechanical stresses due to machining tolerances are virtually non-existent. After correction, the surface figure error (measured minus ideal) is <= 0.5 urad rms.

  5. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  6. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  7. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  8. Whiteness formula in CIELAB uniform color space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxin He; Mingxun Zhou

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many attempts have been made to standardize the calculation of whiteness. Whiteness formulas currently in use satisfactorily characterize the appearance of commercial whiteness. However, they have poor correlations with the observers' evaluations, and are often unsuccessful in assessing tinted white samples.A whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space is developed in this paper. Several whiteness formulas are analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space agrees well with the visual ranking, and it is superior to the CIE whiteness formula and the others in visual correlativity, uniformity and applicability.

  9. Racial and ethnic differences in wealth and asset choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S

    White households in the United States are far wealthier than black or Hispanic households, a disparity that remains unexplained even after taking into account income and demographic factors. This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine various components of aggregate wealth, including housing equity, nonhousing equity, financial assets in general, and risky assets in particular. It inspects asset choices by race and ethnicity and assesses whether differences in saving behavior--and, consequently, in rates of return on assets--are possible sources of the wealth gap. It also demonstrates the equalizing effect of pension wealth and Social Security wealth on total wealth. Racial and ethnic differences in housing equity narrow among households in the higher income quartiles, whereas differences in nonhousing equity generally widen as income increases. The widening gap in nonhousing equity stems from differences in financial asset holdings, particularly risky assets. At every income quartile and educational level, the percentage of black and Hispanic households that own risky, higher-yielding assets in considerably smaller than the percentage of white households. Thus, some of the wealth gap appears to be attributable to differences in saving behavior. Understanding how people save--in particular, knowing whether certain people will be more vulnerable financially because of their saving choices--helps policymakers assess older Americans' financial preparedness for retirement and anticipate their economic well-being thereafter. Lower rates of investment in the financial market will probably result in slower wealth creation in minority households. Recognizing this, some organizations are trying to open opportunities for minority households to invest in the financial market. This is a positive step toward narrowing the wealth divide. Such efforts will become even more critical if Social Security reform places increased responsibility on individuals

  10. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  11. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ket

  12. White-tailed jackrabbit relocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes a plan to relocate white-tailed jackrabbits to Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) during 1997.

  13. Another Day, Another White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the proposals in the 2005 White Paper can be largely explained by a New Labour emphasis on "meritocracy" merging with a right-wing belief in education as a means of creating an hierarchical society.

  14. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  15. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  16. Complex Choices: Producers Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, Joost M.E.; Isengildina, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Garcia, Philip; Frank, Julieta; Kuiper, W. Erno

    2005-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available. How do producers make a choice of risk management instruments? Using the recently developed choice bracketing framework, we examine what risk management strategies producers use and identify the factors that drive their risk management decisions. Our results identify that producers use a wide variety of combinations of risk management instruments and that they bracket their choices into sets of alternative risk management...

  17. Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrion; Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from t...

  18. Mystery of the White Gardenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marsha Arons

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every year on my birthday, from the time I turned 12, a white gardenia was delivered to my house in Bethesda, Md. No card or note came with it. Calls to the florist were always in vain - it was a cash purchase. After a while I stopped trying to discover the sender's identity and just delighted in the beauty and heady perfume of that one magical, perfect white flower nestled in soft pink tissue paper.

  19. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior.

  20. "What if we made the wrong choice?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    As a corollary of the Bologna process, the two-tiered study structure introduced increased freedom of choice for enrolled and prospective university students. This article investigates how Danish university students, within the two-tiered system, perform the choices determining their educational ...... and professional futures and focuses on rationales for decision making.......As a corollary of the Bologna process, the two-tiered study structure introduced increased freedom of choice for enrolled and prospective university students. This article investigates how Danish university students, within the two-tiered system, perform the choices determining their educational...

  1. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  2. New Phosphors for White LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-Shi

    2004-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or UV LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. GaN-based highly efficient blue InGaN LEDs combined with phosphors can produce white light. These solid-state LED lamps have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability, and long operating lifetime (about 100,000 hours). For the purpose of development of high energy-efficient white light sources, we need to produce highly efficient new phosphors, which can absorb excitation energy from blue or UV LEDs and generate emissions.In this paper, we investigate the development of blue or UV LEDs by the appropriate combination of new phosphors which can lead us to obtain high brightness white light. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (380-450 nm) and UV (360-400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance light between the light emission from blue LEDs and the yellow YAG:Ce,Gd phosphor is important to obtain white light with high color temperature. The phosphors with high efficiency which can be excited by UV LEDs are important to obtain the white light with high color rendering index.

  3. Teen Choice of Inwood House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Teen Choice Program in New York City was described and the outcome of the program evaluation was reported. Teen Choice is a school based sex education and pregnancy prevention program run by trained social workers. The aim is to provide information, counseling, and referrals on a range of issues relating to sexuality. The program is elective and meets during a regularly scheduled gym period for one or two semesters from the 7th to the 12th grades. There are single sex and coeducational classes. The program aim is to change attitudes toward birth control, to change risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected coitus, to offer accurate knowledge about contraception, and to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Abstinence is encouraged, but for those sexually experienced, there is attention to responsible and reliable use of contraception. Program methods include small group discussion, individual counseling, and classroom discussion. Topics of discussion range from sexuality issues and birth control to values clarification and peer pressure. Small groups may discuss human sexual growth, relationship formation, family life, responsibility to self and others, consequences of teenage pregnancy, and social and cultural peer pressures. Girls are encouraged to assume more assertive and less reactive roles. Communication skills are reinforced in respectful exchanges of personal views and questions. Differentiating facts and issues is a primary focus. A question about when an individual first had sex would be redirected to asking about the appropriate age to first have sex. Respect for privacy helps to build students confidence in the program. A longitudinal evaluation conducted between 1984 and 1987 found that the program was effective in reaching and recruiting high risk adolescents. Students left the program with increased knowledge about contraception, more mature and responsible attitudes about the use of birth control, and reduced frequency of unprotected coitus. Boys were

  4. Propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa grafitada de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio//Physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatrophacurcas L oil and lithium soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano‐Chitue de Assunção‐Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las grasas lubricantes son consideradas una dispersión coloidal de un espesante en un fluido lubricante. Los aceites vegetales son ampliamente usados en muchas formulaciones de grasas. En este trabajo se determinaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y tribológicas de una grasa lubricante fabricada con aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L y jabón de litio (JC1G5. Alfa tocoferol acetato y grafito fueron usados como aditivos antioxidante y de extrema presión respectivamente. La grasa JC1G5 mostró un color negro, una temperatura de goteo de 140 oC, apropiadas propiedades de corrosión al cobre y un grado de consistencia NLGI Grado1. El efecto de la lubricación de la grasa JC1G5 fue probado, empleando una máquina de cuatro bolas y un tribómetro timken. Los resultados indican que la grasa JC1G5 posee propiedades tribológicas comparables con una grasa mineral de jabón de litio.Palabras claves: grasa, jatropha curcas L, jabón de litio, propiedades fisicoquímicas, propiedades tribológicas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractLubricating greases are considered as colloidal dispersions of a thickener in a lubricating fluid. The vegetable oils are widely used in many formulations of greases. In this paper were determined the physicochemical and tribological properties of graphite grease based on Jatropha curcas L vegetableoil and lithium soap (JC1G5. Alpha tocofherol acetate and graphite were used as antioxidant and extreme pressure additives respectively. The grease JC1G5 showed a black color, a dropping point of 140 oC, appropriate magnitude of copper corrosion and consistency NLGI Grade 1. Lubrication performance of the grease JC1G5 was tested using the 4-ball wear tester and timken tribometer tester. Results indicate that the grease JC1G5 has tribological properties comparable to that of mineral oil base lithium grease.Key words: grease, jatrophacurcas L, lithium soap, physicochemical

  5. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  6. Psychiatric nursing: an unpopular choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, R; Venter I

    2015-03-01

    Research studies in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia suggest that students do not consider psychiatric nursing as a popular career option. According to this research, there is a widespread concern about the nursing shortages in psychiatry. The demand for mental health services continues to grow and there is a need for strategies to recruit nurses for this specialized field. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors preventing undergraduate nursing students in South Africa (SA) from choosing psychiatric nursing as a career. A qualitative research design that aimed to explore and describe was used. Data were collected through the Nominal Group Technique. A sample of convenience of 27 final year nursing students from the School of Nursing at the University of the Free State as well as the Free State School of Nursing, situated in Bloemfontein (SA), voluntarily participated in this research. The following categories emerged from the content analysis of the data: personal factors, working environment, unprofessional behaviour, learning environment and the unclassified category. Psychiatric nursing as a career choice is in a predicament and nursing schools need to implement practical strategies to recruit future nurses for this field.

  7. "Having choices is the key".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, B

    1996-08-01

    When Chief Bisi Ogunleye was appointed Nigeria's Minister of Agriculture, the US-educated daughter of a tribal chief still believed that most Nigerian farmers were men. As she traveled throughout the country fulfilling her role, she met a group of women who wanted to start a palm oil and casaba processing plant but lacked the means to get a start-up loan. Chief Ogunleye's efforts to get officials to issue a loan were ridiculed, so she asked her husband to allow her to donate part of her salary to the women. With the $45 from the chief, the women began business and within 3 months had 6 times the original amount. This money was used to help other 6 other women's groups start businesses. By 1985, these efforts were so successful that the chief resigned her government job and founded the Country Women's Association of Nigeria, which has been successful in helping women because it realizes that the most important key to empowerment is having choices.

  8. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  9. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  10. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  11. Effects of Delegated Choice on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Richard A.; Aplin, John C.

    1980-01-01

    There were initial positive effects from delegating choice over the selection of goals. The aspect of the task being delegated appears important. One cannot assume allowing others choice over some aspects of the task will be associated with positive outcomes. (Author)

  12. Rationality in a general model of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdeb Lahiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.

  13. School Choice for Transnational Parents in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    School choice is centred on parents deciding where and how their children will be educated, and this issue is similar--to varying degrees--for parents all around the world. Parental school choice is the authority that parents exercise in making decisions about where their children will attend school, and choosing a particular educational pathway…

  14. An investigation of brand choice processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.

    1974-01-01

    Here a brief recapitulation of the study of brand choice processes is given, and the major conclusions are reported.In chapter 2 we discussed the empirical brand choice data used throughout the study. We saw that these were purchase histories of members of the Dutch Attwood Consumer Panel for the pr

  15. Religion and party choice in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Brug, W.; Hobolt, S.B.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates religiosity in relation to party choice in European Parliament elections. Conventional wisdom tells us that as Europe has secularised, the effect of religion on party choice should also have diminished. Yet, this cross-national and cross-temporal study of religious voting in

  16. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  17. Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutjar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract  Introduction In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choic

  18. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  19. White Vegetables: Glycemia and Satiety12

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, G. Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with ot...

  20. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Presentation format was found to exert a significant bottom-up effect on visual attention and subsequent choice. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments were found to be strongly...

  1. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

  2. Optimal effort in consumer choice : theory and experimental analysis for binary choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Conlon; B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.H.O. van Soest (Arthur)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice. The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem. The model yields a unique optimal level of

  3. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  4. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, L

    1986-11-01

    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  5. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    the possibility for positioning pupils/young adults ? What does the choice of texts mean for pupils’/young adults’ possibilities as readers and individual interpreters? How are the pupils’ potentials for envisioning and engaging in literature with certain choices of texts?......, and in the registration of texts for examinations. Genres such as poetry and short stories, periods such as avant-garde and modernism, and acknowledged and well-known authorships are often included, whereas, representations of popular fiction and such genres as fantasy, sci-fi, and biography are rare. Often, pupils......This paper charts the general implications of the choice of texts for literature teaching in the Danish school system, especially in Grades 8 and 9. It will analyze and discuss the premises of the choice of texts, and the possibilities of a certain choice of text in a concrete classroom situation...

  6. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Investigation of spectral shifts in a white light interferometer with a single interference peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunhui; Yi, Yingyan; Shu, Zhuo; Li, Min

    2015-04-01

    When the optical path difference between the two arms of an interferometer is so small that only one peak exists within the measurable interference spectrum, traditional white light interference demodulation techniques based on two adjacent interference peaks are not a suitable choice. We report an experimental approach to measure the peak wavelength shifts with only a single interference peak in a fiber white light interferometer. The temperature measurement experiments prove a linear relationship between the peak wavelength and the temperature. The temperature resolution is 0.1°C in theory.

  8. 激光微织构表面脂润滑性能试验研究%Experimental Research on Grease Lubrication Properties of Laser Micro-texturing Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培耘; 华希俊; 杜志华; 符永宏; 朱伟

    2013-01-01

    采用声光调 Q 二极管泵浦固体光源(DPSS)Nd∶YAG 激光器,在45#钢试样表面进行激光微织构加工,采用 VYKO-NT1100三维形貌分析仪对微观织构形貌进行测量。以二硫化钼润滑脂为润滑剂,在 MMW-1A 型摩擦磨损试验机上进行微织构试样和光滑试样在不同工况条件下的摩擦性能对比试验。试验结果表明,在一定条件下,面积占有率为14%的微凹腔织构表面的脂润滑性能明显优于未织构光滑表面,且随着微凹腔面积占有率的增大,摩擦因数波动范围变小;凹槽织构表面较未织构光滑表面具有更好的润滑稳定性;在脂润滑条件下,激光微织构表面较未织构光滑表面摩擦因数最大可降低26%。%45 steel specimen surfaces were textured based on Q switched diode-pumped solid-state(DPSS)Nd∶YAG laser.The 3D surfaces of the specimens were scanned by VYKO-NT1 100 non-contact optical profiler.The grease lubrica-tion properties of micro-textured specimens and untextured specimens were investigated with MMW-1 A friction and wear tester under MoS2 grease lubrication in operating conditions of different load and velocity.The results show that the speci-men with the area density of micro-dimples 14% shows better lubrication properties than untextured smooth specimens in given condition.The friction coefficient varies more smoothly while increasing the area density of micro-dimples.The specimens with micro-grooves exhibit better stability of lubrication than untextured smooth specimens.The friction coeffi-cient of the laser textured surface can be reduced by 26% at most,compared with the untextured smooth specimen under grease lubrication.

  9. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  10. Entangled light from white noise

    CERN Document Server

    Plenio, M B

    2002-01-01

    An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonance-like behaviour. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.

  11. Entangled light from white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2002-05-13

    An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonancelike behavior. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.

  12. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  13. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  14. Working through Whiteness: White, Male College Students Challenging Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…

  15. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  16. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These factors include; brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, price, convenience and brand loyalty. The study concludes that all the six factors contribute to the factors that drive consumer choice of telecommunications service in Ghana.

  17. School Choice, School Quality and Postsecondary Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David J.; Hastings, Justine S.; Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of a public school choice lottery in Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools on college enrollment and degree completion. We find a significant overall increase in college attainment among lottery winners who attend their first choice school. Using rich administrative data on peers, teachers, course offerings and other inputs, we show that the impacts of choice are strongly predicted by gains on several measures of school quality. Gains in attainment are concentrated among girls. Girls respond to attending a better school with higher grades and increases in college-preparatory course-taking, while boys do not. PMID:27244675

  18. The White Stone Worship of Qiang People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓

    2013-01-01

    The White Stone worship is an inseparable cultural part among Qiang People in the history and their daily lives. It has relationship with the God, with Qiang people’s fondness of the white color, with the fire-making, with the function of white stones as the tool and weapon for survival, and with the worship for Snow Mountain. The White Stone is the oblation in Qiang Families, the architecture—Blockhouse relating to the white stone is famous worldwide. The essay also discusses the links be⁃tween the white stone worship with Qiang people in the past and in the future

  19. The White Stone Worship of Qiang People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓

    2013-01-01

    The White Stone worship is an inseparable cultural part among Qiang People in the history and their daily lives. It has relationship with the God, with Qiang people’ s fondness of the white color, with the fire-making, with the function of white stones as the tool and weapon for survival, and with the worship for Snow Mountain. The White Stone is the oblation in Qiang Families, the architecture—Blockhouse relating to the white stone is famous worldwide. The essay also discusses the links be⁃tween the white stone worship with Qiang people in the past and in the future.

  20. 稠化剂含量对磁流变脂流变行为的影响∗%The effect of soap content on the rheology of mineral oil-based magnetorheological grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志德; 晏华; 王雪梅; 杨健健; 郭骏骏

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorheological(MR)greases contained equal carbonyl iron weight percentage (30%)have been specially formulated with a range of lithium soap weight fraction from 3% to 7%.The effect that thickening a-gent concentration exerts on yield stress,storage modulus,damping factor and MR effect of MR grease were investigated by a parallel-plate MR rheometer (Paar Physica 302 and MRD 70 ).The results show that MR grease indicates pseudoplastic behavior with yield stress.The yield stress has a power law relationship with magnetic field strength.The maximum exponential value can be got as the thickening agent concentration is ap-propriate.A parameter for evaluating the MR effect,cross-linked structure strength and stability of MR grease has been provided.The density of physical entanglements or the strength of microstructural network can be al-tered by changing the concentration of thickening agent.And the MR effect will be modified,the controlled range of storage modulus under magnetic field will be magnified by adj usting the thickening agent concentration.%稠化剂含量是决定磁流变脂骨架结构强度的重要因素,对磁流变脂的实际应用具有较大的影响。实验制备了羰基铁粉质量百分数含量为30%、不同稠化剂含量的5种磁流变脂,考察了不同稠化剂含量对磁流变脂屈服应力、储能模量、损耗模量及磁流变效应的影响。结果表明,磁流变脂表现出剪切稀化的假塑性流体特征,不同稠化剂含量磁流变脂的屈服应力与磁场强度呈现出幂律关系,在适宜稠化剂含量时,幂律指数达到最佳值。提出评价磁流变脂的磁流变效应、交联结构体系强度和稳定性的参数指标,通过调节稠化剂的含量可改变非磁性骨架结构的密度,优化磁性部分对磁流变脂结构强度的贡献,改善磁流变脂的磁流变效应,拓宽磁流变脂的储能模量在磁场下的可控范围。

  1. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  2. Foam formation in a downstream digester of a cascade running full-scale biogas plant: Influence of fat, oil and grease addition and abundance of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienen, T; Kleyböcker, A; Verstraete, W; Würdemann, H

    2014-02-01

    The microbial community composition in a full-scale biogas plant fed with sewage sludge and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was investigated over a 15-month period, including two foam formation events. Addition of FOG as a substrate in the biogas plant together with high abundances of Microthrix parvicella were found to promote foam formation in the downstream digester of a cascade of two biogas digesters. Genetic fingerprinting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated a higher abundance of M. parvicella in the digester, when the digestion process was accompanied by excessive foaming relative to the reference digesters without disturbance. The creation of foam depended on the introduced proportion of FOG and the abundance of M. parvicella. Furthermore, shifts in the abundance of M. parvicella in the biogas plant were observed within the 15-month monitoring period corresponding to its seasonal abundance in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

  3. The Black- White Earnings Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sandra; Bernard, Keith

    1974-01-01

    Using projected labor force data (race, sex, and education) nondiscriminatory and discriminatory black-white occupational patterns and earnings ratios are defined to the year 2000. Rather than realistic estimates, the projections are designed as standards to measure progress in eliminating racial discrimination in the labor market. (EA)

  4. White Resentment in Settler Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  5. 'Snow White' and Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Deborah Aldrich

    1987-01-01

    Noting that knowledge of grammar rules does not ensure correct usage in one's own writing, describes an approach used in a summer workshop to promote awareness of appropriate idiom where 35 highly motivated black students produced 'Snow White' using their own script, half in standard dialect and half in black dialect. (JG)

  6. Excitotoxic damage to white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Carlos; Alberdi, Elena; Domercq, María; Sánchez-Gómez, María-Victoria; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Pérez-Cerdá, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate kills neurons by excitotoxicity, which is caused by sustained activation of glutamate receptors. In recent years, it has been shown that glutamate can also be toxic to white matter oligodendrocytes and to myelin by this mechanism. In particular, glutamate receptor-mediated injury to these cells can be triggered by activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid, kainate and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor types. Thus, these receptor classes, and the intermediaries of the signal cascades they activate, are potential targets for drug development to treat white matter damage in acute and chronic diseases. In addition, alterations of glutamate homeostasis in white matter can determine glutamate injury to oligodendrocytes and myelin. Astrocytes are responsible for most glutamate uptake in synaptic and non-synaptic areas and consequently are the major regulators of glutamate homeostasis. Activated microglia in turn may secrete cytokines and generate radical oxygen species, which impair glutamate uptake and reduce the expression of glutamate transporters. Finally, oligodendrocytes also contribute to glutamate homeostasis. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge about the mechanisms leading to oligodendrocyte cell death and demyelination as a consequence of alterations in glutamate signalling, and their clinical relevance to disease. In addition, we show evidence that oligodendrocytes can also be killed by ATP acting at P2X receptors. A thorough understanding of how oligodendrocytes and myelin are damaged by excitotoxicity will generate knowledge that can lead to improved therapeutic strategies to protect white matter. PMID:17504270

  7. White Light Interferometric Surface Profiler

    OpenAIRE

    Toal, Vincent; Bowe, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We describe an optical system for 3-D profilometry based on the white light interferometer. We detail a simple way to construct a profiler that uses two simple algorithms which deal efficiently and quickly with the data. The system has a theoretically unlimited range and can deal with rough and smooth surfaces

  8. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  9. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) provide excellent laboratories to study the effect that the accretion of matter, energy and angular momentum has on the structure of white dwarfs, with important implications on the evolution of these compact binaries, the ignition of thermonuclear surface burning, and potentially their explosion as SNIa. I will provide an overview of our current understanding of CV white dwarfs, with a particular emphasis on the results of a recent large HST program. I will review our knowledge regarding the mass distribution of CV white dwarfs, as well as the secular mean accretion rates that can be inferred from their effective temperatures, and compare those statistics with predictions from CV population models. I will also discuss a sub-set of CVs which underwent thermal-time scale mass transfer, one of the channels that is often discussed as a pathway to SN Ia, and I will illustrate how the study of these "failed SNIa" can contribute to the discussion of SNIa progenitors. Finally, I will discuss the occurrence of non-radial pulsations in white dwarfs, both in CVs and their detached progenitors.

  10. The Whiteness of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two major debates in contemporary Australian discourses on the nation: climate change and whiteness studies. It is primarily concerned with establishing a framework for connecting the two discourses, and in that process it raises pivotal questions about how narratives about...

  11. Irrational choice and the value of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Monteiro, Tiago; Kacelnik, Alex

    2015-09-09

    Irrational decision making in humans and other species challenges the use of optimality in behavioural biology. Here we show that such observations are in fact powerful tools to understand the adaptive significance of behavioural mechanisms. We presented starlings choices between probabilistic alternatives, receiving or not information about forthcoming, delayed outcomes after their choices. Subjects could not use this information to alter the outcomes. Paradoxically, outcome information induced loss-causing preference for the lower probability option. The effect depended on time under uncertainty: information given just after each choice caused strong preference for lower probability, but information just before the outcome did not. A foraging analysis shows that these preferences would maximize gains if post-choice information were usable, as when predators abandon a chase when sure of the prey escaping. Our study illustrates how experimentally induced irrational behaviour supports rather than weakens the evolutionary optimality approach to animal behaviour.

  12. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  13. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)

    2003-01-01

    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  14. The Analysis of The Multiple Choice Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹吴惠

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes in detail the advantages, disadvantages and forming of the multiple choice item in examinations. On its basis, the author also exploree some aspects the teacher should pay attention to while setting an examination paper.

  15. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  16. Influence of convenience on healthy food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    Although seafood is considered to be a healthy food choice, the recommended consumption level of two servings per week is still not reached in most countries. Previous research has identified potential barriers of seafood consumption, including purchase and consumption convenience, but it is still...... unclear to what degree consumer choice is affected by convenience relative to known choice drivers such as price, species and region of origin. This study contributes to filling this research gap by analyzing how consumers’ in-store choice of ready-packaged aquaculture oysters is driven by convenience...... for policy makers as well as seafood marketers and are in line with the presented literature in that convenience seems to be an important driver which can be manipulated in order to increase seafood consumption. Consumers strongly prefer the ‘ready to eat’ half shell open oysters over closed oysters...

  17. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha)

    2004-03-01

    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  18. Dynamic Choice Behavior in a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    We examine dynamic choice behavior in a natural experiment with large stakes and a demographically divers sample. The television game show Deal Or No Deal offers a rich paradigm to examine the latent decision processes that people use to make choices under uncertainty when they face future options...... ranging from a penny to nearly half a million U.S. dollars. Second, the argument of the utility function under expected utility theory reflects the integration of game show prizes with regular income. These decision makers do not segregate the income from the lotteries they face on the game show from...... patterned after the natural experiment, to gauge how qualitatively reliable the lab inferences are in the same type of dynamic choice task. We find that choices in the lab are dramatically different in one respect – subjects in those tasks do segregate the income from their prizes from their extra...

  19. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  20. Nursing, nutrition and physiotherapy students: career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; Creutzberg, Marion; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo; Melo, Denizar da Silva; Corbellini, Valéria Lamb

    2009-01-01

    In the perspective of career choice, entering university encompasses meanings of self-accomplishment and social status, which are permeated by concepts and ideals people construct in their lives. This study aimed to analyze regimes of truth that permeate career choice in nursing, physiotherapy and nutrition. This qualitative-descriptive study was carried out with undergraduate freshmen. Data were collected through focus groups, evaluated by discourse analysis from a Foucaultian perspective. The following themes emerged from the analysis: career choice: crowning a process of social differentiation, reflexes of professions' history of acknowledgement; career choice beyond professional projects. Discourse highlights that scientific knowledge acquires status in relations of power between different professions and society and is essential that health professional education is linked to public policies that expand the participation of different professions so as to meet demands in favor of integral care.

  1. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2003-01-01

    for data, a literature review follows. Models applied for estimation of discrete choice models are described by properties and limitations, and relations between these are established. Model types are grouped into three classes, Hybrid choice models, Tree models and Latent class models. Relations between......This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...... model, data and estimation are described, with a focus of possibilities/limitations of different techniques. Two special issues of modelling are addressed in further detail, namely data segmentation and estimation of Mixed Logit models. Both issues are concerned with whether individuals can be assumed...

  2. Irrational choice and the value of information

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Vasconcelos; Tiago Monteiro; Alex Kacelnik

    2015-01-01

    Irrational decision making in humans and other species challenges the use of optimality in behavioural biology. Here we show that such observations are in fact powerful tools to understand the adaptive significance of behavioural mechanisms. We presented starlings choices between probabilistic alternatives, receiving or not information about forthcoming, delayed outcomes after their choices. Subjects could not use this information to alter the outcomes. Paradoxically, outcome information indu...

  3. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  4. AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements. Revised Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Advertising -Self-Regulatory-Program.pdf (October 2010, retrieved February 2011) 12 Better Business Bureau, Major marketing / media trade groups launch...AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements Saranga Komanduri, Richard Shay, Greg...with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  5. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  6. Multiculturalism, Teaching Slavery, and White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that multiculturalism, especially when it is led and controlled by Whites, and in the absence of collective anti-racist struggles, can reproduce the ontologies, epistemologies, and practices of white supremacy. I use a case study of a reenactment of Atlantic black slavery, produced by white teachers to investigate whether…

  7. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate...

  8. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  9. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  10. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  11. School Desegregation, School Choice and Changes in Residential Location Patterns by Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Lutz, Byron F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the residential location and school choice responses to the desegregation of large urban public school districts. We decompose the well documented decline in white public enrollment following desegregation into migration to suburban districts and increased private school enrollment, and find that migration was the more prevalent response. Desegregation caused black public enrollment to increase significantly outside of the South, mostly by slowing decentralization of black households to the suburbs, and large black private school enrollment declines in southern districts. Central district school desegregation generated only a small portion of overall urban population decentralization between 1960 and 1990. PMID:25076787

  12. Interferon Status and Choice of Interferons Inducers in Frequently Ill Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Savenkovа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data on the study of interferon status in children. Own results of the survey group of frequently ill children (FIC have shown insufficient production of IFN alpha and gamma-IFN, humoral immunity. It was revealed that 66% of the group FIC has only failure of interferon system, and 34% of FIC has violations of humoral immunity in combination with interferon system failure. At the same time, all children suffering occasionally was detected only insufficiency of interferon system and humoral immunity was within normal limits. Based on the study of individual sensitivity of white blood cells justifies the choice of interferons inducers.

  13. Use of Supermarket Scanner Data to Measure Bread Consumption and Nutrition Choice in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Toma, Luiza; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Leat, Philip M.K.; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise in food prices has increased the concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the discussion around the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has brought back the interest in the price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical ways of cereals use in the UK and nutritionists re...

  14. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  15. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  16. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  17. Chasing White-Light Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    In this memoir I describe my life in research, mostly in the area of solar physics. The recurring theme is "white-light flares," and several sections of this paper deal with this and related phenomena; I wind up describing how I see the state of the art in this still-interesting and crucially important (as it has been since 1859) area of flare research. I also describe my participation in two long-lived satellite programs dedicated to solar observations ( Yohkoh and RHESSI) and elaborate on their discoveries. These have both helped with white-light flares both directly and also with closely related X-ray and γ-ray emissions), with the result that this article leans heavily in that direction.

  18. Novel biocatalysts for white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drepper, Thomas; Eggert, Thorsten; Hummel, Werner; Leggewie, Christian; Pohl, Martina; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2006-01-01

    White Biotechnology uses microorganisms and enzymes to manufacture a large variety of chemical products. Therefore, the demand for new and useful biocatalysts is steadily and rapidly increasing. We have developed methods for the isolation of new enzyme genes, constructed novel expression systems, and optimized existing enzymes for biotechnological applications by methods of directed evolution. Furthermore, we have isolated and characterized biocatalysts relevant for the preparation of enantiopure compounds.

  19. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  20. The importance of color in mate choice of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke

    2009-11-01

    Visual displays often play a large role in animal communication, particularly in sexual interactions. The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is both colorful and highly visually responsive, yet almost all studies of their courtship have focused on chemical cues. In the blue crab's underwater environment, however, visual cues may function more rapidly and over a longer distance than chemical cues. Given that blue crabs are aggressive and cannibalistic, visual cues may therefore allow blue crabs to quickly evaluate potential mates from safer distances. In the present study we show that courtship and mate choice behavior in C. sapidus can be stimulated by visual cues alone. Further, we show that males have a preference for females with red claw dactyls. In binary choice experiments, males displayed more often to photographs of females with red claws than to those with white claws or to those with black claws that were isoluminant to the red ones. This strongly suggests that male blue crabs made their choices based on the hue of the red claws, further suggesting that blue crabs are capable of color vision and use color in mate choice.

  1. Choice-Induced Preference Change in the Free-Choice Paradigm: A Critical Methodological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keise eIzuma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Choices not only reflect our preference, but they also affect our behavior. The phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been of interest to cognitive dissonance researchers in social psychology, and more recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers in economics and neuroscience. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the free-choice paradigm. However, in 2010, Chen and Risen pointed out a serious methodological flaw in this paradigm, arguing that evidence for choice-induced preference change is still insufficient. Despite the flaw, studies using the traditional free-choice paradigm continue to be published without addressing the criticism. Here, aiming to draw more attention to this issue, we briefly explain the methodological problem, and then describe simple simulation studies that illustrate how the free-choice paradigm produces a systematic pattern of preference change consistent with cognitive dissonance, even without any change in true preference. Our stimulation also shows how a different level of noise in each phase of the free-choice paradigm independently contributes to the magnitude of artificial preference change. Furthermore, we review ways of addressing the critique and provide a meta-analysis to show the effect size of choice-induced preference change after addressing the critique. Finally, we review and discuss, based on the results of the stimulation studies, how the criticism affects our interpretation of past findings generated from the free-choice paradigm. We conclude that the use of the conventional free-choice paradigm should be avoided in future research and the validity of past findings from studies using this paradigm should be empirically re-established.

  2. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  3. Parental role models, gender and educational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryler, H

    1998-09-01

    Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education.

  4. Referential Choice: Predictability and Its Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibrik, Andrej A.; Khudyakova, Mariya V.; Dobrov, Grigory B.; Linnik, Anastasia; Zalmanov, Dmitrij A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a study of referential choice in discourse production, understood as the choice between various types of referential devices, such as pronouns and full noun phrases. Our goal is to predict referential choice, and to explore to what extent such prediction is possible. Our approach to referential choice includes a cognitively informed theoretical component, corpus analysis, machine learning methods and experimentation with human participants. Machine learning algorithms make use of 25 factors, including referent’s properties (such as animacy and protagonism), the distance between a referential expression and its antecedent, the antecedent’s syntactic role, and so on. Having found the predictions of our algorithm to coincide with the original almost 90% of the time, we hypothesized that fully accurate prediction is not possible because, in many situations, more than one referential option is available. This hypothesis was supported by an experimental study, in which participants answered questions about either the original text in the corpus, or about a text modified in accordance with the algorithm’s prediction. Proportions of correct answers to these questions, as well as participants’ rating of the questions’ difficulty, suggested that divergences between the algorithm’s prediction and the original referential device in the corpus occur overwhelmingly in situations where the referential choice is not categorical. PMID:27721800

  5. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green house gases (i.e., CO and CO2 and also saves lot of money in the long run process. A small amount of these gases in environment can cause major problems over time. Use of white cement in composite pavement design where there is heavy traffic loads are acting as well as number of vehicles are more such as junctions, bus stops, check posts etc., can perform better and acts asenvironment friendly. Its light colour reflects more than bituminous pavement so that it can be easily identified and avoid accidents to some extent. White cement helps to lower the average bus stop, junction temperature providing comfort to the people because it has high solar reflectance there by reducing “urban heat island” effect. In addition to this it has some more advantages which increase the sustainability, durability and workability of the pavements.

  6. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  7. Distributed fusion white noise deconvolution estimators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun SUN; Zili DENG

    2009-01-01

    The white noise deconvolution or input white noise estimation problem has important applications in oil seismic exploration, communication and signal processing.By combining the Kalman filtering method with the modern time series analysis method, based on the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) innovation model, new distributed fusion white noise deconvolution estimators are presented by weighting local input white noise estimators for general multisensor systems with different local dynamic models and correlated noises. The new estimators can handle input white noise fused filtering,prediction and smoothing problems, and are applicable to systems with colored measurement noise. Their accuracy is higher than that of local white noise deconvolution estimators. To compute the optimal weights, the new formula for local estimation error cross-covariances is given. A Monte Carlo simulation for the system with Bemoulli-Gaussian input white noise shows their effec-tiveness and performance.

  8. Appeasement: Whites' strategic support for affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Rosalind M; Lowery, Brian S; Hogan, Caitlin M

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the possibility that dominant-group members will attempt to appease subordinate groups to protect the hierarchy. In four studies, we find that (a) prohierarchy Whites perceive more intergroup threat when they believe ethnic minorities hold Whites in low regard, (b) prohierarchy Whites respond to ethnic minorities' low regard for Whites by increasing their support for redistributive policies (e.g., affirmative action), (c) the increase in support only occurs when prohierarchy Whites perceive the hierarchy to be unstable, and (d) prohierarchy Whites perceive the hierarchy to be more stable if they believe Whites support redistributive policies. These results suggest that prohierarchy dominant-group members' support for redistributive policies can stem from a concern about maintaining the hierarchical status quo, and provides evidence that support for redistributive policies can be a hierarchy-enhancing strategy.

  9. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation.

  10. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance i...

  11. Your menu choice: Exploring how tailored persuasive messaging influences the healthiness of menu choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelpenning, T.; Luitjens, S.B.; Kaptein, M.C.; Van Halteren, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the use of personalized persuasive messages toinflu-ence healthiness of menu choice. The susceptibility to persuasion scale (STPS) was used to assign participants to different strategies. We hypothe-sized that persuasive messages would have a positive effect on menu choices. A

  12. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  13. The future of nursing: career choices in potential student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth; Mason, Tom; Ellis, Jackie

    Young people leaving schools and sixth-form colleges have the opportunity to choose a career path from an increasing number of courses in colleges of further and higher education. Nursing studies are now competing with a range of health-related disciplines such as health studies, psychology and complementary therapy. Compared with nursing studies, many of these courses appear more exciting and appealing to students who are in the process of choosing a career or programme of study. While the increased choice is a positive move for students, it may contribute to the shortage of students currently entering some areas of nursing. Indeed, some specialties in nursing, including mental health and learning disabilities, are so depleted in students that they are reaching a point of crisis. There is also concern that recruitment into nursing remains predominately female and white British. Given the diversity of the UK population and the reliance on school leavers as a potential source of supply, it is important to understand why male students and those from multiracial and multicultural environments choose, or do not choose, nursing studies. This research study involved a sample of 106 16-year-old students from three secondary schools in the north-west and south-east of England. The questionnaire results, collected in schools, revealed that students held traditional views or knew very little about the nursing profession.

  14. Does Presentation Order Impact Choice After Delay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonah

    2016-07-01

    Options are often presented incidentally in a sequence, but does serial position impact choice after delay, and if so, how? We address this question in a consequential real-world choice domain. Using 25 years of citation data, and a unique identification strategy, we examine the relationship between article order (i.e., position in a journal issue) and citation count. Results indicate that mere serial position affects the prominence that research achieves: Earlier-listed articles receive more citations. Furthermore, our identification strategy allows us to cast doubt on alternative explanations (i.e., editorial placement) and instead indicate that the effect is driven by psychological processes of attention and memory. These findings deepen the understanding of how presentation order impacts choice, suggest that subtle presentation factors can bias an important scientific metric, and shed light on how psychological processes shape collective outcomes.

  15. Anxiety and Search during Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Mukherjee, Ashkesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims. Design/methodology/approach – By means of qualitative study the paper investigates...... the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above. Findings – The authors show that anxiety during...... food choice increases information search in four product categories – ready dinner meals, salad dressing, biscuits, and cakes. Further, the results show that the positive effect of anxiety on information search is stronger when consumers have a less favourable attitude towards nutritional claims...

  16. Serotonergic genotypes, neuroticism, and financial choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M Kuhnen

    Full Text Available Life financial outcomes carry a significant heritable component, but the mechanisms by which genes influence financial choices remain unclear. Focusing on a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, we found that individuals possessing the short allele of this gene invested less in equities, were less engaged in actively making investment decisions, and had fewer credit lines. Short allele carriers also showed higher levels of the personality trait neuroticism, despite not differing from others with respect to cognitive skills, education, or wealth. Mediation analysis suggested that the presence of the 5-HTTLPR short allele decreased real life measures of financial risk taking through its influence on neuroticism. These findings show that 5-HTTLPR short allele carriers avoid risky and complex financial choices due to negative emotional reactions, and have implications for understanding and managing individual differences in financial choice.

  17. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    , on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...... in the interpreting task, i.e. whether it functions as the source or the target language. Drawing on the concept of processing capacity and the Effort Model of consecutive, a tentative explanation of these findings is suggested....

  18. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...

  19. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... to maximise some subjective measure. Where other fields, for example within the social sciences and psychology, have made serious efforts to explore alternative models derived from principles of bounded rationality, this direction has begun to take speed within transport applications only recently. Bounded...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...

  20. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  1. The impact of presentation format on visual attention and choice in discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    experiments across three different presentation formats. Method. Participants’ visual attention was measured by means of eye tracking during a discrete choice experiment for yoghurt products varying on six attributes with two to four levels. The study used a mixed within-between subjects design in which......Objectives. Discrete choice experiments in which participants choose between alternatives differing on attribute levels are an important research method for preference elicitation. In such experiments choice stimuli is typically presented in tables with verbally described attributes, in tables...... with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...

  2. Analytic choices in road safety evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may....... The choice of comparison group when there is more than one candidate. It is found that the choices made with respect to these points can greatly influence the estimates of safety effects in before-and-after studies. Two second-best techniques (i.e. techniques other than the empirical Bayes approach...

  3. Does Expert Advice Improve Educational Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Borghans

    Full Text Available This paper reports evidence that an individual meeting with a study counselor at high school significantly improves the quality of choice of tertiary educational field, as self-assessed 18 months after graduation from college. To address endogeneity, we explore the variation in study counseling practices between schools as an instrumental variable (IV. Following careful scrutiny of the validity of the IV, our results indicate a significant and positive influence of study counseling on the quality of educational choice, foremost among males and those with low educated parents. The overall result is stable across a number of robustness checks.

  4. Nest site selection of white-naped crane (Grus vipio) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-ming WU; Hong-fei ZOU; Jian-zhang MA

    2014-01-01

    White-naped crane (Grus vipio) is a globally threatened spe-cies. It is very important to analyze its nest site selection in circum-stances where there are multiple disturbances, and also helpful to accu-mulate valuable information about this threatened species and supply scientific suggestions for conservation and management. We studied nest site selection and the effects of environmental variables on nesting habits of white-naped crane at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang, China, during March-May of 2002-2008. White-naped crane responded and adapted to changes in the quality of the spatial environments of landscape and microhabitat under multiple environ-mental disturbances. Nest site selection included two scales and two choices, namely the choice of nest site habitat type within the macro-habitat scale and nest site micro-habitat selection within the mi-cro-habitat scale. Nest sites were recorded only in reed marshes. The choice of nest site micro-habitat included three basic elements and six factors, namely incubation element (nest parameters factor, incubation temperature factor and incubation humidity factor), safety element (pro-tection factor and concealment factor), and food element (water factor). Water, remnant reed clusters, and fire were major resource management challenges during the breeding period for the white-naped crane in this Reserve.

  5. Multi-Choice Total Clan Games : Characterizations and Solution Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a new class of multi-choice games, the class of multi- choice total clan games. The structure of the core of a multi-choice clan game is explicitly described. Furthermore, characterizations of multi-choice total clan games are given and bi-monotonic allocation schemes related t

  6. 气相色谱法测定秋梨膏中的环己基氨基磺酸钠%Determination of Sodium Cyclamate in Autumn Pear Grease by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强; 张玉娟; 刘静; 张秀丰; 杜文革; 崔同

    2014-01-01

    建立了气相色谱法测定秋梨膏中环己基氨基磺酸钠含量的分析方法。对国标GB/T 5009.97-2003《食品中环己基氨基磺酸钠的测定》中的气相色谱法进行优化和改进,针对秋梨膏粘稠、含糖量高的特性,对样品稀释后在酸性、低温环境下与亚硝酸钠发生酯化反应,经毛细管色谱柱分离,由氢火焰离子化检测器测定。方法的检出限为2mg/kg,定量限为7mg/kg。在加标水平为2mg/kg 及0.10、0.50和1.00mg/g 时的平均添加回收率为90.0%-97.5%,相对标准偏差3.31%-9.05%。衍生物的峰面积与样品浓度在0.05-1.00g/L 范围内呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R2=0.9996。该方法操作简便快速,灵敏度高,测定结果准确、可靠,适合秋梨膏中环己基氨基磺酸钠含量的测定。%A method for the determination of sodium cyclamate in autumn pear grease by gas chromatography was developed, which gives optimizations and improvements compared with the gas chromatography method described in GB/T 5009.97-2003-Determination of sodium cyclamate in foods. In light of its characteristics of high-viscosity and high sugar content, we dilute the samples of autumn pear grease first, and then derive them with nitrite sodium under acid and low temperature environment. The cyclohexyl nitrite was separated by capillary chromatographic column and analyzed by flame ionizator detector. The limit of detection is 2mg/kg and the limit of quantitation is 7mg/kg. At 2mg/kg and 0.10, 0.50, 1.00mg/g fortification levels, the average recoveries range from 90.0% to 97.5% with the relative standard deviations from 3.31% to 9.05%. The method shows good linearity over the range assayed 0.05 to 1.00g/L (R2=0.9996). The method is suitable for determination of sodium cyclamate in autumn pear grease, owing to its advantages of rapidity, sensitivity and accuracy.

  7. Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2011-12-01

    Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly

  8. Incorporating Context Effects into a Choice Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; Van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. Three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. Because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and p

  9. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  10. MULTINOMINAL LOGIT MODEL OF BICYCLIST ROUTE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyshova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the multinominal logit discrete choice model that allows determining parameters coefficients of the cyclists’ route. The basic model includes six parameters, however, only a number of signalized intersections, speed of motorized traffic and total physical work required from cyclist prove to be significant factors. The model provides a better understanding about cyclist traffic assignment.

  11. Reflexive choice in Dutch and German

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Petra; Hoeks, John C. J.; Spenader, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Standard Dutch and German have two reflexive forms: a weak form ('zich' in Dutch and 'sich' in German) and a strong form ('zichzelf' in Dutch and 'sich selbst' in German). The choice between the two reflexive forms in Dutch has been explained by the selectional restrictions of the verb, distinguishi

  12. Restricted Liberty, Parental Choice and Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social inequality, worsens societal conflict and works against…

  13. Restricted liberty, parental choice and homeschooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; Karsten, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social inequalit

  14. Choice Processes in a Newspaper Ethics Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Sandra L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines choice processes of Midwestern newspaper staffers who participated in the professionally questionable decision to "kill" a photograph of a fatal wreck scene at the request of the victim's family. Shows how organizational routines, professional norms, and other factors entered into the decision through small-group communication and how…

  15. Common consequence effects in pricing and choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, U.; Trautmann, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of common consequence effects in binary choice, willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation, and willingness-to-accept (WTA) elicitation. We find strong evidence in favor of the fanning out hypothesis (Machina, Econometrica 50:277–323, 1982) for both WTP and WTA. I

  16. Probabilistic Choice, Reversibility, Loops, and Miracles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Bill; Bell, Pete

    We consider an addition of probabilistic choice to Abrial's Generalised Substitution Language (GSL) in a form that accommodates the backtracking interpretation of non-deterministic choice. Our formulation is introduced as an extension of the Prospective Values formalism we have developed to describe the results from a backtracking search. Significant features are that probabilistic choice is governed by feasibility, and non-termination is strict. The former property allows us to use probabilistic choice to generate search heuristics. In this paper we are particularly interested in iteration. By demonstrating sub-conjunctivity and monotonicity properties of expectations we give the basis for a fixed point semantics of iterative constructs, and we consider the practical proof treatment of probabilistic loops. We discuss loop invariants, loops with probabilistic behaviour, and probabilistic termination in the context of a formalism in which a small probability of non-termination can dominate our calculations, proposing a method of limits to avoid this problem. The formal programming constructs described have been implemented in a reversible virtual machine (RVM).

  17. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: Source Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Mary, Ed.

    One of several supplementary materials for a newspaper course on moral choices in contemporary society, this sourcebook contains program ideas and resources to help civic leaders and educators plan programs based on the course topics. There are four sections. The first section explains how the topics can be used in planning programs, identifies…

  18. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...

  19. The determinants of Dutch capital structure choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Linda H.; Jiang, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to empirically test the determinants of capital structure choice for Dutch firms. We include major factors identified by capital structure theories and construct proxies for these factors with consideration of specific institutional se

  20. EVALUATING FACTORS INFLUENCING GROCERY STORE CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Marco A.; Emerson, Robert D.; House, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes consumer preferences toward grocery store choices given a set of attributes of stores. This information will then be used to make inferences on how the opening of a Wal-Mart supercenter would affect the other grocery stores in a small city.

  1. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  2. Consumer choices: Going green to be seen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bergh (Bram); V. Griskevicius (Vladas); J.M. Tybur (Joshua)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWhat motivates consumers to buy eco-friendly products? Are people’s choices linked to their concern for the environment and thus to be viewed as expressions of altruism, or are motives fragile and self-serving reflections of concern about social status within the community?

  3. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  4. Choice in the repeated-gambles experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, A; Murray, P; Christensen, J; Asano, T

    1988-09-01

    Humans chose 10 times between two roulette wheels projected on a monitor. During the first trial, the left wheel provided a hypothetical $100 with p = .94, and the right wheel provided $250 with p = .39. A titration procedure adjusted the probability of a $250 win across trials to permit estimation of an indifference point between alternatives. In Experiment 1, intertrial-interval duration (25 vs. 90 s) and whether sessions began with an intertrial interval or a trial were varied in a 2 x 2 design in this risky-choice procedure. Risk aversion (preference for the $100 wheel) increased with intertrial interval but was unaffected by whether sessions began with a trial or an intertrial interval. In Experiment 2, all sessions began with a trial, and subjects were informed that the experiment ended after 10 trials. Intertrial-interval duration had no effect on choice. In Experiment 3, intertrial-interval duration and whether subjects were given $10 or $10,000 before beginning were varied among four groups in a 2 x 2 design. In all other ways, the procedure was unchanged from Experiment 2. Intertrial interval had no effect on choice, but the $10,000 groups showed less risk aversion than the $10 groups. These results can be explained more readily in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's (1984) notion of "framing of the prospect" than in terms of Rachlin, Logue, Gibbon, and Frankel's (1986) behavioral account of risky choice.

  5. Women and the Choice to Study Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; McGoldrick, KimMarie; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in economics is documented in many studies. Investigation of its sources at the undergraduate level is examined through students' decisions to persist in economics, either beyond an introductory course or in their major choices. The authors add to the literature by analyzing students' decisions to take their first…

  6. Digital assessments – challenges, choices and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    assessments at the faculty of Health, Aarhus University. Today (2015) we have digitalized approximately 70 % of our assessments, including MCQ (multiple choice) and OSCE (objective structured clinical examination), with 7-800 students assessed each semester. We have developed our own systems...

  7. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop a general framework that extends choice models by including an explicit representation of the process and context of decision making. Process refers to the steps involved in decision making. Context refers to factors affecting the process, focusing in this paper on social networks. The...

  8. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with los

  9. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  10. Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John F.

    A preliminary evaluation and report were conducted of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools' (MPS) Parental Choice Program (PCP) following its first year of operation. The state legislated program provides an opportunity for students meeting specific criteria to attend private, non-sectarian schools in Milwaukee. A payment from public funds…

  11. Unconscious Factors in Choice of a Mate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenheimer, Lilly

    1971-01-01

    If the selection of a spouse is based on the unconscious wish to correct disturbances which previously existed in the parent child relationship, the marriage is threatened from the start. This article examines motivations derived from early developmental phases which form convictions which later become the nucleus for mate choice. (Author/CJ)

  12. The interrelationships between brand and channel choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Jerath, Kinshuk; Bodapati, Anand; Bradlow, Eric T.; Deighton, John; Gensler, Sonja; Lee, Leonard; Montaguti, Elisa; Telang, Rahul; Venkatesan, Raj; Verhoef, Pieter; Zhang, Z. John

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for the joint study of the consumer's decision of where to buy and what to buy. The framework is rooted in utility theory where the utility is for a particular channel/brand combination. The framework contains firm actions, the consumer search process, the choice process, and

  13. Developing a Model of Occupational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Joan Roos

    1974-01-01

    Rational and non-rational decision-making models of occupational choice are described. The Blau model provides an alternative to these. This model contains an occupational set of factors and a set related to the individual. Research supporting its conceptual utility and activities illustrating its pragmatic utility are discussed. (EAK)

  14. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders

    2011-10-01

    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.

  15. Investigating intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio; Parisi, Domenico; Patacchiola, Massimiliano; Petrosino, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    In intertemporal choices, subjects face a trade-off between value and delay: achieving the most valuable outcome requires a longer time, whereas the immediately available option is objectively poorer. Intertemporal choices are ubiquitous, and comparative studies reveal commonalities and differences across species: all species devalue future rewards as a function of delay (delay aversion), yet there is a lot of inter-specific variance in how rapidly such devaluation occurs. These differences are often interpreted in terms of ecological rationality, as depending on environmental factors (e.g., feeding ecology) and the physiological and morphological constraints of different species (e.g., metabolic rate). Evolutionary hypotheses, however, are hard to verify in vivo, since it is difficult to observe precisely enough real environments, not to mention ancestral ones. In this paper, we discuss the viability of an approach based on evolutionary robotics: in Study 1, we evolve robots without a metabolism in five different ecologies; in Study 2, we evolve metabolic robots (i.e., robots that consume energy over time) in three different ecologies. The intertemporal choices of the robots are analyzed both in their ecology and under laboratory conditions. Results confirm the generality of delay aversion and the usefulness of studying intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

  16. Personality Factors and Occupational Specialty Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Jones, Bonnie J.

    This study is a continuation of an earlier investigation of personality and medical specialty choice. The earlier study determined that personality differences existed among family practitioners, anesthesiologists, and general surgeons. Based on this initial research, an attempt was made to answer the question of how the personality factors of…

  17. School Choice Litigation after "Zelman" and "Locke"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekweg, John A.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 2 years, the United States Supreme Court has decided two important cases that will bear directly on legislation and litigation involving school choice programs that provide financial aid to parents of children attending religious schools. Those cases are "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" (2002) and "Locke v. Davey" (2004). The reasoning in…

  18. PAROXYSMAL ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: CHOICE OF CARDIOVERSION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Tatarskii

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and classification of different patterns of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation are presented. Main indications to restoration of sinus rhythm are discussed. The features of main medications used to terminate of atrial fibrillation are given. The choice of antiarrhythmic drug is considerate. Necessity of individual approach to therapy tactics is proved.

  19. The Location Choice of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    2017-01-01

    The choice of location of foreign direct investments (FDI) by multinational enterprises (MNEs) has been the subject of intense scrutiny for decades and continues to be so. Yet, the vast diversity in methodological approaches, levels of analysis, and empirical evidence precludes a comprehensive...

  20. Making personalised nutrition the easy choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart-Knox, B.J.; Markovina, J.; Rankin, A.; Bunting, B.P.; Kuznesof, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Poínhos, R.; Almeida, de M.D.V.; Panzone, L.; Gibney, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Personalised diets based on people's existing food choices, and/or phenotypic, and/or genetic information hold potential to improve public dietary-related health. The aim of this analysis, therefore, has been to examine the degree to which factors which determine uptake of personalised nutrition

  1. Article choice parameters in L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guella, H.; Déprez, V.; Sleeman, P.; Slabakova, R.; Rothman, J.; Kempchinsky, P.; Gavruseva, E.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns Ionin's (2003) Article Choice Parameter Hypothesis, which proposes a new semantic classification of languages. Article-based languages distribute articles on the basis of either a definiteness or a specificity parameter. Ionin's (2003) study shows that Russian and Korean (artic

  2. Saving Behavior and Portfolio Choice After Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; Alessie, Rob; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on saving behavior and portfolio choice after retirement and provides a descriptive analysis of this behavior by Dutch elderly households. Studying saving behavior in the Netherlands is informative because of the very different institutional background compared to t

  3. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  4. Digging in 'Snow White' Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 44th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 43 (July 7, 2008), after the May 25, 2008, landing, showing the current sample scraping area in the trench informally called 'Snow White.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Berstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town mee...

  6. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  7. Blanco White and Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora.

  8. A neural network that links brain function, white-matter structure and risky behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Milky; Morales, Angelica M; Guttman, Zoe; London, Edythe D

    2017-04-01

    The ability to evaluate the balance between risk and reward and to adjust behavior accordingly is fundamental to adaptive decision-making. Although brain-imaging studies consistently have shown involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and striatum during risky decision-making, activation in a neural network formed by these regions has not been linked to structural connectivity. Therefore, in this study, white-matter connectivity was measured with diffusion-weighted imaging in 40 healthy research participants who performed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task, a test of risky decision-making, during fMRI. Fractional anisotropy within a network that includes white-matter pathways connecting four regions (the prefrontal cortex, insula and midbrain to the striatum) was positively correlated with the number of risky choices and total amount earned on the task, and with the parametric modulation of activation in regions within the network to the level of risk during choice selection. Furthermore, analysis using a mixed model demonstrated how relationships of the parametric modulation of activation in each of the four aforementioned regions are related to risk probabilities, and how previous trial outcomes and task progression influence the choice to take risk. The present findings provide the first direct evidence that white-matter integrity is linked to function within previously identified components of a network that is activated during risky decision-making, and demonstrate that the integrity of white-matter tracts is critical in consolidating and processing signals between cortical and striatal circuits during the decision-making process.

  9. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  10. A practical test for the choice of mixing distribution in discrete choice models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Bierlaire, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The choice of a specific distribution for random parameters of discrete choice models is a critical issue in transportation analysis. Indeed, various pieces of research have demonstrated that an inappropriate choice of the distribution may lead to serious bias in model forecast and in the estimated...... means of random parameters. In this paper, we propose a practical test, based on seminonparametric techniques. The test is analyzed both on synthetic and real data, and is shown to be simple and powerful. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arcones, Almudena; Beers, Timothy; Berstein, Lee; Blackmon, Jeff; Bronson, Messer; Brown, Alex; Brown, Edward; Brune, Carl; Champagne, Art; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib; Escher, Jutta; Fields, Brian; Frohlich, Carla; Herwig, Falk; Hix, William Raphael; Iliadis, Christian; Lynch, William; McLaughlin, Gail; Meyer, Bradley; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Nunes, Filomena; O'Shea, Brian; Prakash, Madappa; Pritychenko, Boris; Reddy, Sanjay; Rehm, Ernst; Rogachev, Grigory; Rutledge, Robert; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Michael; Stairs, Ingrid; Steiner, Andrew; Strohmayer, Tod; Timmes, Frank; Townsley, Dean; Wiescher, Michael; Zegers, Remco; Zingale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9- 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12-13, 2014. In summ...

  12. Another Story of Snow white

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "白兰氏"杯 2006 广东省中学生英语作文比赛决赛题(初中组)命题作文:你的读者是国际幼儿园的 3- 6 岁的小朋友。实际上, 你的作文是要读给他们听的。内容是鼓励孩子们回家后做一件促进文明保护环境的具体的事。可以包括爱护环境、讲究卫生、节约不浪费资源、爱护小动物、语言和行为文明。文体不限 ( 可以包括倡议书、阐述文、议论文、散文、诗歌、童话等)。自定题目。 My dear children,have you ever heard of the story of Snow White?You are very clever children,I know you must remember the happy ending in the story. The beautiful girl who named Snow White went to live in the palace with her lover. Do you want to know what happend next?listen carefully and I'll tell you the story . It is said ...

  13. White list management system was officially launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    March 28,in China International Exhibition Center the China National Textile and Apparel Council,held a seminar on the Japanese textile industry standards & white list management system,marking the two sides to build a white list management system was officially launched. It is understood that the white list management system developed self-regulatory standards for the Japanese textile industry,that textiles do

  14. "Lan Ji" Gree-White Porcelain Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The invention of porcelain is one of China’s greatest contributions to world civilization. Many people have gotten to know China through its porcelain. As we all know, zhongguo and ciqi have the same spelling in English. Green-white porcelain represents a typical style that was fired in the Jingdezhen china kiln which represented the features of the Song Dynasty china kilns. The glaze is a mixture of white and green. The white can be

  15. Dynamical Masses of Accreting White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, A. F.; Gänsckie, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    The mass retention efficiency is a key question in both the theoretical and observational study of accreting white dwarfs in interacting binaries, with important implications for their potential as progenitors for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Canonical wisdom is that classical nova eruptions erode the white dwarf mass, and consequently, cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been excluded from the SN Ia progenitor discussion. However the average mass of white dwarfs in CVs is substantially higher (≃ 0.83 M⊙) than that of single white dwarfs (≃ 0.64 M ⊙), in stark contrast to expectations based on current classical nova models. This finding is based on a sample of ≃ 30 CV white dwarfs with accurate mass measurements, most of them in eclipsing systems. Given the fundamental importance of the mass evolution of accreting white dwarfs, it is necessary to enlarge this sample and to diversify the methods used for measuring masses. We have begun a systematic study of 27 CVs to almost double the number of CV white dwarfs with an accurate mass measurement. Using VLT/X-shooter phase-resolved observations, we can measure the white dwarf masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV white dwarfs grow in mass.

  16. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quality of the theoretical models of evolution of white dwarfs allow to feed the hope that in a near future it will be possible to reconstruct the history of the different Galactic populations.

  17. Heterogeneity in Choice Inconsistencies Among the Elderly: Evidence from Prescription Drug Plan Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaluck, Jason; Gruber, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree to which choice inconsistencies documented in the context of Medicare Part D plan choice vary across consumers and geographic regions. Our main finding is that there is surprisingly little variation: regardless of age, gender, predicted drug expenditures or the predictability of drug demand consumers underweight out of pocket costs relative to premiums and fail to consider the individualized consequences of plan characteristics; as a result, they frequently choose plans which are dominated in the sense that an alternative plan provides better risk protection at a lower cost. We find limited evidence that the sickest individuals had more difficulty with plan choice, and we document that much of the variation in potential cost savings across states comes from variation in choice sets, not variation in consumers’ ability to choose. PMID:25663708

  18. Choices at Space Station End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.; Coderre, K. M.; Dator, J. A.

    Extending International Space Station (ISS) operations will expand the scope for deciding its fate at its end of life. In this paper we examine the choices likely to be available at that distant unknown day when it is decided, for whatever reasons, to bring crew-directed engineering and science operations to a close. Of course a premature accidental termination is possible at any time, and measures to cope with that (and return to normal if possible) should be kept ready and augmented as ISS service capacities improve, but here we do not focus on accidents. Rather, we consider what may be done with an old but functioning spacecraft after it is declared surplus. We use the technique of Futures Studies to look at the choices. Without attempting prediction, futurists develop a set of empirically-based alternate futures, describe the likely consequences of each, and point to preferred outcomes. For the ISS at end of scheduled operation the choices are in three classes: DOWN, STAY, or UP. In the DOWN choice, after possible salvage and transfer of long-running investigations to another (e.g., Chinese-led) international station, the ISS is commanded to descend and burn up. The STAY choice, not viable in the long run, might be chosen to provide time for later decisions, but eventually it would prove impractical to continue re-boosting to maintain the station in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In the UP choice the ISS is propelled, by heavy-lift boost impulses or a low-thrust spiral-out or a combination of both, into a high orbit with a lifetime of hundreds of years, opening the prospect of a wide variety of options to be compared in search of a preferred longer-term future. The decision to boost the ISS into a high orbit could be completely rational based on any of several arguments, or it could be partly irrational as in the case of the USS Constitution, an eighteenth- century warship saved from the ship-breakers by a poem.

  19. An alternative method study for determining the content oils and greases derived from spectrophotometric; Estudo de um metodo alternativo para determinacao de oleos e graxas derivado do metodo espectrofotometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Leila Rose Benevides; Bezerra, Magna Angelica dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-14; Melo, Josette Lourdes de Sousa; Melo, Henio Normando de Sousa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Gomes, Andrea Karla Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the Text of Oils and Greases (TOG) it can be done by several methods - gravimetrical or spectrophotometric. That work seeks to study a method alternative spectrophotometric, being compared this with the method used by Curbelo (2002). The modifications were: the reason solvent/sample, and the procedure in which the solvent the sample was mixed. For the method of Curbelo (2002) 100 mL of the sample was mixed to 10 chloroform mL and separated in separation funnel. In the proposed method, adapted denominated Chloroform, the reason was of 20 sample mL for 20 chloroform mL, being this mixture, after manual agitation, taken directly for centrifuge. The medium results were of 81,36 mg/L and 150,44 mg/L for the methods of the Chloroform and Adapted Chloroform, respectively. In spite of the medium values they present differences of almost 50%, it can be verified that the methods demonstrated certain uniformity when evaluated separately, being obtained a minimum deviation of 5,88%. With base in those preliminary results, it can be verified that the developed alternative method gets to remove more oil, mainly for more concentrated samples - exception done to the results of the pattern - and that the two methods present viability of substitution of the gravimetrical methods. (author)

  20. Effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on methane production from fat, oil and grease (FOG) and synthetic kitchen waste (KW) in anaerobic co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2013-02-01

    The effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on the methane production potential of anaerobic co-digestion with synthetic kitchen waste (KW) or fat, oil and grease (FOG) were investigated. Non-linear regressions were fitted to accurately assess and compare the methane production from co-digestion under the various pre-treatment conditions and to achieve representative simulations and predictions. Ultrasonic pre-treatment was not found to improve methane production effectively from either FOG co-digestion or KW co-digestions. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment could increase methane production yields from both FOG and KW co-digestions. COD solubilization was found to effectively represent the effects of pre-treatment. A comprehensive evaluation indicated that the thermo-chemical pre-treatments of pH=10, 55°C and pH=8, 55°C provided the best conditions to increase methane production from FOG and KW co-digestions, respectively. The most effective enhancement of biogas production (288±0.85mLCH(4)/g TVS) was achieved from thermo-chemically pre-treated FOG co-digestion, which was 9.9±1.5% higher than FOG co-digestion without thermo-chemical pre-treatment.

  1. Biogas production performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion with fat, oil, and grease in semi-continuous flow digesters: effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time, and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Champagne, P; Anderson, B C

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestions with fat, oil, and grease (FOG) were investigated in semi-continuous flow digesters under various operating conditions. The effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12 and 24 days, organic loading rates (OLRs) between 1.19 and 8.97 gTVS/Ld, and digestion temperatures of 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C on biogas production were evaluated. It was proposed that, compared to anaerobic digestion with wastewater treatment plant sludge (primary raw sludge), semi-continuous flow anaerobic co-digestion with FOG could effectively enhance biogas and methane production. Thermophilic (55 degrees C) co-digestions exhibited higher biogas production and degradation of organics than mesophilic co-digestions. The best biogas production rate of 17.4 +/- 0.86 L/d and methane content 67.9 +/- 1.46% was obtained with a thermophilic co-digestion at HRT = 24 days and OLR = 2.43 +/- 0.15 g TVS/Ld. These were 32.8% and 7.10% higher than the respective values from the mesophilic co-digestion under similar operating conditions.

  2. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  3. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer.

  4. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value.

  5. Structural choice based on knowledge discovery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢方亮; 王光远

    2002-01-01

    Structural choice is a significant decision having an important influence on structural function, socialeconomics, structural reliability and construction cost. A Case Based Reasoning system with its retrieval partconstructed with a KDD subsystem, is put forward to make a decision for a large scale engineering project. Atypical CBR system consists of four parts: case representation, case retriever, evaluation, and adaptation. Acase library is a set of parameterized excellent and successful structures. For a structural choice, the key pointis that the system must be able to detect the pattern classes hidden in the case library and classify the input pa-rameters into classes properly. That is done by using the KDD Data Mining algorithm based on Self-OrganizingFeature Maps ( SOFM), which makes the whole system more adaptive, self-organizing, self-learning and open.

  6. School Choice Policies in the Political Spectacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Miller-Kahn

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research on school choice. It takes the case of a school district in Boulder, Colorado, through the decade of the 1990s and shows how interest groups took advantage of federal, state, and district policies meant to promote school choice and molded them into a system of schools that met individualistic interests rather than the common good. Extensive interviewing and analysis of documents and media reports served as sources of evidence. The authors argue that district officials accommodated the demands of elite groups of parents to transform the district. The study is framed by revisionist theories of policy, particularly Murray Edelman's theory of political spectacle wherein real values are allocated to a few groups, the allocation occurring largely out of public scrutiny. For most of the public, however, policies are largely symbolic.

  7. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    Hypoethetical bias in stated preference studies is an essential problem which reduces the validity of the obtained welfare estimates for non-market goods. In the attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias, a type of reminder known as Cheap Talk, has been applied in previous studies and found to overall...... eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  8. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    Hypothetical bias in stated preference studies is an essential problem which reduces the validity of the obtained welfare estimates for non-market goods. In the attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias, a type of reminder known as Cheap Talk, has been applied in previous studies and found to overall...... eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  9. Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Song; Zotter, Stefan; Kofler, Johannes; Ursin, Rupert; Jennewein, Thomas; Brukner, Časlav; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-06-01

    Motivated by the question of which kind of physical interactions and processes are needed for the production of quantum entanglement, Peres has put forward the radical idea of delayed-choice entanglement swapping. There, entanglement can be `produced a posteriori, after the entangled particles have been measured and may no longer exist'. Here, we report the realization of Peres's gedanken experiment. Using four photons, we can actively delay the choice of measurement--implemented through a high-speed tunable bipartite-state analyser and a quantum random-number generator--on two of the photons into the time-like future of the registration of the other two photons. This effectively projects the two already registered photons onto one of two mutually exclusive quantum states in which the photons are either entangled (quantum correlations) or separable (classical correlations). This can also be viewed as `quantum steering into the past'.

  10. Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Ursin, Rupert; Jennewein, Thomas; Brukner, Časlav; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the question, which kind of physical interactions and processes are needed for the production of quantum entanglement, Peres has put forward the radical idea of delayed-choice entanglement swapping. There, entanglement can be "produced a posteriori, after the entangled particles have been measured and may no longer exist". In this work we report the first realization of Peres' gedanken experiment. Using four photons, we can actively delay the choice of measurement-implemented via a high-speed tunable bipartite state analyzer and a quantum random number generator-on two of the photons into the time-like future of the registration of the other two photons. This effectively projects the two already registered photons onto one definite of two mutually exclusive quantum states in which either the photons are entangled (quantum correlations) or separable (classical correlations). This can also be viewed as "quantum steering into the past".

  11. [Career counselling and choice of speciality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang, G.; Ringsted, C.

    2008-01-01

    Career counselling is meant to support and ensure an early and relevant choice of specialty. Self-awareness regarding personality, life goals, wishes for family life, and lifestyle is of help in narrowing down the number of specialties to those that fit personal attitudes and preferences. The cou......Career counselling is meant to support and ensure an early and relevant choice of specialty. Self-awareness regarding personality, life goals, wishes for family life, and lifestyle is of help in narrowing down the number of specialties to those that fit personal attitudes and preferences....... The counsellor must be aware that the trainees' subjective opinions about the specialties may not be in line with the actual conditions. Hence, career counselling should provide factual knowledge about the specialties including information on the working conditions and defining characteristics of the specialties...

  12. The Discourse of Denial: How White Teacher Candidates Construct Race, Racism and "White Privilege"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Patrick; Portelli, John; Daniel, Beverly-Jean; Campbell, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on a representative sample from 200 teacher candidates' responses to Peggy McIntosh's article, "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack." The notion and understanding of whiteness and white privilege were explored revealing several strategies that teacher candidates employed to avoid addressing whiteness…

  13. Think leader, think white? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-white leadership bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gündemir, S.; Homan, A.C.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; van Vugt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Across four studies, we found evidence for an implicit pro-White leadership bias that helps explain the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in leadership positions. Both White-majority and ethnic minority participants reacted significantly faster when ethnically White names and leadership roles

  14. What motivates the consumer's food choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jáuregui-Lobera

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ in Spanish population (FCQ-SP, its factor structure and internal consistency. In addition, the relationships between the FCQ-SP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, the Irrational Food Beliefs Scale (IFBS, and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3 were analysed in order to explore the validity of the FCQSP. Possible gender differences in the food choice pattern were analysed. Methods: The sample comprised 255 women and 50 men, ranged from 25 to 64 years. In order to get a better interpretation of the results associated with changes based on the age, the participants were grouped in four age intervals (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64. All the participants were relatives of secondary and high school students in three schools of Seville and Cordoba. Results: The factor analysis yields the seven following factors: mood, health and natural content, sensory appeal, weight control, convenience, familiarity, and price. The internal consistency was determined by means of the Cronbach's α coefficients, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.83 for the different components. With regards to the food choice profile, sensory appeal was the most motivating factor to choose food, followed by price and weight control. With respect to gender differences, women showed higher scores than men in all components except in the case of price. Discussion: The FCQ-SP has adequate psychometric properties to be applied to Spanish population, and it is useful to explore the consumers' motivation with regards to food choice.

  15. Buses and Boards Making the right choice

    CERN Document Server

    Gipper, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    From motherboard to backplane to blade based computer systems, the choices are numerous. This paper will cover the markets and trends within those markets that influence decisions made by board suppliers. Discussion will focus on the various form factors, the development and evolution of industry standards, and the consortia that support and develop these standards, including VITA, PICMG, and others. This paper will conclude with suggestions for choosing the right form factor for your application.

  16. Consumers' food choice and quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Grunert, Klaus G.

    contrast to a perceived unwillingness to pay the higher prices this implies, and scepticism about industrial food production stands in contrast to busy lifestyles and a resulting demand for convenience. However, while the topics of food quality perception and choice have certainly become more complex...... of the research methods involved. We then describe the various elements of the model in more detail, based on four major quality dimensions - health, taste, process characteristics, convenience....

  17. Choice Task Complexity and Decision Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Swait, Joffre; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.

    1997-01-01

    The psychology, the marketing consumer behavior and, to a much smaller extent, the economics literature have long reported evidence that decision makers utilize different decision strategies depending upon many factors (person-specific, task-specific, etc.). Such observations have generally failed to affect the specification of choice models in commercial practice and academic research, both of which still tend to assume an utility maximizing, full information, indefatigable decision maker. T...

  18. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  19. Contingent Weighting in Judgment and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-08

    Review, 94, 236-254. Grether, D. M., & Plott, C. R. (1979). Economic theory of choice and the preference rever- sal phenomenon. American Economic Review , 69...805-824. Loomes, G., & Sugden, R. (1983). A rationale for preference reversal. American Economic Review , 73, 428-432. Payne, J. W. (1982). Contingent...Lichtenstein, S. (1983). Preference reversals: A broader perspective. American Economic Review , 73, 596-605. Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S

  20. Rational Choice and the Framing of Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-29

    Yellen, J. (1985). Can small deviations from rationality make significant differences to economic equilibria? American Economic Review , 75, 708-720...theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon. American Economic Review , 69, 623-38. Hagen, 0. (1979). Towards a positive theory of preferences...Publishing Co. Haltiwanger, J. & Waldman, M. (1985). Rational expectations and the limits of rationality: An analysis of heterogeneity. American Economic Review , 75