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Sample records for choice translating algorithm

  1. A Cost-Minimizing Algorithm for School Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Sinan; Coppersmith, Chaya; Glass, Julie; Karaali, Gizem; Zhao, Xueying; Zhu, Xinjing

    2010-01-01

    The school choice problem concerns the design and implementation of matching mechanisms that produce school assignments for students within a given public school district. Previously considered criteria for evaluating proposed mechanisms such as stability, strategyproofness and Pareto efficiency do not always translate into desirable student assignments. In this note we propose methods to expand upon the notion of desirability for a given assignment mechanism by focusing on honoring student preferences. In particular we define two new student-optimal criteria that are not met by any previously employed mechanism in the school choice literature. We then use these criteria to adapt a well-known combinatorial optimization technique (Hungarian algorithm) to the school choice problem. In particular we create two mechanisms, each geared specifically to perform optimally with respect to one of the new criteria. Both mechanisms yield "student-optimal" outcomes. We discuss the practical implications and limitations of...

  2. A RATional choice for translational research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Aitman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat. This, therefore, is a pivotal time for rat-based biomedical research – a timely moment to review progress and prospects – providing the inspiration for a new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, launched in this issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms. What disease areas are most appropriate for research using rats? Why should the rat be favoured over other model organisms, and should the present levels of funding be continued? Which approaches should we expect to yield biologically and medically useful insights in the coming years? These are key issues that are addressed in the original Research Articles and reviews published in this Special Collection, and in this introductory Editorial. These exemplar articles serve as a landmark for the present status quo after a decade of major advances using the rat model and could help to guide the direction of rat research in the coming decade.

  3. A RATional choice for translational research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Paraminder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat. This, therefore, is a pivotal time for rat-based biomedical research – a timely moment to review progress and prospects – providing the inspiration for a new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, launched in this issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms. What disease areas are most appropriate for research using rats? Why should the rat be favoured over other model organisms, and should the present levels of funding be continued? Which approaches should we expect to yield biologically and medically useful insights in the coming years? These are key issues that are addressed in the original Research Articles and reviews published in this Special Collection, and in this introductory Editorial. These exemplar articles serve as a landmark for the present status quo after a decade of major advances using the rat model and could help to guide the direction of rat research in the coming decade. PMID:27736742

  4. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structur...

  5. A FUZZY CLOPE ALGORITHM AND ITS OPTIMAL PARAMETER CHOICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Among the available clustering algorithms in data mining, the CLOPE algorithm attracts much more attention with its high speed and good performance. However, the proper choice of some parameters in the CLOPE algorithm directly affects the validity of the clustering results, which is still an open issue. For this purpose, this paper proposes a fuzzy CLOPE algorithm, and presents a method for the optimal parameter choice by defining a modified partition fuzzy degree as a clustering validity function. The experimental results with real data set illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy CLOPE algorithm and optimal parameter choice method based on the modified partition fuzzy degree.

  6. An Examination of Lexical Choices in Slovene Translations of British and American Drama

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    Darja Hribar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines lexical choices preferred by a noted Slovene translator of dramatic texts. It is based on the assumption that in spite of the fact that lexical choices offer much greater freedom in translation than, for instance, grammatical choices, they are subject to a number of intratextual and extratextual factors defining the genre, the kind of translation, and specific features of individual plays. Although examples are taken from only one set of translations of Tennessee Wiliams’s A Streetcar Named Desire, they also refer to other working and published versions of drama translations into Slovene, including Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Miller’s Death of a Salesman, Pinter’s plays, and Shaw’s Pygmalion. The shifts considered in the article relate to register, i.e. factors of language variation affecting lexical choices related to the field, mode, and tenor of discourse.

  7. Translational control of SCL-isoform expression in hematopoietic lineage choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Muller, Christine; Martin, Richard; Krosl, Goradz; Pietsch, Hubertus; Hoang, Trang; Leutz, Achim

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the translational regulation of SCL protein expression and its role in hematopoietic lineage choice. We show that the expression of different SCL protein isoforms is regulated by signal transduction pathways that modulate translation initiation factor (eIF) function. A conserved smal

  8. [Translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire on the reason for food choices (Food Choice Questionnaire - FCQ) into Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Sara Franco Diniz; Estima, Camilla Chermont Prochnik; das Neves, Fabricia Junqueira; de Aguiar, Aline Silva; Castro, Sybelle de Souza; Ferreira, Julia Elba de Souza

    2015-08-01

    The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) assesses the importance that subjects attribute to nine factors related to food choices: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. This study sought to assess the applicability of the FCQ in Brazil; it describes the translation and cultural adaptation from English into Portuguese of the FCQ via the following steps: independent translations, consensus, back-translation, evaluation by a committee of experts, semantic validation and pre-test. The pre-test was run with a randomly sampled group of 86 male and female college students from different courses with a median age of 19. Slight differences between the versions were observed and adjustments were made. After minor changes in the translation process, the committee of experts considered that the Brazilian Portuguese version was semantically and conceptually equivalent to the English original. Semantic validation showed that the questionnaire is easily understood. The instrument presented a high degree of internal consistency. The study is the first stage in the process of validating an instrument, which consists of face and content validity. Further stages, already underway, are needed before other researchers can use it.

  9. Algorithm of the automated choice of points of the acupuncture for EHF-therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapina, E. P.; Chesnokov, I. A.; Anisimov, Ya. E.; Bushuev, N. A.; Murashov, E. P.; Eliseev, Yu. Yu.; Syuzanna, H.

    2007-05-01

    Offered algorithm of the automated choice of points of the acupuncture for EHF-therapy. The recipe formed by algorithm of an automated choice of points for acupunctural actions has a recommendational character. Clinical investigations showed that application of the developed algorithm in EHF-therapy allows to normalize energetic state of the meridians and to effectively solve many problems of an organism functioning.

  10. A Study on the Translation Invariant Matching Algorithm for Fingerprint Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.H.; Cho, S.W.; Kim, J.M. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents a new matching algorithm for fingerprint recognition, which is robust to image translation. The basic idea of this paper is to estimate the translation vector of an input fingerprint image using N minutiae at which the gradient of the ridge direction field is large. Using the estimated translation vector we select minutiae irrelevant to the translation. We experimentally prove that the presented algorithm results in good performance even if there are large translation and pseudo-minutiae. (author). 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Phase-unwrapping algorithm for translation extraction from spherical navigator echoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junmin; Drangova, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Spherical navigator echoes have been shown to determine rigid-body rotation and translation simultaneously. Following the determination of rotation, translations are determined from the phase change between the baseline and transformed spherical navigator echoes. Because the measured phase change is limited in the interval (-pi, pi), a phase-unwrapping algorithm is required to recover the true phase change in absolute values. The unwrapping algorithm presented in this article is based on a priori information about the true translation-induced phase-change function. The algorithm is verified using simulation and in vivo experiments, and the accuracy and precision of translation determination are evaluated. Specifically, the effects of background and off-resonance-induced phase noise are explored. When the proposed phase-unwrapping algorithm was used, translations up to 15 mm were measured, with accuracy better than 5%; for translations up to 40 mm, an error of approximately 10% was observed.

  12. Simulated annealing algorithm for the optimal translation sequence of the jth agent in rough communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongkai; Guan Yanyong; Xue Peijun

    2008-01-01

    In rough communication, because each agent has a different language and cannot provide precise communication to each other, the concept translated among multi-agents will loss some information and this results in a less or rougher concept. With different translation sequences, the problem of information loss is varied. To get the translation sequence, in which the jth agent taking part in rough communication gets maximum information, a simulated annealing algorithm is used. Analysis and simulation of this algorithm demonstrate its effectiveness.

  13. Heuristics of the algorithm: Big Data, user interpretation and institutional translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Bolin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence on mass media audiences was founded on representative statistical samples, analysed by statisticians at the market departments of media corporations. The techniques for aggregating user data in the age of pervasive and ubiquitous personal media (e.g. laptops, smartphones, credit cards/swipe cards and radio-frequency identification build on large aggregates of information (Big Data analysed by algorithms that transform data into commodities. While the former technologies were built on socio-economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, media preferences (i.e. categories recognisable to media users and industry representatives alike, Big Data technologies register consumer choice, geographical position, web movement, and behavioural information in technologically complex ways that for most lay people are too abstract to appreciate the full consequences of. The data mined for pattern recognition privileges relational rather than demographic qualities. We argue that the agency of interpretation at the bottom of market decisions within media companies nevertheless introduces a ‘heuristics of the algorithm’, where the data inevitably becomes translated into social categories. In the paper we argue that although the promise of algorithmically generated data is often implemented in automated systems where human agency gets increasingly distanced from the data collected (it is our technological gadgets that are being surveyed, rather than us as social beings, one can observe a felt need among media users and among industry actors to ‘translate back’ the algorithmically produced relational statistics into ‘traditional’ social parameters. The tenacious social structures within the advertising industries work against the techno-economically driven tendencies within the Big Data economy.

  14. Algorithmic randomness, physical entropy, measurements, and the Demon of Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Zurek, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements --- interactions which establish correlations between a system and a recording device --- can be made thermodynamically reversible. One might be concerned that such reversibility will make the second law of thermodynamics vulnerable to the designs of the demon of choice, a selective version of Maxwell's demon. The strategy of the demon of choice is to take advantage of rare fluctuations to extract useful work, and to reversibly undo measurements which do not lead to such a favora...

  15. Choice-Making in Rendering Culture-Bound Elements in Literary Translation: A Case Study on the English Translation Of «????»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihua, Song

    2014-01-01

    How to render culture-bound elements into a foreign language remains one of the most challenging tasks for all translators, especially, when the source text is a literary one. To retain the aesthetic effects and other stylistic features of importance, some argue that choice can be made from either domestication or foreignization with…

  16. Algorithmic randomness, physical entropy, measurements, and the Demon of Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Zurek, W H

    1998-01-01

    Measurements --- interactions which establish correlations between a system and a recording device --- can be made thermodynamically reversible. One might be concerned that such reversibility will make the second law of thermodynamics vulnerable to the designs of the demon of choice, a selective version of Maxwell's demon. The strategy of the demon of choice is to take advantage of rare fluctuations to extract useful work, and to reversibly undo measurements which do not lead to such a favorable but unlikely outcomes. I show that this threat does not arise as the demon of choice cannot operate without recording (explicitely or implicitely) whether its measurement was a success (or a failure). Thermodynamic cost associated with such a record cannot be, on the average, made smaller than the gain of useful work derived from the fluctuations.

  17. High reliability of an algorithm for choice of implants in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Posner, Eva; Ahler-Toftehøj, Hans-Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture treatment is controversial, with high complication rates. An algorithm for hip fracture surgery has shown reduced reoperation rates, but choice of implant is based on the commonly used fracture classifications, which were previously evaluated to be unreliable. The purpose of this study...... was to investigate the reliability of the algorithm....

  18. Inverse Translation in China: A Necessary Choice or a Necessary Evil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiasheng

    2013-01-01

    Inverse translation has long been seen in the negative light in modern translation studies, and has thus been relegated to a sort of second class endeavour. Based on a brief comparative study of English translations of Wenxin Diaolong, a Chinese literary classic, this paper argues that inverse translation is as legitimate and feasible as direct…

  19. Gender-linked Choice of Politeness Strategies Applied to Translation of Persian Face-threatening Acts into English

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    Mojde Yaqubi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will concentrate on translation of Persian face-threatening acts (FTAs into English. The present paper possesses both social and pragmatic objectives. These objectives are: 1 to identify the politeness strategies (PSs applied for rendering FTAs in Persian and English languages, 2 compare and contrast the frequencies and kinds of these strategies between two source and target languages (SL and TL to examine the discrepancies in the presentation of the PSs in two cultures and 3 to focus on the renderings of two gender groups of translators in order to establish a comparison of male and female’s translations of FTAs based on their choice and number of PSs. To gather the data, the following steps were taken: first, twenty FTAs done with different PSs (Brown and Levinson. 1987 were extracted from five Persian movies. The collected data were given to twenty male and female Persian-speaking post- graduate students of translation studies to render them into English. Then, PSs used for translating these FTAs were found in target texts and their types of strategies and frequencies were compared and contrasted with the original. As the final stage, the same comparison and contrast were done in case of the renderings of two gender groups of translators. The findings of the study indicated that from among 14 PSs applied in Persian and English, 12 PSs were commonly used in both SL and TL. Further, analysis of the data showed that although male and female translators applied the same PSs, male translators applied more PSs than females. Finally results revealed that ‘give deference’ was the most frequent PS applied by male translators while female translators used ‘give hint’ more than other PSs. Keywords: Sociolinguists, Face-threatening acts (FTAs, Politeness Strategy (PS, Gender

  20. Generic algorithm to predict the speed of translational elongation: implications for protein biogenesis.

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    Gong Zhang

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage and variations in the level of isoaccepting tRNAs exert a powerful selective force on translation fidelity. We have developed an algorithm to evaluate the relative rate of translation which allows large-scale comparisons of the non-uniform translation rate on the protein biogenesis. Using the complete genomes of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis we show that stretches of codons pairing to minor tRNAs form putative sites to locally attenuate translation; thereby the tendency is to cluster in near proximity whereas long contiguous stretches of slow-translating triplets are avoided. The presence of slow-translating segments positively correlates with the protein length irrespective of the protein abundance. The slow-translating clusters are predominantly located down-stream of the domain boundaries presumably to fine-tune translational accuracy with the folding fidelity of multidomain proteins. Translation attenuation patterns at highly structurally and functionally conserved domains are preserved across the species suggesting a concerted selective pressure on the codon selection and species-specific tRNA abundance in these regions.

  1. Generic algorithm to predict the speed of translational elongation: implications for protein biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Ignatova, Zoya

    2009-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage and variations in the level of isoaccepting tRNAs exert a powerful selective force on translation fidelity. We have developed an algorithm to evaluate the relative rate of translation which allows large-scale comparisons of the non-uniform translation rate on the protein biogenesis. Using the complete genomes of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis we show that stretches of codons pairing to minor tRNAs form putative sites to locally attenuate translation; thereby the tendency is to cluster in near proximity whereas long contiguous stretches of slow-translating triplets are avoided. The presence of slow-translating segments positively correlates with the protein length irrespective of the protein abundance. The slow-translating clusters are predominantly located down-stream of the domain boundaries presumably to fine-tune translational accuracy with the folding fidelity of multidomain proteins. Translation attenuation patterns at highly structurally and functionally conserved domains are preserved across the species suggesting a concerted selective pressure on the codon selection and species-specific tRNA abundance in these regions.

  2. International Quidditch: Using Cultural Translation Exercises to Teach Word Choice and Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwe, Donelle

    2013-01-01

    The American edition of "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" has significant changes from the original British version, and every word of a Harry Potter book in translation derives from a translator's decision-making process. Focusing students on British-to-American cultural translation problems in the Harry Potter series…

  3. International Quidditch: Using Cultural Translation Exercises to Teach Word Choice and Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwe, Donelle

    2013-01-01

    The American edition of "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" has significant changes from the original British version, and every word of a Harry Potter book in translation derives from a translator's decision-making process. Focusing students on British-to-American cultural translation problems in the Harry Potter series encourages…

  4. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  5. Choice of a PISA selector in a hybrid algorithmic structure for the FJSSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Frutos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the choice of a PISA selector for a Hybrid Algorithm integrating it as a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA with a path-dependent search algorithm. The interaction between these components provides an efficient procedure for solving Multi-Objective Problems (MOPs in operations scheduling. In order to choose the selector, we consider both NSGA and SPEA as well as their successors (NSGAII and SPEAII. NSGAII and SPEAII are shown to be the most efficient candidates. On the other hand, for the path-dependent search at the end of each evolutionary phase we use the multi-objective version of Simulated Annealing.

  6. The distribution of synonymous codon choice in the translation initiation region of dengue virus.

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    Jian-hua Zhou

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been 'branded' on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts.

  7. Comparison and Analysis on Choice of Words of Six Translations of the First Two Sentences of Liu Yuxi’s My Humble House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婧

    2015-01-01

    This paper,focusing on the first two sentences of My Humble House,makes a comparison and analysis between the six translations from the perspectives of their choice of words.The paper ends up with concluding some general methods for further translation.The author hopes to help our English-learning students better comprehend the translation of the rhythmic essay and foreign people better understand our ancient Chinese culture.

  8. Comparison and Analysis on Choice of Words of Six Translations of the First Two Sentences of Liu Yuxi’s My Humble House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婧

    2015-01-01

    This paper,focusing on thefirst two sentences of My Humble House,makes a comparison and analysis between the six translations from the perspectives of their choice of words.The paper ends up with concluding some general methods for further translation.The author hopes to help our English-learning students better comprehend the translation of the rhythmic essay and foreign people better understand our ancient Chinese culture.

  9. QEFSM model and Markov Algorithm for translating Quran reciting rules into Braille code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Abualkishik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Quran is the central religious verbal text of Islam. Muslims are expected to read, understand, and apply the teachings of the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran was translated to Braille code as a normal Arabic text without having its reciting rules included. It is obvious that the users of this transliteration will not be able to recite the Quran the right way. Through this work, Quran Braille Translator (QBT presents a specific translator to translate Quran verses and their reciting rules into the Braille code. Quran Extended Finite State Machine (QEFSM model is proposed through this study as it is able to detect the Quran reciting rules (QRR from the Quran text. Basis path testing was used to evaluate the inner work for the model by checking all the test cases for the model. Markov Algorithm (MA was used for translating the detected QRR and Quran text into the matched Braille code. The data entries for QBT are Arabic letters and diacritics. The outputs of this study are seen in the double lines of Braille symbols; the first line is the proposed Quran reciting rules and the second line is for the Quran scripts.

  10. Aggression, Sociability, and Roommate Friendship: New Findings Translated into a Resource for Self-Determined Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltz, James; Kalnins, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Many individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) live with others, but little is known about roommate compatibility, and there are no resources available to assist in the selection process. People with ID and those who support them need practical information in order to make more informed and therefore better choices. Self-determination also…

  11. BPF-based reconstruction algorithm for multiple rotation-translation scan mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chen; Huitao Zhang; Peng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In industrial CT, it is often required to inspect large objects using short line-detectors. To acquire the complete CT data for the scanning slice of large objects using short line-detectors, some multi-scan modes have been developed. But the existing methods reconstructing an image from the data scanned by multi-scan modes have to rebin the data into fan-beam or parallel-beam form via data interpolation. The data rebinning process not only increases great computational cost, but also degrades image resolution. In this paper, we propose a backprojection-filtration (BPF)-based reconstruction algorithm for rotation-translation (RT) multi-scan mode. An important feature of the proposed algorithm is that data rebinning process is not introduced. The simulation results have verified the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  12. The 5-choice continuous performance test: evidence for a translational test of vigilance for mice.

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    Jared W Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional dysfunction is related to functional disability in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, sustained attention/vigilance is among the leading targets for new medications designed to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents. METHODS: We describe the 5-choice CPT (5C-CPT, an elaboration of the 5-choice serial reaction (5CSR task that includes non-signal trials, thus mimicking task parameters of human CPTs that use signal and non-signal events to assess vigilance. The performances of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were assessed in the 5C-CPT to determine whether this task could differentiate between strains. C57BL/6J mice were also trained in the 5CSR task and a simple reaction-time (RT task involving only one choice (1CRT task. We hypothesized that: 1 C57BL/6J performance would be superior to DBA/2J mice in the 5C-CPT as measured by the sensitivity index measure from signal detection theory; 2 a vigilance decrement would be observed in both strains; and 3 RTs would increase across tasks with increased attentional load (1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT. CONCLUSIONS: C57BL/6J mice exhibited superior SI levels compared to DBA/2J mice, but with no difference in accuracy. A vigilance decrement was observed in both strains, which was more pronounced in DBA/2J mice and unaffected by response bias. Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks. Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

  13. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  14. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  15. Morphometric justification of algorithm of the choice of method of surgical treatment of dysplastic coxarthrosis

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    Norkin I.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define regularities of variability of bone structures of a hip joint depending on type of dysplastic coxarthrosis and to develop tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement. Objects of research. 106 patients with dysplastic coxarthrosis of varying severity, passing treatment on the basis of Federal State Budget Institution of Saratov Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics from 2005 to 2014 applying methods X, KT-, MRT-metry variation and statistical methods. Results: According to anatomic features of a hip joint at dysplastic coxarthrosis of various types algorithms of choice of acetabularand femoral components of endoprosthesis, and also tactics of total endoprosthesis replacement in groups of research are developed. Conclusion. The choice of a standard size of an endoprosthesis of a hip joint needs to be carried out taking into account X-ray anatomic features of a hip joint and degree of expressiveness of the dysplastic changes. At dysplastic coxarthrosis of the l-ll types it is necessary to carry out standard total endoprosthesis replacement; at coxarthrosis of the III type —total endoprosthesis replacement in combination with plasticity of a roof of acetabular hollow; at coxarthrosis of the IV type — total endoprosthesis replacement in a combination from the shortening femur osteotomy.

  16. Remark on "Algorithm 916: Computing the Faddeyeva and Voigt functions": Efficiency Improvements and Fortran Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R

    2015-01-01

    This remark describes efficiency improvements to Algorithm 916 [Zaghloul and Ali 2011]. It is shown that the execution time required by the algorithm, when run at its highest accuracy, may be improved by more than a factor of two. A better accuracy vs efficiency trade off scheme is also implemented; this requires the user to supply the number of significant figures desired in the computed values as an extra input argument to the function. Using this trade-off, it is shown that the efficiency of the algorithm may be further improved significantly while maintaining reasonably accurate and safe results that are free of the pitfalls and complete loss of accuracy seen in other competitive techniques. The current version of the code is provided in Matlab and Scilab in addition to a Fortran translation prepared to meet the needs of real-world problems where very large numbers of function evaluations would require the use of a compiled language. To fulfill this last requirement, a recently proposed reformed version o...

  17. Valikuid ja võimalusi: ülevaade Uku Masingu luuletõlkimisest. Choices and possibilities: A survey of Uku Masing’s poetry translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile Tooming

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a survey of the emblematic Estonian poet, theologian and scholar Uku Masing’s (1909– 1985 known poetry translations. The object is not a poetics of translation or an analysis of language, but an overview of the texts of poetry Masing translated: the time of publication, political influences on publishing, and the public reception or the lack of it. The focus is on the choices and interests of Masing as a translator, as well as the influence of society on which texts he translated. Masing started translating in the 1920s; by the end of the 1930s, he was known both as a theologian and poet, as well as a translator. Just before the beginning of the Soviet regime, two very important translations by Masing were published: Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali and The Gardener, and a new translation of the Bible (Masing was one of three translators. In the Soviet era, Masing translated constantly from material that interested him and that was available to him (the poetry of Shanfara, Omar Khayyam, Matsuo Bashô, Louise Labé, Tagore et al.. As might be expected, from the standpoint of publication, the Stalinist period was Masing’s least productive period as a translator: in Estonia only one excerpt was published in a school textbook and without the name of the translator; a few new editions of Tagore’s prose poems were published in exile. From the 1960s on, as controls on society relaxed, Masing’s name as a translator returned little by little to the public eye. At that time, Masing was in greater favour as a translator than he was as a poet; this was the case for many other translators who were also poets. In the 1960s, many different poetry translations by Masing appeared along with commentary by the translator; reviews were also published. The mid–1970s was also an influential period, when the new editions of Tagore’s prose poetry collections The Gardener and Gitanjali appeared; the impact of these books persisted long

  18. Optimal encoding on discrete lattice with translational invariant constrains using statistical algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Jarek

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how to almost optimally encode information in valuations of discrete lattice with some translational invariant constrains. The method is based on finding statistical description of such valuations and changing it into statistical algorithm: which allow to construct deterministically valuation with given statistics. Optimal statistic allows to generate valuations with uniform distribution - we get this way maximum information capacity. It will be shown that in this approach we practically can get as close to capacity of the model as we want (found numerically: lost 1e-10 bit/node for Hard Square). There will be presented an alternative to Huffman coding too, which is more precise and practice with changing probability distributions.

  19. Optimal Design of a Cam Mechanism with Translating Flat-Face Follower using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsiafis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum design of a cam mechanism is a time consuming task, due to the numerous alternatives considerations. In the present work, the problem of design parameters optimization of a cam mechanism with translating flat - face follower is investigated from a multi - objective point of view. The design parameters, just like the cam base circle radius, the follower face width and the follower offset can be determined considering as the optimization criteria minimization of the cam size, of the input torque and of the contact stress. During the optimization procedure, a number of constraints regarding the pressure angle, the contact stress, etcare taken into account. The optimization approach, based on genetic algorithm, is applied to find the optimal solutions with respect to the a fore - mentioned objective function and to Ensure the kinematic requirements. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the designed cam mechanism is investigated considering the frictional forces.

  20. 基于归化翻译视角的英语汉译模因选择研究%The study on meme choice of Engl ish-Chinese translation from the perspection of domesticating translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霁

    2015-01-01

    Based on meme-tics,in the view of domesticating translation,sticking to the principle that the meme in translation must be in compliance with language context and the reality of translation receiver, the paper proposes the concept of translation meme type in Chinese translation of English.In addition,the applicable condition of different types are analyzed.The proper choice on meme in translation is important and effective for the improvement of Chinese translation of English.%基于归化翻译的视角,借鉴模因理论,本着翻译结果中所包含的模因必须要适合主题语境以及适合翻译内容接收者的翻译原则,提出翻译模因类型这一理念,并对类型进行了初步的界定和适用状况的论述。英语汉译中选择包含合适模因的翻译结果对提高翻译的成功性具有很大的功能性和实效性。

  1. Comparing parameter choice methods for the regularization in the SONAH algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    2006-01-01

    is needed. A parameter choice method based on a priori information about the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) in the measurement setup is often chosen. However, this parameter choice method may be undesirable since SNR is difficult to determine in practice. In this paper, data based parameter choice methods...

  2. Formula Translation in Blitz++, NumPy and Modern Fortran: A Case Study of the Language Choice Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Arabas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three object-oriented implementations of a prototype solver of the advection equation are introduced. The presented programs are based on Blitz++ (C++, NumPy (Python and Fortran's built-in array containers. The solvers constitute implementations of the Multidimensional Positive-Definite Advective Transport Algorithm (MPDATA. The introduced codes serve as examples for how the application of object-oriented programming (OOP techniques and new language constructs from C++11 and Fortran 2008 allow to reproduce the mathematical notation used in the literature within the program code. A discussion on the tradeoffs of the programming language choice is presented. The main angles of comparison are code brevity and syntax clarity (and hence maintainability and auditability as well as performance. All performance tests are carried out using free and open-source compilers. In the case of Python, a significant performance gain is observed when switching from the standard interpreter (CPython to the PyPy implementation of Python. Entire source code of all three implementations is embedded in the text and is licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL license.

  3. 商务翻译中译者伦理的平衡统一①%On the Integration of Ethical Choices of Business Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红丽

    2013-01-01

      目前翻译研究的伦理转向集中于译者伦理的讨论,包括职业伦理和个人伦理。职业化翻译的最大需求为商务翻译,商务翻译作为一种商业行为是为某一客户而提供的、针对既定接受者的一项职业性服务。从事商务翻译的译者,其伦理选择不仅包括译者职业伦理和个人伦理,而且包括商务伦理。商务伦理是译者一定要遵循的规定;职业伦理往往是职业的规范,是大多数人所遵循的规则,但有时会与其他伦理相冲突;而译者的个人伦理体现了译者个人的翻译观念,是动态变化的伦理。商务翻译行为应当是商务伦理、个人伦理和职业伦理的动态统一。%As a professional practice, translation study has undergone its ethical turn, especially with the focus on the professional ethics and personal ethics of translators. Business translation, as a commercial activity, is the professional service provided to certain clients and aimed at the target customers. Business ethical code is the must for any business translators with the possible contradictions against the professional and personal ethical choices of a business translator. Thus, a business translator has to deal with the conflicts and contradictions and try to balance and integrate the three ethical translation choices.

  4. Are decisions using cost-utility analyses robust to choice of SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Surrey M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost utility analysis (CUA using SF-36/SF-12 data has been facilitated by the development of several preference-based algorithms. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how decision-making could be affected by the choice of preference-based algorithms for the SF-36 and SF-12, and provide some guidance on selecting an appropriate algorithm. Methods Two sets of data were used: (1 a clinical trial of adult asthma patients; and (2 a longitudinal study of post-stroke patients. Incremental costs were assumed to be $2000 per year over standard treatment, and QALY gains realized over a 1-year period. Ten published algorithms were identified, denoted by first author: Brazier (SF-36, Brazier (SF-12, Shmueli, Fryback, Lundberg, Nichol, Franks (3 algorithms, and Lawrence. Incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs for each algorithm, stated in dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY, were ranked and compared between datasets. Results In the asthma patients, estimated ICURs ranged from Lawrence's SF-12 algorithm at $30,769/QALY (95% CI: 26,316 to 36,697 to Brazier's SF-36 algorithm at $63,492/QALY (95% CI: 48,780 to 83,333. ICURs for the stroke cohort varied slightly more dramatically. The MEPS-based algorithm by Franks et al. provided the lowest ICUR at $27,972/QALY (95% CI: 20,942 to 41,667. The Fryback and Shmueli algorithms provided ICURs that were greater than $50,000/QALY and did not have confidence intervals that overlapped with most of the other algorithms. The ICUR-based ranking of algorithms was strongly correlated between the asthma and stroke datasets (r = 0.60. Conclusion SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithms produced a wide range of ICURs that could potentially lead to different reimbursement decisions. Brazier's SF-36 and SF-12 algorithms have a strong methodological and theoretical basis and tended to generate relatively higher ICUR estimates, considerations that support a preference for these algorithms over the

  5. A Two-Stage Algorithm for Origin-Destination Matrices Estimation Considering Dynamic Dispersion Parameter for Route Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage algorithm to simultaneously estimate origin-destination (OD matrix, link choice proportion, and dispersion parameter using partial traffic counts in a congested network. A non-linear optimization model is developed which incorporates a dynamic dispersion parameter, followed by a two-stage algorithm in which Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimation and a Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE assignment model are iteratively applied until the convergence is reached. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the proposed approach is implemented in a hypothetical network using input data with high error, and tested under a range of variation coefficients. The root mean squared error (RMSE of the estimated OD demand and link flows are used to evaluate the model estimation results. The results indicate that the estimated dispersion parameter theta is insensitive to the choice of variation coefficients. The proposed approach is shown to outperform two established OD estimation methods and produce parameter estimates that are close to the ground truth. In addition, the proposed approach is applied to an empirical network in Seattle, WA to validate the robustness and practicality of this methodology. In summary, this study proposes and evaluates an innovative computational approach to accurately estimate OD matrices using link-level traffic flow data, and provides useful insight for optimal parameter selection in modeling travelers' route choice behavior.

  6. A Two-Phase Heuristic Algorithm for the Common Frequency Routing Problem with Vehicle Type Choice in the Milk Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency and small lot size are characteristics of milk runs and are often used to implement the just-in-time (JIT strategy in logistical systems. The common frequency problem, which simultaneously involves planning of the route and frequency, has been extensively researched in milk run systems. In addition, vehicle type choice in the milk run system also has a significant influence on the operating cost. Therefore, in this paper, we simultaneously consider vehicle routing planning, frequency planning, and vehicle type choice in order to optimize the sum of the cost of transportation, inventory, and dispatch. To this end, we develop a mathematical model to describe the common frequency problem with vehicle type choice. Since the problem is NP hard, we develop a two-phase heuristic algorithm to solve the model. More specifically, an initial satisfactory solution is first generated through a greedy heuristic algorithm to maximize the ratio of the superior arc frequency to the inferior arc frequency. Following this, a tabu search (TS with limited search scope is used to improve the initial satisfactory solution. Numerical examples with different sizes establish the efficacy of our model and our proposed algorithm.

  7. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  8. Machine-translatability and post-editing effort: an empirical study using translog and choice network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Studies on Controlled Language (CL) suggest that by removing features that are known to be problematic for MT (termed here “negative translatability indicators”, or “NTIs”), the MT output can be improved. It is assumed that an improvement in the output will result in lower post-editing effort. This study tests that assumption by measuring the technical, temporal and cognitive post-editing effort (Krings 2001) for English sentences in a user manual that have been translated into German using a...

  9. Optimizing Algorithm Choice for Metaproteomics: Comparing X!Tandem and Proteome Discoverer for Soil Proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, K. S.; Kim, E. H.; Jones, R. M.; de Leon, K. C.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Tyson, G. W.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    The growing field of metaproteomics links microbial communities to their expressed functions by using mass spectrometry methods to characterize community proteins. Comparison of mass spectrometry protein search algorithms and their biases is crucial for maximizing the quality and amount of protein identifications in mass spectral data. Available algorithms employ different approaches when mapping mass spectra to peptides against a database. We compared mass spectra from four microbial proteomes derived from high-organic content soils searched with two search algorithms: 1) Sequest HT as packaged within Proteome Discoverer (v.1.4) and 2) X!Tandem as packaged in TransProteomicPipeline (v.4.7.1). Searches used matched metagenomes, and results were filtered to allow identification of high probability proteins. There was little overlap in proteins identified by both algorithms, on average just ~24% of the total. However, when adjusted for spectral abundance, the overlap improved to ~70%. Proteome Discoverer generally outperformed X!Tandem, identifying an average of 12.5% more proteins than X!Tandem, with X!Tandem identifying more proteins only in the first two proteomes. For spectrally-adjusted results, the algorithms were similar, with X!Tandem marginally outperforming Proteome Discoverer by an average of ~4%. We then assessed differences in heat shock proteins (HSP) identification by the two algorithms by BLASTing identified proteins against the Heat Shock Protein Information Resource, because HSP hits typically account for the majority signal in proteomes, due to extraction protocols. Total HSP identifications for each of the 4 proteomes were approximately ~15%, ~11%, ~17%, and ~19%, with ~14% for total HSPs with redundancies removed. Of the ~15% average of proteins from the 4 proteomes identified as HSPs, ~10% of proteins and spectra were identified by both algorithms. On average, Proteome Discoverer identified ~9% more HSPs than X!Tandem.

  10. Molecular effects of autoimmune-risk promoter polymorphisms on expression, exon choice, and translational efficiency of interferon regulatory factor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel N; Lambert, Jared P; Till, Rodney E; Argueta, Lissenya B; Greenhalgh, Kathryn E; Henrie, Brandon; Bills, Trieste; Hawkley, Tyson F; Roznik, Marinya G; Sloan, Jason M; Mayhew, Vera; Woodland, Loc; Nelson, Eric P; Tsai, Meng-Hsuan; Poole, Brian D

    2014-05-01

    The rs2004640 single nucleotide polymorphism and the CGGGG copy-number variant (rs77571059) are promoter polymorphisms within interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5). They have been implicated as susceptibility factors for several autoimmune diseases. IRF5 uses alternative promoter splicing, where any of 4 first exons begin the mRNA. The CGGGG indel is in exon 1A's promoter; the rs2004640 allele creates a splicing recognition site, enabling usage of exon 1B. This study aimed at characterizing alterations in IRF5 mRNA due to these polymorphisms. Cells with risk polymorphisms exhibited ~2-fold higher levels of IRF5 mRNA and protein, but demonstrated no change in mRNA stability. Quantitative PCR demonstrated decreased usage of exons 1C and 1D in cell lines with the risk polymorphisms. RNA folding analysis revealed a hairpin in exon 1B; mutational analysis showed that the hairpin shape decreased translation 5-fold. Although translation of mRNA that uses exon 1B is low due to a hairpin, increased IRF5 mRNA levels in individuals with the rs2004640 risk allele lead to higher overall protein expression. In addition, several new splice variants of IRF5 were sequenced. IRF5's promoter polymorphisms alter first exon usage and increase transcription levels. High levels of IRF5 may bias the immune system toward autoimmunity.

  11. Formula Translation in Blitz++, NumPy and Modern Fortran: A Case Study of the Language Choice Tradeoffs

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwester Arabas; Dorota Jarecka; Anna Jaruga; Maciej Fijałkowski

    2014-01-01

    Three object-oriented implementations of a prototype solver of the advection equation are introduced. The presented programs are based on Blitz++ (C++), NumPy (Python) and Fortran's built-in array containers. The solvers constitute implementations of the Multidimensional Positive-Definite Advective Transport Algorithm (MPDATA). The introduced codes serve as examples for how the application of object-oriented programming (OOP) techniques and new language constructs from C++11 and Fortran 2008 ...

  12. Toward adaptive radiotherapy for head and neck patients: Uncertainties in dose warping due to the choice of deformable registration algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.veiga.11@ucl.ac.uk; Royle, Gary [Radiation Physics Group, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lourenço, Ana Mónica [Radiation Physics Group, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Acoustics and Ionizing Radiation Team, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Mouinuddin, Syed [Department of Radiotherapy, University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sébastien; McClelland, Jamie R. [Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    voxels within the treated volume failed a 2%pD DD-test (DD{sub 2%-pp}). Larger DD{sub 2%-pp} was found within the high dose gradient (21% ± 6%) and regions where the CBCT quality was poorer (28% ± 9%). The differences when estimating the mean and maximum dose delivered to organs-at-risk were up to 2.0%pD and 2.8%pD, respectively. Conclusions: The authors evaluated several DIR algorithms for CT-to-CBCT registrations. In spite of all methods resulting in comparable geometrical matching, the choice of DIR implementation leads to uncertainties in dose warped, particularly in regions of high gradient and/or poor imaging quality.

  13. Cellular artificial glowworm swarm optimization algorithm for multiple-choice knapsack problem.%多选择背包问题的元胞萤火虫算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程魁; 马良; 刘勇

    2013-01-01

    为有效求解多选择背包问题,基于元胞自动机的原理和萤火虫算法,提出一种求解多选择背包问题的元胞萤火虫算法。将元胞及其邻居引入到算法中来保持种群的多样性,利用元胞的演化规则进行局部优化,避免算法陷入局部极值。通过对典型多选择背包问题的仿真实验和其他算法的比较,表明该算法可行有效,有良好的全局优化能力。%In order to solve the multiple-choice knapsack problem, based on the principles of cellular automata and artificial glowworm swarm optimization algorithm, this paper presents a novel cellular artificial glowworm swarm optimization algorithm for multiple-choice knapsack problem. Cellular and its neighbor are introduced into the algorithm to maintain the swarm’s diver-sity and the algorithm uses evolutionary rule of cellular in local optimization to avoid local optima. Simulated tests of multiple-choice knapsack problem and comparisons with other algorithms show the algorithm is feasible and effective and the algorithm has strong global optimization ability.

  14. Sensitivity of Marine Warm Cloud Retrieval Statistics to Algorithm Choices: Examples from MODIS Collection 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Steven A.; Maddux, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The optical and microphysical structure of warm boundary layer marine clouds is of fundamental importance for understanding a variety of cloud radiation and precipitation processes. With the advent of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua platforms, simultaneous global/daily 1km retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle size are provided, as well as the derived water path. In addition, the cloud product (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) provides separate effective radii results using the l.6, 2.1, and 3.7 m spectral channels. Cloud retrieval statistics are highly sensitive to how a pixel identified as being "notclear" by a cloud mask (e.g., the MOD35/MYD35 product) is determined to be useful for an optical retrieval based on a 1-D cloud model. The Collection 5 MODIS retrieval algorithm removed pixels associated with cloud'edges as well as ocean pixels with partly cloudy elements in the 250m MODIS cloud mask - part of the so-called Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm. Collection 6 attempts retrievals for those two pixel populations, but allows a user to isolate or filter out the populations via CSR pixel-level Quality Assessment (QA) assignments. In this paper, using the preliminary Collection 6 MOD06 product, we present global and regional statistical results of marine warm cloud retrieval sensitivities to the cloud edge and 250m partly cloudy pixel populations. As expected, retrievals for these pixels are generally consistent with a breakdown of the ID cloud model. While optical thickness for these suspect pixel populations may have some utility for radiative studies, the retrievals should be used with extreme caution for process and microphysical studies.

  15. Sensitivity of Marine Warm Cloud Retrieval Statistics to Algorithm Choices: Examples from MODIS Collection 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, S.; Wind, G.; Zhang, Z.; Ackerman, S. A.; Maddux, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    The optical and microphysical structure of warm boundary layer marine clouds is of fundamental importance for understanding a variety of cloud radiation and precipitation processes. With the advent of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua platforms, simultaneous global/daily 1km retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective particle size are provided, as well as the derived water path. In addition, the cloud product (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) provides separate effective radii results using the 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 μm spectral channels. Cloud retrieval statistics are highly sensitive to how a pixel identified as being "not-clear" by a cloud mask (e.g., the MOD35/MYD35 product) is determined to be useful for an optical retrieval based on a 1-D cloud model. The Collection 5 MODIS retrieval algorithm removed pixels associated with cloud edges (defined by immediate adjacency to "clear" MOD/MYD35 pixels) as well as ocean pixels with partly cloudy elements in the 250m MODIS cloud mask - part of the so-called Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm. Collection 6 attempts retrievals for those two pixel populations, but allows a user to isolate or filter out the populations via CSR pixel-level Quality Assessment (QA) assignments. In this paper, using the preliminary Collection 6 MOD06 product, we present global and regional statistical results of marine warm cloud retrieval sensitivities to the cloud edge and 250m partly cloudy pixel populations. As expected, retrievals for these pixels are generally consistent with a breakdown of the 1D cloud model. While optical thickness for these suspect pixel populations may have some utility for radiative studies, the retrievals should be used with extreme caution for process and microphysical studies.

  16. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

  17. Translational Model-Based Strategy to Guide the Choice of Clinical Doses for Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon-Pichault, Marion; Brillac, Claire; Amara, Céline; Nicolazzi, Céline; Fagniez, Nathalie; Fau, Jean-Baptiste; Koiwai, Kimiko; Ziti-Ljajic, Samira; Veyrat-Follet, Christine

    2017-01-30

    This work proposes a model-based approach to help select the phase 1 dosing regimen for the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) SAR408701 leveraging the available data for 2 other ADCs of the same construct: SAR3419 and SAR566658. First, monkey and human pharmacokinetic (PK) data of SAR566658 and SAR3419 were used to establish the appropriate allometric approach to be applied to SAR408701 monkey PK data. Second, a population pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) model was developed to describe tumor volume evolution following SAR408701 injection in mice. Third, allometric approaches identified for SAR566658 and SAR3419 were applied to SAR408701 monkey PK data to predict the human PK profile. Both SAR566658 and SAR3419 human and monkey PK were best described by a 2-compartment linear model. The relative difference was less than 10% between predicted and observed clearance using allometric exponents of 0.75 and 1, respectively. Tumor volume evolution following SAR408701 injection was best described by a full Simeoni model with a plasma concentration threshold of 4.6 μg/mL for eradication in mice. Both allometric exponents were used to predict SAR408701 PK in human from PK in monkey and to identify the potential effective dosing regimens. This translational strategy may be a valuable tool to design future clinical studies for ADCs, to support selection of the most appropriate dosing regimen, and to estimate the minimal dose required to assure antitumor activity, according to the schedule used.

  18. PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: AN ALGORITHM FOR MAKING A DECISION ON THE CHOICE OF MANAGEMENT TACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PA is a chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, vertebral column, and entheses from a group of seronegative spondyloarthritides, which is observed in patients with psoriasis. In accordance with the 2013 federal clinical guidelines for the management of patients with PA, published by the Russian Society of Dermatovenereologists and Cosmetologists and the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia, its diagnosis should be based on the CASPAR criteria (ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic ARthritis, 2006. The activity of spondylitis in PA is assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI that is a questionnaire containing 6 questions; a numeric rating scale from 0 (“very good” to 10 (“very bad” scores is applied for a response. It is recommended that ultrasound studies and magnetic resonance tomography be used for the early diagnosis of enthesitis in seronegative spondyloarthritides. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI that takes into account the area of the lesion, the magnitude of erythema, infiltration, and desquamation in different body areas. The early diagnosis of PA and the timely use of disease-modifying antirheumatic therapy are topical problems, as high-activity inflammation may lead to rapid joint destruction, physical limitations, and disability. When the signs of active PA (the presence of one or more swollen and tender joints, and/or 1 or more dactylitides, and/or more enthesitides and/or inflammatory back pain are detected, prompt drug therapy is indicated. The clear compliance of the algorithm for making a decision on treatment policy and the timely assessment of the clinical manifestations of the disease improves prognosis, adherence to treatment, and quality of life.

  19. Design of a Code-Maker Translator Assistive Input Device with a Contest Fuzzy Recognition Algorithm for the Severely Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an assistive system for the severe physical disabilities, named “code-maker translator assistive input device” which utilizes a contest fuzzy recognition algorithm and Morse codes encoding to provide the keyboard and mouse functions for users to access a standard personal computer, smartphone, and tablet PC. This assistive input device has seven features that are small size, easy installing, modular design, simple maintenance, functionality, very flexible input interface selection, and scalability of system functions, when this device combined with the computer applications software or APP programs. The users with severe physical disabilities can use this device to operate the various functions of computer, smartphone, and tablet PCs, such as sending e-mail, Internet browsing, playing games, and controlling home appliances. A patient with a brain artery malformation participated in this study. The analysis result showed that the subject could make himself familiar with operating of the long/short tone of Morse code in one month. In the future, we hope this system can help more people in need.

  20. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  1. Choice of best possible metaheuristic algorithm for the travelling salesman problem with limited computational time: quality, uncertainty and speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Antosiewicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare six metaheuristic optimization algorithms applied to solving the travelling salesman problem. We focus on three classical approaches: genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and tabu search, and compare them with three recently developed ones: quantum annealing, particle swarm optimization and harmony search. On top of that we compare all results with those obtained with a greedy 2-opt interchange algorithm. We are interested in short-term performance of the algorithms and use three criteria to evaluate them: solution quality, standard deviation of results and time needed to reach the optimum. Following the results from simulation experiments we conclude that simulated annealing and tabu search outperform newly developed approaches in short simulation runs with respect to all three criteria. Simulated annealing finds best solutions, yet tabu search has lower variance of results and converges faster.

  2. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  3. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  4. Hyaluronic acid algorithm-based models for assessment of liver ifbrosis:translation from basic science to clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeinab Babaei; Hadi Parsian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The estimation of liver ifbrosis is usually dependent on liver biopsy evaluation. Because of its disad-vantages and side effects, researchers try to ifnd non-invasive methods for the assessment of liver injuries. Hyaluronic acid has been proposed as an index for scoring the severity of if-brosis, alone or in algorithm models. The algorithm model in which hyaluronic acid was used as a major constituent was more reliable and accurate in diagnosis than hyaluronic acid alone. This review described various hyaluronic acid algo-rithm-based models for assessing liver ifbrosis. DATA SOURCE: A PubMed database search was performed to identify the articles relevant to hyaluronic acid algorithm-based models for estimating liver ifbrosis. RESULT: The use of hyaluronic acid in an algorithm model is an extra and valuable tool for assessing liver ifbrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although hyaluronic acid algorithm-based models have good diagnostic power in liver ifbrosis assess-ment, they cannot render the need for liver biopsy obsolete and it is better to use them in parallel with liver biopsy. They can be used when frequent liver biopsy is not possible in situa-tions such as highlighting the efifcacy of treatment protocol for liver ifbrosis.

  5. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  6. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  7. An On-Line Algorithm for Measuring the Translational and Rotational Velocities of a Table Tennis Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfang; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Nakashima, Akira

    This paper proposes an on-line method for estimating both translational and rotational velocities of a table tennis ball by using only a few consecutive frames of image data which are sensed by two high speed cameras. In order to estimate the translational velocity, three-dimensional (3D) position of the ball's center at each instant of camera frame is obtained, where the on-line method of reconstructing the 3D position from the two-dimensional (2D) image data of two cameras is proposed without the pattern matching process. The proposed method of estimating the rotational velocity belongs to the image registration methods, where in order to avoid the pattern matching process too, a rotation model of the ball is used to make an estimated image data from an image data sensed at the previous instant of camera frame and then the estimated image data are compared with the image data sensed at the next instant of camera frame to obtain the most plausible rotational velocity by using the least square and the conjugate gradient method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by some experimental results in the case of a ball rotated by a rotation machine as well as in the case of a flying ball shot from a catapult machine.

  8. Treatment Algorithm for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Derived from a Canadian National Survey and Needs Assessment on Choices of Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Tse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C are common functional lower gastrointestinal disorders that impair patients’ quality of life. In a national survey, we aimed to evaluate (1 Canadian physician practice patterns in the utilization of therapeutic agents listed in the new ACG and AGA guidelines; (2 physicians satisfaction with these agents for their CIC and IBS-C patients; and (3 the usefulness of these new guidelines in their clinical practice. Methods. A 9-item questionnaire was sent to 350 Canadian specialists to evaluate their clinical practice for the management of CIC and IBS-C. Results. The response rate to the survey was 16% (n=55. Almost all (96% respondents followed a standard, stepwise approach for management while they believed that only 24% of referring physicians followed the same approach. Respondents found guanylyl cyclase C (GCC agonist most satisfying when treating their patients. Among the 69% of respondents who were aware of published guidelines, only 50% found them helpful in prioritizing treatment choices and 69% of respondents indicated that a treatment algorithm, applicable to Canadian practice, would be valuable. Conclusion. Based on this needs assessment, a treatment algorithm was developed to provide clinical guidance in the management of IBS-C and CIC in Canada.

  9. Intimacy Signaling with Linguistic Taboo and Related Translation Choices%亲疏关系的禁忌语表示及其相关翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷芹; 徐克枢

    2012-01-01

    亲疏关系在许多语言中都是通过“你和您”,类似法语中的“tu—vous(T/V)”来表现;亲疏关系还可以通过禁忌语来表现,使用禁忌语来进行“友好的羞辱”,表达“我们是一伙的”,这在英语国家文化和中国文化中都非常普遍。对于这种文化现象,文学翻译要使用异化的策略,而交际翻译,例如商务翻译和旅游翻译,就要使用归化的方法,以避免文化冲突。%In addition to"Tu/vous (T/N)" in French and "ni/nin" in Chinese, which are common in many other languages to express whether the relations among some people are intimate, linguistic taboos or "friendly insults" is another way to tell others that "we are fellows of the same group" in Chinese Culture and cultures of English speaking countries. In the translation of literature discourses with such expressions, foreignization is a good strategy as it will allow readers of target language to enjoy the original style and savour, while in the communicative translation, domestication is better to avoid cultural conflict.

  10. Translator and Identity—Taking Lin Yutang as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春燕

    2016-01-01

    with the prosperous development of translation, the identity of translator has attracted more and more attention. The relationship of translator and identity is worth studying. This article takes translator Lin Yutang as an example to see how identities influence a translator. The conclusion is that the choice of translation martial, translation strategy, translation attitude and other aspects in translation are influenced by Li Yutang's identities such as his religious identity, class identity, national identity and personal identity.

  11. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  12. An exact algorithm for optimal redundancy in a series system with multiple component choices%多选择串联系统最优冗余问题的精确算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小玲; 阮宁

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an exact algorithm was proposed for optimal redundancy in a series system with multiple component choices. A reformulation of the nonseparable reliability function was approximated by a separable integer programming problem. The resulting separable nonlinear integer programming problem is used to compute upper bounds by Lagrangian relaxation and dual search. A special partition scheme was derived to reduce the duality gap in a branch-and-bound process, thus ensure the convergence of the algorithm.Computational results show that the algorithm is efficient for solving this class of reliability optimization problems.

  13. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  14. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  15. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  16. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  17. A Report on Translation of UN Career

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yanli

    2016-01-01

    This report translates the recruitment advertisement of the United Nations into Chinese. As the translated version serves for massive job-hunters, thus Communicative Translation of Peter Newmark is a good choice since this translation strategy is quite reader-oriented. Furthermore, there are some differences between English and Chinese, so such translation techniques as transformation of voice, amplification and omission will be used. This report made me know that a qualified translator should have a good knowledge of translation theories, learn the differences between English and Chinese and improve translation abilities through continuous practice.

  18. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  19. 基于业务感知和策略选择的认知路由算法%Cognitive network routing algorithm based on service awareness and policy choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾成杰; 张顺颐; 孙雁飞

    2011-01-01

    A cognitive network routing (CNR) algorithm based on service awareness and policy choice oriented to cognitive network was proposed. This algorithm takes network resource, flow, policy choice into account and obtains the flow characteristics and network resources condition in advance. CNR algorithm fulfills the distribution of resources through offline network allocation and gets the optimal path of each flow by online path computation. Simulation verified the effectiveness of cognitive network routing algorithm and showed that compared with the traditional routing algorithms, the cognitive network routing algorithm can improve the cognitive utilization of network resources, avoid network congestion coursed by resources allocation and optimize network performance at different levels.%提出了一种基于业务感知和策略选择的认知路由(cognitive network routing)算法.该算法面向认知网络环境综合考虑了网络资源、业务流、策略选择等要素,在获知网络中业务流的宏观特征和需求的前提下,首先通过离线资源分配将网络资源按照业务流的固有分配特征预先配置给不同类型的业务流,然后通过在线路径计算实时得出各个业务流的最优路径.仿真实验验证了认知路由算法的有效性,对比于MIRA、SWP路由算法,CNR算法可以提高网络资源利用率,避免因资源不均衡产生的网络拥塞,能够在业务流和资源2个层面优化网络性能.

  20. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  1. Fuzzy Artificial Bees Colony Algorithm for Solving Multi-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem%模糊人工蜂群算法的多选择多维背包问题求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳寅; 马良; 黄钰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统人工蜂群算法早熟收敛问题,基于模糊化处理和蜂群寻优的特点,提出一种模糊人工蜂群算法。将模糊输入输出机制引入到算法中来保持蜜源访问概率的动态更新。根据算法计算过程中的不同阶段对蜜源访问概率有效调整,避免算法陷入局部极值。通过对多选择多维背包问题的仿真实验和与其他算法的比较,表明本算法可行有效,有良好的鲁棒性。%Aiming at the premature convergence problem in traditional artificial bees colony algorithm , fuzzy artificial bees colony algorithm is proposed , which is based on the principles of fuzzy processing and bees colony behavior .Fuzzy inputs and fuzzy outputs are introduced into the algorithm to maintain dynamic updates of the nectar access probability .According to effective adjustment on nectar access probability during the different stages of algorithm calculation , the algorithm avoids local optima .Simulated tests of multi-choice multidimen-sional knapsack problem and comparisons with other algorithms show the algorithm is feasible and effective and the algorithm has strong global optimization ability .

  2. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  3. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  4. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  5. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  6. An Analysis of Compliment Strategies Choice in the Two English translations of A Dream of Red Mansions%从《红楼梦》两英译本看恭维语策略的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 金仁旻

    2011-01-01

    This paper collects compliment transaltion data from Yang Xianyi and David Hawkes" English Translations of A Dream of Red Mansions, compares and analyzes the translation of compliment sentences by the two translators and explores their translation styles.%从《红楼梦》中搜集了相关语料,同时运用了网上红楼梦汉英平行语料库来进行研究,对比分析了《红楼梦》杨译和霍译两个英文版本的恭维语翻译,探讨翻译风格。

  7. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  8. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  9. Translation Algorithm of Data Interpretation Technique in Full-Space Transient Electromagnetic Method%全空间瞬变电磁法资料解释方法中的平移算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 邓居智; 汤洪志; 林云

    2014-01-01

    Full-space apparent resistivity formulas and its all-time solution methods are important components in underground transient electromagnetic theory.For the purpose of exploring all-time apparent resistivity solving method in full-space medium, translation algorithm used to solve the problem in half-space was introduced and studied in full-space.Meanwhile,theoretical data,modeling data and measured data were adopted to analyze the validity and precision of translation algorithm in full-space data processing and interpretation. The results indicate that, translation algorithm and conventional all-time solving method have a same theoretical basis,but the former can acquire unique solution which other methods can not do.Furthermore,it achieves a good application effect to adopt the j oint interpretation with time cross section plotted by using intercept parameter and apparent resistivity section map.Therefore,translation algorithm used in data processing and interpretation of underground transient electromagnetic method can not only achieve satisfactory applicability and accuracy,but also posses a wider application prospect.%全空间视电阻率公式及全区求解方法是地下瞬变电磁理论的重要组成部分。为探讨全空间全区视电阻率求解方法,笔者将半空间全区视电阻率的平移算法引入至全空间并对其进行了研究。同时,分别采用理论数据、正演模拟数据及实测数据对该方法在全空间资料处理与解释中的有效性和精确性进行了分析。结果显示,平移算法与常规的全区视电阻率解法具有相同的理论基础,但前者避免了传统全区计算方法中的多解性;此外,采用由截距参数绘制的时间剖面图和视电阻率断面图进行联合解释产生了较好的应用效果。

  10. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  11. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  12. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...

  13. Stereo Visual Odometry Algorithm with Rotation-Translation Decoupling for Dynamic Environments%动态环境下基于旋转-平移解耦的立体视觉里程计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康轶非; 宋永端; 宋宇; 闫德立

    2014-01-01

    In practical applications, if there are large numbers of dynamic features with a same movement direction in the image, they will seriously affect the estimation results of the visual odometry. To solve the problem, a stereo visual odometry algorithm is proposed using the location of features to decouple the estimation of camera’s rotation and translation. The feature points are divided into“far point”and“near point”by the stereoscopic system. Under the framework of RANSAC (random sample consensus), the“far point”is used to estimate the orientation of the visual system, then the“near point”is used to estimate the translation of the camera under the known orientation condition, which is the core of the rotation-translation decoupling algorithm. Using the algorithm, the impact of the nearby moving objects on the visual odometry is reduced by the rotation constraint. The experiment results show that the proposed rotation-translation decoupling estimation algorithm can more effectively eliminate the dynamic features in the actual road than the traditional algorithms which estimate rotation-translation simultaneously. The proposed algorithm shows its stronger anti-interference against dynamic features, which makes it more robust and accurate.%在实际应用中,若图像中的动态特征数量多且运动方向一致,这些特征会对视觉里程计的估计结果产生严重的影响。本文针对这类问题提出一种根据图像特征点位置解耦估计摄像机旋转-平移的立体视觉里程计算法。算法通过立体视觉系统将特征点划分成“远点”和“近点”。在随机抽样一致性算法(RANSAC)框架下,采用“远点”估计视觉系统的姿态;进而在姿态已知的条件下,通过“近点”估计摄像机平移,实现旋转-平移解耦计算。这样处理可以通过姿态约束减少近距离运动物体对视觉里程计的影响。实验表明,在实际道路环境中,本文

  14. Quantification of the influence of the choice of the algorithm and planning system on the calculation of a treatment plan; Cuantificacion de la influencia que tiene la eleccion del algoritmo y del sistema de planificacion en el calculo de una dosimetria clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, F. del; Ramos, A.; Salgado, M.; Andrade, B; Munoz, V.

    2010-07-01

    In this work an analysis of the influence of the choice of the algorithm or planning system, on the calculus of the same treatment plan is introduced. For this purpose specific software has been developed for comparing plans of a series of IMRT cases of prostate and head and neck cancer calculated using the convolution, superposition and fast superposition algorithms implemented in the XiO 4.40 planning system (CMS). It has also been used for the comparison of the same treatment plan for lung pathology calculated in XiO with the mentioned algorithms, and calculated in the Plan 4.1 planning system (Brainlab) using its pencil beam algorithm. Differences in dose among the treatment plans have been quantified using a set of metrics. The recommendation for the dosimetry of a careful choice of the algorithm has been numerically confirmed. (Author).

  15. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  16. 双站移不变SAR成像的一种通用等效单站RD算法%A general equivalent monostoatic RD algorithm for bistatic translational invariant SAR imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武拥军; 吴先良

    2009-01-01

    According to the geometry of the bistatic translational invariant SAR, the paper derived a precise bistatic SAR range equation which was consisted of a equivalent monostatic range and a range compensation term and might precisely described the bistatic range history. An equivalent monostatic RD algorithm for the bistatic SAR was proposed from the equation. Under the two-dimension frequency domain expression of the bistatic SAR need not derived, the algorithm could focus effectively the bistatic SAR data through introducing a range compensation term. The simulation results showed that the algorithm was validity for focusing the bistatic SAR data of the parallel and the tandem, so it suited the data processing of X band bistatic translational invariant SAR.%根据双站移不变SAR的空间几何模型,论文推导了一个精确的双站SAR斜距公式,它由一个等效单站斜距和斜距补偿量之和构成,能够精确描述双站SAR的距离历程.从该公式出发提出了一种双站SAR的等效单站RD算法,在无需推导双站SAR信号二维频域表达式的情况下,通过引入斜距补偿,就能够利用该算法对双站SAR数据进行有效成像.仿真结果表明,这种双站SAR成像的等效单站RD算法对于聚焦串行和并行双站SAR数据都是非常有效的,适合于X波段双站移不变SAR的数据处理.

  17. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  18. Semi-Automatic Acquisition of Domain-Specific Translation Lexicons

    CERN Document Server

    Resnik, P; Resnik, Philip

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the utility of an algorithm for translation lexicon acquisition (SABLE), used previously on a very large corpus to acquire general translation lexicons, when that algorithm is applied to a much smaller corpus to produce candidates for domain-specific translation lexicons.

  19. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  20. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  1. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  2. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  3. TREATMENT FOR ACUTE/SUBACUTE MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN, BY USING AN ALGORITHM FOR STEPWISE CHOICE OF ANALGESIC DRUGS AND FOR MONITORING THEIR EFFICACY: PRELIMINARY DATA OF THE ANALGESIC TREATMENT USING SYSTEMIC ALGORITHM (ATUSA PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gontarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize treatment for musculoskeletal pain (MSP is a topical medical and social problem. A meeting of experts was held inMoscowin June 2015 to discuss the possibility of forming an interdisciplinary approach and elaborating a unified MSP treatment algorithm based on the com prehensive pathogenetically justified use of different classes of medicines. The Analgesic Treatment Using a Systemic Algorithm (ATUSA trial is a retrospective observational study of the effectiveness of this approach in clinical practice.Objective: to investigate the efficiency of combination treatment for MSP in real clinical practice.Patients and methods. A study group consisted of 3304 patients (women (54.3% and men (45.7%; mean age 48.9±14.6 years with osteoarthritis, nonspecific back pain, and rheumatic juxta-articular soft tissue pathology who had visited their doctors for acute/subacute MSP. Treatment was performed in accordance with the following algorithm: the first appointment was a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, such as aceclofenac, in case of contraindications, paracetamol and/or tramadol + a topical NSAID, in case of indications, muscle relaxants. The therapeutic efficiency was monitored every 7 days (a total of 4 visits; during each visit, therapy could be changed: switching to another NSAID, local administration of glucocorticoids (GC, as well as antidepressants or anticonvulsants. The dynamics of pain (a 0–10 pain intensity numeric rating scale, the number of patients in whom MSP had been resolved completely, as well as treatment satisfaction were taken into account to assess the results of treatment.Results. The first appointment in 97.5% of the patients was NSAIDs, mainly aceclofenac (93.7%, that was used in combination with a muscle relaxant in 67.7%. By Visit 4, there was a reduction in MSP from 6.9±1.5–2.2±1.3 scores. MSP was completely resolved in 77.0% of the patients. The vast majority (88.4% of the patients rated their

  4. Automatic Detection of Omissions in Translations

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1996-01-01

    ADOMIT is an algorithm for Automatic Detection of OMIssions in Translations. The algorithm relies solely on geometric analysis of bitext maps and uses no linguistic information. This property allows it to deal equally well with omissions that do not correspond to linguistic units, such as might result from word-processing mishaps. ADOMIT has proven itself by discovering many errors in a hand-constructed gold standard for evaluating bitext mapping algorithms. Quantitative evaluation on simulated omissions showed that, even with today's poor bitext mapping technology, ADOMIT is a valuable quality control tool for translators and translation bureaus.

  5. 基于日志式混合映射的FTL算法设计与实现%Design and Implementation of A Log-structured Hybrid Mapping Algorithm for File Translation Layer of Flash Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵亚刚; 戴冠中; 刘航

    2009-01-01

    An improved File Translation Layer scheme based on traditional log-structured hybrid mapping is proposed. In the algorithm, the log blocks are dynamically allocated according to the number of storage data. During the storage process, the data are divided into cold and hot categories in consideration of the data attribution state. Consequently, high-speed access to data is implemented with fewer mapping times. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed algorithm achieves a high-speed access to data, a better wear-leveling balance among the blocks, fewer erasing times and a longer flash life span.%在传统日志结构混合映射算法的基础上,提出了一种改进的文件传输层算法;该算法根据存储数据的多少对日志块进行动态分配,存储过程中根据数据属性的不同将数据进行"冷热分离",并通过较少的映射次数实现了对数据的快速访问;实验表明该算法具有较高的读写访问速度,在降低擦除次数的同时平衡了各块的磨损度,延长了闪存的使用寿命.

  6. Official Document and its Translation with the adaptation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Longying; Leng Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    with the principle of cognitive consonance, this thesis studied official document translation from the perspectives of contextual correlates and communicative correlates. Specifically, among the contextual correlates, the social and cultural factors, the mental workings, cognitive mechanism, the translator' s intentions, the needs for objective and authoritative information, the aesthetic expectations and acceptability of the target receptors are prominent in their influence upon the translator' s linguistic choice-making. The linguistic contextual correlates including intertexuality, contextual cohesion, sequencing,and style play a very important role in determining the translators' linguistic choices in the official document translation.

  7. Gender Ideology of Translators Implicated in Feminist Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compares two Persian translations of Virginia Woolf `s Mrs Dalloway(1925; one done by a male (Darush and one by a female translator(Taheri. Regarding Farzaneh Farahzad`s translation criticism based on CDA and Farzan Sojoodi`s stratificational semiotics, this study analyzed the effect of gender ideology on lexical choices by the two translators. The manipulated words and phrases were analyzed as the reflection of fundamental theories based on the cognitive and personality psychology. It was revealed that translators are definitely affected by their cognitive and mental psychological areas in making gendered lexical choices. Furthermore, almost all the manipulated selected words were done by the male translator. Statistical data, on the other hand, revealed a difference between positive and negative gender values in which the negative choices were used more by the male and the positive ones more by the female translator.

  8. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  9. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  10. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaha A. Abdulwahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.

  11. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  12. Comparisons between Liang Shiqiu's and Zhu Shenghao's Hamlet from the Perspective of Translator's Subjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽

    2009-01-01

    For the Chinese versions of Hamlet,Liang Shiqiu's and Zhu Shenghao's translations can be called the classic. Becasue the two great translators have their own choices, their versions differ a lot. In the translating process, translator's subjectivity plays an important role and it is one of the major reasons for emerging different translation. The thesis mainly talks about Liang Shiqiu's and Zhu Shenghao's different versions from the perspective of translator's subjectivity by comparison.

  13. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  15. Exploration and exploitation of multilingual data for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Shortly after the birth of computer science, researchers realised the importance of machine translation as a task worth of concentrated effort, but it is only recently that algorithms are able to provide automatic translations usable by the masses. Modern translation systems are dependent on bilingu

  16. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark;

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...... attention between the alternatives in a choice set reflects their stated choice certainty. Based on one of the largest samples of eye tracking data in a DCE to date, we find evidence in favor of our hypothesis. We also link eye tracking observations to model-based choice certainty through parameterization...... of the scale function in a random parameters logit model. We find that choices characterized by more frequent gaze shifting do indeed exhibit a higher degree of error variance, however, this effects is insignificant once response time is controlled for. Overall, findings suggest that eye tracking can provide...

  17. Choice on Translation Strategies of Unique Chinese Terms in Foreign-oriented Publicity Translation-Implication From a Case Study of the Translation Strategies of Unique Chinese Terms in New York Times%外宣翻译中中国特色词汇的翻译策略选择--基于《纽约时报》英译中国特色词汇的分析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艺齐

    2015-01-01

    With the development of China, the influence of Chinese culture is expanding around the world. In the process of Chi⁃nese culture spreading around the world, there exits a problem worth pondering--how to translate unique Chinese terms. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis of unique Chinese terms in China-related reports covered by The New York Times, it has been found that foreignisation translation strategy is often applied to the translation of unique Chinese terms. On the basis of this result, the paper explores the guide which The New York Times gives to Chinese-English transaltion of publicity.%随着中国的发展,中国文化在世界的影响不断扩大。在中国文化走向世界的过程中,如何处理中国特色词汇的翻译是一个值得思考的问题。本文梳理和分析了《纽约时报》涉华报道中中国特色词汇的翻译策略,通过定量和定性分析发现其对中国特色词汇翻译多采用异化的策略。自此基础上探讨了《纽约时报》所采取的异化翻译策略对中国外宣翻译策略的借鉴意义。

  18. Ptychography for optical metrology with limited translation knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dustin B; Fienup, James R

    2016-06-10

    We introduce unknown-transverse translation diversity phase retrieval: a ptychographic algorithm for optical metrology when a subaperture is translating through a plane conjugate to the exit pupil in a very poorly known fashion. The algorithm estimates the direction of translation and the distance traveled by the subaperture from one point spread function (PSF) to the next. It also estimates unknown point target motion and rotations of the subaperture between PSF acquisitions from the PSF data.

  19. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  20. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  1. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  2. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  3. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  4. Conceptual Translation: Script Theory over Equivalence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser N. AlBzour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most translation studies that mainly focus on describing problematic areas and issues translators oftentimes encounter and thus suggesting or even prescribing some practical solutions and techniques, this study essentially targets the conceptual mechanism that can to some extent explain possible choices made by translators and students of translation. Therefore, this paper is by no means an endeavor to provide any translation assessment or any pedantic instructions of methods and strategies to follow; rather, the researcher has explicitly endeavored to offer some insights into understanding the symptoms and rationales of making choices while translating any text, based on translators’ schematic behavior that can be best tackled by script theory that shoots far beyond the mere semantic and pragmatic constraints. The study, therefore, attempts to extend the scope of translation studies from the traditional domains of cultural studies and applied linguistics interests into a higher intermediate Sweetserian conceptual analysis of pragmatic behavior and ultimately into some more comprehensive Schankean schematic paradigms.Keywords: Conceptualization, pragmatics, schematic, Schank, script theory, semantics, semiotics, Sweetser

  5. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  6. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice prob...

  7. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  8. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages. Keywords: Translation, Translator, SL, Accommodation, Text

  9. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  10. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  11. A Tentative Analysis of Domestication and Foreignization in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈高娃

    2015-01-01

    In field of translation,there has long been a hot debate over the proper translation strategy chosen for the transmission of cultural contents.The two major approaches are domestication and Foreignization,which have been the focus of debate since their appearance.This thesis aims to analyze the choice of domestication and Foreignization from a new approach,namely,Skopostheorie.

  12. Ideological Manipulations: The Persian Translation of "The Gadfly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Nabi, Mir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the lexical choices made by the translator of a novel. The novel, "The Gadfly," has a political significance for the pre-revolutionary Iran. Lexical choices were discussed in light of the methodology provided by Leuven-Zwart who introduces three taxonomies of modulation, modification and mutation for translation…

  13. SPEECH ACT OF ILTIFAT AND ITS INDONESIAN TRANSLATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaka Al Farisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Iltifat (shifting speech act is distinctive and considered unique style of Arabic. It has potential errors when it is translated into Indonesian. Therefore, translation of iltifat speech act into another language can be an important issue. The objective of the study is to know translation procedures/techniques and ideology required in dealing with iltifat speech act. This research is directed at translation as a cognitive product of a translator. The data used in the present study were the corpus of Koranic verses that contain iltifat speech act along with their translation. Data analysis typically used descriptive-evaluative method with content analysis model. The data source of this research consisted of the Koran and its translation. The purposive sampling technique was employed, with the sample of the iltifat speech act contained in the Koran. The results showed that more than 60% of iltifat speech act were translated by using literal procedure. The significant number of literal translation of the verses asserts that the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to use literal method of translation. In other words, the Koran translation made by the Ministry of Religious Affairs tended to be oriented to the source language in dealing with iltifat speech act. The number of the literal procedure used shows a tendency of foreignization ideology. Transitional pronouns contained in the iltifat speech act can be clearly translated when thick translations were used in the form of description in parentheses. In this case, explanation can be a choice in translating iltifat speech act.

  14. Cooperative attitude and translation control of satellite formation flying using consensus algorithm%基于一致性算法的卫星编队姿轨耦合的协同控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周稼康; 胡庆雷; 马广富; 吕跃勇

    2011-01-01

    针对卫星编队一主多从结构的相对轨迹、姿态的协同控制问题,提出了一种基于Lyapunov方法的编队飞行协同控制策略.该控制策略将分布式控制思想引入卫星编队飞行的相对轨迹、姿态的动力学系统中,使各从星保持编队构型的同时沿期望轨迹相对主星绕飞.从理论上证明了系统的渐近稳定以及对外部干扰的抑制,并基于一致性算法理论定量地分析了通信拓扑结构为有向图情况下控制器参数的选择范围.此外,利用星星间的相对位置信息确定各从星的期望姿态和角速度,以确保对卫星编队进行姿态协同控制,达到跟踪同步的目的.最后将提出的算法应用于卫星三角形编队飞行的协同控制,仿真结果表明该方法的可行性与有效性,具有潜在的应用前景.%This paper proposes a Lyapunov based cooperative control for the coupling of the rotational and translational motion of the satellite formation flying, in which one leader multi-follower satellite formation structure is adopted. More specifically, using the information of the inter-satellite position, the desired attitude quaternion and angular velocity of the followers are determined, such that the desired attitude and position trajectories could be tracked, while simultaneously the synchronized motion among all spacecraft in formation is guaranteed. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is performed using Lyapunov stability theorem and the range of the control parameters are determined by using consensus algorithm even in the presence of external disturbances. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  15. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  16. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  17. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  18. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  19. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  20. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  1. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  2. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  3. The Translators: The Media and School Choice Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The media play a pivotal role in determining how and why research influences public opinion with regard to policy. Prominent columns and articles, especially in the big East Coast papers, influence political behavior among the policy and political elites and offer signals about elite thought and opinion on key issues. The debates about the…

  4. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  5. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  6. Variables as Contextual Constraints in Translating Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babîi Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The translator’s role and responsibility are high in any act of interlingual communication, and even higher when irony, an indirect and deliberately elusive form of communication, is involved in the translation process. By allowing more than one possible interpretation, irony is inevitably exposed to the risk of being misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture the complexity of translating irony, making use of theoretical frameworks provided by literary studies and translation studies. It analyses if and how the types of irony, the literary genres and the cultural, normative factors, perceived as potential contextual constraints, have an impact on the translator’ choices in rendering irony in translation, taking illustrative examples from Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley and David Lodge’s works.

  7. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  8. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  9. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  10. Resolution of Unidentified Words in Machine Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of resolving unidentified lexical units in text-based machine translation (TBMT). In machine translation system it is unlikely to have a complete MT lexicon and hence there is a need of a mechanism to handle the problem of unidentified words. These unknown words could be abbreviations, names, acronyms and newly introduced terms. We have proposed an algorithm for the resolution of the unidentified words. This algorithm takes discourse unit (primitive discourse) as a unit of analysis and provides real time updates to the lexicon. We have manually applied the algorithm to news paper fragments. Along with anaphora and cataphora1 resolution, many unknown words especially names and abbreviations were updated to the lexicon. Moreover flowchart of the proposed algorithm is also presented.

  11. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  12. Developing Evaluation Skills with Legal Translation Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vîlceanu Titela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatically, translation is twofold: an activity/process (more accurately designated by the term translating and a product (the term translation can be restricted to the product. It seems that the product dimension has gained increased importance, being the most visible part of translation as market-driven, design-oriented, precise and measurable - complying with specifications. Translation engenders a sequence: identification of text type and of end users’ needs (experts or non-experts in the field, evaluation of the complexity of the source text via global reading, followed by a close reading of its parts, the translating of the document, the translator’s checking of final version, editing and proofreading. The translator’s choices are accountable in point of cost-effectiveness (efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, the legal translator should master the methodological toolkit, conceptual frame and related terminology, and adopt an inward-looking perspective (intuition, subjectivity, ingrained habits, insights deriving from his/her expertise and experience alongside an outward-looking one (working against objective criteria, standards of quality, benchmarks, etc.

  13. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  14. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  15. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  16. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  17. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  18. An Analysis of the English Translation of Xi JinPing:The Governance Of China-From The Perspective of Toury’s Translation Norms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Xi Jinping:The Governance of China is of great significance in asserting to the world the fundamental policies and state-craft of CPC. Its English translation is analyzed on the basis of Toury’s translation norm theory, which guide and regulate all the processes in the translation activities. Based on preliminary norms, initial norms and initial norms, factors influencing the choice of source text, the attitude of translators as well as the specific translation strategies in the translation activity are explored with detailed cases.

  19. Translation of Spells in the Harry Potter Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

      It is focused on the translation of neologism with a case study of the translation of spells in the Harry Potter series. The formation of spells are first analyzed. After a close analysis of the examples, the major methods of translating spells from English to Chinese is summarized as follows: transliteration, transliteration plus meaning, and form plus meaning, of which the last one is mostly used. In the end, two prominent factors that influence the translators’choice of translating spells are discussed, one of which is culture, and the other audience.

  20. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. CONCLUSION: When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. PRACTICE...

  1. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  2. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...

  3. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  4. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...

  5. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  6. Relative Pose Estimation Algorithm with Gyroscope Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vision and inertial fusion algorithm S2fM (Simplified Structure from Motion for camera relative pose estimation. Different from current existing algorithms, our algorithm estimates rotation parameter and translation parameter separately. S2fM employs gyroscopes to estimate camera rotation parameter, which is later fused with the image data to estimate camera translation parameter. Our contributions are in two aspects. (1 Under the circumstance that no inertial sensor can estimate accurately enough translation parameter, we propose a translation estimation algorithm by fusing gyroscope sensor and image data. (2 Our S2fM algorithm is efficient and suitable for smart devices. Experimental results validate efficiency of the proposed S2fM algorithm.

  7. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  8. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  9. Translating into Free Word Order Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, B

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss machine translation of English text into Turkish, a relatively ``free'' word order language. I present algorithms that determine the topic and the focus of each target sentence (using salience (Centering Theory), old vs. new information, and contrastiveness in the discourse model) in order to generate the contextually appropriate word orders in the target language.

  10. Bssiness Correspondence Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2009-01-01

    It is widely-acknowtedged that business correspondence works as a bridge between the writer and the reader.Taking its characteristics into consideration,this essay illustrates how to do business correspondence translation.Only by abiding by all those fcatures can the translator achieve the aim of translation.

  11. Translation is Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟婧妤

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the art in translation.First,the translation and art are defined and some historic views are illustrated.Then the author lays emphasis on how to convey the artistic information and provides some methods on how to achieve artistic effect in translation.

  12. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  13. Found in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Translators(FIT) is bound to increase China’s international exposure.Shortly before the congress,Guo Xiaoyong,Executive Vice President of the Translators Association of China(TAC),spoke to Beijing Review about his expectations for the event and his evaluation of translation and interpretation services in China.

  14. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  15. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  16. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  17. A set partitioning reformulation for the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Stefan; Lalla-Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MMKP) is a well-known ?-hard combinatorial optimization problem that has received a lot of attention from the research community as it can be easily translated to several real-world problems arising in areas such as allocating resources, reliability engineering, cognitive radio networks, cloud computing, etc. In this regard, an exact model that is able to provide high-quality feasible solutions for solving it or being partially included in algorithmic schemes is desirable. The MMKP basically consists of finding a subset of objects that maximizes the total profit while observing some capacity restrictions. In this article a reformulation of the MMKP as a set partitioning problem is proposed to allow for new insights into modelling the MMKP. The computational experimentation provides new insights into the problem itself and shows that the new model is able to improve on the best of the known results for some of the most common benchmark instances.

  18. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2006-01-01

    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  19. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  20. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  1. A Writer, a Translator and a Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Marinčič

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the French translation of the short story Amy by the Slovenian writer Mira Mihelič, made by Elza Jereb for the anthology Nouvelles slovènes (Paris, 1969). The original text, a classical narrative involving some modernist strategies, presents a syntactical feature rather unusual in Slovenian (although typical of the author Mira Mihelič): a very frequent use of participles and participial structures. Elza Jereb’s translation is accurate and precise, preserving not only th...

  2. Referential Choice: Predictability and Its Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibrik, Andrej A.; Khudyakova, Mariya V.; Dobrov, Grigory B.; Linnik, Anastasia; Zalmanov, Dmitrij A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a study of referential choice in discourse production, understood as the choice between various types of referential devices, such as pronouns and full noun phrases. Our goal is to predict referential choice, and to explore to what extent such prediction is possible. Our approach to referential choice includes a cognitively informed theoretical component, corpus analysis, machine learning methods and experimentation with human participants. Machine learning algorithms make use of 25 factors, including referent’s properties (such as animacy and protagonism), the distance between a referential expression and its antecedent, the antecedent’s syntactic role, and so on. Having found the predictions of our algorithm to coincide with the original almost 90% of the time, we hypothesized that fully accurate prediction is not possible because, in many situations, more than one referential option is available. This hypothesis was supported by an experimental study, in which participants answered questions about either the original text in the corpus, or about a text modified in accordance with the algorithm’s prediction. Proportions of correct answers to these questions, as well as participants’ rating of the questions’ difficulty, suggested that divergences between the algorithm’s prediction and the original referential device in the corpus occur overwhelmingly in situations where the referential choice is not categorical. PMID:27721800

  3. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  4. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  5. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...

  6. Bi-directional memory-based dialog translation The KEMDT approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Lee, J H; Lee, Geunbae; Jung, Hanmin; Lee, Jong-Hyeok

    1995-01-01

    A bi-directional Korean/English dialog translation system is designed and implemented using the memory-based translation technique. The system KEMDT (Korean/English Memory-based Dialog Translation system) can perform Korean to English, and English to Korean translation using unified memory network and extended marker passing algorithm. We resolve the word order variation and frequent word omission problems in Korean by classifying the concept sequence element in four different types and extending the marker- passing-based-translation algorithm. Unlike the previous memory-based translation systems, the KEMDT system develops the bilingual memory network and the unified bi-directional marker passing translation algorithm. For efficient language specific processing, we separate the morphological processors from the memory-based translator. The KEMDT technology provides a hierarchical memory network and an efficient marker-based control for the recent example-based MT paradigm.

  7. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  8. On Peter Newmark’s Semanic Translation & Communicative Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; ZHANG Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Peter Newmark has written many preeminent works on translation theory. He classifies the translation texts into differ⁃ent types,and puts forward his great translation methods-communiative translation and semantic translation. This paper is aimed to explain the creative work by Peter Nwmark in the translation theory.

  9. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  10. The Analysis and Choice of DEM Interpolation Algorithm Based on Different Landform%基于不同地貌类型的DEM内插算法分析与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡璐锦; 王亮; 陶坤旺

    2012-01-01

    This paper chooses rational interpolation algorithm through three dimensional overlay analysis of the four major DEM interpolation algorithms including dual - linear, bi - quadratic, inverse distance weighted, and moving fitting interpolation algorithm in four different landforms including plains, tablelands, hills and mountains, and through accuracy analysis of the different DEM interpolation algorithm of different DEM landform.%文中通过对双线性内插、双二次内插、反距离加权内插以及移动曲面拟合内插这四种 DEM 内插算法,在平原、台地、丘陵、山地这四种不同的地貌类型区域与原始地形的3维叠置分析,以及不同地貌类型不同 DEM 内插算法的精度分析,为不同地貌类型选择合理的内插算法.

  11. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  12. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  13. English Translation Strategies of Lun Yu:A Post-colonial Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoman; Peng Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses English translation strategies of Lun Yu from the perspec-tive of post-colonialism translation theory. Post-colonial translation theory makes research like cultural archaeology on translation practice, and influences translation practice through power difference of power discourse. It researches and interprets the translator’ s conscious and unconscious value orientations and choices of strategy. Under its guidance,a research is made concerning the English translation of Lun Yu,and four strategies,namely,domestication,for-eignization,hybridization and decolonization,are explicitly explained and analyzed.

  14. The role of translator and translation in the age of knowledge globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnichuk M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article consider the problem of translation in the age of knowledge globalization. The English language, which is used to transfer knowledge, brings a serious influence on the target language and target culture. The dominant position of English academic discourse in the publishing industry might erode the discourse standards accepted in the less dominant cultures partly due to translation strategies applied by the translator. In this context, the role of translator is crucial. The authors point out that nowadays the foreignizing rather than domesticating approach is used. At the same time, the authors emphasize that it is hardly possible to reveal either the absolute foreignization or the absolute domestication in practice. A wide range of famous linguists underline that the foreignized translation is source language oriented, while the domesticated translation is target language adjusted. Many factors affect the choice of strategy: the translator’s ideology and education, the translation’s goal, the target languages norms, reader’s reaction, etc. However, the major factor is the translation’s goal. To produce a successful translation, the best translator’s solution would be to adopt a more flexible approach, i.e. to employ both strategies. The foreignization and the domestication may coexist, as they are supplementary. The issues considered in the paper may be of interest to ESP teaching staff at schools of higher education.

  15. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  16. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  17. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications...

  18. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  19. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  20. Transliteration in EST Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新然

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, this paper presents the definition of transliteration and its important position in EST translation. Secondly, in terms of the previous practice and experience in EST translation, four main transliteration techniques are concluded and analyzed. But meanwhile, there are still some negative issues and phenomena. As a result, it is worthy to make good use of the existing transliteration techniques and create more proper ones to remove the obstructions and promote the development of EST translation.

  1. Translation domains in multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-01-01

    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  2. A Stylistic Analysis on Two Translations of Lolita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Li-fei

    2016-01-01

    Stylistics studies the style of a text and the particular effect generated by the particular language choice. As a recre-ation of the original text, translation should not only presents the original literal meanings, but also conveys the original style and language effects. Therefore, through the stylistic analysis of two Chinese versions of Lolita, this paper focuses on the neces-sity and significance of taking style into consideration in translation.

  3. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  4. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  5. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  6. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  7. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  8. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  9. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  10. Translation and integration of numerical atomic orbitals in linear molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinäsmäki, Sami, E-mail: sami.heinasmaki@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, FIN-90014, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-02-14

    We present algorithms for translation and integration of atomic orbitals for LCAO calculations in linear molecules. The method applies to arbitrary radial functions given on a numerical mesh. The algorithms are based on pseudospectral differentiation matrices in two dimensions and the corresponding two-dimensional Gaussian quadratures. As a result, multicenter overlap and Coulomb integrals can be evaluated effectively.

  11. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  12. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...

  13. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  14. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  15. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  16. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  17. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  18. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  19. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  20. Translations and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the role played by local translational symmetry in the context of gauge theories of fundamental interactions. Translational connections and fields are introduced, with special attention being paid to their universal coupling to other variables, as well as to their contributions to field equations and to conserved quantities.

  1. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  2. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  3. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  4. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  5. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  6. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) ha...

  7. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  8. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  9. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  10. 负向数据补偿算法及其在供应商选择中的应用%Negative Data Compensation Algorithm and Its Application in the Choice of Suppliers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益华; 陈菊红

    2011-01-01

    Generally,negative data are rarely used in data mining method,because it is difficult to classify the output test data correctly.However,the existing research has begun to pay attention to negative data,which are used to significantly improve prediction accuracy.In this paper,negative data compensation algorithm based on the SVM is proposed and applied to supplier selection.The results show that the algorithm can obtain a more accurate prediction models.%以往的数据挖掘方法一般都不会采用负向数据(negative data),因为其难以对测试数据集的产出进行正确的分类。但现有研究已经开始关注负向数据的应用,并且认为利用负向数据进行训练能够显著提高预测精度。本文在SVM(支持向量机)的基础上提出了一种负向数据补偿算法,并将其应用于供应商选择问题。研究结果表明该算法能够得到具有更高精度的预测模型。

  11. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  12. Habitat Choice and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Webster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of habitat choice in reproductive isolation and ecological speciation has often been overlooked, despite acknowledgement of its ability to facilitate local adaptation. It can form part of the speciation process through various evolutionary mechanisms, yet where habitat choice has been included in models of ecological speciation little thought has been given to these underlying mechanisms. Here, we propose and describe three independent criteria underlying ten different evolutionary scenarios in which habitat choice may promote or maintain local adaptation. The scenarios are the result of all possible combinations of the independent criteria, providing a conceptual framework in which to discuss examples which illustrate each scenario. These examples show that the different roles of habitat choice in ecological speciation have rarely been effectively distinguished. Making such distinctions is an important challenge for the future, allowing better experimental design, stronger inferences and more meaningful comparisons among systems. We show some of the practical difficulties involved by reviewing the current evidence for the role of habitat choice in local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis, a model system for the study of ecological speciation, assessing whether any of the proposed scenarios can be reliably distinguished, given current research.

  13. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  14. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  15. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  16. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  17. On the Tasks of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓菊

    2012-01-01

      Many linguists, translators, and theorists have been arguing over the approaches on translation. While putting these into use a translator may experience many pleasure and problems as well. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tasks of translation and the way of choosing the proper translation approaches according to the author’s own experience of practice.

  18. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...

  19. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product.......Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...

  20. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  1. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  2. The Equivalence of Translated Songs Lyrics and their Effects - The Case of Translated Ecclesial Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing the equivalence of eclessial song lyrics, which belong to the content word, the meaning of the sentences and their effect on church songs. The method used in this study is descriptive and qualitative by using music, language, and interdiciline approach. The data collection method used questionnaires technique, interview, documents and content analysis. The data used are 5 documents of songs chosen purposively as the primary data. Based on the data being analyzed, the results of this study were: 1 The translated content word located in the same bars and equivalent was around 27.07%, the translated content word located in the same bars, but not equivalent was 18.34%, the translated content word located in the different bars, but equivalent was 11.79%, the translated content word located in the different bars and not equivalent was 2.62%, and the untranslated words were 4.17%. 2 The translation of equivalence beautiful lyrics showed the beauty of the song was equivalent at 17.02%, the beauty of the song was less equivalent at 29.78%, the beauty of the song was not equivalent of 61.70%. 3. The differences of structure caused the incorrect dictions or choice of words and missing words in the translated lyrics.

  3. The Choice of Core Control Algorithm for 2-wheeled Auto-balancing Electric Vehicle%两轮自平衡电动车核心控制算法的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小仨

    2013-01-01

    两轮自平衡电动车采用的是倒立摆的控制思想,人类可以完美的手动控制倒立摆,利用身体的平衡技巧骑行自行车、电动车,不会摔倒,那么,我们能否模拟人类的控制平衡的方法来控制自然不稳定的两轮车达到自动平衡呢,答案是肯定的,我们设计一种控制器,采用模糊控制、PID算法、自适应技术三者相结合的核心控制算法,作用于执行结构就能达到预期的效果。%The 2-wheeled of self-balancing electric vehicle is used the thought of inverted pendulum control, human being can be perfected the manual control of the inverted pendulum, and by using the skills of ride bikes for body's bal-ance the electric cars which will not fall down, so, we can simulate human balance control method to control the unstable nature of the 2-wheeled vehicle to achieve automatic balance, the answer is positive, we design a controller, fuzzy control, PID algorithm and adaptive technology, combined with the core of the control algorithm, and applied to perform structure, the desirable effect can be achieved.

  4. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  5. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pym

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  6. 基于需求的三级映射管理的闪存转换层算法%Three-level mapping management flash translation layer algorithm based on demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓军; 王举利; 张南; 高会娟

    2016-01-01

    Flash translation layer(FTL) is always needed when NAND Flash is used in a memory device. Page level transla-tion is the most popular, but needs a large RAM to store mapping table. A three-level mapping management FTL based on the requirement (TFTL) is presented. The mapping tables stored in the NAND block to relieve pressure for SRAM and the page displacement method is used to move the mapping table in NAND block to SRAM. Com-pared with Page mapping FTL, DFTL and FAST, TFTL has a better performance on the NAND wear leveling. The system response time, and the standard deviation of system response time of TFTL have little difference with those of Page mapping FTL.%使用NAND Flash作为存储介质的存储设备常需要闪存转换层(FTL)对NAND进行管理。页映射是一种常见的映射方式,但需要很大的内存存放页映射表。针对该问题,提出了基于需求的三级映射管理的闪存转换层算法(TFTL)。映射表保存在NAND闪存块中,减轻SRAM的压力,采用页置换法把需求的映射表搬移到SRAM中。由TFTL算法与Page mapping FTL、FAST、DFTL的对比分析可知:NAND闪存块擦除次数均衡性较好,系统响应时间和系统响应时间的标准差与Page mapping FTL等算法差异小。

  7. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  8. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  9. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  10. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  11. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  12. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  13. An On-line Assessment System for English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan; LU Ru-zhan; DUAN Jian-yong

    2007-01-01

    On-line assessment of English-Chinese translation is a challenging task as it involves natural language processing. YanFa, an on-line assessment system for English-Chinese translation, is a pilot research project into scoring student's translation on-line. Based on the theory of translation equivalence, an algorithm called "conceptual similarity matching" was developed. YanFa can assess students' translation on-line timely, generate test papers automatically, offer standard versions of translation, and the scores of each sentence to students. The evaluation proves that YanFa is practical compared with the scores given by experts.

  14. Actors´balancing of criteria when translating an idea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2010-01-01

    The model of association has until now been less precise and needs development of its theorization of the role of human translators and their criteria for choices in local organizing processes. The paper contributes to this development by means of an explorative case-study. The case-analysis demo...

  15. Application of VIKOR Algorithm in Choice of Spare Parts Suppliers in VMI%VIKOR 算法在 VMI 备件供应商选择的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海草; 易树平

    2014-01-01

    针对供应链环境下备件供应商选择的复杂性,在进行备件分类管理的基础上分析了供应商管理库存(VMI)对 B 类备件的适用性,构建了 VMI 备件供应商的评价指标体系,应用熵权法确定了相应评价指标的权重,并运用 VIKOR 算法对备件供应商进行了评价研究。通过实例证明了该方法在备件供应商选择中的有效性。%The suitability of VMI to the kind of B spare parts was analyzed based on the sort management of spare parts which is aimed at complexity of the selection of parts suppliers under the environment of the supply chain.A supplier evalu-ation index system was structured,with the weights of corresponding indicators determined via entropy method,and spare parts suppliers evaluated via VIKOR algorithm.Finally,the effectiveness has been proved effective in the selection of spare parts suppliers in examples.

  16. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  17. English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity of adopting interactive approach in college English teaching and proposes that teachers are supposed to mobilize students' intrinsic motivation when following proper translation teaching procedures.

  18. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  19. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    society is described as networks binding bits and pieces together. Humans are also themselves networks of skin, bones, enzymes, cells etc. What homogenize the many heterogeneous entities in networks are processes of translations (Schiølin 2010). Translation is never neutral, and is not meant like from...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  20. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  1. The Choice for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  2. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

    2014-01-10

    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  3. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  4. Choices, Not Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    Following a brief account of the circumstances of migrant workers and the status of migrant education in the United States, this pamphlet describes how the National Education Association (NEA) has impacted and will continue to impact the process of providing educational choices for migrant students. The NEA has consistently testified before…

  5. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  6. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  7. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  8. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  9. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  10. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  11. Translation dictionaries triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic Translation Dictionaries (PTD) are translation resources that can be obtained automatically from parallel corpora. Although this process is simple, it requires the existence of a parallel corpora for the involved languages. Minoritized languages have a limited amount of available resources. For example, while they can have a few parallel corpora, the number of parallel language-pairs uses to be restricted. We defend that if a minoritized language A has a parallel corpus with a l...

  12. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  13. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  14. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  15. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  16. TRANSLATION STRATEGIES FOR TOURISM DISCOURSE TEXTS (THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF A HOTEL WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alexeevna Novozhilova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of linguistic and cultural aspects of the tourism discourse which has been very acute due to the development of tourist industry. International tourism has become wide-spread resulting in the necessity of related translations.Purpose. The study aims at defining discourse-conditioned translation strategies for tou-rism discourse texts.Materials. The author used texts in German and their translations from the website of one of the premium hotels in Germany as the materials of the study.Methods. Among the methods of analysis used are: stylistic analysis method, comparative method, descriptive method, semantic and structural analysis.Results. Translation mistakes and errors have been identified, translation strategies typical for tourism discourse texts have been offered, among them: recipient orientation, minimizing key information losses, choice of lexical and stylistic translation equivalents. The results of the study can be used in translation studies and translation practices.

  17. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  18. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  19. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  20. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns. Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  1. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  2. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate...... relevant and heterogeneous routes: doubly stochastic generation function, breadth first search on link elimination, and branch & bound algorithm. Efficiency of the methods was evaluated for a high-resolution network by comparing the performances with four multi-attribute cost functions accounting...... generated realistic routes, while the former outperformed in computation cost and the latter produced more heterogeneous routes....

  3. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  4. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  5. How Happiness Affects Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar D. Kamvar

    2012-01-01

    Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers' pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers' choices reflect those differences. In some cases, happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases, happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is determined by one's temporal focus, such that individuals tend to choose more exciting options when focused on ...

  6. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  7. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  8. Algorithm design

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Algorithm Design introduces algorithms by looking at the real-world problems that motivate them. The book teaches students a range of design and analysis techniques for problems that arise in computing applications. The text encourages an understanding of the algorithm design process and an appreciation of the role of algorithms in the broader field of computer science.

  9. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  10. Translation of The Catcher in the Rye from the Perspective of Skopos Theory-A Case Study of Sun Zhongxu’s Translation Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the E-C translation of the book The Catcher in the Rye from the perspective of Skopos theory, tak-ing Sun Zhongxu’s translation work as an example, in which, literature method and case study method are adopted. The paper finds that Sun Zhongxu uses many colloquial expressions to convey the meaning of the source language. His translation strate-gies,his translation of American slangs, and his choices of words all reflect the three rules of Skopos theory.

  11. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  12. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  13. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  14. Cloud-based Evolutionary Algorithms: An algorithmic study

    CERN Document Server

    Merelo, Juan-J; Mora, Antonio M; Castillo, Pedro; Romero, Gustavo; Laredo, JLJ

    2011-01-01

    After a proof of concept using Dropbox(tm), a free storage and synchronization service, showed that an evolutionary algorithm using several dissimilar computers connected via WiFi or Ethernet had a good scaling behavior in terms of evaluations per second, it remains to be proved whether that effect also translates to the algorithmic performance of the algorithm. In this paper we will check several different, and difficult, problems, and see what effects the automatic load-balancing and asynchrony have on the speed of resolution of problems.

  15. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  16. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  17. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  18. Yan Fu's Thoughts of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩赵东

    2009-01-01

    Yan Fu was famous translator in Chinese history, and proposed three standards of translation. The theory made great contribution to Chinese translation history. However, with the development of society at present, Yah Fu's theory had been out of date. More and more translators and scholars pay more attention on linguistics to translate appropriately nowadays. It is the aim to analysis this problem in the article and introduces more detailed knowledge to make flourish translation, so that it becomes true that Chinese translation develop step by step.

  19. Translating poetry: Creative art or semantic science? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Beckett

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an on-going debate as to the real value of translation: is it an art or a science? Is the translator engaged in genuine creation or is she merely transliterating the creation of someone else? In order to attempt to resolve this long-standing and thorny problem, this article examines the poet’s understanding of the “logos", the creative force of the word and the relationship which exists between the “signifiant" and the “signifié”. Extracts from poems by Alan Paton, Victor Hugo and Pablo Neruda serve to illustrate that poetic words not only transmit the poet’s experience but actually create it. If the poet is sensitive to the creative nature of language, as these two extracts suggest he should be, it follows logically that a good translator too must be aware of the degree to which language can create, and this perception must be implemented in the subsequent translation. Because only human beings and not machines possess sensitivity, it stands to reason that a machine is incapable of effectively translating the most emotional of literary genres: poetry. So as to illustrate this fact, this article compares and contrasts a computer-generated translation of Paul Verlaine's poem “Chanson d’automne" with three “human-generated” translations. In my own translation, comments and justifications are made as to the choice of a particular word or phrase proposed as translation. The conclusion is reached that translation implies a high degree of sensitivity towards the poet’s original intention as well as a collaborative process between poet and translator which results in an entirely new poem which involves as much, but different creativity as the original writing of the poem.

  20. Machine Translation Using Constraint-Based Synchronous Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Fai; DONG Mingchui; HU Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A synchronous grammar based on the formalism of context-free grammar was developed by generalizing the first component of production that models the source text. Unlike other synchronous grammars,the grammar allows multiple target productions to be associated to a single production rule which can be used to guide a parser to infer different possible translational equivalences for a recognized input string according to the feature constraints of symbols in the pattern. An extended generalized LR algorithm was adapted to the parsing of the proposed formalism to analyze the syntactic structure of a language. The grammar was used as the basis for building a machine translation system for Portuguese to Chinese translation. The empirical results show that the grammar is more expressive when modeling the translational equivalences of parallel texts for machine translation and grammar rewriting applications.

  1. A variational formulation for translation and assimilation of coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assimilation of observations from teledetected images in geophysical models requires one to develop algorithms that would account for the existence of coherent structures. In the context of variational data assimilation, a method is proposed to allow the background to be translated so as to fit structure positions deduced from images. Translation occurs as a first step before assimilating all the observations using a classical assimilation procedure with specific covariances for the translated background. A simple validation is proposed using a dynamical system based on the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg–Landau equation in a regime prone to phase and amplitude errors. Assimilation of observations after background translation leads to better scores and a better representation of extremas than the method without translation.

  2. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  3. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  4. Structural choice based on knowledge discovery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢方亮; 王光远

    2002-01-01

    Structural choice is a significant decision having an important influence on structural function, socialeconomics, structural reliability and construction cost. A Case Based Reasoning system with its retrieval partconstructed with a KDD subsystem, is put forward to make a decision for a large scale engineering project. Atypical CBR system consists of four parts: case representation, case retriever, evaluation, and adaptation. Acase library is a set of parameterized excellent and successful structures. For a structural choice, the key pointis that the system must be able to detect the pattern classes hidden in the case library and classify the input pa-rameters into classes properly. That is done by using the KDD Data Mining algorithm based on Self-OrganizingFeature Maps ( SOFM), which makes the whole system more adaptive, self-organizing, self-learning and open.

  5. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF ZHANGPEIJI'S PROSE TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽丽

    2015-01-01

    Zhang Peiji has worked hard for over sixty years in the translation fields,which makes his prose translation studied by a lot of scholars. His translation that best shows his translation thought and aesthetic thought is natural, expressive and skilfuly representative of the original's style. Based on Nida's theory of functional equivalence, the thesis makes an analysis of the transformation in Zhang Peiji's prose translation.

  7. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  8. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  9. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  10. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  11. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer A. MATHER; Tatiana S. LEITE; Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-01-01

    Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level.Here,we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice.Two methods were used,an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS) and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey.In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generaiist by IS=0.77,but most chose many prey of the same species,and were specialists on it by >75% intake.Another population had a wider prey selection,still generalist with PSi=0.66,but two individuals specialized by choices.In Bonaire,there was a wide range of prey species chosen,and the population was specialists by IS=0.42.Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists.A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans,so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74.But by individual choices,three were considered a specialist.A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences,in which seven were also specialists,IS=0.53.By individual choices,thirteen were also specialists.Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging,we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study.

  12. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].

  13. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  14. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  15. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  16. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider....... However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...

  17. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  18. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider...

  19. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  20. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  1. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  2. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  3. Translation and Transliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Makes a case for using transliteration in order to avoid wholesale translation of new words from the natural sciences and technology into Indian languages. Proposes introduction of the Roman alphabet (in a modified form), so that the Indian languages can accommodate new loans within their own phonetic systems without any substantial changes. (SR)

  4. Not Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Translation is all about one thing and one thing only, and that’s communication. Since people of different nationalities first came into contact with each other, the need to make them- selves understood was at the top of their agenda.

  5. On the English Translation of Shaanxi Snacks from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Ruo-ran

    2016-01-01

    Shaanxi province has increasingly extended its opening-up to the outside world since the strategy of developing the Western regions of continental China was implemented. Among the developing businesses are Shaanxi snacks which are part of everyday life in Shaanxi, therefore the English translation of Shaanxi snacks should be considered as no lesser than any other cultural translation. This thesis discusses the English translation of Shaanxi snacks following the outline of the German function-alist, Skopos Theory. This paper will suggest more suitable translation strategies while amplifying translation choices which could be easily adopted in place of the erroneous translations. This thesis aims to raise people’s awareness on the English trans-lation of Shaanxi snacks.

  6. Generation and quality assessment of route choice sets in public transport networks by means of RP data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    discrete choice models, this paper focuses on the issue of choice set generation in public transport networks. Specifically, this paper describes the generation of choice sets for users of the Greater Copenhagen public transport system by applying a doubly stochastic path generation algorithm...

  7. Translated Poisson Mixture Model for Stratification Learning (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Translated Poisson Mixture Model for Stratification Learning Gloria Haro Dept. Teoria ...Pless. Figure 1 shows, for each algorithm, the point cloud with each point colored and marked differently according to its classification. In the dif...1: Clustering of a spiral and a plane. Results with different algorithms (this is a color figure). Due to the statistical nature of the R-TPMM

  8. Violence and Translation%暴力与翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕兆芳; 刘军平

    2015-01-01

    翻译策略的选择受多种因素的制约,但无论是归化还是异化,都注定将结出暴力的果。翻译是暴力产生的场所,有翻译的地方就有暴力,二者如影随形,这是翻译的宿命,也是由翻译的本质决定的。虽然暴力是翻译的常态,但也是不同文化之间沟通的唯一选择。文章从历史、文化、译者的道德立场等方面分析翻译暴力产生的根源及其存在的普遍性。%The choice of translation strategies is conditioned by various factors. However, it is doomed to bear the fruit of violence whatever strategy of domestication or foreignization is to be chosen. Translating is the field where violence happens. Where the translation happens, there is violence. The destiny is determined by the nature of translation. Though being the normalcy of translating violence, it is the only way to communicate between cultures. This paper is to analyze the roots of violence of translation and its university from history, culture and the moral stance of translators, etc.

  9. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  10. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  11. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  12. Using Invariant Translation to Denoise Electroencephalogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janett Walters-Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Because of the distance between the skull and the brain and their different resistivitys, Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings on a machine is usually mixed with the activities generated within the area called noise. EEG signals have been used to diagnose major brain diseases such as Epilepsy, narcolepsy and dementia. The presence of these noises however can result in misdiagnosis, as such it is necessary to remove them before further analysis and processing can be done. Denoising is often done with Independent Component Analysis algorithms but of late Wavelet Transform has been utilized. Approach: In this study we utilized one of the newer Wavelet Transform methods, Translation-Invariant, to deny EEG signals. Different EEG signals were used to verify the method using the MATLAB software. Results were then compared with those of renowned ICA algorithms Fast ICA and Radical and evaluated using the performance measures Mean Square Error (MSE, Percentage Root Mean Square Difference (PRD and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. Results: Experiments revealed that Translation-Invariant Wavelet Transform had the smallest MSE and PRD while having the largest SNR. Conclusion/Recommendations: This indicated that it performed superior to the ICA algorithms producing cleaner EEG signals which can influence diagnosis as well as clinical studies of the brain.

  13. English to Tamil machine translation system using universal networking language

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESWARI SRIDHAR; PAVITHRA SETHURAMAN; KASHYAP KRISHNAKUMAR

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes English to Tamil machine translation system, using the universal networking language (UNL) as the intermediate representation. The UNL approach is a hybrid approach of the rule and knowledge-based approaches to machine translation. UNL is a declarative formal language, specifically designed to represent semantic data extracted from a natural language text. The input English sentence is converted to UNL (enconversion), which is then converted to a Tamil sentence (deconversion) by ensuring thatthe meaning of the input sentence is preserved. The representation of UNL was modified to suit the translation process. A new sentence formation algorithm was also proposed to rearrange the translated Tamil words to sentences. The translation system was evaluated using bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) score. A BLEU score of 0.581 was achieved, which is an indication that most of the information in the input sentence is retained in the translated sentence. The scores obtained using the UNL based approach were compared with existingapproaches to translation, and it can be concluded that the UNL is a more suited approach to machine translation.

  14. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  15. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  16. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  17. Quantum Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D.; Williams, C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases for which all know classical algorithms require exponential time.

  18. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  19. A Study on Translation Strategies in Tourist Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yuan-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Tourist materials play a significant role in publicizing China’s tourism industry in the world. In the current English translation of Chinese tourist materials, some problems exist because of differences in Chinese and English style and expression characteristics. This paper is intended to conduct a preliminary study on the tourist translation and put forward some useful transla-tion strategies.

  20. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  1. The Important Role of Context of Culture in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 黄英双

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the indispensable role of c ontext of culture in the translation of meaning of language in-use,showing it to be the source of contex tual background of a particular text and of which the contextual features derive .It pays special attention to the tactics for understanding as well as interpret ing words in the light of context.It maintains that the context of culture in wh ich the translator works in mainly affects and limits the choice of words in tra nslation.

  2. Efficient algorithms for the laboratory discovery of optimal quantum controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinici, Gabriel; Le Bris, Claude; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory closed-loop optimal control of quantum phenomena, expressed as minimizing a suitable cost functional, is currently implemented through an optimization algorithm coupled to the experimental apparatus. In practice, the most commonly used search algorithms are variants of genetic algorithms. As an alternative choice, a direct search deterministic algorithm is proposed in this paper. For the simple simulations studied here, it outperforms the existing approaches. An additional algorithm is introduced in order to reveal some properties of the cost functional landscape.

  3. Axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Herrlich, Horst

    2006-01-01

    AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom, shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that: Disasters happen without AC: Many fundamental mathematical results fail (being equivalent in ZF to AC or to some weak form of AC). Disasters happen with AC: Many undesirable mathematical monsters are being created (e.g., non measurable sets and undeterminate games). Some beautiful mathematical theorems hold only if AC is replaced by some alternative axiom, contradicting AC (e.g., by AD, the axiom of determinateness). Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.

  4. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  5. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  6. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  7. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  8. The mechanism of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Translation of the genetic code on the ribosome into protein is a process of extraordinary complexity, and understanding its mechanism has remained one of the major challenges even though x-ray structures have been available since 2000. In the past two decades, single-particle cryo-electron microscopy has contributed a major share of information on structure, binding modes, and conformational changes of the ribosome during its work cycle, but the contributions of this technique in the translation field have recently skyrocketed after the introduction of a new recording medium capable of detecting individual electrons. As many examples in the recent literature over the past three years show, the impact of this development on the advancement of knowledge in this field has been transformative and promises to be lasting.

  9. A cognitive framework for mate choice and species recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Steven M; Rand, A Stanley; Ryan, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Mating decisions contribute to both the fitness of individuals and the emergence of evolutionary diversity, yet little is known about their cognitive architecture. We propose a simple model that describes how preferences are translated into decisions and how seemingly disparate patterns of preference can emerge from a single perceptual process. The model proposes that females use error-prone estimates of attractiveness to select mates based on a simple decision rule: choose the most attractive available male that exceeds some minimal criterion. We test the model in the tungara frog, a well-characterized species with an apparent dissociation between mechanisms of mate choice and species recognition. As suggested by our model results, we find that a mate attraction feature alters assessments of species status. Next, we compare female preferences in one-choice and two-choice tests, contexts thought to emphasize species recognition and mate choice, respectively. To do so, we use the model to generate maximum-likelihood estimators of preference strengths from empirical data. We find that a single representation of preferences is sufficient to explain response probabilities in both contexts across a wide range of stimuli. In this species, mate choice and species recognition are accurately and simply summarized by our model. While the findings resolve long-standing anomalies, they also illustrate how models of choice can bridge theoretical and empirical treatments of animal decisions. The data demonstrate a remarkable congruity of perceptual processes across contexts, tasks, and taxa.

  10. The choice of a 'Best' assisted history matching algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.G.; Przybysz-Jarnut, J.K.; Krymskaya, M.V.; Heemink, A.W.; Jansen, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted history matching is the act of systematicalty adjusting a ‘prior’ reservoir model using measured data until its simulated production response closely reproduces the past behavior of the reservoir. Thereafler, the updated, ‘posterior’, model is expected to predict future reservoir b

  11. Implementations of translational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag Kai-Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New developments in science are rapidly influencing and shaping basic and clinical research and medicine. This has led to the emergence of multiple opportunities and challenges on many levels in the bio-medical and other associated fields. To face these opportunities and challenges, new concepts and strategies are needed. These can be provided by translational research/medicine as an integrative concept based on a multidirectional understanding of research and medicine embedded in a ...

  12. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies.  Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  13. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  14. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  15. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  16. A choice-semantical approach to theoretical truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Holger; Schiemer, Georg

    2016-08-01

    A central topic in the logic of science concerns the proper semantic analysis of theoretical sentences, that is sentences containing theoretical terms. In this paper, we present a novel choice-semantical account of theoretical truth based on the epsilon-term definition of theoretical terms. Specifically, we develop two ways of specifying the truth conditions of theoretical statements in a choice functional semantics, each giving rise to a corresponding logic of such statements. In order to investigate the inferential strength of these logical systems, we provide a translation of each truth definition into a modal definition of theoretical truth. Based on this, we show that the stronger notion of choice-semantical truth captures more adequately our informal semantic understanding of scientific statements.

  17. Knowledge Translation: Implications for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Translation theory originates in the field of applied linguistics and communication. The term knowledge translation has been adopted in health and other fields to refer to the exchange, synthesis, and application of knowledge. The logic model is a circular or iterative loop among various knowledge translation actors (knowledge producers and users)…

  18. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  19. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  20. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  1. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  2. The Translator in Cultural Mediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迎新

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing cross-cultural exchanges, the translator should respect and spread the source culture. It is necessary for translators to employ as much as possible the foreignizing translation to keep the exotic flavor of the source language.A Chi-nese translator’s responsibility is to spread Chinese culture.

  3. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  4. Forecasting the Efficiency of Test Generation Algorithms for Combinational Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐拾义

    2000-01-01

    In this era of VLSI circuits, testability is truly a very crucial issue. To generate a test set for a given circuit, choice of an algorithm from a number of existing test generation algorithms to apply is bound to vary from circuit to circuit. In this paper, the Genetic Algorithm is used in order to construct an accurate model for some existing test generation algorithms that are being used everywhere in the world. Some objective quantitative measures are used as an effective tool in making such choice. Such measures are so important to the analysis of algorithms that they become one of the subjects of this work.

  5. Towards Automatic Controller Design using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf

    of evolutionary computation, a choice was made to use multi-objective algorithms for the purpose of aiding in automatic controller design. More specifically, the choice was made to use the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which is one of the most potent algorithms currently in use......, as the foundation for achieving the desired goal. While working with the algorithm, some issues arose which limited the use of the algorithm for unknown problems. These issues included the relative scale of the used fitness functions and the distribution of solutions on the optimal Pareto front. Some work has...

  6. Choice of measurement as the secret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Huang, Wei; Liu, Feng; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2014-04-01

    Recently, Kalev et al. [A. Kalev, A. Mann, and M. Revzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 260502 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.260502] proposed a quantum (public) communication protocol with an interesting encoding style, where the signal is encoded in the choice of the measurement basis of one of the communicating parties (Bob) and Bob's measurement results are irrelevant for the communication. As we know, one of the main advantages of quantum technique in communication over the classical one is the higher security. Therefore, as Kalev et al. have mentioned in their paper, an interesting open question is whether one could and how to utilize this new encoding style to design a secure communication protocol, i.e., translate the choice of measurement into the secret. Here we propose a quantum key distribution protocol, which is a secure communication protocol, with this encoding style, where Bob's measurement results are still irrelevant. Furthermore, the security of the proposed protocol in the zero-error case has been proved.

  7. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  8. Career choices of lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.

  9. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....... treat one or few fields extensively thereby neglecting the discourse of the other fields. Furthermore, recent research shows that specialised translation is not limited to terms but also concerns domain-specific syntactic structures and genre conventions using various translation strategies. To meet...

  10. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  11. Modeling of genetic algorithms with a finite population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Cross-competition between non-overlapping building blocks can strongly influence the performance of evolutionary algorithms. The choice of the selection scheme can have a strong influence on the performance of a genetic algorithm. This paper describes a number of different genetic algorithms, all in

  12. I can't wait: Methods for measuring and moderating individual differences in impulsive choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer R; Hill, Catherine C; Marshall, Andrew T; Stuebing, Sarah L; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive choice behavior occurs when individuals make choices without regard for future consequences. This behavior is often maladaptive and is a common symptom in many disorders, including drug abuse, compulsive gambling, and obesity. Several proposed mechanisms may influence impulsive choice behavior. These mechanisms provide a variety of pathways that may provide the basis for individual differences that are often evident when measuring choice behavior. This review provides an overview of these different pathways to impulsive choice, and the behavioral intervention strategies being developed to moderate impulsive choice. Because of the compelling link between impulsive choice behavior and the near-epidemic pervasiveness of obesity in the United States, we focus on the relationship between impulsive choice behavior and obesity as a test case for application of the multiple pathways approach. Choosing immediate gratification over healthier long term food choices is a contributing factor to the obesity crisis. Behavioral interventions can lead to more self controlled choices in a rat pre-clinical model, suggesting a possible gateway for translation to human populations. Designing and implementing effective impulsive choice interventions is crucial to improving the overall health and well-being of impulsive individuals.

  13. Literal Translation and Free Translation in the Translation of the Bible——Struggles and Compromises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琰; 陈懿

    2008-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the struggles and compromises of literal translation and free translation in the Bible translation,and comes to the conclusion that the two methods experienced a process from being immature to mature till the final merge of them,which reflected the need of the readers and the social settings of different epochs.

  14. 翻译过程中措辞的多样性%The Coloring of Diction in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳

    2003-01-01

    The choice of words should meet the needs of style and emotion in translation. Since translation serves as a tie of intercultural communication, and English and Chinese words are rich and different in function and coloring, only through conscientious research can proper interlingual communication be achieved.

  15. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  16. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...... texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from...

  17. Translating Shakespeare for the theatre Translating Shakespeare for the theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Déprats

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy

  18. Deafness, culture, and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, N

    2002-10-01

    The recent controversy surrounding the choice, by a deaf lesbian couple, to have children who were themselves deaf, has focused attention on the ethics of choosing (apparent) disabilities for children. Deaf activists argue that deafness is not a disability, but instead the constitutive condition of access to a rich culture. Being deaf carries disadvantages with it, but these are a product of discrimination, not of the condition itself. It is, however, implausible to think that all the disadvantages which stem from deafness are social in origin. Moreover, though it may be true that being deaf carries with it the important compensation of access to a rich culture, no physical condition is required for such access. Cultures are simply the kind of things to which we are born, and therefore to which the children of deaf parents, hearing or deaf, normally belong. Thus these parents are making a mistake in choosing deafness for their children. Given their own experience of isolation as children, however, it is a mistake which is understandable, and our reaction to them ought to be compassion, not condemnation.

  19. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  20. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  1. On Translatability and Untranslatability in Translation of Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2015-01-01

    Translation is a field full of paradoxes.The question of whether or not languages are translatable has been argued for many years in the history of translation.There are many opposite idea on this question,for example,to what degree languages are translatable,and all this problems relating to translatability and untranslatability have always been difficult questions for fur-ther studying.Also,idioms are major components of a language.They are experience and lessons that people learned from years of hard work and life experiences,and they reflect the wisdom of human beings.In a word,when it comes to the translatability and untranslatability of Chinese idioms,there usually exist more obvious problems.Because Chinese idioms have certain ethnic characteristics and distinguishable cultural meanings,and more importantly they are deeply rooted in national culture and soci-ety.This essay first introduced the relationship between Untranslatability and Translatability,and then discussed the features of Chinese idioms,and later this essay mainly discussed the translatability and untranslatability in a translating process from a per-spective of the translation of Chinese idioms.Finally,it gives some practical ways to reduce the untranslatability of Chinese idi-oms.

  2. CULTURAL TRANSFER IN TRAVEL GUIDE TRANSLATION: DISCOURSE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova Elina Yuryevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication and dialogue between various social and political structures and their globalized conditions immediately lead to the development of tourism and services market in this area, including translation services. The study of linguocultural characteristics of a travel guide in terms of pragmatically adequate translation is an interesting aspect for the analysis of the development and functioning of logics of modern interaction planes because the mass tourism participants' communicative characteristics are determined, on the one hand, by the universal, global, economic, social and cultural programmes of mass tourism and, on the other hand, by the local and national peculiarities of tourism discourse in general. The choice of linguistic means in travel guides is determined by their communicative and pragmatic as well as ethno-cultural characteristics that form the main discourse oriented translation programme. The translation of the travel guide texts to German supposes significant differences at out- and in-text levels to achieve maximum compliance with the potential recipients' expectations. The analysis of the two translations of the Russian-language travel guide made to German by the native German speaker and the non-native German speaker let define the so-called sharp edges in the cultural transfer of the information important for the discourse. The travel guide is characterized by the specific features of the touristics discourse, on the one hand, and by the interesting experience of translating, on the other hand.

  3. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated.

  4. Continuity of Translation Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Athreya, Krishna B

    2010-01-01

    For a Radon measure $\\mu$ on $\\bbR,$ we show that $L^{\\infty}(\\mu)$ is invariant under the group of translation operators $T_t(f)(x) = {$f(x-t)$}\\ (t \\in \\bbR)$ if and only if $\\mu$ is equivalent to Lebesgue measure $m$. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for $L^p(\\mu),\\1 \\leq p < \\infty,$ to be invariant under the group $\\{T_t\\}$ in terms of the Radon-Nikodym derivative w.r.t. $m$.

  5. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  6. Modular Regularization Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed into indepen......The class of linear ill-posed problems is introduced along with a range of standard numerical tools and basic concepts from linear algebra, statistics and optimization. Known algorithms for solving linear inverse ill-posed problems are analyzed to determine how they can be decomposed...... into independent modules. These modules are then combined to form new regularization algorithms with other properties than those we started out with. Several variations are tested using the Matlab toolbox MOORe Tools created in connection with this thesis. Object oriented programming techniques are explained...... and used to set up the illposed problems in the toolbox. Hereby, we are able to write regularization algorithms that automatically exploit structure in the ill-posed problem without being rewritten explicitly. We explain how to implement a stopping criteria for a parameter choice method based upon...

  7. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  8. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  9. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  10. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  11. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  12. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  13. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  14. The Speech-Language Interface in the Spoken Language Translator

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, D; Carter, David; Rayner, Manny

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: The Spoken Language Translator is a prototype for practically useful systems capable of translating continuous spoken language within restricted domains. The prototype system translates air travel (ATIS) queries from spoken English to spoken Swedish and to French. It is constructed, with as few modifications as possible, from existing pieces of speech and language processing software. The speech recognizer and language understander are connected by a fairly conventional pipelined N-best interface. This paper focuses on the ways in which the language processor makes intelligent use of the sentence hypotheses delivered by the recognizer. These ways include (1) producing modified hypotheses to reflect the possible presence of repairs in the uttered word sequence; (2) fast parsing with a version of the grammar automatically specialized to the more frequent constructions in the training corpus; and (3) allowing syntactic and semantic factors to interact with acoustic ones in the choice of a meaning struc...

  15. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  16. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  17. Resurgence as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R

    2016-10-26

    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules).

  18. Translating the Poet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Scott Valentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available You want your author to be appreciated, to be read. Yes, why not, to be respected. As a writer at least, if not as a person. And the author’s image, not just the work, is in your hands. That’s the way it works in English at least, where translation tends to be decentralized. I’m not referring to commissions obviously. In that sense translation is like any kind of creative writing – you choose your project, you shape it, you develop it, you pitch and promote it, and you pitch and promote the image of the author that goes with it. So the question: what to do when your author is not an especially attractive character, not a good person, a bad husband, for instance, a bad father?For instance, Eligio Zanini was a bad husband and a bad father. He abandoned his family when two children were small and a third was on the way. He never contacted them again, though he lived just down the road. When his son died in a car accident at the age of seventeen and the parents were supposed to go down to Split to retrieve the body, he didn’t show up, though the boy’s mother, Bianca, held out hope until the last minute. She was devastated by her husband’s departure and carried the wound as if fresh inside her.

  19. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  20. On Translation Thoughts of American Translator Howard Goldblatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.

  1. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  2. Finding translational science publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with translational science filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of "translational" filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E-Utilities, a user's query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively.

  3. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  4. Wavelets theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Montefusco, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Wavelets: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications is the fifth volume in the highly respected series, WAVELET ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS. This volume shows why wavelet analysis has become a tool of choice infields ranging from image compression, to signal detection and analysis in electrical engineering and geophysics, to analysis of turbulent or intermittent processes. The 28 papers comprising this volume are organized into seven subject areas: multiresolution analysis, wavelet transforms, tools for time-frequency analysis, wavelets and fractals, numerical methods and algorithms, and applicat

  5. Word Choice Differences in Two English Versions of Sun-tzu's The Art of War and in Translations of Ancient Chinese Classics in General: An Empirical Study%古籍英译译者选词差异实证研究——以《孙子兵法》英译独特用词为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 李加军

    2009-01-01

    以Levy(1967)在Translation as a Decision Process所提出的翻译选择过程为理论基础,本文以两译家对英译独特用词为研究对象,对译者选词过程的差异进行实证研究,发现译者选词差异存在于如下六个方面:文化因素处理,同义词选取、修辞形态、译者变通策略、原作风格、对原作的理解.笔者认为,该实证研究的意义裨益于我们更好地认识古籍翻译所涉及如何处理语言和文化诸多要素的认识论和方法论,揭示了造成或影响译者选词、表征和风格差异诸原因及微观过程.

  6. Semantic Translation and Communicative Translation:A Case Study in My Chinese Translation of Alnwick’s Inspired Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

      This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.

  7. Automatic control algorithm effects on energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnerney, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model was developed using actual wind time series and turbine performance data to simulate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model was used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long term energy production. The results from local site and turbine characteristics were generalized to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  8. Understanding molecular simulation from algorithms to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Daan

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Molecular Simulation: From Algorithms to Applications explains the physics behind the ""recipes"" of molecular simulation for materials science. Computer simulators are continuously confronted with questions concerning the choice of a particular technique for a given application. A wide variety of tools exist, so the choice of technique requires a good understanding of the basic principles. More importantly, such understanding may greatly improve the efficiency of a simulation program. The implementation of simulation methods is illustrated in pseudocodes and their practic

  9. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  10. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  11. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set......-DB) *. On the one hand, post-editing temporal effort was measured using FDur values (duration of segment production time excluding keystroke pauses >_ 200 seconds) and KDur values (duration of coherent keyboard activity excluding keystroke pauses >_ 5 seconds). On the other hand, post-editing technical effort...

  12. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  13. On the Unit of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼

    2013-01-01

      The unit of translation has been the focus of debate through the history of translation. Barkhudarov suggests six levels of UT, each level could serve as unit of different levels of translation. Many Chinese translators also expressed their opinions on this issue, but there is no settled answer yet. This paper tends to make a distinction between different texts:ordinary and special. Ordinary ones can adopt the UT of paragraph, while special ones should adopt special UTs according to their own characteristics.

  14. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  15. City Women Confront New Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THE Chinese economic reform has pushed society into a period of transformation. City women—especially career women—once again are confronted with new choices. Compared to Nora’s choice to leave or stay at home, as depicted in the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, the Chinese career women’s choice is obviously more complicated. It involves social roles and the expectations society has about their gender. Several women doctoral students with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences recently talked about this issue.

  16. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  17. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time al...

  18. Thick Translation as a New Trend of Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶莉

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.

  19. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  20. Integrating marker passing and problem solving a spreading activation approach to improved choice in planning

    CERN Document Server

    Hendler, James A

    2014-01-01

    A recent area of interest in the Artificial Intelligence community has been the application of massively parallel algorithms to enhance the choice mechanism in traditional AI problems. This volume provides a detailed description of how marker-passing -- a parallel, non-deductive, spreading activation algorithm -- is a powerful approach to refining the choice mechanisms in an AI problem-solving system. The author scrutinizes the design of both the algorithm and the system, and then reviews the current literature and research in planning and marker passing. Also included: a comparison of this

  1. Knowledge translation: translating research into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Donszelmann Oelke

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper provides a theoretical-reflective study of knowledge translation concepts and their implementation processes for using research evidence in policy and practice.Results: The process of translating research into practice is iterative and dynamic, with fluid boundaries between knowledge creation and action development. Knowledge translation focuses on co-creating knowledge with stakeholders and sharing that knowledge to ensure uptake of relevant research to facilitate informed decisions and changes in policy, practice, and health services delivery. In Brazil, many challenges exist in implementing knowledge translation: lack of awareness, lack of partnerships between researchers and knowledge-users, and low research budgets.Conclusions: An emphasis on knowledge translation has the potential to positively impact health outcomes. Future research in Brazil is needed to study approaches to improve the uptake of research results in the Brazilian context.

  2. How do stereotypes influence choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice.

  3. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  4. Resolving Histogram Binning Dilemmas with Binless and Binfull Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Krislock, Abram

    2014-01-01

    The histogram is an analysis tool in widespread use within many sciences, with high energy physics as a prime example. However, there exists an inherent bias in the choice of binning for the histogram, with different choices potentially leading to different interpretations. This paper aims to eliminate this bias using two "debinning" algorithms. Both algorithms generate an observed cumulative distribution function from the data, and use it to construct a representation of the underlying probability distribution function. The strengths and weaknesses of these two algorithms are compared and contrasted. The applicability and future prospects of these algorithms is also discussed.

  5. How to Make the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm Fail

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, E; Gutmann, S; Nagaj, D; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Gutmann, Sam; Nagaj, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The quantum adiabatic algorithm is a Hamiltonian based quantum algorithm designed to find the minimum of a classical cost function whose domain has size N. We show that poor choices for the Hamiltonian can guarantee that the algorithm will not find the minimum if the run time grows more slowly than square root of N. These poor choices are nonlocal and wash out any structure in the cost function to be minimized and the best that can be hoped for is Grover speedup. These failures tell us what not to do when designing quantum adiabatic algorithms.

  6. Simulating future value in intertemporal choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solway, Alec; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P. Read

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision. The state transition function allows the model-based system to make decisions based on projected future states, while the reward function assigns value to each state, together capturing the necessary components for successful intertemporal choice. Empirical work has also pointed to a possible relationship between increased prospection and reduced discounting. In the current paper, we look for direct evidence of a relationship between temporal discounting and model-based control in a large new data set (n = 168). However, testing the relationship under several different modeling formulations revealed no indication that the two quantities are related. PMID:28225034

  7. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  8. Indicators of translation competence: Translators' self-concepts and the translation of titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Gary Massey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The parallels between writing research and translation process research range from the objects of study (text producers and texts to the methods employed in investigating them. Similarly to writing research, translation studies has recently moved from an almost exclusive focus on products towards considering workplace and cognitive processes and the effects of those processes on the quality of products. In this paper, we outline how the methods common to both fields can be applied to the investigation of translators' understanding of their roles and responsibilities as text producers and their treatment of the specific problem of title translation. The data are drawn from a corpus built up in an longitudinal research project about the relationship of translation competence and the translation process. The multi-method approach we use combines keystroke logging, screenshot recording, eye-tracking, retrospection, and interviews. It allows us to monitor translators at their workplace in as controlled and non-invasive a manner as possible. It also provides rich data that make it possible to infer the practices and metalinguistic awareness that characterize the translation competence of translators with different levels of experience.

  9. Sight Translation and written translation. A comparative Analysis of causes of problems, Strategies and Translation Errors within the PACTE Translation Competence Model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...

  10. Indlela or uhambo? Translator style in Mandela’s autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nokele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects that concerns translation scholars most is the question of the translator’s style. It was realised that little research had been undertaken investigating the individual style of literary translators in terms of what might be distinct about their language usage. Consequently, a methodological framework for such an investigation was suggested. Subsequently considerable research has been conducted on style in the European languages. However, the same cannot be said about African languages. This article proposes a corpus-driven study of translators’ style, comparing isiXhosa and isiZulu translations of Mandela’s Long Walk to Freedom by Mtuze and Ntuli, both published in 2001. The target texts are compared with each other focusing on the use of italics, loan words and expansions and contractions as features that distinguish the two translators. The source text was used not to evaluate the target texts but to understand the translators’ choices. ParaConc Multilingual Concordancer was used to align the source text and its target texts for easy examination. The results revealed that the fact that the two translators were dealing with an autobiography did not deter them from displaying their personal imprints as creative writers.

  11. Knowledge Translation in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the "know-do gap," present a definition of knowledge translation, and discuss its relative importance in bridging the know-do gap. Some of the underlying causes of the know-do gap are listed, along with ongoing efforts to address them. Knowledge translation is considered a cross-cutting, nonlinear process that involves not only recent…

  12. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  13. Statistical methods in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Tse, Siu-Keung; Lin, Min

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials), information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic) and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints) in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physicianscientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change) are reviewed.

  14. A Commentary on News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雅晴

    2011-01-01

    News language is formal,especially the high register vocabulary it employed to deliver the message unveiled by culturally and politically stamped style which challenges the translator a lot.Nida's formal and dynamic equivalence theory,Bielsa and Bassnett news translation theories and other methods and strategies are introduced to cope with these challenges and get the message across without distortion.

  15. A Simple Application and Design of Genetic Algorithm in Card Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾鹏程

    2016-01-01

    According to traditional card problem solving which is based on the idea of genetic algorithm(GA), a set of algorithms is designed to find final solution. For each process in genetic algorithm, including choices of fitness function, parameters deter-mination and coding scheme selection,classic algorithm is used to realize the various steps, and ultimately to find solution of problems.

  16. Marta Sillaotsa eksplitsiitne ja implitsiitne tõlkepoeetika / Marta Sillaots: The Implicit and Explicit Poetics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiliina Gielen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article looks at a section of Estonian translation history, through the criticism and practice of translation of an extremely prolific and well-known Estonian translator and reviewer of translations Marta Sillaots (1887–1969. Touching upon the issue of the aging of translational texts as well as the norms of translational behavior in the Estonia of the first half of the 20th century, the article makes use of Peeter Torop’s concepts of the explicit poetics of translation (theoretical ideas about translation expressed in paratexts and implicit poetics of translation (translational choices inside translations in an attempt to map the translational thought of Marta Sillaots. Firstly, the explicit poetics of translation of Marta Sillaots is analyzed by focusing on the recurring topics and keywords in Sillaots’ translation reviews, published in a monthly literary journal Eesti Kirjandus during the 1920s and 1930s. Secondly, the implicit poetics of Marta Sillaots’ translations is analyzed based on a comparative corpus of two novels translated by Sillaots and their later editions: Romain Rolland’s Jean-Christophe 1936 and 1958 (edited by Henno Rajandi and Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield 1937 and 1991 (edited by Lia Rajandi. Although the originals are held close at hand, the translations are approached as facts in Estonian cultural space, and thus the focus is on the translation rather than on the original. In comparison with the first edition, the changes made by the editors reveal a pattern of movement towards greater fluency by standardizing the word order, adding linking devices and making the constructions confirm to the rules of target language.The comparison of the explicit and implicit poetics of Sillaots reveals certain conformities as well as inconsistencies. In reviewing translations by other translators, Sillaots traditionally balances between the terms good and bad translation. Firstly, for her, a precondition for

  17. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  18. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  19. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  20. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it...

  1. Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.

  2. Estimating Route Choice Models from Stochastically Generated Choice Sets on Large-Scale Networks Correcting for Unequal Sampling Probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vacca, Alessandro; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Meloni, Italo

    2015-01-01

    is the dependency of the parameter estimates from the choice set generation technique. Bias introduced in model estimation has been corrected only for the random walk algorithm, which has problematic applicability to large-scale networks. This study proposes a correction term for the sampling probability of routes...... extracted with stochastic route generation. The term is easily applicable to large-scale networks and various environments, given its dependence only on a random number generator and the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm. The implementation for revealed preferences data, which consist of actual route choices...... collected in Cagliari, Italy, shows the feasibility of generating routes stochastically in a high-resolution network and calculating the correction factor. The model estimation with and without correction illustrates how the correction not only improves the goodness of fit but also turns illogical signs...

  3. Desingularization algorithms I. Role of exceptional divisors

    OpenAIRE

    Bierstone, Edward; Milman, Pierre D.

    2002-01-01

    The article is about a "desingularization principle" common to various canonical desingularization algorithms in characteristic zero, and the roles played by the exceptional divisors in the underlying local construction. We compare algorithms of the authors and of Villamayor and his collaborators, distinguishing between the fundamental effect of the way the exceptional divisors are used, and different theorems obtained because of flexibility allowed in the choice of "input data". We show how ...

  4. Second language as an exemptor from sociocultural norms. Emotion-Related Language Choice revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawinkowska, Marta; Paradowski, Michał B; Bilewicz, Michał

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals often switch languages depending on what they are saying. According to the Emotion-Related Language Choice theory, they find their second language an easier medium of conveying content which evokes strong emotions. The first language carries too much emotional power, which can be threatening for the speaker. In a covert experiment, bilingual Polish students translated texts brimming with expletives from Polish into English and vice versa. In the Polish translations, the swear word equivalents used were weaker than in the source text; in the English translations, they were stronger than in the original. These results corroborate the ERLC theory. However, the effect was only observed for ethnophaulisms, i.e. expletives directed at social groups. It turns out that the main factor triggering the language choice in bilinguals is not necessarily the different emotional power of both languages, but social and cultural norms.

  5. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  6. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  7. The methods to Translating of English Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 郑庆列

    2008-01-01

    There are many languages including idioms and they are noted for the wealth of idiom.Idiom is an inalienable part of languages.There are mainly five methods while translating English idiom:equal replacement translation,liberal translation,literal tranalation,annotation translation and antithetical couplet and amplification translation.

  8. The ethics of algorithms: Mapping the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Daniel Mittelstadt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, and how we perceive, understand, and interact among ourselves and with the environment. Gaps between the design and operation of algorithms and our understanding of their ethical implications can have severe consequences affecting individuals as well as groups and whole societies. This paper makes three contributions to clarify the ethical importance of algorithmic mediation. It provides a prescriptive map to organise the debate. It reviews the current discussion of ethical aspects of algorithms. And it assesses the available literature in order to identify areas requiring further work to develop the ethics of algorithms.

  9. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...... for comparison-based sorting, as well as with recent cache-aware proposals. The main result is a carefully implemented cache-oblivious sorting algorithm, which our experiments show can be faster than the best Quicksort implementation we are able to find, already for input sizes well within the limits of RAM....... It is also at least as fast as the recent cache-aware implementations included in the test. On disk the difference is even more pronounced regarding Quicksort and the cache-aware algorithms, whereas the algorithm is slower than a careful implementation of multiway Mergesort such as TPIE....

  10. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  11. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  12. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  13. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  14. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  15. Tõlkepoeetikast teksti ja keele taustal / On the Poetics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lange

    2016-01-01

    would the poem be different if this word (rhyme, etc. were replaced by another or removed altogether? give the translator an idea of all the features that constitute a text; thus the use or absence of metre, form, layout, punctuation, lineation, rhyme, diction and syntax, etc. in the translation can be settled. Questions have to be directed not only at the denser parts of the poem, but even at those places where there seems to be univalence of meaning or standard language usage. Any detail or device, singly or together with another element(s, may be a hinge on which the poem turns. The guiding principle is that any choice made by the writer inevitably involved the rejection of alternatives. The elements on the page are both more and less than any answer anyone (translator or reader can give. The objective is to interact with the text rather than wander aimlessly through the space that is opened up by reading. In producing multiple drafts which explore and experiment with the devices employed in the original, the translator highlights the comprehensive set of values that account for its coherence. This, in turn, will test the translating language and its possibilities; the translating language may become subtly altered in the translation process, as the translator works under the influence of the syntactic and semantic systems of the original. There is an interdependence between imitation and creation in play here, which the translator explores. It is a process of synthesising, as the translator homes in on the most tenacious elements of the original and the expressive potential of her own language. Reading a text generates conjectures that are infinite in number, but ultimately they will have to be tested against the text’s coherence. Translating with a focus on stylistic features as mental constructs rests on the claim that the mind stands between a word and its referent. By aiming to translate the mind rather than linguistic expression, a translator can discover

  16. A Runs-Test Algorithm: Contingent Reinforcement and Response Run Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food,…

  17. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...

  18. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2002-01-01

    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  19. Translation and Creative Writing: An Interview with Professor Margaret Rogers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2016-01-01

    scandal? Is a translator accused of malpractice? MR: Of course, translators have to be aware that they can get sued if they make a translation error (e.g. mistranslating a number or a key term for financial and safety reasons respectively, and that they have a responsibility towards their client and their readers, but I think you have something else in mind here.   RB: What approach do you take in your translation workshops and classes? MR: An open discussion of the possibilities for translation, bearing in mind the purpose of the translation and the assumed expectations of target readers, even the environment in which the text is to be read or used, which might affect layout. The students’ own expectations can develop in a number of ways, through pair or group work, self-reflection, comparison of their own work with published translations, identification and evaluation of resources (increasingly online. Students understandably seek security when translating, for which the notion of the ‘perfect’ solution would, of course, be reassuring, were it not so elusive and misleading. That is not to say, however, that there is not on occasion a correct solution e.g. a company’s choice for the equivalent of a particular term, or an established standard. The overall goal is to establish through experience that the practice of translation is a decision-making process in which the translator’s agency is a key feature and to guide students towards tools and resources as well as developing evaluative skills to optimise this process. In my view, additional classes shared by students from different language groups can enrich this translation pair-specific experience by providing a systematic overview of different approaches to and issues in translation, enabling students to develop relevant points of reference for their decisions. Sometimes these classes are called ‘principles of translation’, ‘theory of translation’, ‘approaches to translation’, ‘translation

  20. A generic method for automatic translation between input models for different versions of simulation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001 (Internal Post Box 360), Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    A computer code was developed for the semi-automatic translation of input models for the VSOP-A diffusion neutronics simulation code to the format of the newer VSOP 99/05 code. In this paper, this algorithm is presented as a generic method for producing codes for the automatic translation of input models from the format of one code version to another, or even to that of a completely different code. Normally, such translations are done manually. However, input model files, such as for the VSOP codes, often are very large and may consist of many thousands of numeric entries that make no particular sense to the human eye. Therefore the task, of for instance nuclear regulators, to verify the accuracy of such translated files can be very difficult and cumbersome. This may cause translation errors not to be picked up, which may have disastrous consequences later on when a reactor with such a faulty design is built. Therefore a generic algorithm for producing such automatic translation codes may ease the translation and verification process to a great extent. It will also remove human error from the process, which may significantly enhance the accuracy and reliability of the process. The developed algorithm also automatically creates a verification log file which permanently record the names and values of each variable used, as well as the list of meanings of all the possible values. This should greatly facilitate reactor licensing applications.

  1. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  2. Population genetics of translational robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2006-05-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.

  3. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  4. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  5. The Fortran-P Translator: Towards Automatic Translation of Fortran 77 Programs for Massively Parallel Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O'keefe

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel processors (MPPs hold the promise of extremely high performance that, if realized, could be used to study problems of unprecedented size and complexity. One of the primary stumbling blocks to this promise has been the lack of tools to translate application codes to MPP form. In this article we show how applications codes written in a subset of Fortran 77, called Fortran-P, can be translated to achieve good performance on several massively parallel machines. This subset can express codes that are self-similar, where the algorithm applied to the global data domain is also applied to each subdomain. We have found many codes that match the Fortran-P programming style and have converted them using our tools. We believe a self-similar coding style will accomplish what a vectorizable style has accomplished for vector machines by allowing the construction of robust, user-friendly, automatic translation systems that increase programmer productivity and generate fast, efficient code for MPPs.

  6. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  7. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  8. Translation-A Process of Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Translation is a process that involves transformation and reproduction. This essay discusses some useful techniques of trans-lating practice by introducing a simple model. A few examples of good translation are presented to support explaining the model cleady.

  9. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  10. Sucrose dependent translational dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose dependent translational dynamics Gene expression is regulated at several different levels starting from chromatin remodeling and transcription in the nucleus to translation and post-translational modifications in the cytosol. Depending on the gene and circumstances, different regulatory mech

  11. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are expec

  12. Choice probabilities and response times of binary preferential choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Maarten Willem

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigates human choice behavior. We describe several experiments in which we offer the subject a referential stimulus and later two other stimuli that differ in several aspects from each other and the reference. The subject has to decide which of two alternatives resembles the ref

  13. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  14. The Determinants of Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A. H.; Belot, Michele

    2016-01-01

    , we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social...... pressures, cognitive-affective factors (perceived stress, health attitude, anxiety and depression), and familial, genetic and epigenetic influences on personality characteristics. In addition, our choices are influenced by an array of physiological mechanisms, including signals to the brain from...

  15. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2007-12-01

    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  16. On Technical Translation-Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation by Jody Byrne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪辉

    2013-01-01

      Numerous books concerning technical translation deal with specific translation skills, or function as a summary of the au⁃thors’own translation experience with few of them devoted to the theorized study on technical translation. Jody Byrne’s book pio⁃neers in theoretical study on technical translation and is of great value to our Chinese technical translation study.

  17. Translation of Idioms in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹

    2009-01-01

    <正>This paper explains two approaches to the translation of idioms in Chinese literature: free translation and literal translation.Chinese idioms,in its broad sense including set phrases,proverbs and two-part allegorical,have the specific features and rich in their content.By analyzing the basic principles of translation,we can better understand how to make full use of various translation methods,which can lay a good foundation for the translation of Chinese idioms.

  18. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  19. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  20. Algorithm 865

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Reid, John K.; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    variables, and the speed is usually better than that of the LAPACK algorithm that uses full storage (n2 variables). Included are subroutines for rearranging a matrix whose upper or lower-triangular part is packed by columns to this format and for the inverse rearrangement. Also included is a kernel...

  1. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  2. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  3. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...... is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher...

  4. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  5. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    . Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...... to treat one or few sub-fields extensively at the expense of the other sub-fields. Furthermore, Nord (2005), among others, shows that translation is not limited to terms but also concerns syntactic structures and genre conventions in the two cultures concerned and involves the use of various translation...... are used across sub-genres within the legal genre, e.g. contracts and statutes, so translators are likely to meet them relatively often and need to know how to translate them. Examples of relevant syntactic constructions are pre-modified syntagmas with a noun as the head word, and the use of inversion...

  6. Your Choice MATor(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backes Michael

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a rigorous methodology for quantifying the anonymity provided by Tor against a variety of structural attacks, i.e., adversaries that corrupt Tor nodes and thereby perform eavesdropping attacks to deanonymize Tor users. First, we provide an algorithmic approach for computing the anonymity impact of such structural attacks against Tor. The algorithm is parametric in the considered path selection algorithm and is, hence, capable of reasoning about variants of Tor and alternative path selection algorithms as well. Second, we present formalizations of various instantiations of structural attacks against Tor and show that the computed anonymity impact of each of these adversaries indeed constitutes a worst-case anonymity bound for the cryptographic realization of Tor. Third, we use our methodology to conduct a rigorous, largescale evaluation of Tor’s anonymity which establishes worst-case anonymity bounds against various structural attacks for Tor and for alternative path selection algorithms such as DistribuTor, SelekTOR, and LASTor. This yields the first rigorous anonymity comparison between different path selection algorithms. As part of our analysis, we quantify the anonymity impact of a path selection transition phase, i.e., a small number of users decides to run an alternative algorithm while the vast majority still uses the original one. The source code of our implementation is publicly available.

  7. GAO Jian's Theoretical Thoughts in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区沛仪

    2016-01-01

    As an experienced translator and theorist, GAO Jian has translated numerous English works into Chinese and pub-lished a series of theoretical thoughts concerning the most fundamental problems in translation studies. He has formed a unique style in translation and proposed some theoretical concepts with great expertise. Gao represents the translators'spirit of the time. His theories are highly comprehensive and pragmatic. His discussion of translatability of style, relativity and the Language Characteristics Theory reflect the academic thinking among translators in China, which inspires many young translators and the-orists.

  8. A Tentative Analysis of Translatability and Untranslatability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐越

    2014-01-01

    Translation is a field full of paradoxes. During the long history of their intensive debate, translatability and untranslatability have experienced ebb and flow of people’ s preferences. On the one hand, language should be translatable; on the other hand, owing to the existence of certain differences, language is sometimes not completely translatable. Translatability and untranslatability inseparably exist side by side. The thesis casts an overview of translatability study both at home and abroad, inquires into the bases of translatability and un-translatability from the perspective of functional equivalence, and presents a dialectical analysis of the relationship between the two.

  9. A Cultural View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.

  10. Population genetics of translational robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene’s evolutionary rate, and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins which fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slo...

  11. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  12. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  13. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  14. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  15. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James

    2005-08-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  16. Translation techniques for distributed-shared memory programming models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Douglas James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The high performance computing community has experienced an explosive improvement in distributed-shared memory hardware. Driven by increasing real-world problem complexity, this explosion has ushered in vast numbers of new systems. Each new system presents new challenges to programmers and application developers. Part of the challenge is adapting to new architectures with new performance characteristics. Different vendors release systems with widely varying architectures that perform differently in different situations. Furthermore, since vendors need only provide a single performance number (total MFLOPS, typically for a single benchmark), they only have strong incentive initially to optimize the API of their choice. Consequently, only a fraction of the available APIs are well optimized on most systems. This causes issues porting and writing maintainable software, let alone issues for programmers burdened with mastering each new API as it is released. Also, programmers wishing to use a certain machine must choose their API based on the underlying hardware instead of the application. This thesis argues that a flexible, extensible translator for distributed-shared memory APIs can help address some of these issues. For example, a translator might take as input code in one API and output an equivalent program in another. Such a translator could provide instant porting for applications to new systems that do not support the application's library or language natively. While open-source APIs are abundant, they do not perform optimally everywhere. A translator would also allow performance testing using a single base code translated to a number of different APIs. Most significantly, this type of translator frees programmers to select the most appropriate API for a given application based on the application (and developer) itself instead of the underlying hardware.

  17. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  18. The Multiple-Choice Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De meerkeuzemaatschappij. There are many areas of life where people have more choice than ever before. The leisure industry bombards consumers with a flood of goods and services; the family and the Church have lost their dominant position in the structuring of people's lives; there

  19. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction...

  20. Educational Choice and Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…