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Sample records for choice translating algorithm

  1. A Cost-Minimizing Algorithm for School Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Sinan; Coppersmith, Chaya; Glass, Julie; Karaali, Gizem; Zhao, Xueying; Zhu, Xinjing

    2010-01-01

    The school choice problem concerns the design and implementation of matching mechanisms that produce school assignments for students within a given public school district. Previously considered criteria for evaluating proposed mechanisms such as stability, strategyproofness and Pareto efficiency do not always translate into desirable student assignments. In this note we propose methods to expand upon the notion of desirability for a given assignment mechanism by focusing on honoring student preferences. In particular we define two new student-optimal criteria that are not met by any previously employed mechanism in the school choice literature. We then use these criteria to adapt a well-known combinatorial optimization technique (Hungarian algorithm) to the school choice problem. In particular we create two mechanisms, each geared specifically to perform optimally with respect to one of the new criteria. Both mechanisms yield "student-optimal" outcomes. We discuss the practical implications and limitations of...

  2. A RATional choice for translational research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Aitman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat. This, therefore, is a pivotal time for rat-based biomedical research – a timely moment to review progress and prospects – providing the inspiration for a new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, launched in this issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms. What disease areas are most appropriate for research using rats? Why should the rat be favoured over other model organisms, and should the present levels of funding be continued? Which approaches should we expect to yield biologically and medically useful insights in the coming years? These are key issues that are addressed in the original Research Articles and reviews published in this Special Collection, and in this introductory Editorial. These exemplar articles serve as a landmark for the present status quo after a decade of major advances using the rat model and could help to guide the direction of rat research in the coming decade.

  3. A RATional choice for translational research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Paraminder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat. This, therefore, is a pivotal time for rat-based biomedical research – a timely moment to review progress and prospects – providing the inspiration for a new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, launched in this issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms. What disease areas are most appropriate for research using rats? Why should the rat be favoured over other model organisms, and should the present levels of funding be continued? Which approaches should we expect to yield biologically and medically useful insights in the coming years? These are key issues that are addressed in the original Research Articles and reviews published in this Special Collection, and in this introductory Editorial. These exemplar articles serve as a landmark for the present status quo after a decade of major advances using the rat model and could help to guide the direction of rat research in the coming decade. PMID:27736742

  4. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structur...

  5. An Examination of Lexical Choices in Slovene Translations of British and American Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Darja Hribar

    2005-01-01

    The article examines lexical choices preferred by a noted Slovene translator of dramatic texts. It is based on the assumption that in spite of the fact that lexical choices offer much greater freedom in translation than, for instance, grammatical choices, they are subject to a number of intratextual and extratextual factors defining the genre, the kind of translation, and specific features of individual plays. Although examples are taken from only one set of translations of Tennessee Wiliams’...

  6. English to Arabic Machine Translation Based on Reordring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of Machine Translation (MT is set accurate translation by implement a system to achieve similar result with human translates as in case the translating English to Arabic. The translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the text that given by the translator. In addition, the translation depends on the purpose for which it meant according to context, as well as the text context includes different size and types of sentences. In addition, English words order in target language is not the same order as the Arabic source language, so the translation from English to Arabic definitely needs effort to synchronize words between English and Arabic that based on matching rules grammar between both languages. Approach: This study focuses on the existing Context Free Grammar (CFG format as well as identifying the Part Of Speech (POS for single words and reordering the CFG for reorder purpose of English structure to Arabic structure and validate the reorder CFG constructed by the algorithm. Reordering algorithm is a system for translating structured English sentence in text to structure Arabic sentence in text that runs compatibly with English/Arabic interface. English dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word categories (POS and Bi-lingual dictionary is used to translate single word consist of only word meaning relative to categories in approach format. Results: The domain area include twenty (20 abstracts containing ninety five (95 sentences have been tested in order to verify the authenticity of computer translation algorithm and the result were compared with human translation. The results obtain shows that the reordering rules is 81.855% accuracy on a translation from English Language to Arabic using an abstract from the European Psychiatry Journal. Conclusion: Based on the achieved results, we have managed to perform the syntactic reordering within an English sentence in text

  7. An algorithm for link restoration in wavwlength translating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limal, Emmanuel; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    We propose the BONRA, a new and innovative algorithm for dynamic allocation of working and spare channel capacity for single link restoration in wavelength translating optical networks. The BONRA has very low calculation complexity yet gives high capacity utilisation.......We propose the BONRA, a new and innovative algorithm for dynamic allocation of working and spare channel capacity for single link restoration in wavelength translating optical networks. The BONRA has very low calculation complexity yet gives high capacity utilisation....

  8. Translational control of SCL-isoform expression in hematopoietic lineage choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Muller, Christine; Martin, Richard; Krosl, Goradz; Pietsch, Hubertus; Hoang, Trang; Leutz, Achim

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the translational regulation of SCL protein expression and its role in hematopoietic lineage choice. We show that the expression of different SCL protein isoforms is regulated by signal transduction pathways that modulate translation initiation factor (eIF) function. A conserved smal

  9. English to Arabic Machine Translation Based on Reordring Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan A. Mohammed; Mohd. J. Ab Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of Machine Translation (MT) is set accurate translation by implement a system to achieve similar result with human translates as in case the translating English to Arabic. The translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the text that given by the translator. In addition, the translation depends on the purpose for which it meant according to context, as well as the text context includes different size and types of sentences. In addition, En...

  10. Mental computation or standard algorithm? Children’s strategy choices on multi-digit subtractions

    OpenAIRE

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed children’s use of mental computation strategies and the standard algorithm on multi-digit subtractions. Fifty-eight Flemish fourth-graders of varying mathematical achievement level were individually offered subtractions that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or the standard algorithm in 1 choice and 2 no-choice conditions. In the choice condition, children could apply their preferential strategy on each item; in the no-choice conditions, they had t...

  11. A Study on the Translation Invariant Matching Algorithm for Fingerprint Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.H.; Cho, S.W.; Kim, J.M. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents a new matching algorithm for fingerprint recognition, which is robust to image translation. The basic idea of this paper is to estimate the translation vector of an input fingerprint image using N minutiae at which the gradient of the ridge direction field is large. Using the estimated translation vector we select minutiae irrelevant to the translation. We experimentally prove that the presented algorithm results in good performance even if there are large translation and pseudo-minutiae. (author). 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Simulated annealing algorithm for the optimal translation sequence of the jth agent in rough communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongkai; Guan Yanyong; Xue Peijun

    2008-01-01

    In rough communication, because each agent has a different language and cannot provide precise communication to each other, the concept translated among multi-agents will loss some information and this results in a less or rougher concept. With different translation sequences, the problem of information loss is varied. To get the translation sequence, in which the jth agent taking part in rough communication gets maximum information, a simulated annealing algorithm is used. Analysis and simulation of this algorithm demonstrate its effectiveness.

  13. The relationship between impulsive choice and impulsive action: a cross-species translational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Broos

    Full Text Available Maladaptive impulsivity is a core symptom in various psychiatric disorders. However, there is only limited evidence available on whether different measures of impulsivity represent largely unrelated aspects or a unitary construct. In a cross-species translational study, thirty rats were trained in impulsive choice (delayed reward task and impulsive action (five-choice serial reaction time task paradigms. The correlation between those measures was assessed during baseline performance and after pharmacological manipulations with the psychostimulant amphetamine and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. In parallel, to validate the animal data, 101 human subjects performed analogous measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting task, DDT and impulsive action (immediate and delayed memory task, IMT/DMT. Moreover, all subjects completed the Stop Signal Task (SST, as an additional measure of impulsive action and filled out the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11. Correlations between DDT and IMT/DMT were determined and a principal component analysis was performed on all human measures of impulsivity. In both rats and humans measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action did not correlate. In rats the within-subject pharmacological effects of amphetamine and atomoxetine did not correlate between tasks, suggesting distinct underlying neural correlates. Furthermore, in humans, principal component analysis identified three independent factors: (1 self-reported impulsivity (BIS-11; (2 impulsive action (IMT/DMT and SST; (3 impulsive choice (DDT. This is the first study directly comparing aspects of impulsivity using a cross-species translational approach. The present data reveal the non-unitary nature of impulsivity on a behavioral and pharmacological level. Collectively, this warrants a stronger focus on the relative contribution of distinct forms of impulsivity in psychopathology.

  14. Heuristics of the algorithm: Big Data, user interpretation and institutional translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Bolin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence on mass media audiences was founded on representative statistical samples, analysed by statisticians at the market departments of media corporations. The techniques for aggregating user data in the age of pervasive and ubiquitous personal media (e.g. laptops, smartphones, credit cards/swipe cards and radio-frequency identification build on large aggregates of information (Big Data analysed by algorithms that transform data into commodities. While the former technologies were built on socio-economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, media preferences (i.e. categories recognisable to media users and industry representatives alike, Big Data technologies register consumer choice, geographical position, web movement, and behavioural information in technologically complex ways that for most lay people are too abstract to appreciate the full consequences of. The data mined for pattern recognition privileges relational rather than demographic qualities. We argue that the agency of interpretation at the bottom of market decisions within media companies nevertheless introduces a ‘heuristics of the algorithm’, where the data inevitably becomes translated into social categories. In the paper we argue that although the promise of algorithmically generated data is often implemented in automated systems where human agency gets increasingly distanced from the data collected (it is our technological gadgets that are being surveyed, rather than us as social beings, one can observe a felt need among media users and among industry actors to ‘translate back’ the algorithmically produced relational statistics into ‘traditional’ social parameters. The tenacious social structures within the advertising industries work against the techno-economically driven tendencies within the Big Data economy.

  15. Choice-Making in Rendering Culture-Bound Elements in Literary Translation: A Case Study on the English Translation Of «????»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihua, Song

    2014-01-01

    How to render culture-bound elements into a foreign language remains one of the most challenging tasks for all translators, especially, when the source text is a literary one. To retain the aesthetic effects and other stylistic features of importance, some argue that choice can be made from either domestication or foreignization with…

  16. Mental Computation or Standard Algorithm? Children's Strategy Choices on Multi-Digit Subtractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed children's use of mental computation strategies and the standard algorithm on multi-digit subtractions. Fifty-eight Flemish 4th graders of varying mathematical achievement level were individually offered subtractions that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or the standard algorithm in one choice and two…

  17. Generic algorithm to predict the speed of translational elongation: implications for protein biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Zhang

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage and variations in the level of isoaccepting tRNAs exert a powerful selective force on translation fidelity. We have developed an algorithm to evaluate the relative rate of translation which allows large-scale comparisons of the non-uniform translation rate on the protein biogenesis. Using the complete genomes of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis we show that stretches of codons pairing to minor tRNAs form putative sites to locally attenuate translation; thereby the tendency is to cluster in near proximity whereas long contiguous stretches of slow-translating triplets are avoided. The presence of slow-translating segments positively correlates with the protein length irrespective of the protein abundance. The slow-translating clusters are predominantly located down-stream of the domain boundaries presumably to fine-tune translational accuracy with the folding fidelity of multidomain proteins. Translation attenuation patterns at highly structurally and functionally conserved domains are preserved across the species suggesting a concerted selective pressure on the codon selection and species-specific tRNA abundance in these regions.

  18. Inverse Translation in China: A Necessary Choice or a Necessary Evil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiasheng

    2013-01-01

    Inverse translation has long been seen in the negative light in modern translation studies, and has thus been relegated to a sort of second class endeavour. Based on a brief comparative study of English translations of Wenxin Diaolong, a Chinese literary classic, this paper argues that inverse translation is as legitimate and feasible as direct…

  19. Optimal Choice and Allocation of FACTS Devices to Decrease Power Network Loss's Using Genetic Algorithms

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    Omid Ghanaati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With increase energy consumption in the world, power network development is necessary but creating a new transmission line is very costly. Therefore increasing line transmission capability is economic. We propose a method to FACTS device to the power network, in this paper and resulted in introducing decrease power network loss's and increase transmission capability with optimal choice and allocation of FACTS device by using genetic algorithm. We examine, proving this method by simulation IEEE6 bus system and using the genetic algorithm for optimal choice and allocation of FACTS device in this system.

  20. International Quidditch: Using Cultural Translation Exercises to Teach Word Choice and Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwe, Donelle

    2013-01-01

    The American edition of "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" has significant changes from the original British version, and every word of a Harry Potter book in translation derives from a translator's decision-making process. Focusing students on British-to-American cultural translation problems in the Harry Potter series…

  1. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  2. Choice of a PISA selector in a hybrid algorithmic structure for the FJSSP

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    Mariano Frutos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the choice of a PISA selector for a Hybrid Algorithm integrating it as a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA with a path-dependent search algorithm. The interaction between these components provides an efficient procedure for solving Multi-Objective Problems (MOPs in operations scheduling. In order to choose the selector, we consider both NSGA and SPEA as well as their successors (NSGAII and SPEAII. NSGAII and SPEAII are shown to be the most efficient candidates. On the other hand, for the path-dependent search at the end of each evolutionary phase we use the multi-objective version of Simulated Annealing.

  3. A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO WORD ALIGNMENT ALGORITHM FOR ENGLISH-TAMIL TRANSLATION

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    R. Harshawardhan,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a recently proposed word alignment algorithm is simplified for easy understanding and tested for an Indian language. The word alignment problem is viewed as a simple assignment problem and is formulated as an Integer Linear Programming problem. The newobjective function defined is tested for obtaining optimal alignment for English-Tamil translation pair. This alignment is necessary forcreating the probabilistic bilingual dictionary and is also required for automatic machine translation. We have used this objective unction to align words in 25 sentences of English-Tamil parallel corpora. The formulation is solved using the open source LP-Solver. Result obtained indicates that the methodology is applicable for all Indian languages. The work implemented is useful for pedagogical purposes, as it is a standard problem in computational linguistics. Accuracy of modern statistical machine translation depends on good word alignment. The document of the formulated model is available on request.

  4. QEFSM model and Markov Algorithm for translating Quran reciting rules into Braille code

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    Abdallah M. Abualkishik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Quran is the central religious verbal text of Islam. Muslims are expected to read, understand, and apply the teachings of the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran was translated to Braille code as a normal Arabic text without having its reciting rules included. It is obvious that the users of this transliteration will not be able to recite the Quran the right way. Through this work, Quran Braille Translator (QBT presents a specific translator to translate Quran verses and their reciting rules into the Braille code. Quran Extended Finite State Machine (QEFSM model is proposed through this study as it is able to detect the Quran reciting rules (QRR from the Quran text. Basis path testing was used to evaluate the inner work for the model by checking all the test cases for the model. Markov Algorithm (MA was used for translating the detected QRR and Quran text into the matched Braille code. The data entries for QBT are Arabic letters and diacritics. The outputs of this study are seen in the double lines of Braille symbols; the first line is the proposed Quran reciting rules and the second line is for the Quran scripts.

  5. BPF-based reconstruction algorithm for multiple rotation-translation scan mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chen; Huitao Zhang; Peng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In industrial CT, it is often required to inspect large objects using short line-detectors. To acquire the complete CT data for the scanning slice of large objects using short line-detectors, some multi-scan modes have been developed. But the existing methods reconstructing an image from the data scanned by multi-scan modes have to rebin the data into fan-beam or parallel-beam form via data interpolation. The data rebinning process not only increases great computational cost, but also degrades image resolution. In this paper, we propose a backprojection-filtration (BPF)-based reconstruction algorithm for rotation-translation (RT) multi-scan mode. An important feature of the proposed algorithm is that data rebinning process is not introduced. The simulation results have verified the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Aggression, Sociability, and Roommate Friendship: New Findings Translated into a Resource for Self-Determined Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltz, James; Kalnins, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Many individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) live with others, but little is known about roommate compatibility, and there are no resources available to assist in the selection process. People with ID and those who support them need practical information in order to make more informed and therefore better choices. Self-determination also…

  7. Valikuid ja võimalusi: ülevaade Uku Masingu luuletõlkimisest. Choices and possibilities: A survey of Uku Masing’s poetry translations

    OpenAIRE

    Aile Tooming

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a survey of the emblematic Estonian poet, theologian and scholar Uku Masing’s (1909– 1985) known poetry translations. The object is not a poetics of translation or an analysis of language, but an overview of the texts of poetry Masing translated: the time of publication, political influences on publishing, and the public reception or the lack of it. The focus is on the choices and interests of Masing as a translator, as well as the influence of society on which texts he tra...

  8. The 5-choice continuous performance test: evidence for a translational test of vigilance for mice.

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    Jared W Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional dysfunction is related to functional disability in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, sustained attention/vigilance is among the leading targets for new medications designed to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents. METHODS: We describe the 5-choice CPT (5C-CPT, an elaboration of the 5-choice serial reaction (5CSR task that includes non-signal trials, thus mimicking task parameters of human CPTs that use signal and non-signal events to assess vigilance. The performances of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were assessed in the 5C-CPT to determine whether this task could differentiate between strains. C57BL/6J mice were also trained in the 5CSR task and a simple reaction-time (RT task involving only one choice (1CRT task. We hypothesized that: 1 C57BL/6J performance would be superior to DBA/2J mice in the 5C-CPT as measured by the sensitivity index measure from signal detection theory; 2 a vigilance decrement would be observed in both strains; and 3 RTs would increase across tasks with increased attentional load (1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT. CONCLUSIONS: C57BL/6J mice exhibited superior SI levels compared to DBA/2J mice, but with no difference in accuracy. A vigilance decrement was observed in both strains, which was more pronounced in DBA/2J mice and unaffected by response bias. Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks. Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

  9. Remark on "Algorithm 916: Computing the Faddeyeva and Voigt functions": Efficiency Improvements and Fortran Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R

    2015-01-01

    This remark describes efficiency improvements to Algorithm 916 [Zaghloul and Ali 2011]. It is shown that the execution time required by the algorithm, when run at its highest accuracy, may be improved by more than a factor of two. A better accuracy vs efficiency trade off scheme is also implemented; this requires the user to supply the number of significant figures desired in the computed values as an extra input argument to the function. Using this trade-off, it is shown that the efficiency of the algorithm may be further improved significantly while maintaining reasonably accurate and safe results that are free of the pitfalls and complete loss of accuracy seen in other competitive techniques. The current version of the code is provided in Matlab and Scilab in addition to a Fortran translation prepared to meet the needs of real-world problems where very large numbers of function evaluations would require the use of a compiled language. To fulfill this last requirement, a recently proposed reformed version o...

  10. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

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    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  11. Morphometric justification of algorithm of the choice of method of surgical treatment of dysplastic coxarthrosis

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    Norkin I.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define regularities of variability of bone structures of a hip joint depending on type of dysplastic coxarthrosis and to develop tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement. Objects of research. 106 patients with dysplastic coxarthrosis of varying severity, passing treatment on the basis of Federal State Budget Institution of Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics from 2005 to 2014 applying methods X, KT-, MRT-metry variation and statistical methods. Results: According to anatomic features of a hip joint at dysplastic coxarthrosis of various types algorithms of choice of acetabularand femoral components of endoprosthesis, and also tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement in groups of research are developed. Conclusion. The choice of a standard size of an endoprosthesis of a hip joint needs to be carried out taking into account X-ray anatomic features of a hip joint and degree of expressiveness of the dysplastic changes. At dysplastic coxarthrosis of the l-ll types it is necessary to carry out standard total endoprosthesis replacement; at coxarthrosis of the III type —total endoprosthesis replacement in combination with plasticity of a roof of acetabular hollow; at coxarthrosis of the IV type — total endoprosthesis replacement in a combination from the shortening femur osteotomy.

  12. Valikuid ja võimalusi: ülevaade Uku Masingu luuletõlkimisest. Choices and possibilities: A survey of Uku Masing’s poetry translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile Tooming

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a survey of the emblematic Estonian poet, theologian and scholar Uku Masing’s (1909– 1985 known poetry translations. The object is not a poetics of translation or an analysis of language, but an overview of the texts of poetry Masing translated: the time of publication, political influences on publishing, and the public reception or the lack of it. The focus is on the choices and interests of Masing as a translator, as well as the influence of society on which texts he translated. Masing started translating in the 1920s; by the end of the 1930s, he was known both as a theologian and poet, as well as a translator. Just before the beginning of the Soviet regime, two very important translations by Masing were published: Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali and The Gardener, and a new translation of the Bible (Masing was one of three translators. In the Soviet era, Masing translated constantly from material that interested him and that was available to him (the poetry of Shanfara, Omar Khayyam, Matsuo Bashô, Louise Labé, Tagore et al.. As might be expected, from the standpoint of publication, the Stalinist period was Masing’s least productive period as a translator: in Estonia only one excerpt was published in a school textbook and without the name of the translator; a few new editions of Tagore’s prose poems were published in exile. From the 1960s on, as controls on society relaxed, Masing’s name as a translator returned little by little to the public eye. At that time, Masing was in greater favour as a translator than he was as a poet; this was the case for many other translators who were also poets. In the 1960s, many different poetry translations by Masing appeared along with commentary by the translator; reviews were also published. The mid–1970s was also an influential period, when the new editions of Tagore’s prose poetry collections The Gardener and Gitanjali appeared; the impact of these books persisted long

  13. 基于归化翻译视角的英语汉译模因选择研究%The study on meme choice of Engl ish-Chinese translation from the perspection of domesticating translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霁

    2015-01-01

    Based on meme-tics,in the view of domesticating translation,sticking to the principle that the meme in translation must be in compliance with language context and the reality of translation receiver, the paper proposes the concept of translation meme type in Chinese translation of English.In addition,the applicable condition of different types are analyzed.The proper choice on meme in translation is important and effective for the improvement of Chinese translation of English.%基于归化翻译的视角,借鉴模因理论,本着翻译结果中所包含的模因必须要适合主题语境以及适合翻译内容接收者的翻译原则,提出翻译模因类型这一理念,并对类型进行了初步的界定和适用状况的论述。英语汉译中选择包含合适模因的翻译结果对提高翻译的成功性具有很大的功能性和实效性。

  14. Choices, choices, choices ...

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Taking the right decision can be a very challenging and daunting process. Designing a mobile phone, a make up case or even a pipe needs engineering teams to continuously make important choices frequently. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/choices-choices-choices/

  15. 商务翻译中译者伦理的平衡统一①%On the Integration of Ethical Choices of Business Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红丽

    2013-01-01

      目前翻译研究的伦理转向集中于译者伦理的讨论,包括职业伦理和个人伦理。职业化翻译的最大需求为商务翻译,商务翻译作为一种商业行为是为某一客户而提供的、针对既定接受者的一项职业性服务。从事商务翻译的译者,其伦理选择不仅包括译者职业伦理和个人伦理,而且包括商务伦理。商务伦理是译者一定要遵循的规定;职业伦理往往是职业的规范,是大多数人所遵循的规则,但有时会与其他伦理相冲突;而译者的个人伦理体现了译者个人的翻译观念,是动态变化的伦理。商务翻译行为应当是商务伦理、个人伦理和职业伦理的动态统一。%As a professional practice, translation study has undergone its ethical turn, especially with the focus on the professional ethics and personal ethics of translators. Business translation, as a commercial activity, is the professional service provided to certain clients and aimed at the target customers. Business ethical code is the must for any business translators with the possible contradictions against the professional and personal ethical choices of a business translator. Thus, a business translator has to deal with the conflicts and contradictions and try to balance and integrate the three ethical translation choices.

  16. Formula Translation in Blitz++, NumPy and Modern Fortran: A Case Study of the Language Choice Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Arabas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three object-oriented implementations of a prototype solver of the advection equation are introduced. The presented programs are based on Blitz++ (C++, NumPy (Python and Fortran's built-in array containers. The solvers constitute implementations of the Multidimensional Positive-Definite Advective Transport Algorithm (MPDATA. The introduced codes serve as examples for how the application of object-oriented programming (OOP techniques and new language constructs from C++11 and Fortran 2008 allow to reproduce the mathematical notation used in the literature within the program code. A discussion on the tradeoffs of the programming language choice is presented. The main angles of comparison are code brevity and syntax clarity (and hence maintainability and auditability as well as performance. All performance tests are carried out using free and open-source compilers. In the case of Python, a significant performance gain is observed when switching from the standard interpreter (CPython to the PyPy implementation of Python. Entire source code of all three implementations is embedded in the text and is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL license.

  17. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  18. Are decisions using cost-utility analyses robust to choice of SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Surrey M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost utility analysis (CUA using SF-36/SF-12 data has been facilitated by the development of several preference-based algorithms. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how decision-making could be affected by the choice of preference-based algorithms for the SF-36 and SF-12, and provide some guidance on selecting an appropriate algorithm. Methods Two sets of data were used: (1 a clinical trial of adult asthma patients; and (2 a longitudinal study of post-stroke patients. Incremental costs were assumed to be $2000 per year over standard treatment, and QALY gains realized over a 1-year period. Ten published algorithms were identified, denoted by first author: Brazier (SF-36, Brazier (SF-12, Shmueli, Fryback, Lundberg, Nichol, Franks (3 algorithms, and Lawrence. Incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs for each algorithm, stated in dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY, were ranked and compared between datasets. Results In the asthma patients, estimated ICURs ranged from Lawrence's SF-12 algorithm at $30,769/QALY (95% CI: 26,316 to 36,697 to Brazier's SF-36 algorithm at $63,492/QALY (95% CI: 48,780 to 83,333. ICURs for the stroke cohort varied slightly more dramatically. The MEPS-based algorithm by Franks et al. provided the lowest ICUR at $27,972/QALY (95% CI: 20,942 to 41,667. The Fryback and Shmueli algorithms provided ICURs that were greater than $50,000/QALY and did not have confidence intervals that overlapped with most of the other algorithms. The ICUR-based ranking of algorithms was strongly correlated between the asthma and stroke datasets (r = 0.60. Conclusion SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithms produced a wide range of ICURs that could potentially lead to different reimbursement decisions. Brazier's SF-36 and SF-12 algorithms have a strong methodological and theoretical basis and tended to generate relatively higher ICUR estimates, considerations that support a preference for these algorithms over the

  19. A Two-Stage Algorithm for Origin-Destination Matrices Estimation Considering Dynamic Dispersion Parameter for Route Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ma, Xiaolei; Liu, Yong; Gong, Ke; Henrickson, Kristian C; Henricakson, Kristian C; Xu, Maozeng; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage algorithm to simultaneously estimate origin-destination (OD) matrix, link choice proportion, and dispersion parameter using partial traffic counts in a congested network. A non-linear optimization model is developed which incorporates a dynamic dispersion parameter, followed by a two-stage algorithm in which Generalized Least Squares (GLS) estimation and a Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) assignment model are iteratively applied until the convergence is reached. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the proposed approach is implemented in a hypothetical network using input data with high error, and tested under a range of variation coefficients. The root mean squared error (RMSE) of the estimated OD demand and link flows are used to evaluate the model estimation results. The results indicate that the estimated dispersion parameter theta is insensitive to the choice of variation coefficients. The proposed approach is shown to outperform two established OD estimation methods and produce parameter estimates that are close to the ground truth. In addition, the proposed approach is applied to an empirical network in Seattle, WA to validate the robustness and practicality of this methodology. In summary, this study proposes and evaluates an innovative computational approach to accurately estimate OD matrices using link-level traffic flow data, and provides useful insight for optimal parameter selection in modeling travelers' route choice behavior. PMID:26761209

  20. A Two-Phase Heuristic Algorithm for the Common Frequency Routing Problem with Vehicle Type Choice in the Milk Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency and small lot size are characteristics of milk runs and are often used to implement the just-in-time (JIT strategy in logistical systems. The common frequency problem, which simultaneously involves planning of the route and frequency, has been extensively researched in milk run systems. In addition, vehicle type choice in the milk run system also has a significant influence on the operating cost. Therefore, in this paper, we simultaneously consider vehicle routing planning, frequency planning, and vehicle type choice in order to optimize the sum of the cost of transportation, inventory, and dispatch. To this end, we develop a mathematical model to describe the common frequency problem with vehicle type choice. Since the problem is NP hard, we develop a two-phase heuristic algorithm to solve the model. More specifically, an initial satisfactory solution is first generated through a greedy heuristic algorithm to maximize the ratio of the superior arc frequency to the inferior arc frequency. Following this, a tabu search (TS with limited search scope is used to improve the initial satisfactory solution. Numerical examples with different sizes establish the efficacy of our model and our proposed algorithm.

  1. A Two-Stage Algorithm for Origin-Destination Matrices Estimation Considering Dynamic Dispersion Parameter for Route Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage algorithm to simultaneously estimate origin-destination (OD matrix, link choice proportion, and dispersion parameter using partial traffic counts in a congested network. A non-linear optimization model is developed which incorporates a dynamic dispersion parameter, followed by a two-stage algorithm in which Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimation and a Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE assignment model are iteratively applied until the convergence is reached. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the proposed approach is implemented in a hypothetical network using input data with high error, and tested under a range of variation coefficients. The root mean squared error (RMSE of the estimated OD demand and link flows are used to evaluate the model estimation results. The results indicate that the estimated dispersion parameter theta is insensitive to the choice of variation coefficients. The proposed approach is shown to outperform two established OD estimation methods and produce parameter estimates that are close to the ground truth. In addition, the proposed approach is applied to an empirical network in Seattle, WA to validate the robustness and practicality of this methodology. In summary, this study proposes and evaluates an innovative computational approach to accurately estimate OD matrices using link-level traffic flow data, and provides useful insight for optimal parameter selection in modeling travelers' route choice behavior.

  2. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KyungHyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  3. An Algorithm to Translate Building Topology in Building Information Modeling into Object-Oriented Physical Modeling-Based Building Energy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    WoonSeong Jeong; JeongWook Son

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to translate building topology in an object-oriented architectural building model (Building Information Modeling, BIM) into an object-oriented physical-based energy performance simulation by using an object-oriented programming approach. Our algorithm demonstrates efficient mapping of building components in a BIM model into space boundary conditions in an object-oriented physical modeling (OOPM)-based building energy model, and the translation of building topo...

  4. Machine-translatability and post-editing effort: an empirical study using translog and choice network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Studies on Controlled Language (CL) suggest that by removing features that are known to be problematic for MT (termed here “negative translatability indicators”, or “NTIs”), the MT output can be improved. It is assumed that an improvement in the output will result in lower post-editing effort. This study tests that assumption by measuring the technical, temporal and cognitive post-editing effort (Krings 2001) for English sentences in a user manual that have been translated into German using a...

  5. An Algorithm to Translate Building Topology in Building Information Modeling into Object-Oriented Physical Modeling-Based Building Energy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm to translate building topology in an object-oriented architectural building model (Building Information Modeling, BIM into an object-oriented physical-based energy performance simulation by using an object-oriented programming approach. Our algorithm demonstrates efficient mapping of building components in a BIM model into space boundary conditions in an object-oriented physical modeling (OOPM-based building energy model, and the translation of building topology into space boundary conditions to create an OOPM model. The implemented command, TranslatingBuildingTopology, using an object-oriented programming approach, enables graphical representation of the building topology of BIM models and the automatic generation of space boundaries information for OOPM models. The algorithm and its implementation allow coherent object-mapping from BIM to OOPM and facilitate the definition of space boundaries information during model translation for building thermal simulation. In order to demonstrate our algorithm and its implementation, we conducted experiments with three test cases using the BESTEST 600 model. Our experiments show that our algorithm and its implementation enable building topology information to be automatically translated into space boundary information, and facilitates the reuse of BIM data into building thermal simulations without additional export or import processes.

  6. Behavioral data requirements for translating cognitive theories into computer software algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the characteristics of cognitive theories and their links to behavioral science and advanced intelligent systems. Cognitive theories model human cognition, perception, and communication. They suggest the human functions the system should have, serve as a philosophical basis for system development, and provide abstract design guidelines. The underlying assumption behind this paper is that if the cognitive theories are to have any value at all, they must be translated into usable systems. A process for testing a cognitive theory in terms of conceptual criteria, behavioral predictions and tests, and software development and tests, is suggested. Criteria for measuring the problem solving success of the advanced system are described. A theory of the system as an intelligent problem solver is presented. (author)

  7. Algorithm For Modeling Coordinates Of Corners Of Buildings Determined With RTN GNSS Technology Using Vectors Translation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents an innovative solution which increases the reliability of determining the coordinates of corners of building structures in the RTN GNSS mode. Having performed the surveys of the base points in real time, it is proposed to use the method of line-line intersection, which results in capturing the Cartesian coordinates X, Y of the corners of buildings. The coordinates which were obtained in this way, are subjected to an innovative solution called the method of vectors translation. This method involves modeling the coordinates obtained by the algorithm developed by the author. As a result, we obtain the Cartesian coordinates X and Y of the corners of building structures, the accuracy and reliability of determining which is on a very high level.

  8. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

  9. Toward adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck patients: Uncertainties in dose warping due to the choice of deformable registration algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.veiga.11@ucl.ac.uk; Royle, Gary [Radiation Physics Group, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lourenço, Ana Mónica [Radiation Physics Group, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Acoustics and Ionizing Radiation Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Mouinuddin, Syed [Department of Radiotherapy, University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sébastien; McClelland, Jamie R. [Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    voxels within the treated volume failed a 2%pD DD-test (DD{sub 2%-pp}). Larger DD{sub 2%-pp} was found within the high dose gradient (21% ± 6%) and regions where the CBCT quality was poorer (28% ± 9%). The differences when estimating the mean and maximum dose delivered to organs-at-risk were up to 2.0%pD and 2.8%pD, respectively. Conclusions: The authors evaluated several DIR algorithms for CT-to-CBCT registrations. In spite of all methods resulting in comparable geometrical matching, the choice of DIR implementation leads to uncertainties in dose warped, particularly in regions of high gradient and/or poor imaging quality.

  10. Comparing parameter choice methods for the regularization in the SONAH algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    2006-01-01

    . The coefficients that perform this plane-to-plane transformation are found by solving a least squares problem, i.e. the SONAH algorithm minimizes a residual involving an infinite set of elementary waves. Since SONAH solves an inverse problem and since measurement errors are unavoidable in practice, regularization...... are used in order to determine a regularization parameter. Two such approaches are compared: Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) and a trade-off curve analysis inspired by the L-curve. Results from computer simulations and from practical measurements with a two-layer microphone array are given....... These results show that for the problems studied GCV seems to be the best method when choosing the regularization parameter in SONAH....

  11. Sensitivity of Marine Warm Cloud Retrieval Statistics to Algorithm Choices: Examples from MODIS Collection 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, S.; Wind, G.; Zhang, Z.; Ackerman, S. A.; Maddux, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    The optical and microphysical structure of warm boundary layer marine clouds is of fundamental importance for understanding a variety of cloud radiation and precipitation processes. With the advent of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua platforms, simultaneous global/daily 1km retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle size are provided, as well as the derived water path. In addition, the cloud product (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) provides separate effective radii results using the 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 μm spectral channels. Cloud retrieval statistics are highly sensitive to how a pixel identified as being "not-clear" by a cloud mask (e.g., the MOD35/MYD35 product) is determined to be useful for an optical retrieval based on a 1-D cloud model. The Collection 5 MODIS retrieval algorithm removed pixels associated with cloud edges (defined by immediate adjacency to "clear" MOD/MYD35 pixels) as well as ocean pixels with partly cloudy elements in the 250m MODIS cloud mask - part of the so-called Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm. Collection 6 attempts retrievals for those two pixel populations, but allows a user to isolate or filter out the populations via CSR pixel-level Quality Assessment (QA) assignments. In this paper, using the preliminary Collection 6 MOD06 product, we present global and regional statistical results of marine warm cloud retrieval sensitivities to the cloud edge and 250m partly cloudy pixel populations. As expected, retrievals for these pixels are generally consistent with a breakdown of the 1D cloud model. While optical thickness for these suspect pixel populations may have some utility for radiative studies, the retrievals should be used with extreme caution for process and microphysical studies.

  12. Sensitivity of Marine Warm Cloud Retrieval Statistics to Algorithm Choices: Examples from MODIS Collection 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Steven A.; Maddux, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The optical and microphysical structure of warm boundary layer marine clouds is of fundamental importance for understanding a variety of cloud radiation and precipitation processes. With the advent of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua platforms, simultaneous global/daily 1km retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle size are provided, as well as the derived water path. In addition, the cloud product (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) provides separate effective radii results using the l.6, 2.1, and 3.7 m spectral channels. Cloud retrieval statistics are highly sensitive to how a pixel identified as being "notclear" by a cloud mask (e.g., the MOD35/MYD35 product) is determined to be useful for an optical retrieval based on a 1-D cloud model. The Collection 5 MODIS retrieval algorithm removed pixels associated with cloud'edges as well as ocean pixels with partly cloudy elements in the 250m MODIS cloud mask - part of the so-called Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm. Collection 6 attempts retrievals for those two pixel populations, but allows a user to isolate or filter out the populations via CSR pixel-level Quality Assessment (QA) assignments. In this paper, using the preliminary Collection 6 MOD06 product, we present global and regional statistical results of marine warm cloud retrieval sensitivities to the cloud edge and 250m partly cloudy pixel populations. As expected, retrievals for these pixels are generally consistent with a breakdown of the ID cloud model. While optical thickness for these suspect pixel populations may have some utility for radiative studies, the retrievals should be used with extreme caution for process and microphysical studies.

  13. Translating Non-Trivial Algorithms from the Circuit Model to the Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith IV, Amos M [ORNL; Alsing, Paul [Air Force Research Laboratory; Lott, Capt. Gordon [Air Force Research Laboratory; Fanto, Michael [Air Force Research Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    We provide a set of prescriptions for implementing a circuit model algorithm as measurement based quantum computing via a large discrete cluster state constructed sequentially, from qubits implemented as single photons. We describe a large optical discrete graph state capable of searching logical 4 and 8 element lists as an example. To do so we have developed several prescriptions based on analytic evaluation of the evolution of discrete cluster states and graph state equations. We describe the cluster state as a sequence of repeated entanglement and measurement steps using a small number of single photons for each step. These prescriptions can be generalized to implement any logical circuit model operation with appropriate single photon measurements and feed forward error corrections. Such a cluster state is not guaranteed to be optimal (i.e. minimum number of photons, measurements, run time).

  14. PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: AN ALGORITHM FOR MAKING A DECISION ON THE CHOICE OF MANAGEMENT TACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PA is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, vertebral column, and entheses from a group of seronegative spondyloarthritides, which is observed in patients with psoriasis. In accordance with the 2013 federal clinical guidelines for the management of patients with PA, published by the Russian Society of Dermatovenereologists and Cosmetologists and the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, its diagnosis should be based on the CASPAR criteria (ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic ARthritis, 2006. The activity of spondylitis in PA is assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI that is a questionnaire containing 6 questions; a numeric rating scale from 0 (“very good” to 10 (“very bad” scores is applied for a response. It is recommended that ultrasound studies and magnetic resonance tomography be used for the early diagnosis of enthesitis in seronegative spondyloarthritides. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI that takes into account the area of the lesion, the magnitude of erythema, infiltration, and desquamation in different body areas. The early diagnosis of PA and the timely use of disease-modifying antirheumatic therapy are topical problems, as high-activity inflammation may lead to rapid joint destruction, physical limitations, and disability. When the signs of active PA (the presence of one or more swollen and tender joints, and/or 1 or more dactylitides, and/or more enthesitides and/or inflammatory back pain are detected, prompt drug therapy is indicated. The clear compliance of the algorithm for making a decision on treatment policy and the timely assessment of the clinical manifestations of the disease improves prognosis, adherence to treatment, and quality of life.

  15. Design of a Code-Maker Translator Assistive Input Device with a Contest Fuzzy Recognition Algorithm for the Severely Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an assistive system for the severe physical disabilities, named “code-maker translator assistive input device” which utilizes a contest fuzzy recognition algorithm and Morse codes encoding to provide the keyboard and mouse functions for users to access a standard personal computer, smartphone, and tablet PC. This assistive input device has seven features that are small size, easy installing, modular design, simple maintenance, functionality, very flexible input interface selection, and scalability of system functions, when this device combined with the computer applications software or APP programs. The users with severe physical disabilities can use this device to operate the various functions of computer, smartphone, and tablet PCs, such as sending e-mail, Internet browsing, playing games, and controlling home appliances. A patient with a brain artery malformation participated in this study. The analysis result showed that the subject could make himself familiar with operating of the long/short tone of Morse code in one month. In the future, we hope this system can help more people in need.

  16. ISPTM: an iterative search algorithm for systematic identification of post-translational modifications from complex proteome mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Lin; Peng, Hong; Guru, Ashu; Xue, Weihua; Hong, Sang Yong; Liu, Miao; Sharma, Seema; Fu, Kai; Caprez, Adam P; Swanson, David R; Zhang, Zhixin; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2013-09-01

    Identifying protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) from tandem mass spectrometry data of complex proteome mixtures is a highly challenging task. Here we present a new strategy, named iterative search for identifying PTMs (ISPTM), for tackling this challenge. The ISPTM approach consists of a basic search with no variable modification, followed by iterative searches of many PTMs using a small number of them (usually two) in each search. The performance of the ISPTM approach was evaluated on mixtures of 70 synthetic peptides with known modifications, on an 18-protein standard mixture with unknown modifications and on real, complex biological samples of mouse nuclear matrix proteins with unknown modifications. ISPTM revealed that many chemical PTMs were introduced by urea and iodoacetamide during sample preparation and many biological PTMs, including dimethylation of arginine and lysine, were significantly activated by Adriamycin treatment in nuclear matrix associated proteins. ISPTM increased the MS/MS spectral identification rate substantially, displayed significantly better sensitivity for systematic PTM identification compared with that of the conventional all-in-one search approach, and offered PTM identification results that were complementary to InsPecT and MODa, both of which are established PTM identification algorithms. In summary, ISPTM is a new and powerful tool for unbiased identification of many different PTMs with high confidence from complex proteome mixtures. PMID:23919725

  17. 三平移并联机器人控制算法%Control Algorithm of 3-dof Translational Parallel Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙运红; 金逸; 黄进

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a kind of 3‐dof translational parallel mechanism kinematics modeling .The Inverse ki‐nematics is obtained by using the matrix method .According to the movement of the terminal actuators ,the displacement of the moving parts in unit time is calculated ,then the number of pulse of the stepper motor in unit time is calculated .The cor‐rectness of the stepper motor control algorithm is verified by the experiments .It provides a theoretical method for parallel ro‐bot motion control .%论文对一种三平移并联机器人进行了运动学建模,运用矩阵计算方法得到其机构运动学反解,即根据终端执行器的运动规律,求出原动件在单位时间内的位移,进而求得步进电机在单位时间内所发的脉冲数。实验验证该步进电机控制算法的正确性,为并联机器人的运动控制提供了理论方法。

  18. Research on the new route choice method of main optical cables based on Dijkstra algorithm: a case study of Guanyun County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Gu, Xiaoyun; Chen, Zhenjie; Li, Xue; Su, Mo

    2007-06-01

    Up until now, the optical cable network has covered many cities of China. However, there are still so many middle or small sized cities which are not connected to the grid backbone optical cable network of the country. It is urgent to connect these middle or small sized cities into the backbone optical cable network of the country as soon as possible. However, up until now, little work has been done to find a better way for route choice of main optical cables, including those based on GIS methods. This paper proposes a new method for route choice of main optical cables, i.e., the method for route choice of main optical cables based on Dijkstra Algorithm. In this paper, a model for route choice of main optical cables is built, the influencing factors are chosen and quantified according to the specific situation of Guanyun County, and the route of the main optical cables of Guanyun is chosen and drawn on the map. The result shows that the method proposed by this paper has more potentials than the traditional method used in Guanyun County.

  19. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  20. ISPTM: an Iterative Search Algorithm for Systematic Identification of Post-translational Modifications from Complex Proteome Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xin; Huang, Lin; Peng, Hong; Guru, Ashu; Xue, Weihua; Hong, Sang Yong; Liu, Miao; Sharma, Seema; Fu, Kai; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David; Zhang, Zhixin; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Identifying protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) from tandem mass spectrometry data of complex proteome mixtures is a highly challenging task. Here we present a new strategy, named iterative search for identifying PTMs (ISPTM), for tackling this challenge. The ISPTM approach consists of a basic search with no variable modification, followed by iterative searches of many PTMs using a small number of them (usually two) in each search. The performance of the ISPTM approach was evaluat...

  1. Hyaluronic acid algorithm-based models for assessment of liver ifbrosis:translation from basic science to clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeinab Babaei; Hadi Parsian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The estimation of liver ifbrosis is usually dependent on liver biopsy evaluation. Because of its disad-vantages and side effects, researchers try to ifnd non-invasive methods for the assessment of liver injuries. Hyaluronic acid has been proposed as an index for scoring the severity of if-brosis, alone or in algorithm models. The algorithm model in which hyaluronic acid was used as a major constituent was more reliable and accurate in diagnosis than hyaluronic acid alone. This review described various hyaluronic acid algo-rithm-based models for assessing liver ifbrosis. DATA SOURCE: A PubMed database search was performed to identify the articles relevant to hyaluronic acid algorithm-based models for estimating liver ifbrosis. RESULT: The use of hyaluronic acid in an algorithm model is an extra and valuable tool for assessing liver ifbrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although hyaluronic acid algorithm-based models have good diagnostic power in liver ifbrosis assess-ment, they cannot render the need for liver biopsy obsolete and it is better to use them in parallel with liver biopsy. They can be used when frequent liver biopsy is not possible in situa-tions such as highlighting the efifcacy of treatment protocol for liver ifbrosis.

  2. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  3. An On-Line Algorithm for Measuring the Translational and Rotational Velocities of a Table Tennis Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfang; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Nakashima, Akira

    This paper proposes an on-line method for estimating both translational and rotational velocities of a table tennis ball by using only a few consecutive frames of image data which are sensed by two high speed cameras. In order to estimate the translational velocity, three-dimensional (3D) position of the ball's center at each instant of camera frame is obtained, where the on-line method of reconstructing the 3D position from the two-dimensional (2D) image data of two cameras is proposed without the pattern matching process. The proposed method of estimating the rotational velocity belongs to the image registration methods, where in order to avoid the pattern matching process too, a rotation model of the ball is used to make an estimated image data from an image data sensed at the previous instant of camera frame and then the estimated image data are compared with the image data sensed at the next instant of camera frame to obtain the most plausible rotational velocity by using the least square and the conjugate gradient method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by some experimental results in the case of a ball rotated by a rotation machine as well as in the case of a flying ball shot from a catapult machine.

  4. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  5. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  6. Algorithmic choices in WARP – A framework for continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport in general 3D geometries on GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • WARP, a GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo neutron transport code, has been developed. • The NVIDIA OptiX high-performance ray tracing library is used to process geometric data. • The unionized cross section representation is modified for higher performance. • Reference remapping is used to keep the GPU busy as neutron batch population reduces. • Reference remapping is done using a key-value radix sort on neutron reaction type. - Abstract: In recent supercomputers, general purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs) are a significant faction of the supercomputer’s total computational power. GPGPUs have different architectures compared to central processing units (CPUs), and for Monte Carlo neutron transport codes used in nuclear engineering to take advantage of these coprocessor cards, transport algorithms must be changed to execute efficiently on them. WARP is a continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code that has been written to do this. The main thrust of WARP is to adapt previous event-based transport algorithms to the new GPU hardware; the algorithmic choices for all parts of which are presented in this paper. It is found that remapping history data references increases the GPU processing rate when histories start to complete. The main reason for this is that completed data are eliminated from the address space, threads are kept busy, and memory bandwidth is not wasted on checking completed data. Remapping also allows the interaction kernels to be launched concurrently, improving efficiency. The OptiX ray tracing framework and CUDPP library are used for geometry representation and parallel dataset-side operations, ensuring high performance and reliability

  7. Translator and Identity—Taking Lin Yutang as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春燕

    2016-01-01

    with the prosperous development of translation, the identity of translator has attracted more and more attention. The relationship of translator and identity is worth studying. This article takes translator Lin Yutang as an example to see how identities influence a translator. The conclusion is that the choice of translation martial, translation strategy, translation attitude and other aspects in translation are influenced by Li Yutang's identities such as his religious identity, class identity, national identity and personal identity.

  8. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  9. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...

  10. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  11. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Pierre-Francois

    1974-01-01

    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  12. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  13. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  14. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  15. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2008-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  16. Prediction of human observer performance in a 2-alternative forced choice low-contrast detection task using channelized Hotelling observer: Impact of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lifeng; Leng Shuai; Chen Lingyun; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey E. [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Efficient optimization of CT protocols demands a quantitative approach to predicting human observer performance on specific tasks at various scan and reconstruction settings. The goal of this work was to investigate how well a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can predict human observer performance on 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) lesion-detection tasks at various dose levels and two different reconstruction algorithms: a filtered-backprojection (FBP) and an iterative reconstruction (IR) method. Methods: A 35 Multiplication-Sign 26 cm{sup 2} torso-shaped phantom filled with water was used to simulate an average-sized patient. Three rods with different diameters (small: 3 mm; medium: 5 mm; large: 9 mm) were placed in the center region of the phantom to simulate small, medium, and large lesions. The contrast relative to background was -15 HU at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times using automatic exposure control each at 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 quality reference mAs on a 128-slice scanner. After removing the three rods, the water phantom was again scanned 100 times to provide signal-absent background images at the exact same locations. By extracting regions of interest around the three rods and on the signal-absent images, the authors generated 21 2AFC studies. Each 2AFC study had 100 trials, with each trial consisting of a signal-present image and a signal-absent image side-by-side in randomized order. In total, 2100 trials were presented to both the model and human observers. Four medical physicists acted as human observers. For the model observer, the authors used a CHO with Gabor channels, which involves six channel passbands, five orientations, and two phases, leading to a total of 60 channels. The performance predicted by the CHO was compared with that obtained by four medical physicists at each 2AFC study. Results: The human and model observers were highly correlated at each dose level for each lesion size for both FBP and IR. The

  17. Translating Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

  18. Egalitarianism in Multi-Choice Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the equal division core for arbitrary multi-choice games and the constrained egalitarian solution for con- vex multi-choice games, using a multi-choice version of the Dutta-Ray algorithm for traditional convex games. These egalitarian solutions for multi-choice games have

  19. Geometric Reasoning About Translational Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzer, Fabian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problems of planning highly coordinated collision-free translational motions of multiple objects (general polygons or polyhedra) and finding sequences of translations that allow for the removal of one or more objects. These problems are known to be PSPACE-hard in general. Our main focus is therefore on the design and analysis of adaptive algorithms that can cope with practically relevant cases such as tightly interlaced placements. Exact and complete algorithms are i...

  20. Fuzzy Artificial Bees Colony Algorithm for Solving Multi-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem%模糊人工蜂群算法的多选择多维背包问题求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳寅; 马良; 黄钰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统人工蜂群算法早熟收敛问题,基于模糊化处理和蜂群寻优的特点,提出一种模糊人工蜂群算法。将模糊输入输出机制引入到算法中来保持蜜源访问概率的动态更新。根据算法计算过程中的不同阶段对蜜源访问概率有效调整,避免算法陷入局部极值。通过对多选择多维背包问题的仿真实验和与其他算法的比较,表明本算法可行有效,有良好的鲁棒性。%Aiming at the premature convergence problem in traditional artificial bees colony algorithm , fuzzy artificial bees colony algorithm is proposed , which is based on the principles of fuzzy processing and bees colony behavior .Fuzzy inputs and fuzzy outputs are introduced into the algorithm to maintain dynamic updates of the nectar access probability .According to effective adjustment on nectar access probability during the different stages of algorithm calculation , the algorithm avoids local optima .Simulated tests of multi-choice multidimen-sional knapsack problem and comparisons with other algorithms show the algorithm is feasible and effective and the algorithm has strong global optimization ability .

  1. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  2. An Analysis of Compliment Strategies Choice in the Two English translations of A Dream of Red Mansions%从《红楼梦》两英译本看恭维语策略的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 金仁旻

    2011-01-01

    This paper collects compliment transaltion data from Yang Xianyi and David Hawkes" English Translations of A Dream of Red Mansions, compares and analyzes the translation of compliment sentences by the two translators and explores their translation styles.%从《红楼梦》中搜集了相关语料,同时运用了网上红楼梦汉英平行语料库来进行研究,对比分析了《红楼梦》杨译和霍译两个英文版本的恭维语翻译,探讨翻译风格。

  3. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types of degr...

  4. Stereo Visual Odometry Algorithm with Rotation-Translation Decoupling for Dynamic Environments%动态环境下基于旋转-平移解耦的立体视觉里程计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康轶非; 宋永端; 宋宇; 闫德立

    2014-01-01

    In practical applications, if there are large numbers of dynamic features with a same movement direction in the image, they will seriously affect the estimation results of the visual odometry. To solve the problem, a stereo visual odometry algorithm is proposed using the location of features to decouple the estimation of camera’s rotation and translation. The feature points are divided into“far point”and“near point”by the stereoscopic system. Under the framework of RANSAC (random sample consensus), the“far point”is used to estimate the orientation of the visual system, then the“near point”is used to estimate the translation of the camera under the known orientation condition, which is the core of the rotation-translation decoupling algorithm. Using the algorithm, the impact of the nearby moving objects on the visual odometry is reduced by the rotation constraint. The experiment results show that the proposed rotation-translation decoupling estimation algorithm can more effectively eliminate the dynamic features in the actual road than the traditional algorithms which estimate rotation-translation simultaneously. The proposed algorithm shows its stronger anti-interference against dynamic features, which makes it more robust and accurate.%在实际应用中,若图像中的动态特征数量多且运动方向一致,这些特征会对视觉里程计的估计结果产生严重的影响。本文针对这类问题提出一种根据图像特征点位置解耦估计摄像机旋转-平移的立体视觉里程计算法。算法通过立体视觉系统将特征点划分成“远点”和“近点”。在随机抽样一致性算法(RANSAC)框架下,采用“远点”估计视觉系统的姿态;进而在姿态已知的条件下,通过“近点”估计摄像机平移,实现旋转-平移解耦计算。这样处理可以通过姿态约束减少近距离运动物体对视觉里程计的影响。实验表明,在实际道路环境中,本文

  5. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  6. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  7. Application of Improved Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm in Computer Network’s Routing Choice%改进量子进化算法在计算机网络路由选择中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明红; 俞华锋; 陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    针对现有的计算机网络最佳路由选择算法寻优性能和收敛性能较差的问题,本文提出了基于计算机网络路由选择的改进量子进化算法。该算法在传统量子进化算法的基础上,对旋转角进行调整优化,加快搜索速度,提高寻优精度,并且还根据量子位的空间所在象限和相位角对旋转角的方向进行优化调整。通过算法仿真可得知,在计算机网络路由器基础上,本文研究的改进量子进化算法和以往量子进化算法相比,使得计算机网络路由面临选择时在收敛速度和寻优能力更加优越。%According to the problem of poor optimization performance and convergence performance of the current computer network’s optimal routing algorithm, this paper puts forward the improved quantum evolutionary algorithm based on computer network routing. On the basis of traditional quantum evolutionary algorithm, this algorithm adjusts and optimizes the rotation Angle, speeds up the search speed, and improves the accuracy of optimization, also according to the quadrant of the qubits ’s space and phase Angle, this algorithm adjusts and optimizes the direction of rotation Angle. Algorithm simulation results show that the proposed improved quantum evolutionary algorithm based on computer network routing shows a better optimization and convergence ability in computer network’s routing choice than the traditional quantum evolutionary algorithm.

  8. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  9. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  10. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  11. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  12. 基于日志式混合映射的FTL算法设计与实现%Design and Implementation of A Log-structured Hybrid Mapping Algorithm for File Translation Layer of Flash Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵亚刚; 戴冠中; 刘航

    2009-01-01

    An improved File Translation Layer scheme based on traditional log-structured hybrid mapping is proposed. In the algorithm, the log blocks are dynamically allocated according to the number of storage data. During the storage process, the data are divided into cold and hot categories in consideration of the data attribution state. Consequently, high-speed access to data is implemented with fewer mapping times. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm achieves a high-speed access to data, a better wear-leveling balance among the blocks, fewer erasing times and a longer flash life span.%在传统日志结构混合映射算法的基础上,提出了一种改进的文件传输层算法;该算法根据存储数据的多少对日志块进行动态分配,存储过程中根据数据属性的不同将数据进行"冷热分离",并通过较少的映射次数实现了对数据的快速访问;实验表明该算法具有较高的读写访问速度,在降低擦除次数的同时平衡了各块的磨损度,延长了闪存的使用寿命.

  13. Selection of Korean Proper Translation Words Using Bi-Gram-Based Histograms

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hanmin; Koo, Hee-Kwan; Sung, Won-Kyung; Park, Dong-In

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a proper translation-selecting and translation-clustering algorithm for Korean translation of words automatically extracted from newspapers. As about 80% of the English words in Korean newspapers appear in abbreviated form, it is necessary to make clusters of translation words to construct easily bilingual knowledge bases such as dictionaries and translation patterns. As a seed to acquiring a translation cluster, we selected a proper translation word from a given translat...

  14. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  15. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  16. Official Document and its Translation with the adaptation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Longying; Leng Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    with the principle of cognitive consonance, this thesis studied official document translation from the perspectives of contextual correlates and communicative correlates. Specifically, among the contextual correlates, the social and cultural factors, the mental workings, cognitive mechanism, the translator' s intentions, the needs for objective and authoritative information, the aesthetic expectations and acceptability of the target receptors are prominent in their influence upon the translator' s linguistic choice-making. The linguistic contextual correlates including intertexuality, contextual cohesion, sequencing,and style play a very important role in determining the translators' linguistic choices in the official document translation.

  17. Hard Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The international community is still faced with the difficult choice of how to finally solve the North Korean nuclear crisis after the new UN resolution After intensive consultations, members of the UN Security Council finally worked out a multilateral response to North Korea's recent nuclear test with the adoption of Resolution 1718 on October 14. Despite the strict economic sanctions it imposes on North Korea under ChapterⅦof the Charter of the

  18. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  19. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... to the development ‘interface’. It argues that local development practitioners, as a result of unconscious dispositions linked to a growing ‘development legacy’, habitually employ a simultaneity of rationalities. Based on fieldwork in northern Ghana conducted in the context of changing development discourse, policy...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...

  20. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  1. Comparisons between Liang Shiqiu's and Zhu Shenghao's Hamlet from the Perspective of Translator's Subjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽

    2009-01-01

    For the Chinese versions of Hamlet,Liang Shiqiu's and Zhu Shenghao's translations can be called the classic. Becasue the two great translators have their own choices, their versions differ a lot. In the translating process, translator's subjectivity plays an important role and it is one of the major reasons for emerging different translation. The thesis mainly talks about Liang Shiqiu's and Zhu Shenghao's different versions from the perspective of translator's subjectivity by comparison.

  2. Translating punctuation (English-Italian/Italian-English)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    It would take a monumental task of statistical analysis to try and establish a series of norms for translators in their treatment of punctuation in all possible cases and the results would probably not reward the effort. This study has made some observations of what causes translators to modify punctuations. In the general sense, we can look to questions of syntax and style as being the most important dictators of punctuation change. Syntactically, the kind of choices ...

  3. Exploration and exploitation of multilingual data for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Carter

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the birth of computer science, researchers realised the importance of machine translation as a task worth of concentrated effort, but it is only recently that algorithms are able to provide automatic translations usable by the masses. Modern translation systems are dependent on bilingu

  4. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  5. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  6. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  7. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  8. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  9. Conceptual Translation: Script Theory over Equivalence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser N. AlBzour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most translation studies that mainly focus on describing problematic areas and issues translators oftentimes encounter and thus suggesting or even prescribing some practical solutions and techniques, this study essentially targets the conceptual mechanism that can to some extent explain possible choices made by translators and students of translation. Therefore, this paper is by no means an endeavor to provide any translation assessment or any pedantic instructions of methods and strategies to follow; rather, the researcher has explicitly endeavored to offer some insights into understanding the symptoms and rationales of making choices while translating any text, based on translators’ schematic behavior that can be best tackled by script theory that shoots far beyond the mere semantic and pragmatic constraints. The study, therefore, attempts to extend the scope of translation studies from the traditional domains of cultural studies and applied linguistics interests into a higher intermediate Sweetserian conceptual analysis of pragmatic behavior and ultimately into some more comprehensive Schankean schematic paradigms.Keywords: Conceptualization, pragmatics, schematic, Schank, script theory, semantics, semiotics, Sweetser

  10. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  11. Choice on Translation Strategies of Unique Chinese Terms in Foreign-oriented Publicity Translation-Implication From a Case Study of the Translation Strategies of Unique Chinese Terms in New York Times%外宣翻译中中国特色词汇的翻译策略选择--基于《纽约时报》英译中国特色词汇的分析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艺齐

    2015-01-01

    With the development of China, the influence of Chinese culture is expanding around the world. In the process of Chi⁃nese culture spreading around the world, there exits a problem worth pondering--how to translate unique Chinese terms. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis of unique Chinese terms in China-related reports covered by The New York Times, it has been found that foreignisation translation strategy is often applied to the translation of unique Chinese terms. On the basis of this result, the paper explores the guide which The New York Times gives to Chinese-English transaltion of publicity.%随着中国的发展,中国文化在世界的影响不断扩大。在中国文化走向世界的过程中,如何处理中国特色词汇的翻译是一个值得思考的问题。本文梳理和分析了《纽约时报》涉华报道中中国特色词汇的翻译策略,通过定量和定性分析发现其对中国特色词汇翻译多采用异化的策略。自此基础上探讨了《纽约时报》所采取的异化翻译策略对中国外宣翻译策略的借鉴意义。

  12. A general framework for shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A.W.J. Kolen

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a general framework for shortest path algorithms, including amongst others Dijkstra's algorithm and the A* algorithm. By showing that all algorithms are special cases of one algorithm in which some of the nondeterministic choices are made deterministic, terminati

  13. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  14. A Tentative Analysis of Domestication and Foreignization in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈高娃

    2015-01-01

    In field of translation,there has long been a hot debate over the proper translation strategy chosen for the transmission of cultural contents.The two major approaches are domestication and Foreignization,which have been the focus of debate since their appearance.This thesis aims to analyze the choice of domestication and Foreignization from a new approach,namely,Skopostheorie.

  15. State Transition Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiaojun; Gui, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    In terms of the concepts of state and state transition, a new heuristic random search algorithm named state transition algorithm is proposed. For continuous function optimization problems, four special transformation operators called rotation, translation, expansion and axesion are designed. Adjusting measures of the transformations are mainly studied to keep the balance of exploration and exploitation. Convergence analysis is also discussed about the algorithm based on random search method. In the meanwhile, to strengthen the search ability in high dimensional space, communication strategy is introduced into the basic algorithm and intermittent exchange is presented to prevent premature convergence. Finally, experiments are carried out for the algorithms. With 10 common benchmark unconstrained continuous functions used to test the performance, the results show that state transition algorithms are promising algorithms due to their good global search capability and convergence property when compared with some ...

  16. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  17. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    , be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  18. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  19. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  20. SPEECH ACT OF ILTIFAT AND ITS INDONESIAN TRANSLATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaka Al Farisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Iltifat (shifting speech act is distinctive and considered unique style of Arabic. It has potential errors when it is translated into Indonesian. Therefore, translation of iltifat speech act into another language can be an important issue. The objective of the study is to know translation procedures/techniques and ideology required in dealing with iltifat speech act. This research is directed at translation as a cognitive product of a translator. The data used in the present study were the corpus of Koranic verses that contain iltifat speech act along with their translation. Data analysis typically used descriptive-evaluative method with content analysis model. The data source of this research consisted of the Koran and its translation. The purposive sampling technique was employed, with the sample of the iltifat speech act contained in the Koran. The results showed that more than 60% of iltifat speech act were translated by using literal procedure. The significant number of literal translation of the verses asserts that the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to use literal method of translation. In other words, the Koran translation made by the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to be oriented to the source language in dealing with iltifat speech act. The number of the literal procedure used shows a tendency of foreignization ideology. Transitional pronouns contained in the iltifat speech act can be clearly translated when thick translations were used in the form of description in parentheses. In this case, explanation can be a choice in translating iltifat speech act.

  1. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  2. The Strategies of Translating Economics and Business Terms from English into Lithuanian

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Suchanova

    2014-01-01

    The problems of translating the economics and business terms from English into Lithuanian, associated with the choice of particular translation strategies are considered based on the analysis of the translation of the English Economics Dictionary into the Lithuanian language. The classification of the translation strategies into domesticating and foreignizing methods and the description of other translating techniques are presented, and their advantages and disadvantages are described, taking...

  3. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2002-01-01

    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  4. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  5. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  6. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  7. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  8. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  9. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  10. Variables as Contextual Constraints in Translating Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babîi Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The translator’s role and responsibility are high in any act of interlingual communication, and even higher when irony, an indirect and deliberately elusive form of communication, is involved in the translation process. By allowing more than one possible interpretation, irony is inevitably exposed to the risk of being misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture the complexity of translating irony, making use of theoretical frameworks provided by literary studies and translation studies. It analyses if and how the types of irony, the literary genres and the cultural, normative factors, perceived as potential contextual constraints, have an impact on the translator’ choices in rendering irony in translation, taking illustrative examples from Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley and David Lodge’s works.

  11. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  12. Social Defaults: Observed Choices Become Choice Defaults

    OpenAIRE

    Young Eun Huh; Joachim Vosgerau; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Defaults effects can be created by social contexts. The observed choices of others can become social defaults, increasing their choice share. Social default effects are a novel form of social influence not due to normative or informational influence: participants were more likely to mimic observed choices when choosing in private than in public (experiment 1) and when stakes were low rather than high (experiment 2). Like other default effects, social default effects were greater for uncertain...

  13. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  14. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  15. Developing Evaluation Skills with Legal Translation Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vîlceanu Titela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatically, translation is twofold: an activity/process (more accurately designated by the term translating and a product (the term translation can be restricted to the product. It seems that the product dimension has gained increased importance, being the most visible part of translation as market-driven, design-oriented, precise and measurable - complying with specifications. Translation engenders a sequence: identification of text type and of end users’ needs (experts or non-experts in the field, evaluation of the complexity of the source text via global reading, followed by a close reading of its parts, the translating of the document, the translator’s checking of final version, editing and proofreading. The translator’s choices are accountable in point of cost-effectiveness (efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, the legal translator should master the methodological toolkit, conceptual frame and related terminology, and adopt an inward-looking perspective (intuition, subjectivity, ingrained habits, insights deriving from his/her expertise and experience alongside an outward-looking one (working against objective criteria, standards of quality, benchmarks, etc.

  16. Comparison and Translation: Towards a Combined Methodology for Contrastive Corpus Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Lavid; Jorge Arús; Lara Moratón

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which combines the use of original comparable texts and bidirectional translations for the contrastive study of linguistic phenomena. The methodology is based on the following procedures: (1) analysis of the preferred linguistic choices in original comparable texts; (2) analysis of the preferred linguistic choices in original texts and comparison with those occurring in translations; (3) analysis of the translation strategies used in both directions...

  17. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  18. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  19. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  20. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  1. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid....

  2. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  3. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  4. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  5. Translation of Spells in the Harry Potter Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

      It is focused on the translation of neologism with a case study of the translation of spells in the Harry Potter series. The formation of spells are first analyzed. After a close analysis of the examples, the major methods of translating spells from English to Chinese is summarized as follows: transliteration, transliteration plus meaning, and form plus meaning, of which the last one is mostly used. In the end, two prominent factors that influence the translators’choice of translating spells are discussed, one of which is culture, and the other audience.

  6. An Analysis of the English Translation of Xi JinPing:The Governance Of China-From The Perspective of Toury’s Translation Norms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Xi Jinping:The Governance of China is of great significance in asserting to the world the fundamental policies and state-craft of CPC. Its English translation is analyzed on the basis of Toury’s translation norm theory, which guide and regulate all the processes in the translation activities. Based on preliminary norms, initial norms and initial norms, factors influencing the choice of source text, the attitude of translators as well as the specific translation strategies in the translation activity are explored with detailed cases.

  7. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  8. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior to the...... baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  9. Pattern-Based Context-Free Grammars for Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of ``pattern-based'' context-free grammars as a basis for building machine translation (MT) systems, which are now being adopted as personal tools by a broad range of users in the cyberspace society. We discuss major requirements for such tools, including easy customization for diverse domains, the efficiency of the translation algorithm, and scalability (incremental improvement in translation quality through user interaction), and describe how our approach meets these requirements.

  10. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  11. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word...... proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated...... clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some...

  12. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  13. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  14. Savage Misunderstandings about Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Although Jonathan Kozol is well-informed about choice program imperfections, schools of choice are superior to traditional schools. In places like East Harlem, school choice is helping transform youngsters from captive, disenfranchised malcontents to true students involved in their education. The challenge is to make every district school worthy…

  15. Translation in cell-free systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination

  16. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  17. EFFICIENT DE-NOISING PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED ALGORITHM OF “TRANSLATION INVARIANT (TI) WAVELETS AND INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS” OVER “TI WAVELETS” FOR SPEECH-AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have presented a research for de-noising the EEG collected Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials data collected in an audiology lab in University of Ottawa, from 10 different human subjects. Here the de-noising techniques we have considered are Yule-Walker Multiband Filter, Cascaded Yule-Walker-Comb Filter, Conventional Wavelet Transform estimation filters: Daubechies, Symlet, Coiflet Wavelet families, Translation Invariant (TI) Wavelet Transform estimation filter, F...

  18. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...

  19. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  20. Current Trends in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maylath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends.

  1. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  2. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  3. Translation and Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánhegyi Mátyás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.

  4. Translation, capitalism, psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Goran Skare

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article defends that the discourse of the translator is the inverse of the discourse of the capitalist. We present the theory of discourses of the psychoanalist Jacques Lacan: the discourse of the master, of the university, of the hysteric and of the analyst, as well as the capitalist. We develop the characteristics of the translator and his ethics of the Real, and we formally present his discourse. We oppose the discourses of the translator and of the capitalist. We conclude that the translator can question the hegemonic discourse

  5. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  6. Translation and corpus design

    OpenAIRE

    Zanettin, Federico

    2011-01-01

    In this article I discuss the role of translated texts in different types of corpora. I first consider the role of translations in corpus-based monolingual linguistics, arguing that while translated texts are often excluded from corpora on the basis of a more or less implicit assumption that they “corrupt” the reference norm for a language, this assumption does not seem to be justified on theoretical grounds. For the same reason, translated texts should also be included in bi- and multi-lingu...

  7. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  8. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  9. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  10. The role of translator and translation in the age of knowledge globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnichuk M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article consider the problem of translation in the age of knowledge globalization. The English language, which is used to transfer knowledge, brings a serious influence on the target language and target culture. The dominant position of English academic discourse in the publishing industry might erode the discourse standards accepted in the less dominant cultures partly due to translation strategies applied by the translator. In this context, the role of translator is crucial. The authors point out that nowadays the foreignizing rather than domesticating approach is used. At the same time, the authors emphasize that it is hardly possible to reveal either the absolute foreignization or the absolute domestication in practice. A wide range of famous linguists underline that the foreignized translation is source language oriented, while the domesticated translation is target language adjusted. Many factors affect the choice of strategy: the translator’s ideology and education, the translation’s goal, the target languages norms, reader’s reaction, etc. However, the major factor is the translation’s goal. To produce a successful translation, the best translator’s solution would be to adopt a more flexible approach, i.e. to employ both strategies. The foreignization and the domestication may coexist, as they are supplementary. The issues considered in the paper may be of interest to ESP teaching staff at schools of higher education.

  11. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    by proposing and estimating a hybrid model that integrates latent variable and route choice models. Data contain information about latent variable indicators and chosen routes of travelers driving regularly from home to work in an urban network. Choice sets include alternative routes generated with a branch...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  12. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  13. A set partitioning reformulation for the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Stefan; Lalla-Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MMKP) is a well-known ?-hard combinatorial optimization problem that has received a lot of attention from the research community as it can be easily translated to several real-world problems arising in areas such as allocating resources, reliability engineering, cognitive radio networks, cloud computing, etc. In this regard, an exact model that is able to provide high-quality feasible solutions for solving it or being partially included in algorithmic schemes is desirable. The MMKP basically consists of finding a subset of objects that maximizes the total profit while observing some capacity restrictions. In this article a reformulation of the MMKP as a set partitioning problem is proposed to allow for new insights into modelling the MMKP. The computational experimentation provides new insights into the problem itself and shows that the new model is able to improve on the best of the known results for some of the most common benchmark instances.

  14. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  15. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  16. A Stylistic Analysis on Two Translations of Lolita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Li-fei

    2016-01-01

    Stylistics studies the style of a text and the particular effect generated by the particular language choice. As a recre-ation of the original text, translation should not only presents the original literal meanings, but also conveys the original style and language effects. Therefore, through the stylistic analysis of two Chinese versions of Lolita, this paper focuses on the neces-sity and significance of taking style into consideration in translation.

  17. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  18. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  19. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  20. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  1. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...

  2. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...

  3. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  4. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  5. Translational control of cyclins

    OpenAIRE

    Lai Ming-Chih; Tarn Woan-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  6. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  7. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  8. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  9. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  10. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method. To ob...

  11. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  12. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  13. The Translation Evidence Mechanism. The Compact between Researcher and Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Janet G; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Currently, best evidence is a concentrated effort by researchers. Researchers produce information and expect that clinicians will implement their advances in improving patient care. However, difficulties exist in maximizing cooperation and coordination between the producers, facilitators, and users (patients) of best evidence outcomes. The Translational Evidence Mechanism is introduced to overcome these difficulties by forming a compact between researcher, clinician and patient. With this compact, best evidence may become an integral part of private practice when uncertainties arise in patient health status, treatments, and therapies. The mechanism is composed of an organization, central database, and decision algorithm. Communication between the translational evidence organization, clinicians and patients is through the electronic chart. Through the chart, clinical inquiries are made, patient data from provider assessments and practice cost schedules are collected and encrypted (HIPAA standards), then inputted into the central database. Outputs are made within a timeframe suitable to private practice and patient flow. The output consists of a clinical practice guideline that responds to the clinical inquiry with decision, utility and cost data (based on the "average patient") for shared decision-making within informed consent. This shared decision-making allows for patients to "game" treatment scenarios using personal choice inputs. Accompanying the clinical practice guideline is a decision analysis that explains the optimized clinical decision. The resultant clinical decision is returned to the central database using the clinical practice guideline. The result is subsequently used to update current best evidence, indicate the need for new evidence, and analyze the changes made in best evidence implementation. When updates in knowledge occur, these are transmitted to the provider as alerts or flags through patient charts and other communication modalities. PMID

  14. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...

  15. The Impact of Choice Expression Modalities on Choice Rationality and Choice Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation comprises two empirical studies that investigate the impact of manual versus oral choice expression modalities on the objective rationality of choice (Study 1) and the impact of oral versus manual choice expression modalities on choice satisfaction (Study 2).

  16. An Automatic Evaluation for Online Machine Translation: Holy Quran Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad AlSukhni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of Free Online Machine Translation (FOMT users witnessed a spectacular growth since 1994. FOMT systems change the aspects of machine translation (MT and the mass translated materials using a wide range of natural languages and machine translation systems. Hundreds of millions of people use these FOMT systems to translate the holy Quran (Al-Qur?an verses from the Arabic language to other natural languages, and vice versa. In this study, an automatic evaluation for the use of FOMT systems to translate Arabic Quranic text into English is conducted. The two well-known FOMT systems (Google and Bing Translators are chosen to be evaluated in this study using a metric called Assessment of Text Essential Characteristics (ATEC. ATEC metric is one of the automatic evaluation metrics for machine translation systems. ATEC scores the correlation between the output of a machine translation system and professional human reference translation based on word choice, word orders and the similarity between MT output and the human reference translation. Extensive evaluation has been conducted on two well-known FOMT systems to translate Arabic Quranic text into English. This evaluation shows that Google translator performs better than Bing translator in translating Quranic text. It is noticed that the average ATEC score does not exceed 41% which indicates that FOMT systems are ineffective in translating Quranic texts accurately.

  17. Referential Choice: Predictability and Its Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibrik, Andrej A.; Khudyakova, Mariya V.; Dobrov, Grigory B.; Linnik, Anastasia; Zalmanov, Dmitrij A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a study of referential choice in discourse production, understood as the choice between various types of referential devices, such as pronouns and full noun phrases. Our goal is to predict referential choice, and to explore to what extent such prediction is possible. Our approach to referential choice includes a cognitively informed theoretical component, corpus analysis, machine learning methods and experimentation with human participants. Machine learning algorithms make use of 25 factors, including referent’s properties (such as animacy and protagonism), the distance between a referential expression and its antecedent, the antecedent’s syntactic role, and so on. Having found the predictions of our algorithm to coincide with the original almost 90% of the time, we hypothesized that fully accurate prediction is not possible because, in many situations, more than one referential option is available. This hypothesis was supported by an experimental study, in which participants answered questions about either the original text in the corpus, or about a text modified in accordance with the algorithm’s prediction. Proportions of correct answers to these questions, as well as participants’ rating of the questions’ difficulty, suggested that divergences between the algorithm’s prediction and the original referential device in the corpus occur overwhelmingly in situations where the referential choice is not categorical. PMID:27721800

  18. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  19. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  20. Translation in Global News Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Othman, Zeineb

    2012-01-01

    The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.

  1. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  2. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  3. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  4. Latinos and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…

  5. Children's Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

  6. Children's Choices for 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)

  7. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  8. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  9. REFLECTION AND TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolkova Svetlana Azadovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the correlation between reflection and translation and proves the possibility to extrapolate the notion of "hermeneutic circle" into translation. Translation, which is understood as a specific speech activity, has a hermeneutic character as in its basis there is a "reflexive delay", a specific state of intelligence which occurs as a result of a language, ethnic or cultural barrier and demands a reflective action. At that, the circle is transformed into a spiral, which lets conceive the essence of every text fragment through its integration into the former comprehended layer. Interpretation, a reflexive action, which has a three-level structure, creates a unified image of a foreign text in the translator's consciousness and provides the integration of the text concept into the translator's pragmatic net, the representative of a foreign language community, and promotes the target text creation which conforms to the recipient's expectations. At that, the interpreter's personality, their ability to interpret, total existential competence and active position are of precedence for sense comprehension. Reflexive abilities refer to the category of the over-subjective; however, they provide adequate interpretation of the source text and creation of the so-called natural target text. The so-called des-objective reading, predicted synthesis and retrospective analysis are the key notions for the translator. Such abilities are the basis of the professional competence of the translator, who becomes not only a professional but also an intelligent personality that has existential and academic background.

  10. Combining statistical machine translation and translation memories with domain adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Volk, Martin; Weibel, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of translation memory software, translation companies and freelance translators have been accumulating translated text for various languages and domains. This data has the potential of being used for training domain-specific machine translation systems for corporate or even personal use. But while the resulting systems usually perform well in translating domain-specific language, their out-of-domain vocabulary coverage is often insufficient due to the limited size of the t...

  11. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  12. Translation as a discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Walkiewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every translation is a second-order discourse, based on a first-order discourse, whose form is the result of negotiation between the discursive polysystems of the source and target cultures. Its dual role, representing the source-language discourse in the target culture as well as meeting the intended expectations of the target text receiver, inevitably entails the intervention of the translator as a second-order communicating subject, as will be illustrated using a French translation of a building design.

  13. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  14. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  15. The Equivalence of Translated Songs Lyrics and their Effects - The Case of Translated Ecclesial Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing the equivalence of eclessial song lyrics, which belong to the content word, the meaning of the sentences and their effect on church songs. The method used in this study is descriptive and qualitative by using music, language, and interdiciline approach. The data collection method used questionnaires technique, interview, documents and content analysis. The data used are 5 documents of songs chosen purposively as the primary data. Based on the data being analyzed, the results of this study were: 1 The translated content word located in the same bars and equivalent was around 27.07%, the translated content word located in the same bars, but not equivalent was 18.34%, the translated content word located in the different bars, but equivalent was 11.79%, the translated content word located in the different bars and not equivalent was 2.62%, and the untranslated words were 4.17%. 2 The translation of equivalence beautiful lyrics showed the beauty of the song was equivalent at 17.02%, the beauty of the song was less equivalent at 29.78%, the beauty of the song was not equivalent of 61.70%. 3. The differences of structure caused the incorrect dictions or choice of words and missing words in the translated lyrics.

  16. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...... is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product....

  17. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  18. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  19. KVSA VERTAALPRYS / CASA TRANSLATION PRIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A translation competition was initiated and sponsored by theClassical Association of South Africa in 2011. This translation wasjudged to be the best student translation submitted to CASA duringthis past year.

  20. A Flexible Statechart-to-Model-Checker Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas; Dunphy, Julia; Feather, Martin S.

    2000-01-01

    Many current-day software design tools offer some variant of statechart notation for system specification. We, like others, have built an automatic translator from (a subset of) statecharts to a model checker, for use to validate behavioral requirements. Our translator is designed to be flexible. This allows us to quickly adjust the translator to variants of statechart semantics, including problem-specific notational conventions that designers employ. Our system demonstration will be of interest to the following two communities: (1) Potential end-users: Our demonstration will show translation from statecharts created in a commercial UML tool (Rational Rose) to Promela, the input language of Holzmann's model checker SPIN. The translation is accomplished automatically. To accommodate the major variants of statechart semantics, our tool offers user-selectable choices among semantic alternatives. Options for customized semantic variants are also made available. The net result is an easy-to-use tool that operates on a wide range of statechart diagrams to automate the pathway to model-checking input. (2) Other researchers: Our translator embodies, in one tool, ideas and approaches drawn from several sources. Solutions to the major challenges of statechart-to-model-checker translation (e.g., determining which transition(s) will fire, handling of concurrent activities) are retired in a uniform, fully mechanized, setting. The way in which the underlying architecture of the translator itself facilitates flexible and customizable translation will also be evident.

  1. False Psychology Treaty for Translators

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Frosin

    2015-01-01

    The publication of a book containing translations of our great writers should not leave anyone indifferent, even less the experienced translators. By using objective criticism and based on examples from translations, we have chosen in this study to examine the feat, as we say, the feat of Annie Bentoiu, for the translation of Eminescu, for the reason that his translation of the LAC is resumed in 4 covers. This poem is viewed under the microscope by the translator's experience of m...

  2. Statistical computer-assisted translation

    OpenAIRE

    Khadivi, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved in statistical machine translation (MT), but still even the best machine translation technology is far from replacing or even competing with human translators. However, an MT system helps to increase the productivity of human translators. Usually, human translators edit the MT system output to correct the errors, or they may edit the source text to limit vocabulary. A way of increasing the productivity of the whole translation proce...

  3. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  4. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  5. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  6. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  7. An On-line Assessment System for English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan; LU Ru-zhan; DUAN Jian-yong

    2007-01-01

    On-line assessment of English-Chinese translation is a challenging task as it involves natural language processing. YanFa, an on-line assessment system for English-Chinese translation, is a pilot research project into scoring student's translation on-line. Based on the theory of translation equivalence, an algorithm called "conceptual similarity matching" was developed. YanFa can assess students' translation on-line timely, generate test papers automatically, offer standard versions of translation, and the scores of each sentence to students. The evaluation proves that YanFa is practical compared with the scores given by experts.

  8. Stochastic noise in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefaniuk, Adam; Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-01-01

    Translation lies at the heart of every living organism, it is the process synthesizing the proteins, a main component in the cells. Earlier studies have considered protein synthesis as mainly initiation limited, modeling it as a first-order reaction with respect to free ribosomes and mRNA. In such studies, the noise is therefore coming from initiation phase only. We have previously studied a continuous deterministic model for translation, taking into account the ribosome elongation and a poss...

  9. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  10. Juliane House, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Many young doctors in linguistics or literature are filling positions in departments of translation studies but might not necessarily have a clear idea of the kind of research carried out by their new-found colleagues. For them, Juliane House's brief introduction to the field of translation theory provides a welcome survey of the main concepts and issues in this area, even though the book is actually intended for readers with little or no background in language study at all.

  11. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  12. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  13. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  14. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  15. Translational control of cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  16. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  17. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  18. Translation readthrough mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-06-30

    A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202

  19. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  20. Actors´balancing of criteria when translating an idea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2010-01-01

    The model of association has until now been less precise and needs development of its theorization of the role of human translators and their criteria for choices in local organizing processes. The paper contributes to this development by means of an explorative case-study. The case-analysis demo...

  1. The Choice of Core Control Algorithm for 2-wheeled Auto-balancing Electric Vehicle%两轮自平衡电动车核心控制算法的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小仨

    2013-01-01

    两轮自平衡电动车采用的是倒立摆的控制思想,人类可以完美的手动控制倒立摆,利用身体的平衡技巧骑行自行车、电动车,不会摔倒,那么,我们能否模拟人类的控制平衡的方法来控制自然不稳定的两轮车达到自动平衡呢,答案是肯定的,我们设计一种控制器,采用模糊控制、PID算法、自适应技术三者相结合的核心控制算法,作用于执行结构就能达到预期的效果。%The 2-wheeled of self-balancing electric vehicle is used the thought of inverted pendulum control, human being can be perfected the manual control of the inverted pendulum, and by using the skills of ride bikes for body's bal-ance the electric cars which will not fall down, so, we can simulate human balance control method to control the unstable nature of the 2-wheeled vehicle to achieve automatic balance, the answer is positive, we design a controller, fuzzy control, PID algorithm and adaptive technology, combined with the core of the control algorithm, and applied to perform structure, the desirable effect can be achieved.

  2. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  3. Analysis of translation initiation using a translation control reporter system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesenthal, Volker; Leutz, Achim; Calkhoven, Cornelis F

    2006-01-01

    The study of translational control has become increasingly important, as aberrant translation has been linked to the etiology of human diseases. Nevertheless, a convenient research tool to measure and quantify cellular translational activity has not been developed to date. Here we present a translat

  4. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  5. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  6. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  7. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  8. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  9. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  10. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  11. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns.Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  12. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

  13. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  14. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  15. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  16. Cloud-based Evolutionary Algorithms: An algorithmic study

    CERN Document Server

    Merelo, Juan-J; Mora, Antonio M; Castillo, Pedro; Romero, Gustavo; Laredo, JLJ

    2011-01-01

    After a proof of concept using Dropbox(tm), a free storage and synchronization service, showed that an evolutionary algorithm using several dissimilar computers connected via WiFi or Ethernet had a good scaling behavior in terms of evaluations per second, it remains to be proved whether that effect also translates to the algorithmic performance of the algorithm. In this paper we will check several different, and difficult, problems, and see what effects the automatic load-balancing and asynchrony have on the speed of resolution of problems.

  17. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  18. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  19. Eyes on Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaeva, Marina; Landthaler, Markus

    2016-09-15

    Translation is a fundamental biological process by which ribosomes decode genetic information into proteins. The regulation of this process plays a key role in tuning protein levels, allowing cells to respond rapidly to changes in the environment and to synthesize proteins with precise timing and at specific subcellular locations. Despite detailed biochemical and structural insight into the mechanism of protein synthesis, translational dynamics and localization in a cellular context are less well understood. Here, we summarize recent efforts to quantify and visualize translation, focusing on four publications (Morisaki et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Yan et al., 2016) describing novel approaches to imaging in real time the synthesis of nascent peptides from individual mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27635758

  20. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross......-linguistic priming: items which have a similar word order in source and target texts are likely to have similar syntactic structures. These items are therefore more likely to prime structurally. Source items which have few translation alternatives are more likely to share a semantic representation and are hence more...

  1. ASL Fingerspelling Translator Glove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Haydar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an automatic sign language to text translation system. This system consists of a glove that can be worn by a deaf to facilitate its conversation in real-time with hearing persons. The system translates the signs to the corresponding letters, using Bluetooth communication, to a PC that displays the result letters. The recognition of the sign is accomplished using five flex sensors and a 3-axis accelerometer; the signals are converted to digital data, which is compared with a lookup table to get the resulted letter. This system is suspected to help deaf people to communicate with other persons without the need of a human translator.

  2. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  3. Asymmetries of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.

  4. SENSEVAL-2 Japanese Translation Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...

  5. Translation in Lydia Davis's work

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the position of translations in the work of the American writer and translator Lydia Davis. Davis has been publishing stories and translations since the early 1970s, and has translated works by Maurice Blanchot, Michel Leiris, and Marcel Proust among others. This thesis argues that her translations form a graft onto the body of her own fiction; they are both part of her work and retain their identity as being written by someone else. The first chapter builds on theory...

  6. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  7. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  8. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  9. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  10. Translating poetry: Creative art or semantic science? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Beckett

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an on-going debate as to the real value of translation: is it an art or a science? Is the translator engaged in genuine creation or is she merely transliterating the creation of someone else? In order to attempt to resolve this long-standing and thorny problem, this article examines the poet’s understanding of the “logos", the creative force of the word and the relationship which exists between the “signifiant" and the “signifié”. Extracts from poems by Alan Paton, Victor Hugo and Pablo Neruda serve to illustrate that poetic words not only transmit the poet’s experience but actually create it. If the poet is sensitive to the creative nature of language, as these two extracts suggest he should be, it follows logically that a good translator too must be aware of the degree to which language can create, and this perception must be implemented in the subsequent translation. Because only human beings and not machines possess sensitivity, it stands to reason that a machine is incapable of effectively translating the most emotional of literary genres: poetry. So as to illustrate this fact, this article compares and contrasts a computer-generated translation of Paul Verlaine's poem “Chanson d’automne" with three “human-generated” translations. In my own translation, comments and justifications are made as to the choice of a particular word or phrase proposed as translation. The conclusion is reached that translation implies a high degree of sensitivity towards the poet’s original intention as well as a collaborative process between poet and translator which results in an entirely new poem which involves as much, but different creativity as the original writing of the poem.

  11. Translating Terms and Concepts in the Texts of Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Birkan Baydan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore challenges in translating terms and concepts of the social sciences within the frame of scholarly texts of translation studies translated into Turkish. Conceptual problems in the translation of scholarly texts in translation studies arise both from the “interdisciplinary” and “independent” nature of the field. Given the interdisciplinary nature of translation studies, key concepts of the influential movements of thought from adjacent fields pose challenges for the translator. Furthermore, terms which specifically belong to the field of translation studies require the translator to be familiar with the literature of the field in both source and target languages. Immanuel Wallerstein’s suggestions for translating concepts of the social sciences are evaluated within this context with certain reservations. The translator of the scholarly texts of translation studies encounters challenges both with regard to “commonly shared” and “specific” concepts. Already existent Turkish translations of “common” concepts shared with the other disciplines are often diverse and varied, while some of the “specific” concepts of the field have not yet been translated. Both instances bring to the fore the translator’s agency as the decision-maker who makes informed decisions among various alternatives. Examples[i] of two Derridean concepts and two terms specific to the field of translation studies are provided to illustrate the problem-solving and decision-making process of the translator.Keywords: Concept translation, Derridaen concepts, common concepts, specific concepts, translator’s agency[i] Examples are selected from my unpublished translations (completed for MA and PhD projects of Arrojo (1995, Arrojo (1998 and Hermans (2007.

  12. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  13. Measuring improved patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, M; Rovner, D R

    2000-08-01

    Patient decision support (PDS) tools or decision aids have been developed as adjuncts to the clinical encounter. Their aim is to support evidence-based patient choice. Clinical trials of PDS tools have used an array of outcome measures to determine efficacy, including knowledge, satisfaction, health status and consistency between patient choice and values. This paper proposes that the correlation between 'subjective expected utility' (SEU) and decision may be the best primary endpoint for trials. SEU is a measure usually used in behavioural decision theory. The paper first describes how decision support tools may use decision analysis to structure the presentation of evidence and guide patient decision-making. Uses of expected utility (EU) are suggested for evaluating PDS tools when improving population health status is the objective. SEU is the theoretically better measure when internal consistency of patient choices is the objective. PMID:11083037

  14. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  15. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  16. Thinking translation a course in translation method French to English

    CERN Document Server

    Hervey, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Thinking Translation is a comprehensive and revolutionary 20-week course in translation method. It has been fully and successfully piloted at the University of St. Andrews. The course offers a challenging and entertaining approach to the acquisition of translation skills.Translation is presented as a problem-solving discipline. Discussion, examples and a full range of exercise work allows students to acquire the skills necessary for a broad range of translation problems.Thinking Translation draws on a wide range of material from technical texts to poetry and song.

  17. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  18. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  19. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs as info...

  20. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  1. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  2. Ethylene prunes translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehin, Mohammad; Estelle, Mark

    2015-10-22

    Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. In the presence of ethylene, the C terminus of EIN2 (EIN2C) translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription. Li et al. and Merchante et al. show that EIN2C also regulates translation through an interaction with the 3' UTRs of transcripts. PMID:26496600

  3. Salience and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Bordalo, Pedro; Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present a theory of context-dependent choice in which a consumer's attention is drawn to salient attributes of goods, such as quality or price. An attribute is salient for a good when it stands out among the good's characteristics, in the precise sense of being furthest away in that good from its average level in the choice set (or more generally, an evoked set). A local thinker chooses among goods by attaching disproportionately high weights to their salient attributes. When goods are cha...

  4. Translational medicine: science or wishful thinking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehling Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Translational medicine" as a fashionable term is being increasingly used to describe the wish of biomedical researchers to ultimately help patients. Despite increased efforts and investments into R&D, the output of novel medicines has been declining dramatically over the past years. Improvement of translation is thought to become a remedy as one of the reasons for this widening gap between input and output is the difficult transition between preclinical ("basic" and clinical stages in the R&D process. Animal experiments, test tube analyses and early human trials do simply not reflect the patient situation well enough to reliably predict efficacy and safety of a novel compound or device. This goal, however, can only be achieved if the translational processes are scientifically backed up by robust methods some of which still need to be developed. This mainly relates to biomarker development and predictivity assessment, biostatistical methods, smart and accelerated early human study designs and decision algorithms among other features. It is therefore claimed that a new science needs to be developed called 'translational science in medicine'.

  5. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  6. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  7. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  8. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  9. Children's Choice for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)

  10. Children's Choices for 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents 103 titles for the 2003 Children's Choice grouped by reading levels: beginning, young, intermediate, and advanced readers. Provides the title, author, illustrator, publisher, ISBN, and price for each title as well as a brief annotation prepared by a review team. (SG)

  11. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  12. Choices and changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model...

  13. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl;

    2011-01-01

    sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  14. The Choice for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  15. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  16. The relevance of translation studies The relevance of translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Malmkjaer

    2008-01-01

    Most translation theorists today would like to see translation studies firmly established as an independent discipline which, although it draws on insights from other disciplines, should be subsumed under none, (Hatim and Mason, 1990; Snell-Hornby, 1988; Bassnett-McGuire, 1980). The discipline which the majority translation theorists draw on most heavily is linguistics — indeed many books on translation theory and/or practice take the form of expositions of their authors' favourite linguistic...

  17. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  18. Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator An Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, D; Rayner, M; Eklund, R; MacDermid, C; Wiren, M; Kirchmeier-Andersen, S; Philp, C; Carter, David; Becket, Ralph; Rayner, Manny; Dermid, Catriona Mac; Wiren, Mats; Philp, Christina

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted for the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present the results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  19. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  20. «Translation Journal & Translation Journal Blog»: an on-line publication for translators, by translators, about translators and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe Bokor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Translation Journal» is the oldest continuously published translation-oriented on-line journal in the U.S. Appearing on a quarterly basis, each issue contains 10 - 15 feature articles on different aspects of translation. The TJ is fully searchable by author or keyword. Its companion publication, the «Translation Journal Blog», launched in 2004, deals with topical issues of the translation industry. ------------------------------------------- «Translation Journal» y «Translation Journal Blog»: una publicación en línea para traductores, hecha por traductores y sobre traductores y traducción. «Translation Journal» es la más antigue de las revistas electrónicas sobre traducción publicadas ininterrumpidamente en los Estados Unidos. Cada número, de periodicidad trimestral, contiene entre diez y quince artículos sobre diversos aspectos de la traducción. La revista permite las búsquedas por autores o palabras clave. Su publicación hermana, la bitácora «Translation Journal Blog», nacida en 2004, aborda temas relacionados con el sector de la traducción.

  1. Translational Motion Compensation for Ballistic Targets Based on Delayed Conjugated Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Si-san

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro-motion is combined with the high velocity of translation motion for ballistic targets. The translation motion should be compensated for micro-Doppler information extraction. A new method based on delay conjugate multiplication is proposed to compensate the translation motion of ballistic target. By delay conjugate multiplication of the received signal, the micro-Doppler information are canceled out and the translation motion parameters estimation problem is transformed as an multi-polynomial phase signal parameters estimation problem. Thus, the translation parameters can be estimated. Simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm can achieve high-precision compensation for ballistic targets under low SNR.

  2. Algorithmic Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Elkind, Edith; Nanyang Technological University; Leyton-Brown, Kevin; University of British Columbia

    2010-01-01

    We briefly survey the rise of game theory as a topic of study in artificial intelligence, and explain the term algorithmic game theory. We then de- scribe three broad areas of current inquiry by AI researchers in algorithmic game theory: game playing, social choice, and mechanism design. Finally, we give short summaries of each of the six articles appearing in this issue.

  3. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  4. Cross-Cultural Instrument Translation: Assessment, Translation, and Statistical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Teresa Crowe

    2005-01-01

    This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…

  5. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  6. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  7. Violence and Translation%暴力与翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕兆芳; 刘军平

    2015-01-01

    翻译策略的选择受多种因素的制约,但无论是归化还是异化,都注定将结出暴力的果。翻译是暴力产生的场所,有翻译的地方就有暴力,二者如影随形,这是翻译的宿命,也是由翻译的本质决定的。虽然暴力是翻译的常态,但也是不同文化之间沟通的唯一选择。文章从历史、文化、译者的道德立场等方面分析翻译暴力产生的根源及其存在的普遍性。%The choice of translation strategies is conditioned by various factors. However, it is doomed to bear the fruit of violence whatever strategy of domestication or foreignization is to be chosen. Translating is the field where violence happens. Where the translation happens, there is violence. The destiny is determined by the nature of translation. Though being the normalcy of translating violence, it is the only way to communicate between cultures. This paper is to analyze the roots of violence of translation and its university from history, culture and the moral stance of translators, etc.

  8. ROUTE CHOICE MODELLING FOR BICYCLE TRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Beheshtitabar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to find out which parameters have the highest influence on bicyclists’ route-choice-behaviour and how they contribute. There are many attributes considered throughout different studies that are favoured by cyclists. The attributes are the basis for generating a function which predicts the route choice of cyclists. The paper aims at making a comparison between distance-based routes and attribute-based routes. The model for creating the bicycle route choice program is based on the network model of Norrköping, Sweden. The preferred attributes of the model each assign a weight in the cost function of the model for each link of the urban network. The algorithm of the lowest cost function route searches the shortest path in terms of assigned link costs over the whole network. For comparing the results of the cost function and the shortest route (between an origin-destination, the model has a shortest path finding algorithm between different Origin and Destination pairs implemented. It has been viewed that around 25% of all cumulative routes do not show any distance differences between the shortest path distance and attributes based solution. With the used weights of the Standard scenario, it can be seen that the trade-off between shortest distance and safety respectively comfort can be optimized, fulfilling both criteria (distance and safety/comfort.

  9. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  10. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

      It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  11. Translation, Sprache und Wahrnehmung

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional issues of hermeneutics on language, comprehension and interpretation are retaken here in their relation to translation studies, under the less common philosophical perspective of the late Wittgenstein, taking into account also some aspects of linguistic pragmatics. Main target is a prophylaxis of the dogmatism that emerges when properties of the theoretical model are projected into the object under examination. Two kinds of necessity are to be distinguished: on one hand, a necessi...

  12. CADAT network translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  13. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The results yielded are contained in my monograph Translation Performance, Translation Process, and Translation Strategies. A sycholinguistic Investigation. Tübingen 1991. The second stage of the project, in which professional translators’ and, later on, bilingual children’s translation processes are analyzed, is in progress (Lörscher in preparation. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The

  14. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  15. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  16. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  17. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  18. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi; Elaheh Gharesoufloo

    2014-01-01

    Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  19. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  20. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader......In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...

  1. The Important Role of Context of Culture in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 黄英双

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the indispensable role of c ontext of culture in the translation of meaning of language in-use,showing it to be the source of contex tual background of a particular text and of which the contextual features derive .It pays special attention to the tactics for understanding as well as interpret ing words in the light of context.It maintains that the context of culture in wh ich the translator works in mainly affects and limits the choice of words in tra nslation.

  2. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  3. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic v

  4. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  5. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The year 2012 was the 30th anniversary of William H. Riker’s modern classic Liberalism against populism (1982) and is marked by the present special issue. In this introduction, we seek to identify some core elements and evaluate the current status of the Rikerian research program and its empirical...... applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...... of manipulation of the decisions (heresthetics). These topics are then connected to the contributions to the current special issue....

  6. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  7. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...

  8. Hybrid evolutionary algorithms to solve scheduling problems

    OpenAIRE

    Minetti, Gabriela F.; Salto, Carolina; Bermúdez, Carlos; Fernandez, Natalia; Alfonso, Hugo; Gallard, Raúl Hector

    2002-01-01

    The choice of a search algorithm can play a vital role in the success of a scheduling application. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to solve this kind of combinatorial optimization problems. Compared to conventional heuristics (CH) and local search techniques (LS), EAs are not well suited for fine-tuninf those structures, which are very close to optimal solutions. Therefore, in complex problems, it is essential to build hybrid evolutionary algorithms (HEA) by incorporating CH and/or ...

  9. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.;

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  10. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  11. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  12. Experimentation and Job Choice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine optimal job choices when jobs differ in the rate at which they reveal information about workers' skills. We then analyze how the optimal level of experimentation changes over a worker's career and characterize job transitions and wage growth over the life cycle. Using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles merged with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we then construct an index of how much information different occupations reveal about workers' skills ...

  13. Analytic reconstruction approach for parallel translational computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Huihua; Yu, Hengyong

    2015-01-01

    To develop low-cost and low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanners for developing countries, recently a parallel translational computed tomography (PTCT) is proposed, and the source and detector are translated oppositely with respect to the imaging object without a slip-ring. In this paper, we develop an analytic filtered-backprojection (FBP)-type reconstruction algorithm for two dimensional (2D) fan-beam PTCT and extend it to three dimensional (3D) cone-beam geometry in a Feldkamp-type framework. Particularly, a weighting function is constructed to deal with data redundancy for multiple translations PTCT to eliminate image artifacts. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to validate and evaluate the proposed analytic reconstruction algorithms, and the results confirm their correctness and merits. PMID:25882732

  14. Efficient algorithms for the laboratory discovery of optimal quantum controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinici, Gabriel; Le Bris, Claude; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-07-01

    The laboratory closed-loop optimal control of quantum phenomena, expressed as minimizing a suitable cost functional, is currently implemented through an optimization algorithm coupled to the experimental apparatus. In practice, the most commonly used search algorithms are variants of genetic algorithms. As an alternative choice, a direct search deterministic algorithm is proposed in this paper. For the simple simulations studied here, it outperforms the existing approaches. An additional algorithm is introduced in order to reveal some properties of the cost functional landscape.

  15. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  16. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence. PMID:21227154

  17. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  18. Structural choice based on knowledge discovery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢方亮; 王光远

    2002-01-01

    Structural choice is a significant decision having an important influence on structural function, socialeconomics, structural reliability and construction cost. A Case Based Reasoning system with its retrieval partconstructed with a KDD subsystem, is put forward to make a decision for a large scale engineering project. Atypical CBR system consists of four parts: case representation, case retriever, evaluation, and adaptation. Acase library is a set of parameterized excellent and successful structures. For a structural choice, the key pointis that the system must be able to detect the pattern classes hidden in the case library and classify the input pa-rameters into classes properly. That is done by using the KDD Data Mining algorithm based on Self-OrganizingFeature Maps ( SOFM), which makes the whole system more adaptive, self-organizing, self-learning and open.

  19. Inconsequence of membrane choice in acute renal failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujais, S K; Ivanavich, P

    1996-05-01

    The choice of hemodialysis membrane in acute renal failure has caused a heated debate, principally because of the dogmatism with which the results of preliminary clinical studies have been translated into prescription dictum. The issue, however, is not merely the limitations of these two studies, but rather the shift in emphasis they may have engendered in the approach to dialytic therapy in acute renal failure. Dogmatism based on limited or flawed data does not serve the interests of our patients, and the issue of hemodialysis in acute renal failure is far more complex than the exaggerated importance of membrane choice. PMID:8725627

  20. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  1. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...

  2. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].

  3. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer A. MATHER; Tatiana S. LEITE; Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-01-01

    Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level.Here,we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice.Two methods were used,an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS) and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey.In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generaiist by IS=0.77,but most chose many prey of the same species,and were specialists on it by >75% intake.Another population had a wider prey selection,still generalist with PSi=0.66,but two individuals specialized by choices.In Bonaire,there was a wide range of prey species chosen,and the population was specialists by IS=0.42.Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists.A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans,so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74.But by individual choices,three were considered a specialist.A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences,in which seven were also specialists,IS=0.53.By individual choices,thirteen were also specialists.Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging,we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study.

  4. Translating Shakespeare for the theatre Translating Shakespeare for the theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Déprats

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy

  5. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  6. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  7. Applicability and Challenges of Using Machine Translation in Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Koletnik Korošec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, translation as well as translator training have experienced a significant change. This change has been significantly influenced by the development of the Internet and the successive availability of web-based translation resources, such as Google Translate. Their introduction into the translation didactic process and training is no longer a matter of a teacher’s personal preference and IT skills, but a necessity imposed by the ever-swifter advancement of technology. This article presents the experimental results of an ongoing broader research study focusing on the modes and frequency of use of the Internet, Google Translate and Google Translator Toolkit among translation students at the undergraduate level. The preliminary results, presented in this article, are based on a questionnaire which was prepared in relation to the use of Google Translate while considering the latest professional findings. The article concludes with the author’s observations as to the applicability of these resources in translator training and the challenges thereof.

  8. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  9. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  10. Forecasting the Efficiency of Test Generation Algorithms for Combinational Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐拾义

    2000-01-01

    In this era of VLSI circuits, testability is truly a very crucial issue. To generate a test set for a given circuit, choice of an algorithm from a number of existing test generation algorithms to apply is bound to vary from circuit to circuit. In this paper, the Genetic Algorithm is used in order to construct an accurate model for some existing test generation algorithms that are being used everywhere in the world. Some objective quantitative measures are used as an effective tool in making such choice. Such measures are so important to the analysis of algorithms that they become one of the subjects of this work.

  11. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  12. Sequential rationalization of multivalued choice

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanz, María Dolores; Rodríguez Alcantud, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    [EN]This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under sequential criteria. Following the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (2007) for single-valued choice functions, we characterize choice correspondences that are rational by two sequential criteria under a mild consistency axiom. Rationales ensuring the sequential rationalization are explicitly constructed and a uniquely determined, canonical solution is provided.

  13. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  14. Generation and quality assessment of route choice sets in public transport networks by means of RP data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo;

    2010-01-01

    discrete choice models, this paper focuses on the issue of choice set generation in public transport networks. Specifically, this paper describes the generation of choice sets for users of the Greater Copenhagen public transport system by applying a doubly stochastic path generation algorithm...

  15. Homeopathic tips for a stressed-out poetry translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Nasi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quite often a translator of poetry has to deal with difficult texts, which appear almost impossible to translate. A careful, modest and sensitive translator feels (or should feel a sense of inadequacy when facing this kind of poems. This feeling leads him to a clear awareness of the limits of his "poetic" power, and of the objective and sometimes unbridgeable differences between the languages ​​and cultures involved in the translation process. The upshot is a state of despair, dejection, or melancholic impotence. Moving among digressions, hints for translation therapies and homeopathic remedies, the essay tries to offer a bit of advice to literary translators. It deals specifically with the Italian versions of two texts composed by the American poets e.e. cummings and Billy Collins. The first is characterized by the ambiguous choice of words and its graphic composition; the second by the specificity and cultural importance of its images and figures. Billy Collins then, as in a hall of mirrors, retranslates a second “cultural” Italian version in English.

  16. CULTURAL TRANSFER IN TRAVEL GUIDE TRANSLATION: DISCOURSE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova Elina Yuryevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication and dialogue between various social and political structures and their globalized conditions immediately lead to the development of tourism and services market in this area, including translation services. The study of linguocultural characteristics of a travel guide in terms of pragmatically adequate translation is an interesting aspect for the analysis of the development and functioning of logics of modern interaction planes because the mass tourism participants' communicative characteristics are determined, on the one hand, by the universal, global, economic, social and cultural programmes of mass tourism and, on the other hand, by the local and national peculiarities of tourism discourse in general. The choice of linguistic means in travel guides is determined by their communicative and pragmatic as well as ethno-cultural characteristics that form the main discourse oriented translation programme. The translation of the travel guide texts to German supposes significant differences at out- and in-text levels to achieve maximum compliance with the potential recipients' expectations. The analysis of the two translations of the Russian-language travel guide made to German by the native German speaker and the non-native German speaker let define the so-called sharp edges in the cultural transfer of the information important for the discourse. The travel guide is characterized by the specific features of the touristics discourse, on the one hand, and by the interesting experience of translating, on the other hand.

  17. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  18. Modular Regularization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed into indepen......The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed...... into independent modules. These modules are then combined to form new regularization algorithms with other properties than those we started out with. Several variations are tested using the Matlab toolbox MOORe Tools created in connection with this thesis. Object oriented programming techniques are explained...... and used to set up the illposed problems in the toolbox. Hereby, we are able to write regularization algorithms that automatically exploit structure in the ill-posed problem without being rewritten explicitly. We explain how to implement a stopping criteria for a parameter choice method based upon...

  19. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider...

  20. Choice and Procrastination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    JEL#: A12, B49, C70, D11, D60, D74, D91, E21 Keywords: choice, naivete, partial naivete, present-biased preferences, procrastination, self control, sophistication, time inconsistency Recent models of procrastination due to self-control problems assume that a procrastinator considers just one option and is unaware of her self-control problems. We develop a model where a person chooses from a menu of options and is partially aware of her self-control problems. This menu model replicates earlier...

  1. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  2. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider....... However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...

  3. Parkinson’s disease mouse models in translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Antony, Paul; Diederich, Nico; Balling, Rudi

    2011-01-01

    Animal models with high predictive power are a prerequisite for translational research. The closer the similarity of a model to Parkinson’s disease (PD), the higher is the predictive value for clinical trials. An ideal PD model should present behavioral signs and pathology that resemble the human disease. The increasing understanding of PD stratification and etiology, however, complicates the choice of adequate animal models for preclinical studies. An ultimate mouse model, relevant to addres...

  4. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  5. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  6. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  7. Teaching machine translation and translation technology: a contrastive study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Dorothy; Way, Andy

    2001-01-01

    The Machine Translation course at Dublin City University is taught to undergraduate students in Applied Computational Linguistics, while Computer-Assisted Translation is taught on two translator-training programmes, one undergraduate and one postgraduate. Given the differing backgrounds of these sets of students, the course material, methods of teaching and assessment all differ. We report here on our experiences of teaching these courses over a number of years, which we hope will be of...

  8. On Translation Thoughts of American Translator Howard Goldblatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.

  9. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  10. 翻译过程中措辞的多样性%The Coloring of Diction in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳

    2003-01-01

    The choice of words should meet the needs of style and emotion in translation. Since translation serves as a tie of intercultural communication, and English and Chinese words are rich and different in function and coloring, only through conscientious research can proper interlingual communication be achieved.

  11. "Foreignizing" or "Domesticating" the Ideology of Parental Control in Translating Stories for Children: Insights from Contrastive Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Gabrina

    2011-01-01

    Translating for children is increasingly being recognized as a challenge worthy of as much attention as translating for adults. One of the key issues debated in this domain is the choice between "foreignizing" and "domesticating" strategies in relation to the pedagogic or, more generally, ideology forming or ideology-reflecting potential of…

  12. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  13. Time, Self & Intertemporal Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia eRetz Lucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting. Consequently, time perception is fundamental to IC and it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying time processing in different situations; to investigate when human time perception differs from time as represented by the calendar metric system; and to study how time perception predicts choices. This paper surveys the recent literature on time perception in order to discuss the measuring of IC through time-perception specificities. The notion of self is also discussed within this temporal perspective. If time perception modulates discounting, and time perception is related to self, the relationship between self and time perception becomes a new path to be explored in the IC studies.

  14. Intersemiotic translation of literature for children and youth: experiences in classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Aquino Albres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there was growth of children's literature and great incentive to bilingual education for deaf providing the opening for the translation of works in Portuguese language to Brazilian sign language. As a direct consequence of this phenomenon, significant change in the understanding of how to translate multimodal materials. For this reason, the main goal of this article is to discuss/analyze episodes (video-recorded which focused on the mediation of the teacher-researcher in translation work contexts of the students , in intention to verify what are the changes in the construction of the meanings in texts presented in these materials, according to the directions of Discourse Analysis (BAKHTIN, 1999. It is suggested that these activities may be carried out with translation students, in such a way that they enable students, while they translate multimodal text, to become aware of the complexity and specificity of the linguistic and discoursive choices involved in the process of translation.

  15. Estimating Route Choice Models from Stochastically Generated Choice Sets on Large-Scale Networks Correcting for Unequal Sampling Probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vacca, Alessandro; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Meloni, Italo

    2015-01-01

    is the dependency of the parameter estimates from the choice set generation technique. Bias introduced in model estimation has been corrected only for the random walk algorithm, which has problematic applicability to large-scale networks. This study proposes a correction term for the sampling probability of routes...

  16. Tricks to translating TB transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K

    2015-05-01

    Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091

  17. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... to the same problems. By theuse of examples where translational plant science has either been successfully or not successfully applied we describe an approach for advancing translational plant science.......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  18. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  19. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....

  20. Toward a poetics of translation

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Rocha de Paula

    2012-01-01

    From the essay "Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers" by Walter Benjamin, and its connection with the book Des tours de Babel by Jacques Derrida, we seek to address translations done by Maria Gabriela Llansol from the concepts of resignation and free giving. Surrending to a translation method within the melancholic/maniac tradition, Llansol’s translation task approaches a poetic practice, having love as its opening element

  1. Translating Fashion into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (post...... emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...

  2. Semantic Translation and Communicative Translation:A Case Study in My Chinese Translation of Alnwick’s Inspired Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

      This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.

  3. A cognitive framework for mate choice and species recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Steven M; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Mating decisions contribute to both the fitness of individuals and the emergence of evolutionary diversity, yet little is known about their cognitive architecture. We propose a simple model that describes how preferences are translated into decisions and how seemingly disparate patterns of preference can emerge from a single perceptual process. The model proposes that females use error-prone estimates of attractiveness to select mates based on a simple decision rule: choose the most attractive available male that exceeds some minimal criterion. We test the model in the tungara frog, a well-characterized species with an apparent dissociation between mechanisms of mate choice and species recognition. As suggested by our model results, we find that a mate attraction feature alters assessments of species status. Next, we compare female preferences in one-choice and two-choice tests, contexts thought to emphasize species recognition and mate choice, respectively. To do so, we use the model to generate maximum-likelihood estimators of preference strengths from empirical data. We find that a single representation of preferences is sufficient to explain response probabilities in both contexts across a wide range of stimuli. In this species, mate choice and species recognition are accurately and simply summarized by our model. While the findings resolve long-standing anomalies, they also illustrate how models of choice can bridge theoretical and empirical treatments of animal decisions. The data demonstrate a remarkable congruity of perceptual processes across contexts, tasks, and taxa.

  4. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  5. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements. PMID:27474181

  6. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.

  7. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  8. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that these assumptions are implausible, and that more accurate assumptions could have been made based on prior attention and eye movement research. Future decision making research would benefit from greater integration with attention research....

  9. Wavelets theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Montefusco, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Wavelets: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications is the fifth volume in the highly respected series, WAVELET ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS. This volume shows why wavelet analysis has become a tool of choice infields ranging from image compression, to signal detection and analysis in electrical engineering and geophysics, to analysis of turbulent or intermittent processes. The 28 papers comprising this volume are organized into seven subject areas: multiresolution analysis, wavelet transforms, tools for time-frequency analysis, wavelets and fractals, numerical methods and algorithms, and applicat

  10. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  11. Thick Translation as a New Trend of Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶莉

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.

  12. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time...

  13. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  14. Algorithmic Adventures

    CERN Document Server

    Hromkovic, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Explores the science of computing. This book starts with the development of computer science, algorithms and programming, and then explains and shows how to exploit the concepts of infinity, computability, computational complexity, nondeterminism and randomness.

  15. Translating cognition from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, J F; Robbins, T W

    2011-06-15

    Many clinical disorders, whether neurological (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) or neuropsychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia and depression), exhibit cognitive symptoms that require pharmacological treatment. Cognition is multi-faceted and includes processes of perception, attention, working memory, long-term memory, executive function, language and social cognition. This article reviews how it is feasible to model many aspects of human cognition with the use of appropriate animal models and associated techniques, including the use of computer controlled tests (e.g. touch-screens), for optimising translation of experimental research to the clinic. When investigating clinical disorders, test batteries should aim to profile cognitive function in order to determine which aspects are impaired and which are preserved. In this review we have paid particular attention to the validation of translational methods; this may be done through the application of common theoretical principles, by comparing the effects of psychological manipulations and, wherever feasible, with the demonstration of homologous neural circuitry or equivalent pharmacological actions in the animal and human paradigms. Of particular importance is the use of 'back-translation' to ensure that the animal model has validity, for example, in predicting the effects of therapeutic drugs already found in human studies. It is made clear that the choice of appropriate behavioral tests is an important element of animal models of neuropsychiatric or neurological disorder; however, of course it is also important to select appropriate manipulations, whether genetic, neurodevelopmental, neurotoxic, or pharmacological, for simulating the neural substrates relevant to the disorders that lead to predictable behavioral and cognitive impairments, for optimising the testing of candidate compounds. PMID:21219876

  16. Understanding molecular simulation from algorithms to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Daan

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications explains the physics behind the ""recipes"" of molecular simulation for materials science. Computer simulators are continuously confronted with questions concerning the choice of a particular technique for a given application. A wide variety of tools exist, so the choice of technique requires a good understanding of the basic principles. More importantly, such understanding may greatly improve the efficiency of a simulation program. The implementation of simulation methods is illustrated in pseudocodes and their practic

  17. Translation Process of Multilingual Web Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Salomaa, Jani

    2013-01-01

    The main goal for this master’s thesis was to improve Avanade’s capability to manage translation of multilingual web applications. For this purpose I created translation process, synchronization tool, and translation list. The translation process helps Avanade to reduce the time used for managing translation. The synchronization tool automates the process of copying words manually and the translation list provides real time access to all translated items for the customer. The customer can tra...

  18. Sight Translation and written translation. A comparative Analysis of causes of problems, Strategies and Translation Errors within the PACTE Translation Competence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ivars, María Amparo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...

  19. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Swetlana Gutjar; ter Horst, Gert J.; Kees de Graaf; Renken, Remco J.; Gerry Jager

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  20. Rescuing the Lost in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Sinje; Garner, Craig C

    2016-05-01

    The translation of medically relevant academic inventions that could transform public health has been notoriously difficult, stemming largely from cultural differences been academia and industry. New initiatives to kindle academic entrepreneurship and establish stronger public/private partnerships are helping to align these differences and accelerating the translation of promising new therapies. PMID:27153487

  1. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  2. A Commentary on News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雅晴

    2011-01-01

    News language is formal,especially the high register vocabulary it employed to deliver the message unveiled by culturally and politically stamped style which challenges the translator a lot.Nida's formal and dynamic equivalence theory,Bielsa and Bassnett news translation theories and other methods and strategies are introduced to cope with these challenges and get the message across without distortion.

  3. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  4. Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…

  5. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . Action requires understanding, and these texts consequently need to be optimally comprehensible. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide a framework for optimising comprehensibility in translation. In order to do so, the concept of intralingual translation is argued for as a useful starting point...... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it....... It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...

  6. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  7. Word Choice Differences in Two English Versions of Sun-tzu's The Art of War and in Translations of Ancient Chinese Classics in General: An Empirical Study%古籍英译译者选词差异实证研究——以《孙子兵法》英译独特用词为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 李加军

    2009-01-01

    以Levy(1967)在Translation as a Decision Process所提出的翻译选择过程为理论基础,本文以两译家对英译独特用词为研究对象,对译者选词过程的差异进行实证研究,发现译者选词差异存在于如下六个方面:文化因素处理,同义词选取、修辞形态、译者变通策略、原作风格、对原作的理解.笔者认为,该实证研究的意义裨益于我们更好地认识古籍翻译所涉及如何处理语言和文化诸多要素的认识论和方法论,揭示了造成或影响译者选词、表征和风格差异诸原因及微观过程.

  8. [Translational research: an interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2013-06-01

    Translational Research (TR) appears to be developing into the key health research issue of the beginning of this century. Initially proposed in the United States, TR is spread rapidly throughout both the developed and the developing world. This article discusses the main topics it covers, such as its definition and scope and the reasons why it has emerged in the USA and in this century. It examines the relationship between TR and the basic principles of US scientific policy established at the end of World War II. It sees the demands of a mighty pharmaceutical industry, currently facing a major crisis, linked to scientific genomic and post-genomic output impairments in terms of real innovative products and processes as being the explanation for US government intervention in biomedical research via the NIH. It realizes that it is not easy to predict the future of TR and suggests that it is not sustained by a solid conceptual and theoretical framework. It also discusses the opportunities and possibilities of TR in countries with nascent national innovative systems, such as Brazil. Lastly, it suggests that the existence of a universal health system can be an important tool to provide potential research answers tin health for the demands of innovation on the part of society. PMID:23752539

  9. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  10. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  11. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking a......The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye......-tracking and key-logging data collected from translation experiments....

  12. Marta Sillaotsa eksplitsiitne ja implitsiitne tõlkepoeetika / Marta Sillaots: The Implicit and Explicit Poetics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiliina Gielen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article looks at a section of Estonian translation history, through the criticism and practice of translation of an extremely prolific and well-known Estonian translator and reviewer of translations Marta Sillaots (1887–1969. Touching upon the issue of the aging of translational texts as well as the norms of translational behavior in the Estonia of the first half of the 20th century, the article makes use of Peeter Torop’s concepts of the explicit poetics of translation (theoretical ideas about translation expressed in paratexts and implicit poetics of translation (translational choices inside translations in an attempt to map the translational thought of Marta Sillaots. Firstly, the explicit poetics of translation of Marta Sillaots is analyzed by focusing on the recurring topics and keywords in Sillaots’ translation reviews, published in a monthly literary journal Eesti Kirjandus during the 1920s and 1930s. Secondly, the implicit poetics of Marta Sillaots’ translations is analyzed based on a comparative corpus of two novels translated by Sillaots and their later editions: Romain Rolland’s Jean-Christophe 1936 and 1958 (edited by Henno Rajandi and Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield 1937 and 1991 (edited by Lia Rajandi. Although the originals are held close at hand, the translations are approached as facts in Estonian cultural space, and thus the focus is on the translation rather than on the original. In comparison with the first edition, the changes made by the editors reveal a pattern of movement towards greater fluency by standardizing the word order, adding linking devices and making the constructions confirm to the rules of target language.The comparison of the explicit and implicit poetics of Sillaots reveals certain conformities as well as inconsistencies. In reviewing translations by other translators, Sillaots traditionally balances between the terms good and bad translation. Firstly, for her, a precondition for

  13. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  14. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  15. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  16. Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker;

    2016-01-01

    The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public...... transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the feasibility of its implementation by applying the method to reproduce 5131 real-life trips in the Greater Copenhagen Area...... and to assess the choice set quality in a complex multimodal transport network. Results illustrate the applicability of the algorithm and the relevance of the utility specification chosen for the reproduction of real-life path choices. Moreover, results show that the level of stochasticity used in choice set...

  17. A Simple Application and Design of Genetic Algorithm in Card Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾鹏程

    2016-01-01

    According to traditional card problem solving which is based on the idea of genetic algorithm(GA), a set of algorithms is designed to find final solution. For each process in genetic algorithm, including choices of fitness function, parameters deter-mination and coding scheme selection,classic algorithm is used to realize the various steps, and ultimately to find solution of problems.

  18. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  19. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  20. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  1. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  2. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  3. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  4. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  5. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  6. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  7. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  8. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...

  9. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2002-01-01

    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  10. Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE

    OpenAIRE

    Steurs, Frieda; Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE Winibert Segers, Hendrik Kockaert & Frieda Steurs KU Leuven This paper reports on an experiment working with a new evaluation technique for translator training. Organizing high level translation classes in a master in translation involves intensive assessment of the work delivered by the students. The evaluation has to be precise, professional, and at...

  11. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students’ choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students’ interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more...... students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense....

  12. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  13. ONLINE REGULARIZED GENERALIZED GRADIENT CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leilei Zhang; Baohui Sheng; Jianli Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers online classification learning algorithms for regularized classification schemes with generalized gradient.A novel capacity independent approach is presented.It verifies the strong convergence of sizes and yields satisfactory convergence rates for polynomially decaying step sizes.Compared with the gradient schemes,this al-gorithm needs only less additional assumptions on the loss function and derives a stronger result with respect to the choice of step sizes and the regularization parameters.

  14. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  15. Population genetics of translational robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2006-05-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.

  16. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  17. Translator for Optimizing Fluid-Handling Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark; Perry, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    A software interface has been devised to facilitate optimization of the shapes of valves, elbows, fittings, and other components used to handle fluids under extreme conditions. This software interface translates data files generated by PLOT3D (a NASA grid-based plotting-and- data-display program) and by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software into a format in which the files can be read by Sculptor, which is a shape-deformation- and-optimization program. Sculptor enables the user to interactively, smoothly, and arbitrarily deform the surfaces and volumes in two- and three-dimensional CFD models. Sculptor also includes design-optimization algorithms that can be used in conjunction with the arbitrary-shape-deformation components to perform automatic shape optimization. In the optimization process, the output of the CFD software is used as feedback while the optimizer strives to satisfy design criteria that could include, for example, improved values of pressure loss, velocity, flow quality, mass flow, etc.

  18. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  19. The Fortran-P Translator: Towards Automatic Translation of Fortran 77 Programs for Massively Parallel Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O'keefe

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel processors (MPPs hold the promise of extremely high performance that, if realized, could be used to study problems of unprecedented size and complexity. One of the primary stumbling blocks to this promise has been the lack of tools to translate application codes to MPP form. In this article we show how applications codes written in a subset of Fortran 77, called Fortran-P, can be translated to achieve good performance on several massively parallel machines. This subset can express codes that are self-similar, where the algorithm applied to the global data domain is also applied to each subdomain. We have found many codes that match the Fortran-P programming style and have converted them using our tools. We believe a self-similar coding style will accomplish what a vectorizable style has accomplished for vector machines by allowing the construction of robust, user-friendly, automatic translation systems that increase programmer productivity and generate fast, efficient code for MPPs.

  20. Iterative PET Image Reconstruction Using Translation Invariant Wavelet Transform.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jian; Senhadji, Lotfi; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Luo, Limin

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) method using a statistical multiscale wavelet prior model. Rather than using the orthogonal discrete wavelet transform (DWT), this prior is built on the translation invariant wavelet transform (TIWT). The statistical modeling of wavelet coefficients relies on the generalized Gaussian distribution. Image reconstruction is performed in spatial domain with a fast block sequential iteration algorithm. We study theoretically the TIWT...

  1. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  2. Translation-A Process of Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Translation is a process that involves transformation and reproduction. This essay discusses some useful techniques of trans-lating practice by introducing a simple model. A few examples of good translation are presented to support explaining the model cleady.

  3. Translation and Creative Writing: An Interview with Professor Margaret Rogers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2016-01-01

    translator accused of malpractice?MR: Of course, translators have to be aware that they can get sued if they make a translation error (e.g. mistranslating a number or a key term for financial and safety reasons respectively, and that they have a responsibility towards their client and their readers, but I think you have something else in mind here. RB: What approach do you take in your translation workshops and classes?MR: An open discussion of the possibilities for translation, bearing in mind the purpose of the translation and the assumed expectations of target readers, even the environment in which the text is to be read or used, which might affect layout. The students’ own expectations can develop in a number of ways, through pair or group work, self-reflection, comparison of their own work with published translations, identification and evaluation of resources (increasingly online. Students understandably seek security when translating, for which the notion of the ‘perfect’ solution would, of course, be reassuring, were it not so elusive and misleading. That is not to say, however, that there is not on occasion a correct solution e.g. a company’s choice for the equivalent of a particular term, or an established standard. The overall goal is to establish through experience that the practice of translation is a decision-making process in which the translator’s agency is a key feature and to guide students towards tools and resources as well as developing evaluative skills to optimise this process. In my view, additional classes shared by students from different language groups can enrich this translation pair-specific experience by providing a systematic overview of different approaches to and issues in translation, enabling students to develop relevant points of reference for their decisions. Sometimes these classes are called ‘principles of translation’, ‘theory of translation’, ‘approaches to translation’, ‘translation issues’ and so on.[1

  4. Algorithm 865

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Reid, John K.; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    variables, and the speed is usually better than that of the LAPACK algorithm that uses full storage (n2 variables). Included are subroutines for rearranging a matrix whose upper or lower-triangular part is packed by columns to this format and for the inverse rearrangement. Also included is a kernel...

  5. The Insights of Algorithmic Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Devine

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The algorithmic entropy of a system, the length of the shortest algorithm that specifies the system’s exact state adds some missing pieces to the entropy jigsaw. Because the approach embodies the traditional entropies as a special case, problematic issues such as the coarse graining framework of the Gibbs’ entropy manifest themselves in a different and more manageable form, appearing as the description of the system and the choice of the universal computing machine. The provisional algorithmic entropy combines the best information about the state of the system together with any underlying uncertainty; the latter represents the Shannon entropy. The algorithmic approach also specifies structure that the traditional entropies take as given. Furthermore, algorithmic entropy provides insights into how a system can maintain itself off equilibrium, leading to Ashby’s law of requisite variety. This review shows how the algorithmic approach can provide insights into real world systems, by outlining recent work on how replicating structures that generate order can evolve to maintain a system far from equilibrium.

  6. The Strategies of Translating Economics and Business Terms from English into Lithuanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Suchanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of translating the economics and business terms from English into Lithuanian, associated with the choice of particular translation strategies are considered based on the analysis of the translation of the English Economics Dictionary into the Lithuanian language. The classification of the translation strategies into domesticating and foreignizing methods and the description of other translating techniques are presented, and their advantages and disadvantages are described, taking into account the status of particular languages. The main strategies used in translating the considered Dictionary are determined, and their strengths and weaknesses are analysed from various perspectives. The analysis is based on the established structural-semantic models, underlying the formation of the parallel English and Lithuanian terms presented in the considered dictionary, and determining their similar and different features. The method of the translation changes characteristic of the foreignizing strategy of translation is also analysed. The prospects of further research required for checking the practical use of the translated economics and business terms in Lithuanian works in these fields are also outlined. It is also emphasized that the methods used and the results obtained in the present investigation may be used as a basis for further studies.

  7. Integrating marker passing and problem solving a spreading activation approach to improved choice in planning

    CERN Document Server

    Hendler, James A

    2014-01-01

    A recent area of interest in the Artificial Intelligence community has been the application of massively parallel algorithms to enhance the choice mechanism in traditional AI problems. This volume provides a detailed description of how marker-passing -- a parallel, non-deductive, spreading activation algorithm -- is a powerful approach to refining the choice mechanisms in an AI problem-solving system. The author scrutinizes the design of both the algorithm and the system, and then reviews the current literature and research in planning and marker passing. Also included: a comparison of this

  8. Developing a Process-Oriented Translation Test for Assessing English-Arabic Basic Translation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.…

  9. On Technical Translation-Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation by Jody Byrne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪辉

    2013-01-01

      Numerous books concerning technical translation deal with specific translation skills, or function as a summary of the au⁃thors’own translation experience with few of them devoted to the theorized study on technical translation. Jody Byrne’s book pio⁃neers in theoretical study on technical translation and is of great value to our Chinese technical translation study.

  10. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Laith S. Hadla; Taghreed M. Hailat; Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2014-01-01

    Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT) that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human) evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is better than the automatic...

  11. James Joyce and the rhetoric of translation

    OpenAIRE

    McMurren, Blair R.; Tom Paulin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines theories of translation which are explicit in the themes and implicit in the rhetorical uses of form in the work of Joyce, with a focus on the French translations of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake produced with his collaboration between 1921 and 1931. Philosophies of translation from Jerome through Benjamin plus work in translation theory by Even-Zohar and Toury inform this study of the ethics both of translating and of being translated in the modernist idiom....

  12. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  13. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  14. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  15. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    CERN Document Server

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    We study the notion of conservative translation between logics introduced by Feitosa and D'Ottaviano. We show that classical propositional logic (CPC) is universal in the sense that every finitary consequence relation over a countable set of formulas can be conservatively translated into CPC. The translation is computable if the consequence relation is decidable. More generally, we show that one can take instead of CPC a broad class of logics (extensions of a certain fragment of full Lambek calculus FL) including most nonclassical logics studied in the literature, hence in a sense, (almost) any two reasonable deductive systems can be conservatively translated into each other. We also provide some counterexamples, in particular the paraconsistent logic LP is not universal.

  16. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  17. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  18. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator

    OpenAIRE

    King, Regan

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 3c: Human Systems and Training (Operational Systems); Moderator: Mike McCauley; Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator; speaker: Capt. Regan R. King

  19. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  20. Population genetics of translational robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene’s evolutionary rate, and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins which fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slo...

  1. A Cultural View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.

  2. Prefix Code Translation by Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋贤春

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way of prefix code translation.It helps to finish the whole translation by mapping once (only one comparison instruction is needed for getting the length of prefix code),and returns the original data and the length of prefix code element.The decoding time is only about four times as many as the time accessing original data directly.

  3. Postcolonial studies and translation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shamma, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    What distinguishes postcolonial approaches to translation is that they examine intercultural encounters in contexts marked by unequal power relations. Herein lie their strengths as well as their weaknesses. Their major contribution has been to illuminate the role of power in the production and reception of translation. But it is not certain that the postcolonial framework can be applied to other interlingual exchanges with minimal inequality of power relations. Moreover, there is a general te...

  4. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  5. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel;

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme......Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  6. Similarites of Socio-semiotic Translation and Pragmatic Translation in Guiding Translation Practice%论社会符号学翻译观和语用翻译观的殊途同归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琦欣

    2011-01-01

    Traditional translation theories cannot explain the paradoxes of literal/free translation and do- mestication/foreignization,nor can they provide the theoretical basis for the translator in his choices of translation methods. The introduction of socio-semiotics and pragmatics into translation studies has pro- duced two new perspectives:socio-semiotic translation and pragmatic translation. They are very similar in guiding translation practice, that is, rather than restricted by those two pairs of paradoxes, the translator is entitled to apply various feasible translation skills to ensure the equivalent responses between the source language and target language readers.%传统的翻译理论对直译和意译,归化和异化这两对矛盾缺乏解释力,也无法为译者在翻译技巧的选择上提供理论依据。社会符号学和语用学介入翻译领域,形成了社会符号学翻译观和语用翻译观。作为两种指导翻译实践的理论,它们虽然提法不同,但在本质上却有一致性:译者可以跳出直译或意译,归化或异化的束缚,通过各种可行途径达到翻译的跨文化交际目的,使译文读者获得与原文读者尽可能相同的感受。

  7. Cluster algorithms and computational complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuenan

    Cluster algorithms for the 2D Ising model with a staggered field have been studied and a new cluster algorithm for path sampling has been worked out. The complexity properties of Bak-Seppen model and the Growing network model have been studied by using the Computational Complexity Theory. The dynamic critical behavior of the two-replica cluster algorithm is studied. Several versions of the algorithm are applied to the two-dimensional, square lattice Ising model with a staggered field. The dynamic exponent for the full algorithm is found to be less than 0.5. It is found that odd translations of one replica with respect to the other together with global flips are essential for obtaining a small value of the dynamic exponent. The path sampling problem for the 1D Ising model is studied using both a local algorithm and a novel cluster algorithm. The local algorithm is extremely inefficient at low temperature, where the integrated autocorrelation time is found to be proportional to the fourth power of correlation length. The dynamic exponent of the cluster algorithm is found to be zero and therefore proved to be much more efficient than the local algorithm. The parallel computational complexity of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model is studied. It is shown that Bak-Sneppen histories can be generated by a massively parallel computer in a time that is polylog in the length of the history, which means that the logical depth of producing a Bak-Sneppen history is exponentially less than the length of the history. The parallel dynamics for generating Bak-Sneppen histories is contrasted to standard Bak-Sneppen dynamics. The parallel computational complexity of the Growing Network model is studied. The growth of the network with linear kernels is shown to be not complex and an algorithm with polylog parallel running time is found. The growth of the network with gamma ≥ 2 super-linear kernels can be realized by a randomized parallel algorithm with polylog expected running time.

  8. A Runs-Test Algorithm: Contingent Reinforcement and Response Run Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food,…

  9. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-08-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  10. The ribosome in action: Tuning of translational efficiency and protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnina, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    The cellular proteome is shaped by the combined activities of the gene expression and quality control machineries. While transcription plays an undoubtedly important role, in recent years also translation emerged as a key step that defines the composition and quality of the proteome and the functional activity of proteins in the cell. Among the different post-transcriptional control mechanisms, translation initiation and elongation provide multiple checkpoints that can affect translational efficiency. A multitude of specific signals in mRNAs can determine the frequency of translation initiation, choice of the open reading frame, global and local elongation velocities, and the folding of the emerging protein. In addition to specific signatures in the mRNAs, also variations in the global pools of translation components, including ribosomes, tRNAs, mRNAs, and translation factors can alter translational efficiencies. The cellular outcomes of phenomena such as mRNA codon bias are sometimes difficult to understand due to the staggering complexity of covariates that affect codon usage, translation, and protein folding. Here we summarize the experimental evidence on how the ribosome-together with the other components of the translational machinery-can alter translational efficiencies of mRNA at the initiation and elongation stages and how translation velocity affects protein folding. We seek to explain these findings in the context of mechanistic work on the ribosome. The results argue in favour of a new understanding of translation control as a hub that links mRNA homeostasis to production and quality control of proteins in the cell. PMID:27198711

  11. Liveness in Free-Choice Petri Nets : An Algebraic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Baccelli, François; Gaujal, Bruno

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the evolution equations for timed free choice Petri net can be used to prove logical properties of the underlying un-timed net. For example, this approach leads to new methods and algorithms to check liveness and several other basic properties, such as absence or presence of deadlocks. The main tools for proving these properties are graph theory and idempotent algebras.

  12. Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan

    Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.

  13. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  14. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  15. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  16. Translating Anna Karenina - to the Question About the Pragmatics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gurina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the stylistic peculiarities of the translations made by R. Pevear and L. Volokhonsky, L. and A. Maud, J. Carmichael of the novel Anna Karenina by L. Tolstoy on the basis of pragmastylistics and comparative analysis. It tries to analyze the text of the novel using the lingo-stylistic characteristics in accordance with the national bias in the way of thinking and individual creative preferences of every translator taking an attempt to introduce a foreign picture of the world to his countrymen. It underlines the impact of Tolstoy’s complicated attitude towards the customs and traditions of the Russian Orthodox church and the specific relationship of the author of the novel with God and its manifestation in the description of the heroes’ characters. In stresses how vital it may turn out to preserve the author’s ideostyle - lexis and syntax (the word order, the choice of them and the length of the sentences for the successful interpretation of the writer’s views and stance by the reader.

  17. Lack of confidence in approximate Bayesian computation model choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christian P; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Marin, Jean-Michel; Pillai, Natesh S

    2011-09-13

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) have become an essential tool for the analysis of complex stochastic models. Grelaud et al. [(2009) Bayesian Anal 3:427-442] advocated the use of ABC for model choice in the specific case of Gibbs random fields, relying on an intermodel sufficiency property to show that the approximation was legitimate. We implemented ABC model choice in a wide range of phylogenetic models in the Do It Yourself-ABC (DIY-ABC) software [Cornuet et al. (2008) Bioinformatics 24:2713-2719]. We now present arguments as to why the theoretical arguments for ABC model choice are missing, because the algorithm involves an unknown loss of information induced by the use of insufficient summary statistics. The approximation error of the posterior probabilities of the models under comparison may thus be unrelated with the computational effort spent in running an ABC algorithm. We then conclude that additional empirical verifications of the performances of the ABC procedure as those available in DIY-ABC are necessary to conduct model choice. PMID:21876135

  18. Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.

  19. Second language as an exemptor from sociocultural norms. Emotion-Related Language Choice revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawinkowska, Marta; Paradowski, Michał B; Bilewicz, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals often switch languages depending on what they are saying. According to the Emotion-Related Language Choice theory, they find their second language an easier medium of conveying content which evokes strong emotions. The first language carries too much emotional power, which can be threatening for the speaker. In a covert experiment, bilingual Polish students translated texts brimming with expletives from Polish into English and vice versa. In the Polish translations, the swear word equivalents used were weaker than in the source text; in the English translations, they were stronger than in the original. These results corroborate the ERLC theory. However, the effect was only observed for ethnophaulisms, i.e. expletives directed at social groups. It turns out that the main factor triggering the language choice in bilinguals is not necessarily the different emotional power of both languages, but social and cultural norms.

  20. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Vegetarian choices You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods Vegetarian choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get ...

  1. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  2. Bayesian Analysis of Loss Ratios Using the Reversible Jump Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Garfield; Brooks, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of model choice for a set of insurance loss ratios. We use a reversible jump algorithm for our model discrimination and show how the vanilla reversible jump algorithm can be improved on using recent methodological advances in reversible jump computation.

  3. Translation Memory System Optimization : How to effectively implement translation memory system optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Ting-Hey

    2015-01-01

    Translation of technical manuals is expensive, especially when a larger company needs to publish manuals for their whole product range in over 20 different languages. When a text segment (i.e. a phrase, sentence or paragraph) is manually translated, we would like to reuse these translated segments in future translation tasks. A translated segment is stored with its corresponding source language, often called a language pair in a Translation Memory System. A language pair in a Translation Memo...

  4. Comparing spoken and written translation with post-editing in the -> English à Japanese Translation Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel; Yamada, Masaru; Aizawa, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Spoken language applications are becoming increasingly operational and are used in many computer applications today. Translation dictation is a mode of translation by which a translator reads a source text and speaks out its translation, instead of typing it. Translation dictation is thus a method of translation situated in between interpretation, where the interpreter hears a text and speaks out the translation (e.g., during conference interpreting) and conventional tran...

  5. BPF-type Region-of-interest Reconstruction for Parallel Translational Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Weiwen; Wang, Shaoyu; Liu, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an ultra-low-cost linear scan based tomography architecture was proposed by our team. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions and the data acquisition system targets on a region-of-interest (ROI) to acquire data for image reconstruction. This kind of tomography architecture was named parallel translational computed tomography (PTCT). In our previous studies, filtered backprojection (FBP)-type algorithms were developed to reconstruct images from PTCT. However, the reconstructed ROI images from truncated projections have severe truncation artifacts. In this paper, we propose two backprojection filtering (BPF)-type algorithms named MP-BPF and MZ-BPF to reconstruct ROI images from truncated PTCT data. A weight function is constructed to deal with data redundancy for multi-linear translations modes. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the proposed MP-BPF and MZ-BPF algorithms for PTCT in fan-beam geometry. Qualitative and quanti...

  6. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  7. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  8. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  9. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  10. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI...

  11. Translating The Infinities by John Banville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Abigail Piccinini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - John Banville’s talent as a prose stylist is widely recognized. The polished elegance of his phrases constitutes a continuing and fascinating challenge for his translator, due to the intricacies of the source text, its manifold registers and lexical choices. In his novel The Infinities, in Italian Teoria degli Infiniti, John Banville takes cue from Kleist’s Amphytrion to devise a novel where classicality interweaves with science and science fiction through the invention of a world where the ancient gods intermingle with the humans while waiting for the death of Adam Godley, a famous mathematician who explained how an infinity of worlds exist and interact with each other. To translate this book I had not only to work extensively on lexis and style, but also to do considerable research to render the many literary and non literary references. Some examples of these struggles with the source text during the translation process are given in the present paper. Riassunto - John Banville, autore irlandese noto per la sua prosa raffinata, scrive in una lingua che rappresenta una sfida continua e affascinante per chi lo traduce. La sua complessità stilistica, che sfrutta molteplici registri linguistici e si avvale di scelte lessicali cui spesso è arduo trovare un traducente italiano soddisfacente, costringe il traduttore a fare ricorso a tutte le sottigliezze del proprio mestiere per restituire quanto più possibile l’eleganza dell’originale nella propria lingua. Nel romanzo The Infinities, tradotto in italiano come Teoria degli infiniti (Guanda, Parma 2011, Banville prende spunto dall’Anfitrione di Kleist per costruire un romanzo che guarda alla classicità sconfinando in un misto di scienza e fantascienza con la concezione di un’infinità di mondi paralleli teorizzata dal matematico Adam Godley, il protagonista morente al cui capezzale si radunano uomini e antichi dei in attesa che il cerchio della vita e della morte si compia

  12. Algorithmic causets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Tommaso

    2011-07-01

    In the context of quantum gravity theories, several researchers have proposed causal sets as appropriate discrete models of spacetime. We investigate families of causal sets obtained from two simple models of computation - 2D Turing machines and network mobile automata - that operate on 'high-dimensional' supports, namely 2D arrays of cells and planar graphs, respectively. We study a number of quantitative and qualitative emergent properties of these causal sets, including dimension, curvature and localized structures, or 'particles'. We show how the possibility to detect and separate particles from background space depends on the choice between a global or local view at the causal set. Finally, we spot very rare cases of pseudo-randomness, or deterministic chaos; these exhibit a spontaneous phenomenon of 'causal compartmentation' that appears as a prerequisite for the occurrence of anything of physical interest in the evolution of spacetime.

  13. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  14. Domestication and Foreignization in Translating Culture-Specific References of an English Text into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Hassan Mansour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to apply strategies of domestication and foreignization in translating culture-specific references of an English text into Arabic, where the translator has to make his\\her decision on the basis of specific factors such as the background of the readership, the goal of the target text, the message of the source text and the client’s purpose in translating the source text. As “The Burglar Who Liked to Quote Kipling”, which has enjoyed translation into a wide range of international languages, has not been translated into Arabic, the topic’s choice was intentional. The question- whether the foreignization and domestication strategies are applicable in translating English literary work, and if so, which one is the most appropriate in this context motivated the study. The examples provided and the points of discussion have examined this issue in the context of a specific translation brief. It is hard, as I conclude from this study, to adhere to one strategy and follow it blindly, as our wish in translating such a piece is to inform, amuse and preserve our culture and norms.

  15. Preserving Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in and through Translation: From Theory to Practice

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    Marina Manfredi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On one hand this paper offers theoretical reflections on the phenomenon of translation in a postcolonial framework, referring mainly to the Anglophone context, and to India in particular. On the other, it forges concrete links between theory and practice. Major issues raised by Postcolonial Translation Studies are discussed, like the concepts of translation as a channel of colonization, as an instrument for maintaining cultural inequalities, even after the collapse of the British Empire, and as a possible, and desirable, means of de-colonization (Robinson 1997.It is argued that, in order to convey linguistic and cultural diversity when translating literary texts from Indian English into Italian, the radical method championed by postcolonial scholars (Niranjana 1992; Spivak 1992 - which can be clearly linked to Venuti's ‘foreignization' (1995 - is not the only solution and that ‘hybridization' (Wolf 2000; Tymoczko 2000 represents a viable choice. Different translation strategies that can be employed to produce a ‘hybrid' text are illustrated through case studies on Indian English literary works translated into Italian by the author of this study (Narayan 1997; Narayan 1998; Chandra 1999; Dhondy 2003. The paper not only proposes that this method is instrumental in safeguarding language, culture and identity in the process of translation; it also posits that, through translation, linguistic and cultural differences can be conveyed to the European world.

  16. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

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    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.Keywords: classroom interaction, interaction mode, Cooperative Translation Task, translation teaching

  17. History and theory of Scripture translations

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    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  18. Operational Risk, Translation, and Globalization

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    Barbara Czarniawska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares a translation of a global (more specifically, European regulation into two local contexts, setting this process in a broader context of the all-pervading risk management. The two countries are Sweden and Poland, both relatively untouched by the current financial crisis, and the regulation is Basel II Accord. In both countries, the translation is shaped by the past history, and the present circumstances. The results show that, in spite of local differences, there is a common belief in quantification of risks as the main remedy and therefore the main way of managing them. Abstract and vague formulations, combined with sophisticated calculation techniques, win over the complications of actual practices. The role of researchers in this process is also examined. A study illustrates also the advantages of translation theory versus diffusion theory of spreading of ideas.

  19. Parallel algorithms

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    Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves

    2008-01-01

    ""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi

  20. TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY QURAN IN RUSSIAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadzade, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Translation of religious books including «the Holy Koran» has always made translators encounter at the Source Language (SL) comparing Target Language (TL) different practical difficulties. In this regard Russian translators of Koran were no exception. Over the past three centuries more than ten translations of Koran has been published in Russia. Each of them contains special characters, reflecting the philosophy and knowledge of its translator. This article provides an analysis of three trans...