WorldWideScience

Sample records for choice performance viewer

  1. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students’ choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students’ interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more...... students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense....

  2. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  3. Equilibrium in a random viewer model of television broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Keiding, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...

  4. General aspects for choosing the DICOM viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Niakan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of physicians choose the PACS by its viewer. DICOM Image viewers, the programs that run in workstations, facilitate accessing to the digital im-ages via a DICOM network. A good workstation should be equipped with professional monitors and other hardware requirements. A wide range of DICOM image viewers are available from simple 2D viewers which offer means of manipulating the im-ages (rotate, zoom, brightness, contrast and others to 3D or 4D programs with sophisticated features such as multimodality image fusion, vessel segmentation and computer aided diagnostic tools."nThese programs can be categorized to client-based and web-based viewers. Despite the client-based viewers, which are heavy-weighted programs, equipped with strong features, web-based viewers are usually light-weighted with essential imaging features and suitable for TeleRadiology. Accessing to the digital images via the Internet is the main propose behind a web-based viewer. Web-based viewers may be used for remote consulting when a city or region lacks of native specialists."nAn image viewer as a part of PACS should be in conformance with DICOM standard as communication protocol instated of customized networking. This issue allows the viewer to communicate with any DICOM server and operate as an independent module. Structured Report (SR editor is an essential part of a DICOM viewer. This kind of reporting benefits the archiving system because of small data size in comparison with keeping reports as scanned images or Secondary Capture Images (SC. Also, connection of DICOM viewer to RIS/HIS is important and as our previous experiences in RIS/HIS we connected Payvand DICOM viewer to the RIS/HIS. "nPayvand DICOM viewer has a lot of features and abilities, but for reaching to the high performance image processing by BARCO-EPD collaboration contract, we integrated our DICOM viewer to the VOXAR 3D and now our users have advanced 3D, vessel, cardiac and colon processing, PET CT

  5. GIS Dataset Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The GIS Datset Viewer can be used to identify aerial imagery from the following programs: NAIP (2002-present), NAPP (1987-2006), NHAP (1980-1987), AHAP (1976-1986),...

  6. Effects of Delegated Choice on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Richard A.; Aplin, John C.

    1980-01-01

    There were initial positive effects from delegating choice over the selection of goals. The aspect of the task being delegated appears important. One cannot assume allowing others choice over some aspects of the task will be associated with positive outcomes. (Author)

  7. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  8. GeoViewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Welcome to the NMFS NOAA Map Viewer. This is a quick navigation. In the toolbar, you see the options to: • View Legend • Identify • Print Map • Add Layers • Change...

  9. School Quality, Exam Performance and Career Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dustmann, C.; Rajah, N.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school quality on performance in national exams and the career decision at age 16. We use micro data for the UK, which provides a rich set of variables on parental background, previous achievements, and community variables. We find that, conditional on school type, the pupil-teacher ratio has no effect on examination performance. The pupil-teacher ratio has an effect on the career decision at age 16 as to whether to remain in full time ed...

  10. School Quality, Exam Performance and Career Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dustmann, C.; Rajah, N.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of school quality on performance in national exams and the career decision at age 16. We use micro data for the UK, which provides a rich set of variables on parental background, previous achievements, and community variables. We find that, conditi

  11. Share Contract Choices and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar Espinoza, César Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Typically, crew members in fisheries are remunerated through a share of the total revenues. However, there is little empirical evidence on the mechanisms by which revenues are distributed to labor and capital, and how these distributions affect economic performance. Under an agency problem...

  12. Predicting Television Extreme Viewers and Nonviewers: A Neural Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Haejung; Marzban, Caren

    1995-01-01

    States that in an attempt to better understand the attributes of the "average" viewer, an analysis of data characterizing television nonviewers and extreme viewers was performed. Identifies a set of demographic variables as the strongest predictor of nonviewers and the combination of family-related and lifestyle/social activity-related variables…

  13. Performance Analysis of the SensorNet's Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot Viewer at the Dorchester West Bound Interstate Weigh Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 9-11 attacks, the United States has increased its focus on developing technologies designed to warn us in the event of another attack and to prevent these attacks from happening in the first place. The SensorNet research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Computer Science and Engineering Division is participating in this effort by developing systems to give critical real-time information to federal, state, and local emergency response decision makers. SensorNet has approached this goal by putting together a system with several sensors and programs called the Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot project (SETCP). The SETCP utilizes interstate weigh stations not only to weigh the passing trucks but also to check for gamma and neutron radiation inside the truck without the aid of a human in close proximity. The system also collects additional data that help identify the truck (the truck's length, weight, license plate number, and photographs of the truck). The objective of this research work was to characterize and analyze the data collected from the South Carolina weigh station on I-26W and compare it with previous data analysis on the performance of the Tennessee weigh station on I-40E. The purpose was to find patterns in the trucks with radioactive alarms and, regional truck traffic, as well as to find patterns of inconsistency in the system (illogical length measurements of the truck, inaccurate readings and character recognition of the license plate). During a three-month period, radioactive alarms and traffic patterns were identified and characterized by grouping all of the data and making graphs and charts in Microsoft Excel to show the flow of traffic, the type of truck traffic, the number of alarms and other information. Inconsistence patterns were found by analyzing the data, looking for missing or illogical information, and determining how often it happens. The improvements of these inconsistencies were also analyzed after

  14. APAX Server and Viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bakhtiary

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘APAX VIEWER' enables you to see the various medical images. It allows doctors in each clinical part to inquire about the medical images and helps them to diagnose their patient's illness more cor-rectly. Its function related to the management of the database helps the doctors to prepare for the education, research and conference as well as to save the images into their personal computers. And it also can help the doctors to manage effectively the patient's data of diagnosis and treatment, con-nected with the HIS."nAPAX Viewer's features:"n1- Holds HL7. "n2- Improved image quality through non-linear lookup tables, window leveling preset auto-matching. "n3- Various image processing tools."n4- Optimized medical image searching using MIH (Medical Image History."n5- Record and Dictation supported."n‘APAX SERVER' connects RIS to modalities, acquires images, archives images and interpretations with or without compression using multiple storage spaces through following features:"n1-‘APAX Acquisition Server' acquires images and saves and transmits them to the database (exam and image information and deciphering results received through RIS I/S. "n2-‘APAX RIS Broker' receives patient and order information from RIS, and sends to each modality. "n3-‘APAX Archiving Server' stores acquired data with or without compression in the Short-term Storage (Hard disk, ... and when it passes defined days it will be moved to the Long-term Storage (Tape Drives, ... with or without compression."n4-‘APAX Storage Server' checks multiple-storage spaces any time, and assists Acquisition Server selecting a suitable storage space to store."n5-‘APAX DB Gateway' relays to DB requests between the Client and DB Server when the main DB server is ‘Oracle' and a client's PC is not installed the Oracle client program."n6-‘APAX Secondary Capture System' acquires data from non-DICOM modalities, converts

  15. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...... region during the period between 2004 and 2008, we document that ownership concentration, as itself, may not have a significant impact on firm performance. It is, rather, the way concentrated firms govern themselves that determine their performance. We argue that concentrated ownership firms, being aware...... of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We...

  16. PDV – a PVSS Data Viewer Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The four main LHC experiments and the accelerator department have agreed to use a unique commercial SCADA system, PVSS II from ETM (Austria) for detector and accelerator slow control purposes, in order to ease connection and exchange of data among all collaborators and to minimise central support effort for commonly used software and LHC specific libraries provided by the CERN IT department. Knowing this, the PVSS Data Viewer (PDV) had originally been developed to access environment and control data of the Pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment, with an effort to be sufficiently generic to provide access to data of other subdetectors and even data of other experiments, or PVSS systems in general. Other important keys for the design were independence from any existing PVSS installation and universality regarding computer operating systems or user environments. The universality condition has led to the choice of Java as programming language, which also allows to start applications with WebStart technology right...

  17. Performance and Prediction: Bayesian Modelling of Fallible Choice in Chess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Guy; Regan, Ken; di Fatta, Giuseppe

    Evaluating agents in decision-making applications requires assessing their skill and predicting their behaviour. Both are well developed in Poker-like situations, but less so in more complex game and model domains. This paper addresses both tasks by using Bayesian inference in a benchmark space of reference agents. The concepts are explained and demonstrated using the game of chess but the model applies generically to any domain with quantifiable options and fallible choice. Demonstration applications address questions frequently asked by the chess community regarding the stability of the rating scale, the comparison of players of different eras and/or leagues, and controversial incidents possibly involving fraud. The last include alleged under-performance, fabrication of tournament results, and clandestine use of computer advice during competition. Beyond the model world of games, the aim is to improve fallible human performance in complex, high-value tasks.

  18. Phased development of a web-based PACS viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, Yoad; Shani, Uri; Shifrin, Mark

    2000-05-01

    The Web browser is an excellent environment for the rapid development of an effective and inexpensive PACS viewer. In this paper we will share our experience in developing a browser-based viewer, from the inception and prototype stages to its current state of maturity. There are many operational advantages to a browser-based viewer, even when native viewers already exist in the system (with multiple and/or high resolution screens): (1) It can be used on existing personal workstations throughout the hospital. (2) It is easy to make the service available from physician's homes. (3) The viewer is extremely portable and platform independent. There is a wide variety of means available for implementing the browser- based viewer. Each file sent to the client by the server can perform some end-user or client/server interaction. These means range from HTML (for HyperText Markup Language) files, through Java Script, to Java applets. Some data types may also invoke plug-in code in the client, although this would reduce the portability of the viewer, it would provide the needed efficiency in critical places. On the server side the range of means is also very rich: (1) A set of files: html, Java Script, Java applets, etc. (2) Extensions of the server via cgi-bin programs, (3) Extensions of the server via servlets, (4) Any other helper application residing and working with the server to access the DICOM archive. The viewer architecture consists of two basic parts: The first part performs query and navigation through the DICOM archive image folders. The second part does the image access and display. While the first part deals with low data traffic, it involves many database transactions. The second part is simple as far as access transactions are concerned, but requires much more data traffic and display functions. Our web-based viewer has gone through three development stages characterized by the complexity of the means and tools employed on both client and server sides.

  19. Performing a Choice-Narrative: A qualitative study of the patterns in STEM students' higher education choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup Holmegaard, Henriette

    2015-06-01

    Students' science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students' choices of higher education are performed and to uncover the patterns of students' construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one side articulated as not too predictable, and on the other side appearing realistic and adjusted to the students' sense of self. Third, the choice-narratives were informed, validated and adjusted in the students' social network providing the students with a repertoire of viable pathways. The study demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students' choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students' interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense.

  20. Fans, viewers and television theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gripsrud, Jostein

    2015-01-01

    Influential contributions to television theory have regarded viewers as normally little engaged in whatever the small screen is presenting. Raymond Williams’notion of flow and John Ellis’idea that television is watched at a ‘glance’ rather than with the ‘gaze’ typical of cinema both suggest this image of how audiences relate to television and its programs. That TV is generally watched with a rather low level of attention is also the conclusion of decades of empirical research on television vi...

  1. New Interactive Data Browsing Features of the ADC Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B.; Shaya, E.; Blackwell, J.; Gass, J.; Oliversen, N.; Schneider, G.; Cheung, C.; White, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    The Astronomical Data Center (ADC, http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov) has more than 700 catalogs and ~ 2000 journal tables of astronomical data that are easily accessed using the ADC Table Viewer (http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/viewer). This tool encompasses many data view and visualization capabilities such as the sorting, subsetting, and search of data. Additionally, its modular design allows it to leverage the abilities of the other ADC tools such as mission search and sky map plotting (IMPReSS) and the plotting/over-plotting of selected data (CatsEye). We report on the latest features of the ADC Viewer. This next generation software now empowers the user to upload their own tables, to perform non-trivial column arithmetic, to search regions of the sky using circular (in addition to square) regions and to download their tables in a variety of formats including FITS and tab or comma delimited ASCII text.

  2. PDV — a PVSS Data Viewer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dirk; Pisano, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The four main LHC experiments and the accelerator department have agreed to use a unique commercial SCADA system, PVSS II from ETM (Austria) for detector and accelerator slow control purposes, in order to ease connection and exchange of data among all collaborators and to minimise central support effort for commonly used software and LHC specific libraries provided by the CERN EN department. Knowing this, the PVSS Data Viewer (PDV) had originally been developed to access environment and control data of the Pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment, with an effort to be sufficiently generic to provide access to data of other subdetectors and even data of other experiments, or PVSS systems in general. Other important keys for the design were independence from any existing PVSS installation and universality regarding computer operating systems or user environments. The universality condition has led to the choice of Java as programming language, which also allows to start applications with WebStart technology right from an HTML page, seen by the user as just a click away on the web.

  3. VIEWERS AND IDENTITY CONSCIOUSNESS: THE ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONSES OF GREEN STREETS VIEWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research analyzed the viewers responses after watching the film Green Street (2005. The responses were taken from a number of film websites, such as IMDB and Film Focus. Green Street is a film that shows a cultural phenomenon called football hooliganism. In general, the viewers responses could be categorized into two: the viewers who accepted the representation of hooligans and the viewers who refused it. From the analysis on their comments, it can be concluded that in giving responses to the film representation, the viewers put themselves in certain social positions. In other words, they show their identity consciousness when they see and respond to certain phenomena.

  4. Choices, choices, choices ...

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Taking the right decision can be a very challenging and daunting process. Designing a mobile phone, a make up case or even a pipe needs engineering teams to continuously make important choices frequently. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/choices-choices-choices/

  5. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  6. On the choice of performance assessment criteria and their impact on the overall system performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Green, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illuminate the impact of the choice of a system’s performance criteria on the quality of the corresponding monitoring system’s assessment results. Special attention is given to the performance issues that are caused by or can be solved by control actions. The compressor...... capacity gap issue in the supermarket refrigeration systems is used as a case study to elaborate on the problem through employment of both real life field data as well as simulation data. A performance function that can capture the compressor capacity gap problem is presented in the paper and used...... to evaluate both data from the real supermarket system and the data generated by the simulation model....

  7. Gratifications of Daytime TV Serial Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compesi, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    The gratifications identified by viewers of the daytime television serial "All My Children" were (in rank order): entertainment, habit, convenience, social utility, relaxation or escape from problems, escape from boredom, and reality exploration or advice. (GT)

  8. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Acheson, Dean; Risbrough, Victoria; Drummond, Sean; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2014-03-15

    Several groups undergo extended periods without sleep due to working conditions or mental illness. Such sleep deprivation (SD) can deleteriously affect attentional processes and disrupt work and family functioning. Understanding the biological underpinnings of SD effects may assist in developing sleep therapies and cognitive enhancers. Utilizing cross-species tests of attentional processing in humans and rodents would aid in mechanistic studies examining SD-induced inattention. We assessed the effects of 36h of: (1) Total SD (TSD) in healthy male and female humans (n=50); and (2) REM SD (RSD) in male C57BL/6 mice (n=26) on performance in the cross-species 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT). The 5C-CPT includes target trials on which subjects were required to respond and non-target trials on which subjects were required to inhibit from responding. TSD-induced effects on human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) were also examined. Effects of SD were also examined on mice split into good and poor performance groups based on pre-deprivation scores. In the human 5C-CPT, TSD decreased hit rate and vigilance with trend-level effects on accuracy. In the PVT, TSD slowed response times and increased lapses. In the mouse 5C-CPT, RSD reduced accuracy and hit rate with trend-level effects on vigilance, primarily in good performers. In conclusion, SD induced impaired 5C-CPT performance in both humans and mice and validates the 5C-CPT as a cross-species translational task. The 5C-CPT can be used to examine mechanisms underlying SD-induced deficits in vigilance and assist in testing putative cognitive enhancers.

  9. Factors affecting cadence choice during submaximal cycling and cadence influence on performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Smith, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a numb...

  10. Dual task performance in normal aging: a comparison of choice reaction time tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vaportzis

    Full Text Available This study examined dual task performance in 28 younger (18-30 years and 28 older (>60 years adults using two sets of choice reaction time (RT tasks paired with digit tasks. Set one paired simple choice RT with digit forward; set two paired complex choice RT with digit backward. Each task within each set had easy and hard conditions. For the simple choice RT, participants viewed single letters and pressed a specified keyboard key if the letter was X or Z or a different key for other letters (easy. For the hard condition, there were 4 target letters (X, Z, O, Y. Digit forward consisted of 4 (easy or 5 (hard digits. For the complex choice RT, participants viewed 4×4 matrices of Xs and Os, and indicated whether four Xs (easy or four Xs or four Os (hard appeared in a row. Digit backward consisted of 3 (easy or 4 (hard digits. Within each set, participants performed every possible combination of tasks. We found that in the simple choice RT tasks older adults were significantly slower than, but as accurate as younger adults. In the complex choice RT tasks, older adults were significantly less accurate, but as fast as younger adults. For both age groups and both dual task sets, RT decreased and error rates increased with greater task difficulty. Older adults had greater dual task costs for error rates in the simple choice RT, whereas in the complex choice RT, it was the younger group that had greater dual task costs. Findings suggest that younger and older adults may adopt differential behavioral strategies depending on complexity and difficulty of dual tasks.

  11. Using the Ginga Science Viewer in Jupyter Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Eric

    2016-03-01

    We present a new capability for the Ginga science viewer toolkit: the ability to create web browser-based image viewers. Full featured mini-viewers can be created easily in Jupyter/IPython notebooks. Viewers can be manipulated from the notebook and two-way interactions are facilitated. Viewers can be shared between users by connected to the same viewer URL. A possible good solution for remote data reduction/exploration workflows and collaboration. An example notebook can be found here: https://gist.github.com/ejeschke/6067409

  12. Examining the Tradeoff Between Fixed Pay and Performance-Related Pay: A Choice Experiment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Junyi Shen; Kazuhito Ogawa; Hiromasa Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations on performance-related pay have mainly analyzed its relationships with earnings, productivity, and job satisfaction. Less attention has been devoted to the investigations of individuals’ preferences for the performance-related payment system per se and consequently the tradeoff between fixed pay and performance-related pay. In this paper, we first use a choice experiment approach to investigate the tradeoff between fixed pay and performance-related pay, and then link t...

  13. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance.

  14. Working capital management, corporate performance, and strategic choices of the wholesale and retail industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-guo; Dong, Hui-min; Chen, Shou; Yang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the differences in the ways companies configure working capital, the speed with which working capital adjusts to its target, and the effects of working capital on performance for companies that make different strategic choices. The empirical results suggest that working capital is configured and adjusted to its target in different ways under different competitive strategic choices. This effect is finally transferred to influence the relationship between working capital configuration and operational performance. PMID:25121141

  15. Helping Students Become Critical Television Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tom, Ed.; Sandlin, Jenny, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document, which was written for adult educators in Georgia, offers instructional plans and practical strategies for helping students in adult literacy, adult basic education, General Educational Development, and English-as-a-second-language programs become critical television viewers. The document begins with a discussion of why television…

  16. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, R.; Enckevort, F.H.J. van; Boekhorst, J.; Molenaar, D.; Siezen, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY: A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a My

  17. Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

  18. A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Michael J.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

  19. Factors affecting cadence choice during submaximal cycling and cadence influence on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst A; Smith, Gerald

    2009-03-01

    Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a number of papers have been published that have brought novel insight into the subject. For example, under the influence of spinal central pattern generators, a robust innate voluntary motor rhythm has been suggested as the primary basis for freely chosen cadence in cycling. This might clarify the cadence paradox in which the freely chosen cadence during low-to-moderate submaximal cycling is considerably higher and thereby less economical than the energetically optimal cadence. A number of factors, including age, power output, and road gradient, have been shown to affect the choice of cadence to some extent. During high-intensity cycling, close to the maximal aerobic power output, cyclists choose an energetically economical cadence that is also favorable for performance. In contrast, the choice of a relatively high cadence during cycling at low-to-moderate intensity is uneconomical and could compromise performance during prolonged cycling.

  20. Does school competition matter? : Effects of a large-scale school choice reform on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlin, Åsa

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a general school choice reform on student performance is studied in a Swedish institutional setting. A rich set of individual level data allows estimation of a value added specification, mitigating problems with omission of relevant variables. Increased school competition is shown to have statistically significant positive effects on student performance in mathematics, but no significant effects in English and Swedish. Interacting school competition with student characteristics,...

  1. The Saccharomyces Genome Database Variant Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Travis K; Hitz, Benjamin C; Engel, Stacia R; Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C; Dalusag, Kyla S; Demeter, Janos; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Paskov, Kelley M; Skrzypek, Marek S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference genome sequence and its annotation. In recent years, we have moved toward increased representation of sequence variation and allelic differences within S. cerevisiae. The publication of numerous additional genomes has motivated the creation of new tools for their annotation and analysis. Here we present the Variant Viewer: a dynamic open-source web application for the visualization of genomic and proteomic differences. Multiple sequence alignments have been constructed across high quality genome sequences from 11 different S. cerevisiae strains and stored in the SGD. The alignments and summaries are encoded in JSON and used to create a two-tiered dynamic view of the budding yeast pan-genome, available at http://www.yeastgenome.org/variant-viewer. PMID:26578556

  2. Viewer preferences for adaptive playout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sachin

    2013-03-01

    Adaptive media playout techniques are used to avoid buffer underflow in a dynamic streaming environment where the available bandwidth may be fluctuating. In this paper we report human perceptions from audio quality studies that we performed on speech and music samples for adaptive audio playout. Test methods based on ITU-R BS. 1534-1 recommendation were used. Studies were conducted for both slow playout and fast playout. Two scales - a coarse scale and a finer scale was used for the slow and fast audio playout factors. Results from our study can be used to determine acceptable slow and fast playout factors for speech and music content. An adaptive media playout algorithm could use knowledge of these upper and lower bounds on playback speeds to decide its adaptive playback schedule.

  3. Effect of free-choice feeding on the performance and ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Cruz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study ileal digestibility of nutrients and to verify the ability of broilers to select feed in order to meet their requirements for protein and energy. The treatments consisted of six diets: R+S: free-choice feeding with rice bran (energy and soybean meal (protein; C+G: free-choice feeding with corn (energy and corn gluten meal (protein; R+G: free-choice feeding with rice bran (energy and corn gluten meal (protein; C+S: free-choice feeding with corn (energy and soybean meal (protein; R+C+G+S: free-choice feeding with rice bran and corn (energy and corn gluten meal and soybean meal (protein; and BD: basal diet represented by a complete diet composed of 63% corn and 33% soybean meal. The results indicated that the adjustment to nutritional requirements does not depend only on the ability of birds to select feed. It might also depend on intake and ingredient quality, since some ingredients did not provide a balanced amount of nutrients. The birds were able to fulfill their requirements for maintenance, that is, they consumed the minimum amount of amino acids (g per day for maximum growth. The free-choice group with corn gluten meal as the protein source had the worst performance, which indicated that this feed is not recommended as a primary source of amino acids for broilers. The C+G diet presented the highest digestibility coefficient of dry matter and crude protein, whereas the C+S diet resulted in the highest digestibility coefficient of ether extract and nitrogen-free extract, indicating that diet digestibility was affected by the type of feed used as energy and protein sources. In general, the high digestibility values indicate that broilers are able to efficiently digest and absorb the supplied feed.

  4. A four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) software for observer performance evaluation in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhi; Cockmartin, Lesley; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) test is a psychophysical method that can be adopted for observer performance evaluation in radiological studies. While the concept of this method is well established, difficulties to handle large image data, perform unbiased sampling, and keep track of the choice made by the observer have restricted its application in practice. In this work, we propose an easy-to-use software that can help perform 4AFC tests with DICOM images. The software suits for any experimental design that follows the 4AFC approach. It has a powerful image viewing system that favorably simulates the clinical reading environment. The graphical interface allows the observer to adjust various viewing parameters and perform the selection with very simple operations. The sampling process involved in 4AFC as well as the speed and accuracy of the choice made by the observer is precisely monitored in the background and can be easily exported for test analysis. The software has also a defensive mechanism for data management and operation control that minimizes the possibility of mistakes from user during the test. This software can largely facilitate the use of 4AFC approach in radiological observer studies and is expected to have widespread applicability.

  5. The effect of personality traits on subject choice and performance in high school

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Mendolia; Ian Walker

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between personality traits in adolescence and performance in high school using a large and recent cohort study. In particular, we investigate the impact of locus of control, self-esteem, and work ethics at age 15, on test scores at age 16, and on subject choices and subsequent performance at age 17-18. In particular, individuals with external locus of control or with low levels of self-esteem seem less likely to have good performance in test scores at ...

  6. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  7. Working Capital Management, Corporate Performance, and Strategic Choices of the Wholesale and Retail Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-guo Li; Hui-min Dong; Shou Chen; Yan Yang

    2014-01-01

    We examine the influence of strategic choice on working capital configurations and observe how the relationship between working capital ratio and operational performance differs depending on strategy. By clustering the strategic factors of the wholesale and retail industry, we find three categories of strategies: terminal market strategy, middle market strategy, and hybrid strategy. Using the panel data of the listed companies of the wholesale and retail industry as our sample, we analyze the...

  8. Study of a viewer tracking system with multiview 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinn-Cherng; Wu, Chang-Shuo; Hsiao, Chuan-Heng; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Liu, Wen-Chieh; Hung, Yi-Ping

    2008-02-01

    An autostereoscopic display provides users great enjoyment of stereo visualization without uncomfortable and inconvenient drawbacks of wearing stereo glasses. However, bandwidth constraints of current multi-view 3D display severely restrict the number of views that can be simultaneously displayed without degrading resolution or increasing display cost unacceptably. An alternative to multiple view presentation is that the position of observer can be measured by using viewer-tracking sensor. It is a very important module of the viewer-tracking component for fluently rendering and accurately projecting the stereo video. In order to render stereo content with respect to user's view points and to optically project the content onto the left and right eyes of the user accurately, the real-time viewer tracking technique that allows the user to move around freely when watching the autostereoscopic display is developed in this study. It comprises the face detection by using multiple eigenspaces of various lighting conditions, fast block matching for tracking four motion parameters of the user's face region. The Edge Orientation Histogram (EOH) on Real AdaBoost to improve the performance of original AdaBoost algorithm is also applied in this study. The AdaBoost algorithm using Haar feature in OpenCV library developed by Intel to detect human face and enhance the accuracy performance with rotating image. The frame rate of viewer tracking process can achieve up to 15 Hz. Since performance of the viewer tracking autostereoscopic display is still influenced under variant environmental conditions, the accuracy, robustness and efficiency of the viewer-tracking system are evaluated in this study.

  9. Both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduce the facing-the-viewer bias in biological motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Heenan

    Full Text Available Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1 or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2 would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2 would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1 or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2, and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our

  10. Understanding the Effect of Baseline Modeling Implementation Choices on Analysis of Demand Response Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Addy, Nathan; Kiliccote, Sila; Mathieu, Johanna; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2012-06-13

    Accurate evaluation of the performance of buildings participating in Demand Response (DR) programs is critical to the adoption and improvement of these programs. Typically, we calculate load sheds during DR events by comparing observed electric demand against counterfactual predictions made using statistical baseline models. Many baseline models exist and these models can produce different shed calculations. Moreover, modelers implementing the same baseline model can make different modeling implementation choices, which may affect shed estimates. In this work, using real data, we analyze the effect of different modeling implementation choices on shed predictions. We focused on five issues: weather data source, resolution of data, methods for determining when buildings are occupied, methods for aligning building data with temperature data, and methods for power outage filtering. Results indicate sensitivity to the weather data source and data filtration methods as well as an immediate potential for automation of methods to choose building occupied modes.

  11. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  12. The 5-choice continuous performance test: evidence for a translational test of vigilance for mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared W Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attentional dysfunction is related to functional disability in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, sustained attention/vigilance is among the leading targets for new medications designed to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents. METHODS: We describe the 5-choice CPT (5C-CPT, an elaboration of the 5-choice serial reaction (5CSR task that includes non-signal trials, thus mimicking task parameters of human CPTs that use signal and non-signal events to assess vigilance. The performances of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were assessed in the 5C-CPT to determine whether this task could differentiate between strains. C57BL/6J mice were also trained in the 5CSR task and a simple reaction-time (RT task involving only one choice (1CRT task. We hypothesized that: 1 C57BL/6J performance would be superior to DBA/2J mice in the 5C-CPT as measured by the sensitivity index measure from signal detection theory; 2 a vigilance decrement would be observed in both strains; and 3 RTs would increase across tasks with increased attentional load (1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT. CONCLUSIONS: C57BL/6J mice exhibited superior SI levels compared to DBA/2J mice, but with no difference in accuracy. A vigilance decrement was observed in both strains, which was more pronounced in DBA/2J mice and unaffected by response bias. Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks. Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

  13. Individuality in harpsichord performance: disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Asselin, Pierre-Yves; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs) to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation) and random (performer) effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or expressive devices

  14. Individuality in harpsichord performance: disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Asselin, Pierre-Yves; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs) to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation) and random (performer) effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or expressive devices

  15. Individuality in harpsichord performance: Disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eGingras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation and random (performer effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or

  16. Interpreting a Television Narrative: How Different Viewers See a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines television viewers' interpretations of a particular narrative from the British soap opera "Coronation Street" after they had watched it unfold over some time in natural viewing circumstances. Identifies and discusses the interpretations of four clusters of viewers ranked in terms of their relative allegiance to the characters. (KEH)

  17. Listener Habits and Choices — and Their Implications for Public Performance Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    DODD, G.

    2001-01-01

    An 11-year longitudinal survey of patterns and preferences in music listening has revealed that a large majority of people would prefer to listen to music performed live but that only a small percentage of their exposure to music actually occurs at live performances. An initial analysis of the first few years of the survey suggests that choices concerning music can be influenced by cultural background, and that predominant music sources change as new technology becomes available. Reasons given by listeners for preferring to listen to a traditional, mechanical instrument rather than an electro-acoustic version of it indicate they are sensitive to an “originality” criterion. As a consequence, concert halls should be designed to operate as passive acoustics spaces. Further, listeners' reasons for electing to attend a live performance rather than listen to a recording or a live broadcast suggest that hall designers should try to maximize the sense of two-way communication between performers and listeners. An implication of this is that where active acoustics systems are to be incorporated in variable acoustics auditoria, those active systems which use a non-in-line approach are to be preferred over in-line schemes. However, listener evolution and new expectations may require a fundamental change in our approach to the acoustics of live performance venues.

  18. An Investigation of Multiple-Response-Option Multiple-Choice Items: Item Performance and Processing Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Renee M.; Plake, Barbara S.

    The combinational-format item (CFI)--multiple-choice item with combinations of alternatives presented as response choices--was studied to determine whether CFIs were different from regular multiple-choice items in item characteristics or in cognitive processing demands. Three undergraduate Foundations of Education classes (consisting of a total of…

  19. Differences in the Brain Waves of 3D and 2.5D Motion Picture Viewers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seok-Hee; Kim, Dal-Young

    2012-01-01

    We measured brain waves of viewers watching the 2D, 2.5D, and 3D motion pictures, comparing them with one another. The relative intensity of {\\alpha}-frequency band of 2.5D-viewer was lower than that of 2D-viewer, while that of 3D-viewer remained with similar intensity. This result implies visual neuro-processing of the 2.5D-viewer differs from that of the 3D-viewer.

  20. A Target Advertisement System Based on TV Viewer's Profile Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munjo; Lee, Bumshik; Kim, Munchurl; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Han-Kyu

    With the rapidly growing Internet, the Internet broadcasting and web casting service have been one of the well-known services. Specially, it is expected that the IPTV service will be one of the principal services in the broadband network [2]. However, the current broadcasting environment is served for the general public and requires the passive attitude to consume the TV programs. For the advanced broadcasting environments, various research of the personalized broadcasting is needed. For example, the current unidirectional advertisement provides to the TV viewers the advertisement contents, depending on the popularity of TV programs, the viewing rates, the age groups of TV viewers, and the time bands of the TV programs being broadcast. It is not an efficient way to provide the useful information to the TV viewers from customization perspective. If a TV viewer does not need particular advertisement contents, then information may be wasteful to the TV viewer. Therefore, it is expected that the target advertisement service will be one of the important services in the personalized broadcasting environments. The current research in the area of the target advertisement classifies the TV viewers into clustered groups who have similar preference. The digital TV collaborative filtering estimates the user's favourite advertisement contents by using the usage history [1, 4, 5]. In these studies, the TV viewers are required to provide their profile information such as the gender, job, and ages to the service providers via a PC or Set-Top Box (STB) which is connected to digital TV. Based on explicit information, the advertisement contents are provided to the TV viewers in a customized way with tailored advertisement contents. However, the TV viewers may dislike exposing to the service providers their private information because of the misuse of it. In this case, it is difficult to provide appropriate target advertisement service.

  1. The Effect of Choice Feeding Based on Threonine on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Male Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance characteristics and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Day old, thirty Ross 308 male chicks were divided into two dietary treatment groups. In the experiment, choice feding did not affect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and carcass parameters significantly affected by experimental treatments.

  2. EFL students' English language knowledge, strategy use and multiple-choice reading test performance: a structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wei-Tsung

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan, a reading comprehension component is included in the English test of the Senior High Academic Ability Examination (SHAAE) – a national examination which can be regarded as a university entrance examination for students in their final year of senior high. This reading subtest consists of a multiple-choice format. Studies on language assessment, L2 reading and L1-L2 reading have suggested that EFL students’ performance on multiple-choice reading comprehension tests is attributed to t...

  3. ATLAS Detector Control System Data Viewer

    CERN Document Server

    Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Roe, S; Bitenc, U; Fehling-Kaschek, ML; Winkelmann, S; D’Auria, S; Hoffmann, D; Pisano, O

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is one of the four Large Hadron Collider experiments. DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is a web interface application that provides access to historical data of ATLAS Detector Control System [1] (DCS) parameters written to the database (DB). It has a modular andflexible design and is structured using a clientserver architecture. The server can be operated stand alone with a command-line interface to the data while the client offers a user friendly, browser independent interface. The selection of the metadata of DCS parameters is done via a column-tree view or with a powerful search engine. The final visualisation of the data is done using various plugins such as “value over time” charts, data tables, raw ASCII or structured export to ROOT. Excessive access or malicious use of the database is prevented by dedicated protection mechanisms, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of inexperienced users. The metadata selection and data output features can be used separately by XML con...

  4. Gambling on visual performance: neural correlates of metacognitive choice between visual lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Wei; Delgado, Mauricio R; Maloney, Laurence T

    2015-01-01

    A lottery is a list of mutually exclusive outcomes together with their associated probabilities of occurrence. Decision making is often modeled as choices between lotteries and-in typical research on decision under risk-the probabilities are given to the subject explicitly in numerical form. In this study, we examined lottery decision task where the probabilities of receiving various rewards are contingent on the subjects' own visual performance in a random-dot-motion (RDM) discrimination task, a metacognitive or second order judgment. While there is a large literature concerning the RDM task and there is also a large literature on decision under risk, little is known about metacognitive decisions when the source of uncertainty is visual. Using fMRI with humans, we found distinct fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal networks representing subjects' estimates of his or her performance, reward value, and the expected value (EV) of the lotteries. The fronto-striatal network includes the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum, involved in reward processing and value-based decision-making. The fronto-parietal network includes the intraparietal sulcus and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was shown to be involved in the accumulation of sensory evidence during visual decision making and in metacognitive judgments on visual performance. These results demonstrate that-while valuation of performance-based lotteries involves a common fronto-striatal valuation network-an additional network unique to the estimation of task-related performance is recruited for the integration of probability and reward information when probability is inferred from visual performance. PMID:26388724

  5. Energy Performance Impacts from Competing Low-slope Roofing Choices and Photovoltaic Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Amy L.

    With such a vast quantity of space, commercial low-slope roofs offer significant potential for sustainable roofing technology deployment. Specifically, building energy performance can be improved by installing rooftop energy technologies such as photovoltaic (PV) panels, and/or including designs such as white or green roofs instead of traditional black. This research aims to inform and support roof decisions through quantified energy performance impacts across roof choices and photovoltaic technologies. The primary dataset for this research was measured over a 16 month period (May 24, 2011 to October 13, 2012) from a large field experiment in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on top of a commercial warehouse with white, black and green roof sections, each with portions covered by polycrystalline photovoltaic panels. Results from the Pittsburgh experiment were extended to three different cities (San Diego, CA; Huntsville, AL; and Phoenix, AZ) chosen to represent a wide range of irradiance and temperature values. First, this research evaluated the difference in electricity production from a green-moss roof and black roof underneath photovoltaic panels to determine if the green roof's cooler air increases the panel efficiency. Second, separate studies examine 1) average hourly heat flux by month for unobstructed and shaded roof membranes 2) heat flux peak time delay, and 3) air temperature across roof types. Results of this research show green roofs slightly increased (0.8-1.5%) PV panel efficiency in temperatures approximately at or above 25° C (77°F) compared to black roofs. However in cool climates, like Pittsburgh, the roof type under the PV panels had little overall impact on PV performance when considering year round temperatures. Instead, roof decisions should place a stronger emphasis on heat flux impacts. The green roof outperformed both black and white roofs at minimizing total conductive heat flux. These heat flow values were used to develop a new, straight

  6. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besco, Robert O

    2004-11-11

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: a random slip, one inadvertent oversight, a single unintended action, one mis-perceived event, simple mal-performance of a complex action, or a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many generations. The PPAS

  7. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: - a random slip,; - one inadvertent oversight,; - a single unintended action,; - one mis-perceived event,; - simple mal-performance of a complex action, or; - a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many

  8. Effect of free-choice feeding on the performance and ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    VC Cruz; AC Pezzato; DF Pinheiro; JC Gonçalves; JR Sartori

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study ileal digestibility of nutrients and to verify the ability of broilers to select feed in order to meet their requirements for protein and energy. The treatments consisted of six diets: R+S: free-choice feeding with rice bran (energy) and soybean meal (protein); C+G: free-choice feeding with corn (energy) and corn gluten meal (protein); R+G: free-choice feeding with rice bran (energy) and corn gluten meal (protein); C+S: free-choice feeding with corn (energ...

  9. A French Experiment in Educating Young Television Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Evelyne

    1983-01-01

    A French program to educate young television viewers and its results are discussed. The program increased the children's critical judgment about television and found that they became more independent in their attitudes toward television as they grew older. (IS)

  10. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  11. Measuring the complexity of viewers' television news interpretation: Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Schaap, G.J.; Konig, R.P.; Renckstorf, K.; Wester, F.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    If television news viewers are conceived as active audience members, their interpretations should be a crucial factor in the study of the ‘effects’ of television news. Here, viewers’ interpretations are understood as subjective (re)constructions of a news item. In a previous contribution, we argued that interpretations can vary both within and between viewers in regard to the level of complexity. Complexity is the degree to which interpretations are a) differentiated, and b) integrated. In th...

  12. Electronic, Hand-Held, Wireless Text-And-Graphics Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic, hand-held, wireless viewer presents written material to reader in way that closely resembles that of paper reading material. Viewer presents text and graphics like those normally found in books, newspapers, and magazines. Its hand-held and wireless features enable it to be used in positions and areas where books and magazines are normally used. Device consists primarily of two parts: the receiver/information store and viewing screen.

  13. First-time viewers' comprehension of films: bridging shot transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildirar, Sermin; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Which perceptual and cognitive prerequisites must be met in order to be able to comprehend a film is still unresolved and a controversial issue. In order to gain some insights into this issue, our field experiment investigates how first-time adult viewers extract and integrate meaningful information across film cuts. Three major types of commonalities between adjacent shots were differentiated, which may help first-time viewers with bridging the shots: pictorial, causal, and conceptual. Twenty first-time, 20 low-experienced and 20 high-experienced viewers from Turkey were shown a set of short film clips containing these three kinds of commonalities. Film clips conformed also to the principles of continuity editing. Analyses of viewers' spontaneous interpretations show that first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial (object identity), causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition. However, first-time viewers' comprehension of the commonalities is to a large degree fragile, indicating the lack of a basic notion of what constitutes a film. PMID:24654735

  14. Eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert-Luke, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Mann, David A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. An eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. Subjects performed above the 12.5% chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. Errors were typically located to either side of the signal source location when presented in the front 180° but were more dispersed when presented from locations behind the subject. Front-to-back confusions were few and accuracy was greater when signals originated from the front 180°. Head-related transfer functions were measured to determine if frequencies were filtered by the manatee body to create frequency-specific interaural level differences (ILDs). ILDs were found for all frequencies as a function of source location, although they were largest with frequencies above 18 kHz and when signals originated to either side of the subjects. Larger ILDs were found when the signals originated behind the subjects. A shadowing-effect produced by the body may explain the relatively low occurrence of front-back confusions in the localization study. PMID:25533765

  15. Variability in color-choice Stroop performance within and across EEG and MRI laboratory contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, T; Wiechert, J; Erhard, P

    2014-11-01

    To examine the reproducibility of the Stroop effect, behavioral data from 22 healthy female individuals were repeatedly (three-month interval between two separate measurement sessions) obtained while performing a color-choice Stroop task under realistic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) laboratory conditions. At the group statistical level, the Stroop effect, indicated by longer response times for incongruent than for congruent stimulus conditions, was consistently present for almost all examined measurement levels. However, differential effects of laboratory contexts on retest reproducibility were observed across repeated measurement levels, both within and between sessions. These results challenge existing theories about the underlying nature of Stroop interference processing. It appears necessary to apply a multitheoretical approach, because intraindividual variability within and across measurement sessions suggests potential fluctuations in the individual mental strategies applied, recruitment of varying memory resources, the influence of mediator variables such as working memory capacity and/or attention, and many more possible variations. Single-observation studies run the risk of favoring a single theoretical concept and therefore underestimating the individual factor. We further conclude that dependent analysis-of-variance statistics are a more fit test for reproducibility than are correlative reliability estimations. PMID:25085739

  16. Eight-choice sound localization by manatees: performance abilities and head related transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert-Luke, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Mann, David A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the ability and means by which two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may determine the direction of a sound source. An eight-choice discrimination paradigm was used to determine the subjects' sound localization abilities of five signal conditions covering a range of frequencies, durations, and levels. Subjects performed above the 12.5% chance level for all broadband frequencies and were able to localize sounds over a large level range. Errors were typically located to either side of the signal source location when presented in the front 180° but were more dispersed when presented from locations behind the subject. Front-to-back confusions were few and accuracy was greater when signals originated from the front 180°. Head-related transfer functions were measured to determine if frequencies were filtered by the manatee body to create frequency-specific interaural level differences (ILDs). ILDs were found for all frequencies as a function of source location, although they were largest with frequencies above 18 kHz and when signals originated to either side of the subjects. Larger ILDs were found when the signals originated behind the subjects. A shadowing-effect produced by the body may explain the relatively low occurrence of front-back confusions in the localization study.

  17. How top management team diversity affects innovativeness and performance via the strategic choice to focus on innovation fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren; Rost, Katja

    2010-01-01

    on this theory, we hypothesize that TMT diversity enhances firm performance by facilitating an innovation strategy that increases the firm's new product portfolio innovativeness. Our findings support the relevance of considering a corporate governance view for explaining innovation outcomes. Empirically, we can......Past innovation research has largely neglected potential effects of corporate governance issues on strategic choices, and thereby on innovation management outcomes. The theory of upper echelon implies that strategic choices result from idiosyncrasies of top management teams (TMT). Building...... show that TMT diversity has a strong impact on the strategic choice of firms to focus on innovation fields. Such focus then drives new product portfolio innovativeness and firm performance. As corporate governance arrangements thus seem relevant in the context of innovation management, we can derive...

  18. Interactive and Stereoscopic Hybrid 3D Viewer of Radar Data with Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenetxea, Jon; Moreno, Aitor; Unzueta, Luis; Galdós, Andoni; Segura, Álvaro

    This work presents an interactive and stereoscopic 3D viewer of weather information coming from a Doppler radar. The hybrid system shows a GIS model of the regional zone where the radar is located and the corresponding reconstructed 3D volume weather data. To enhance the immersiveness of the navigation, stereoscopic visualization has been added to the viewer, using a polarized glasses based system. The user can interact with the 3D virtual world using a Nintendo Wiimote for navigating through it and a Nintendo Wii Nunchuk for giving commands by means of hand gestures. We also present a dynamic gesture recognition procedure that measures the temporal advance of the performed gesture postures. Experimental results show how dynamic gestures are effectively recognized so that a more natural interaction and immersive navigation in the virtual world is achieved.

  19. Social media for message testing: a multilevel approach to linking favorable viewer responses with message, producer, and viewer influence on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Jeon, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of social media for message testing, this study connects favorable viewer responses to antismoking videos on YouTube with the videos' message characteristics (message sensation value [MSV] and appeals), producer types, and viewer influences (viewer rating and number of viewers). Through multilevel modeling, a content analysis of 7,561 viewer comments on antismoking videos is linked with a content analysis of 87 antismoking videos. Based on a cognitive response approach, viewer comments are classified and coded as message-oriented thought, video feature-relevant thought, and audience-generated thought. The three mixed logit models indicate that videos with a greater number of viewers consistently increased the odds of favorable viewer responses, while those presenting humor appeals decreased the odds of favorable message-oriented and audience-generated thoughts. Some significant interaction effects show that videos produced by laypeople may hinder favorable viewer responses, while a greater number of viewer comments can work jointly with videos presenting threat appeals to predict favorable viewer responses. Also, for a more accurate understanding of audience responses to the messages, nuance cues should be considered together with message features and viewer influences. PMID:22583315

  20. Performance of decorticated rats in a two-choice visual discrimination apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D A

    1981-07-01

    Normal rats and rats with 98.8% (S.D. +/- 1.4) of neocortex surgically removed were trained in a two-choice discrimination apparatus for food reward. The animals were first trained to run the apparatus with identical non-patterned goal box doors followed by discrimination and reversal training using horizontal and vertical striped panels attached to the doors. These patterned stimuli were matched for total luminous flux and contour length and control procedures were included for unintended discriminative cues from other sensory modalities. The two groups did not differ in the number of trials taken to complete preliminary training but the decorticates were significantly faster at running the apparatus than the normals. All animals solved the visual discrimination and were able to reverse it. There were no significant differences between the groups in trials taken to acquire the visual discrimination except at the very highest criterion levels employed, though reversal of the discrimination was more difficult for the lesioned group. The preliminary training data are taken as further evidence that total decortication does not necessarily impair instrumental performance for food reward and that this lesion does not introduce any limiting sensory or motor deficit in the alleyway situation. It would also appear that neocortex is not essential for the solution of a horizontal/vertical stripe problem. It is not clear, however, that such a solution necessarily depends on a true pattern discrimination, and both lesioned and normal animals may have been employing strategies based on local cues within the two patterned stimuli. The appropriateness of the total decorticate preparation for a resolution of the problem of cortical vs subcortical substrates of residual vision following visual cortex lesions is discussed. The possibility that undamaged neocortical tissue remaining after visual cortex lesions may inhibit the full expression of residual subcortical function is raised

  1. Global Sourcing Choice and Firm Performance: Impacts of Firm Characteristics, Nature of the Activity and Strategic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dedrick, Jason; Kenneth L. Kraemer; MacCrory, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Offshore sourcing of IT development has grown rapidly in the past decade. Yet some firms are much more active than others in offshore sourcing, and some report greater success in offshore performance. This raises two questions. First, how can we explain differences in firm sourcing choices, even among firms operating in the same industry? Second, what factors influence the impact of offshore sourcing on firm performance? We use data from a 2010 survey of U.S. software companies to an...

  2. Using Multiple Choice Questions Written at Various Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels to Evaluate Student Performance across a Therapeutics Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Amy M. Tiemeier, Pharm.D., BCPS; Zachary A. Stacy, Pharm.D., BCPS; John M. Burke, Pharm.D., FCCP, BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of a prospectively developed plan for using multiple choice questions (MCQs) developed at defined Bloom’s levels to assess student performance across a Therapeutics sequence.Methods: Faculty were prospectively instructed to prepare a specific number of MCQs for exams in a Therapeutics sequence. Questions were distributed into one of three cognitive levels based on a modified Bloom’s taxonomy, including recall, application, and analysis. Student performance o...

  3. Factors influencing host plant choice and larval performance in Bactericera cockerelli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Prager

    Full Text Available Among the many topics of interest to ecologists studying associations between phytophagous insects and their host plants are the influence of natal host plant on future oviposition decisions and the mechanisms of generalist versus specialist host selection behavior. In this study, we examined the oviposition preferences, behavior and larval development of the tomato/potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. By rearing psyllids with two distinct geographically-linked haplotypes on different host plants, we were able to examine the role of natal host plant and potential local adaptation on host plant usage. Choice bioassays among three host species demonstrated that psyllids from California had clear preferences that were influenced by natal plant. We further found that patterns in choice bioassays corresponded to observed feeding and movement responses. No-choice bioassays demonstrated that there is little to no association between development and host-plant choice for oviposition, while also indicating that host choice varies between haplotypes. These findings support the concept that mothers do not always choose oviposition sites optimally and also add support for the controversial Hopkins' host selection principle.

  4. Molmil: a molecular viewer for the PDB and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gert-Jan; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinjo, Akira R

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new platform-independent web-based molecular viewer using JavaScript and WebGL. The molecular viewer, Molmil, has been integrated into several services offered by Protein Data Bank Japan and can be easily extended with new functionality by third party developers. Furthermore, the viewer can be used to load files in various formats from the user's local hard drive without uploading the data to a server. Molmil is available for all platforms supporting WebGL (e.g. Windows, Linux, iOS, Android) from http://gjbekker.github.io/molmil/. The source code is available at http://github.com/gjbekker/molmil under the LGPLv3 licence. PMID:27570544

  5. Molmil: a molecular viewer for the PDB and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gert-Jan; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinjo, Akira R

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new platform-independent web-based molecular viewer using JavaScript and WebGL. The molecular viewer, Molmil, has been integrated into several services offered by Protein Data Bank Japan and can be easily extended with new functionality by third party developers. Furthermore, the viewer can be used to load files in various formats from the user's local hard drive without uploading the data to a server. Molmil is available for all platforms supporting WebGL (e.g. Windows, Linux, iOS, Android) from http://gjbekker.github.io/molmil/. The source code is available at http://github.com/gjbekker/molmil under the LGPLv3 licence.

  6. NGL Viewer: a web application for molecular visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexander S.; Hildebrand, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    The NGL Viewer (http://proteinformatics.charite.de/ngl) is a web application for the visualization of macromolecular structures. By fully adopting capabilities of modern web browsers, such as WebGL, for molecular graphics, the viewer can interactively display large molecular complexes and is also unaffected by the retirement of third-party plug-ins like Flash and Java Applets. Generally, the web application offers comprehensive molecular visualization through a graphical user interface so that life scientists can easily access and profit from available structural data. It supports common structural file-formats (e.g. PDB, mmCIF) and a variety of molecular representations (e.g. ‘cartoon, spacefill, licorice’). Moreover, the viewer can be embedded in other web sites to provide specialized visualizations of entries in structural databases or results of structure-related calculations. PMID:25925569

  7. Understanding Producers' Intentions and Viewers' Learning Outcomes in a Science Museum Theater Play on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, R.; Baram-Tsabari, A.

    2015-09-01

    Science museums often introduce plays to liven up exhibits, attract visitors to specific exhibitions, and help visitors to "digest" difficult content. Most previous research has concentrated on viewers' learning outcomes. This study uses performance and spectator analyses from the field of theater studies to explore the link between producers' intended aims, the written script, and the learning outcomes. We also use the conflict of didactics and aesthetics, common to the design of both educational plays and science museum exhibits, as a lens for understanding our data. "Darwin's journey," a play about evolution, was produced by a major science museum in Israel. The producers' objectives were collected through in-depth interviews. A structural analysis was conducted on the script. Viewer (n = 103) and nonviewer (n = 90) data were collected via a questionnaire. The results show strong evidence for the encoding of all of the producers' aims in the script. Explicit and cognitive aims were decoded as intended by the viewers. The evidence was weak for the decoding of implicit and affective aims. While the producers were concerned with the conflict of didactics and aesthetics, this conflict was not apparent in the script. The conflict is discussed within the broader context of science education in informal settings.

  8. Understanding Producers' Intentions and Viewers' Learning Outcomes in a Science Museum Theater Play on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, R.; Baram-Tsabari, A.

    2016-10-01

    Science museums often introduce plays to liven up exhibits, attract visitors to specific exhibitions, and help visitors to "digest" difficult content. Most previous research has concentrated on viewers' learning outcomes. This study uses performance and spectator analyses from the field of theater studies to explore the link between producers' intended aims, the written script, and the learning outcomes. We also use the conflict of didactics and aesthetics, common to the design of both educational plays and science museum exhibits, as a lens for understanding our data. "Darwin's journey," a play about evolution, was produced by a major science museum in Israel. The producers' objectives were collected through in-depth interviews. A structural analysis was conducted on the script. Viewer ( n = 103) and nonviewer ( n = 90) data were collected via a questionnaire. The results show strong evidence for the encoding of all of the producers' aims in the script. Explicit and cognitive aims were decoded as intended by the viewers. The evidence was weak for the decoding of implicit and affective aims. While the producers were concerned with the conflict of didactics and aesthetics, this conflict was not apparent in the script. The conflict is discussed within the broader context of science education in informal settings.

  9. Pelleting of diet ingredients: Diet selection and performance in choice-fed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was completed with individually housed growing pigs to examine whether pigs can compose their optimal diet when allowed a choice of three different pellets. Forty cross-bred pigs (20 castrates and 20 gilts) with an initial live weight of 22.0 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to either a complet

  10. Laying Performance of Wareng Chicken under Free Choice Feeding and Different Cage Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to explore the possibility of using free choice feeding technique under different cage density for unselected native chicken. Eighty hens of laying Wareng chicken were divided into two feeding systems. Half of them were fed complete commercial diet of 17% crude protein, with 2800 kcal ME/kg and the other half were subjected to free choice diet. The diets were in mash form and placed in sufficient feed troughs in front of each cage. Each cage was occupied by four or six hens. Free choice feeding hens were served with commercial concentrate (30% crude protein, ground corn and oyster shell, placed separately in feed troughs. Observation was carried out during 24 weeks laying period, starting from 20 to 44 weeks of age. The results showed that egg production (9.35% hen day, and the intake of feed (42.74 g/day, protein (7.01 g/day, energy (116.6 kcal ME/day, calcium (1.99 g/day and phosphorus (0.22 g/day were not affected (P>0.05 by feeding system nor by cage density. The results however indicated that free choice feeding technique provided sufficient nutrients in supporting maximum egg production of unselected native chicken.

  11. Course Modality Choice and Student Performance in Business Statistics Courses in Post Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radners, Richard Harry, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the role of course modality choice (face-to-face [FTF] or online [OL]) on course grades. At the study site, an independent college, the research problem was the lack of research on the proportions of undergraduate students who completed a statistics course as part of their academic program, in either OL or…

  12. FROM CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THROUGH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO CORPORATE SOCIAL PERFORMANCE – A STRATEGIC CHOICE FOR BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian BELASCU

    2011-01-01

    The concept of corporate social responsibility occurred at the company's level as cause and consequence as well of a whole set of organizational shifts – integrating some global tendencies. New set of values, new attitudes and new behaviors have emerged regarding the strategic choices of business. The corporate social responsiveness reflects the actual approach each business takes in this respect, while corporate social performance is the expected result of this kind of approach.

  13. The GLOBE-Consortium: The Next-Generation Genome Viewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); M.J. Moorhouse (Michael)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe GLOBE 3D Genome Viewer is the novel system-biology oriented genome browser necessary to access, present, annotate, and to simulate the holistic genome complexity in a unique gateway towards a real understanding, educative presentation and curative manipulation planning of this tr

  14. Analysis of Mode Choice Performance among Heterogeneous Tourists to Expo Shanghai 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shengchuan; Du, Yuchuan; Sun, Lijun

    Tourist is a conventional kind of commuters in the urban transport system. During some mega-events, such as Olympic Games or Expos, tourists would become the most important and sizable part of commuters in the host city. Expo 2010 Shanghai will attract 70 millions tourists during the whole 184 days duration. The large number of tourists expected to be carried, combined with the congested urban road network and limited parking spaces, will make it difficult for individual transport to be used during the Expo; as such, high rates of utilization of public transport will be necessary. Hence, exploring the trip mode choice behavior of Expo tourists is the keystone for traffic planning of Expo 2010 Shanghai, especially for the difference of heterogeneous tourists from various departure areas. A joint model system, in the form of associating clustering analysis and HL model, is developed in this paper to investigate the differences of trip mode choice behaviour among heterogeneous tourist groups. The clustering analysis method is used in this paper to distinguish the various types of Expo tourists for the choice sets are variable with the attributes of groups. Sorted by the attribute of departure area, tourists of Expo Shanghai could be divided into three kinds: local visitors, out-of-town one-day-trip visitor and out-of-town lodging visitors. The statistic parameters of three kind models constructed by this joint system show that this modeling method improves analytic precision effectively.

  15. Applications of "Integrated Data Viewer'' (IDV) in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, R.; Cutrim, E. M.

    2006-06-01

    Conventionally, weather products utilized in synoptic meteorology reduce phenomena occurring in four dimensions to a 2-dimensional form. This constitutes a road-block for non-atmospheric-science majors who need to take meteorology as a non-mathematical and complementary course to their major programs. This research examines the use of Integrated Data Viewer-IDV as a teaching tool, as it allows a 4-dimensional representation of weather products. IDV was tested in the teaching of synoptic meteorology, weather analysis, and weather map interpretation to non-science students in the laboratory sessions of an introductory meteorology class at Western Michigan University. Comparison of student exam scores according to the laboratory teaching techniques, i.e., traditional lab manual and IDV was performed for short- and long-term learning. Results of the statistical analysis show that the Fall 2004 students in the IDV-based lab session retained learning. However, in the Spring 2005 the exam scores did not reflect retention in learning when compared with IDV-based and MANUAL-based lab scores (short term learning, i.e., exam taken one week after the lab exercise). Testing the long-term learning, seven weeks between the two exams in the Spring 2005, show no statistically significant difference between IDV-based group scores and MANUAL-based group scores. However, the IDV group obtained exam score average slightly higher than the MANUAL group. Statistical testing of the principal hypothesis in this study, leads to the conclusion that the IDV-based method did not prove to be a better teaching tool than the traditional paper-based method. Future studies could potentially find significant differences in the effectiveness of both manual and IDV methods if the conditions had been more controlled. That is, students in the control group should not be exposed to the weather analysis using IDV during lecture.

  16. Predicting Moves-on-Stills for Comic Art Using Viewer Gaze Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Eakta; Sheikh, Yaser; Hodgins, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Comic art consists of a sequence of panels of different shapes and sizes that visually communicate the narrative to the reader. The move-on-stills technique allows such still images to be retargeted for digital displays via camera moves. Today, moves-on-stills can be created by software applications given user-provided parameters for each desired camera move. The proposed algorithm uses viewer gaze as input to computationally predict camera move parameters. The authors demonstrate their algorithm on various comic book panels and evaluate its performance by comparing their results with a professional DVD.

  17. AlliedSignal driver's viewer enhancement (DVE) for paramilitary and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Michael; Caron, Hubert; Kovacevic, Branislav; Faina-Cherkaoui, Marcela; Wrobel, Leslie; Turcotte, Gilles

    1999-07-01

    AlliedSignal Driver's Viewer Enhancement (DVE) system is a thermal imager using a 320 X 240 uncooled microbolometer array. This high performance system was initially developed for military combat and tactical wheeled vehicles. It features a very small sensor head remotely mounted from the display, control and processing module. The sensor head has a modular design and is being adapted to various commercial applications such as truck and car-driving aid, using specifically designed low cost optics. Tradeoffs in the system design, system features and test results are discussed in this paper. A short video shows footage of the DVE system while driving at night.

  18. FRELLED: A realtime volumetric data viewer for astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.

    2015-11-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular H I) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualize even large (∼6003 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (≳ 10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  19. Gesture Interaction Browser-Based 3D Molecular Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an open source system that allows the user to interact with a 3D molecular viewer using associated hand gestures for rotating, scaling and panning the rendered model. The novelty of this approach is that the entire application is browser-based and doesn't require installation of third party plug-ins or additional software components in order to visualize the supported chemical file formats. This kind of solution is suitable for instruction of users in less IT oriented environments, like medicine or chemistry. For rendering various molecular geometries our team used GLmol (a molecular viewer written in JavaScript). The interaction with the 3D models is made with Leap Motion controller that allows real-time tracking of the user's hand gestures. The first results confirmed that the resulting application leads to a better way of understanding various types of translational bioinformatics related problems in both biomedical research and education.

  20. FRELLED : A Realtime Volumetric Data Viewer For Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular HI) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualise even large (~600^3 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  1. Gesture Interaction Browser-Based 3D Molecular Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an open source system that allows the user to interact with a 3D molecular viewer using associated hand gestures for rotating, scaling and panning the rendered model. The novelty of this approach is that the entire application is browser-based and doesn't require installation of third party plug-ins or additional software components in order to visualize the supported chemical file formats. This kind of solution is suitable for instruction of users in less IT oriented environments, like medicine or chemistry. For rendering various molecular geometries our team used GLmol (a molecular viewer written in JavaScript). The interaction with the 3D models is made with Leap Motion controller that allows real-time tracking of the user's hand gestures. The first results confirmed that the resulting application leads to a better way of understanding various types of translational bioinformatics related problems in both biomedical research and education. PMID:27350455

  2. Applications of "Integrated Data Viewer' (IDV) in the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nogueira; E. M. Cutrim

    2006-01-01

    International audience Conventionally, weather products utilized in synoptic meteorology reduce phenomena occurring in four dimensions to a 2-dimensional form. This constitutes a road-block for non-atmospheric-science majors who need to take meteorology as a non-mathematical and complementary course to their major programs. This research examines the use of Integrated Data Viewer-IDV as a teaching tool, as it allows a 4-dimensional representation of weather products. IDV was tested in the ...

  3. An interactive app for color deficient viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl; Perdu, Nicolas; Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos E.; Süsstrunk, Sabine; Sharma, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Color deficient individuals have trouble seeing color contrasts that could be very apparent to individuals with normal color vision. For example, for some color deficient individuals, red and green apples do not have the striking contrast they have for those with normal color vision, or the abundance of red cherries in a tree is not immediately clear due to a lack of perceived contrast. We present a smartphone app that enables color deficient users to visualize such problematic color contrasts in order to help them with daily tasks. The user interacts with the app through the touchscreen. As the user traces a path around the touchscreen, the colors in the image change continuously via a transform that enhances contrasts that are weak or imperceptible for the user under native viewing conditions. Specifically, we propose a transform that shears the data along lines parallel to the dimension corresponding to the affected cone sensitivity of the user. The amount and direction of shear are controlled by the user's finger movement over the touchscreen allowing them to visualize these contrasts. Using the GPU, this simple transformation, consisting of a linear shear and translation, is performed efficiently on each pixel and in real-time with the changing position of the user's finger. The user can use the app to aid daily tasks such as distinguishing between red and green apples or picking out ripe bananas.

  4. The Rate Of Time Preference, Seat Location Choice And Student Performance In The Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Wisdom Akpalu; Richard Vogel; Xu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on the impact of seat location preferences in classes on student performance has yielded conflicting and very divergent results. This study contributes to this strand of literature by controlling for additional variables that could affect student performance. Specifically, in addition to seating location preferences, we propose that student performance may be affected by the rate at which the student values present rewards as opposed to future rewards, self perceived risk aver...

  5. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  6. Intraguild predation leads to cascading effects on habitat choice, behaviour and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Chakarov, Nayden; Heseker, Hanna; Krüger, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is a commonly recognized mechanism influencing the community structure of predators, but the complex interactions are notoriously difficult to disentangle. The mesopredator suppression hypothesis predicts that a superpredator may either simultaneously repress two mesopredators, restrain the dominant one and thereby release the subdominant mesopredator, or elicit different responses by both mesopredators. We show the outcome arising from such conditions in a three-level predator assemblage (Eurasian eagle owl Bubo bubo L., northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis L. and common buzzard Buteo buteo L.) studied over 25 years. In the second half of the study period, the eagle owl re-colonized the study area, thereby providing a natural experiment of superpredator introduction. We combined this set-up with detailed GIS analysis of habitat use and a field experiment simulating intrusion by the superpredator into territories of the subdominant mesopredator, the buzzard. Although population trends were positive for all three species in the assemblage, the proportion of failed breeding attempts increased significantly in both mesopredators after the superpredator re-colonized the area. We predicted that superpredator-induced niche shifts in the dominant mesopredator may facilitate mesopredator coexistence in superpredator-free refugia. We found significant changes in nesting habitat choice in goshawk, but not in buzzard. Since competition for enemy-free refugia and the rapid increase in population density may have constrained niche shifts of the subdominant mesopredator, we further predicted behavioural changes in response to the superpredator. The field experiment indeed showed a significant increase in aggressive response of buzzards towards eagle owl territory intrusion over the course of 10 years, probably due to phenotypic plasticity in the response towards superpredation risk. Overall, our results show that intraguild predation can be a powerful

  7. Business value and performance of a company : Choice for methodology and model sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, van der M.; Hajdasinski, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the first article “Business Value Creation of (Transformational) Outsourcing, a Performance Based Approach” published in 2008 (Nyenrode Research Institute). In this paper the authors would like to discuss the distinction between the Value of a Company and the Transfor

  8. Female choice selects for lifetime lekking performance in black grouse males

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, H.; ki, P. T. Rintam; Alatalo, R. V.; glund, J. H; Karvonen, E.; Lundberg, A.

    1999-01-01

    'Good genes' models assume that females can use a signal such as mating effort to assess a male's lifetime fitness. Inferring long-term performance from short-term behavioural observations can be unreliable, and repeated sampling may be needed for more accurate assessment of males. Additionally, if sexual advertisement is viewed as a life-history trait subject to trade-offs, reliable comparison of mates should yield information on all life-history components rather than on one trait value in ...

  9. Viewing Age: Lifespan Identity and Television Viewing Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jake

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices, grounded in social identity theory. Content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers show a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults' preference for viewing young adult characters exists…

  10. BMDExpress Data Viewer - a visualization tool to analyze BMDExpress datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Byron; Francina Webster, A; Thomas, Russell S; Yauk, Carole L

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory agencies increasingly apply benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to determine points of departure for risk assessment. BMDExpress applies BMD modeling to transcriptomic datasets to identify transcriptional BMDs. However, graphing and analytical capabilities within BMDExpress are limited, and the analysis of output files is challenging. We developed a web-based application, BMDExpress Data Viewer (http://apps.sciome.com:8082/BMDX_Viewer/), for visualizing and graphing BMDExpress output files. The application consists of "Summary Visualization" and "Dataset Exploratory" tools. Through analysis of transcriptomic datasets of the toxicants furan and 4,4'-methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine, we demonstrate that the "Summary Visualization Tools" can be used to examine distributions of gene and pathway BMD values, and to derive a potential point of departure value based on summary statistics. By applying filters on enrichment P-values and minimum number of significant genes, the "Functional Enrichment Analysis" tool enables the user to select biological processes or pathways that are selectively perturbed by chemical exposure and identify the related BMD. The "Multiple Dataset Comparison" tool enables comparison of gene and pathway BMD values across multiple experiments (e.g., across timepoints or tissues). The "BMDL-BMD Range Plotter" tool facilitates the observation of BMD trends across biological processes or pathways. Through our case studies, we demonstrate that BMDExpress Data Viewer is a useful tool to visualize, explore and analyze BMDExpress output files. Visualizing the data in this manner enables rapid assessment of data quality, model fit, doses of peak activity, most sensitive pathway perturbations and other metrics that will be useful in applying toxicogenomics in risk assessment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26671443

  11. Strategic Assessment for Arctic Observing, and the New Arctic Observing Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Lin, D. H.; Villarreal, S.; Quezada, A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various Arctic Observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess that progress. What data collection efforts are established or under way? Where? By whom? To help meet the strategic needs of SEARCH-AON, SAON, and related initiatives, a new resource has been released: the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org). This web mapping application covers the 'who', 'what', 'where', and 'when' of data collection sites - wherever marine or terrestrial data are collected. Hundreds of sites are displayed, providing an overview as well as details. Users can visualize, navigate, select, search, draw, print, and more. This application currently showcases a subset of observational activities and will become more comprehensive with time. The AOV is founded on principles of interoperability, with an emerging metadata standard and compatible web service formats, such that participating agencies and organizations can use the AOV tools and services for their own purposes. In this way, the AOV will complement other cyber-resources, and will help science planners, funding agencies, PI's, and others to: assess status, identify overlap, fill gaps, assure sampling design, refine network performance, clarify directions, access data, coordinate logistics, collaborate, and more to meet Arctic Observing goals.

  12. Metabolic brain activity underlying behavioral performance and spatial strategy choice in sedentary and exercised Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Zancada-Menendez, C; Cuesta, M; Arias, J L; Begega, A

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the performance of a spatial reference memory task, the navigation strategy and the changes in the cytochrome c oxidase activity (COx) in different brain regions in exercised (forced exercise, 10 consecutive days, 15min/day) and non-exercised adult Wistar rats. The spatial learning task was carried out in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) for four days with six daily trials, and on the fifth day, a probe session was run, in which we rotated the position of the distal cues 90° in a clockwise direction. During the four days of training, the exercised group showed shorter latency and distance traveled to find the platform, as well as fewer memory errors and reduced use of non-appropriate navigation strategies according to the protocol of the task (egocentric). Interestingly, the rotation of the cues did not affect the performance of the exercised group, in contrast to the non-exercised group, which spent more time in the center of the maze and traveled longer distance to find the platform. Finally, higher COx activity in the cingulate and the retrosplenial cortices, as well as in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 was found in the exercised group. All in all, it seems that the exercise favored the configuration of an efficient and accurate cognitive map of the environment, which was supported by our finding that the rotation of the cues, without altering their overall configuration, did not affect performance. The brain regions with higher COx activity in the exercised group seem to be involved in this function. PMID:25281878

  13. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects. PMID:26710265

  14. The influence of local enhancement on choice performances in African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and jackdaws (Corvus monedula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Sandra; Kotrschal, Kurt; Schloegl, Christian

    2012-11-01

    Being attentive to the behavior of others may be advantageous to gain important information, for example, on the location of food. Often, this is achieved through simple local enhancement. However, this is not always beneficial, as it may override cognitive abilities, with negative consequences. Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and ravens have already succeeded in exclusion tasks, but carrion crows do so only when controlling for local enhancement, and jackdaws (Corvus monedula) fail entirely. Presently, we tested whether jackdaws would still be influenced by local enhancement in a simple choice-task. We compared their performance with those of Grey parrots. Since these birds did not respond to enhancement in the exclusion task, we expected them also to be less susceptible to enhancement here. In our tasks, two pieces of food were visibly hidden under two cups. Then one cup was lifted, the reward was shown to the bird and was either laid back underneath the cup or was removed. Alternatively, both manipulations were combined with the first reward being shown to the bird and the second one being removed or vice versa. Surprisingly, both species had a preference for the last handled cup, irrespective of whether it contained food or not. However, if the birds had to wait for 10 seconds after the presentation, the jackdaws performed better than the Grey parrots. Additionally, the delay improved the performance of both species in conditions in which the reward was removed last and deteriorated their performance in conditions in which the item was shown last.

  15. Using Multiple Choice Questions Written at Various Bloom’s Taxonomy Levels to Evaluate Student Performance across a Therapeutics Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Tiemeier, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results of a prospectively developed plan for using multiple choice questions (MCQs developed at defined Bloom’s levels to assess student performance across a Therapeutics sequence.Methods: Faculty were prospectively instructed to prepare a specific number of MCQs for exams in a Therapeutics sequence. Questions were distributed into one of three cognitive levels based on a modified Bloom’s taxonomy, including recall, application, and analysis. Student performance on MCQs was compared between and within each Bloom’s level throughout the Therapeutics sequence. In addition, correlations between MCQ performance and case performance were assessed.Results: A total of 168 pharmacy students were prospectively followed in a Therapeutics sequence over two years. The overall average MCQ score on 10 exams was 68.8%. A significant difference in student performance was observed between recall, application, and analysis domain averages (73.1%, 70.2% and 60.1%; p<0.001. Student performance within each Bloom’s level across the three courses was significantly different for recall (p<0.001, application (p<0.001, and analysis (p<0.001 MCQs. A significant correlation was observed between the recall domain and the case (0.67; p<0.01, application domain and the case (0.62; p<0.01, and analysis domain and the case (0.64; p<0.01.Conclusions: As students progress through the curriculum, faculty may need to find ways to promote recall knowledge for more advanced topics while continuing to develop their ability to apply and analyze information. Exams with well-designed MCQs that prospectively target various cognitive levels can facilitate assessment of student performance.

  16. Current medication choices in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis II--update of a survey performed in 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, H I; Kim, K N; Ballinger, S H; Bowyer, S L; Griffin, T A; Higgins, G C; Mier, R; Passo, M H; Rennebohm, R; Schikler, K; Lovell, D J

    2001-10-01

    The documentation of treatments used for Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is important to allow for the evaluation of practice patterns for future outcome studies. A survey of nine pediatric rheumatologists was performed between September 1999 and February 2000. Each of the physicians prospectively recorded demographic and treatment information on consecutively sampled JRA patients (n=395). Pauciarticular onset JRA was present in 46%, polyarticular onset JRA in 35%, and systemic onset JRA in 19% of the children. Naproxen was the most frequently prescribed medication (55% of the patients), followed by methotrexate (MTX), which was used in 39% of the patients. Folic acid supplementation (1 mg/day) was provided to 69% of the patients treated with MTX. Etanercept was used in 11% of the children. Eleven percent of the patients received corticosteroids, and 13% of children on corticosteroids took calcium supplements. Uveitis was present in 8% and had a chronic course in 79% of those cases. Although systemic medications were used in 50% of the children with uveitis to control eye inflammation, severe damage to the eyes developed in 30% of them. Fourteen percent of the patients required gastroprotective medications. Compared with findings of a similar survey performed in 1993, there was no significant change in the frequency of use of naproxen, but nabumetone is now more often prescribed, and COX-2 inhibitors have been introduced in the therapy of JRA. Changes among second-line agents used for JRA have also occurred, although there was no change in the frequency of use of MTX or corticosteroids. JRA continues to be a treatment challenge for the practicing pediatric rheumatologist. Patients often show incomplete response to the currently available medications. Therefore, new therapeutic agents need to be evaluated for their use in JRA, and the treatment of JRA associated uveitis especially needs to be improved.

  17. A retrospective comparative study of multiple choice questions versus short answer questions as assessment tool in evaluating the performance of the students in medical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Yogeeta Sushant C. Walke; Amey S. Kamat; Sushama A. Bhounsule

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim was to assess the effectiveness of multiple choice versus short answer questions (SAQs) as assessment tools for evaluating performance of 2nd MBBS students. Methods: The study was observational, retrospective study of written pen and paper type assessment that utilized a sample of 100 2nd year medical students. Study consisted of two parts; part I was multiple-choice questions (MCQs) based on endocrine system where four options were given for a question and the single b...

  18. A choice technique to assess the effects of selective punishment on fixed-ratio performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, M C

    1970-01-01

    The emission of a fixed number of responses by rats was followed by food reinforcement. This fixed number could be accumulated in any way from two continuously available but mutually incompatible response classes, bar pressing, and not bar pressing for a fixed time period. A preference for one response class was arranged by specifying different maximum reinforcement rates for the two classes. Under selective punishment conditions, the preferred response occasionally led to both food and electric shock, while the non-preferred response led only to food. Selective punishment effects were measured through changes in the preference to the two responses in the sequence. The actions of shock intensity, deprivation, the specification of the non-preferred response, and three drugs were investigated. The results were broadly similar to the work reported by Dardano and Sauerbrunn (1964), who found localized increases in interresponse times before punished responses in fixed-ratio schedules. Performance under this procedure was found to be stable and sensitive to each of the experimental variables examined.

  19. Street Viewer: An Autonomous Vision Based Traffic Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Andrea; Garbo, Alessandro; Loiacono, Carmelo; Quer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The development of intelligent transportation systems requires the availability of both accurate traffic information in real time and a cost-effective solution. In this paper, we describe Street Viewer, a system capable of analyzing the traffic behavior in different scenarios from images taken with an off-the-shelf optical camera. Street Viewer operates in real time on embedded hardware architectures with limited computational resources. The system features a pipelined architecture that, on one side, allows one to exploit multi-threading intensively and, on the other side, allows one to improve the overall accuracy and robustness of the system, since each layer is aimed at refining for the following layers the information it receives as input. Another relevant feature of our approach is that it is self-adaptive. During an initial setup, the application runs in learning mode to build a model of the flow patterns in the observed area. Once the model is stable, the system switches to the on-line mode where the flow model is used to count vehicles traveling on each lane and to produce a traffic information summary. If changes in the flow model are detected, the system switches back autonomously to the learning mode. The accuracy and the robustness of the system are analyzed in the paper through experimental results obtained on several different scenarios and running the system for long periods of time. PMID:27271627

  20. Street Viewer: An Autonomous Vision Based Traffic Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Andrea; Garbo, Alessandro; Loiacono, Carmelo; Quer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The development of intelligent transportation systems requires the availability of both accurate traffic information in real time and a cost-effective solution. In this paper, we describe Street Viewer, a system capable of analyzing the traffic behavior in different scenarios from images taken with an off-the-shelf optical camera. Street Viewer operates in real time on embedded hardware architectures with limited computational resources. The system features a pipelined architecture that, on one side, allows one to exploit multi-threading intensively and, on the other side, allows one to improve the overall accuracy and robustness of the system, since each layer is aimed at refining for the following layers the information it receives as input. Another relevant feature of our approach is that it is self-adaptive. During an initial setup, the application runs in learning mode to build a model of the flow patterns in the observed area. Once the model is stable, the system switches to the on-line mode where the flow model is used to count vehicles traveling on each lane and to produce a traffic information summary. If changes in the flow model are detected, the system switches back autonomously to the learning mode. The accuracy and the robustness of the system are analyzed in the paper through experimental results obtained on several different scenarios and running the system for long periods of time. PMID:27271627

  1. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Advanced Placement® Exam Participation: Is AP® Exam Participation and Performance Related to Choice of College Major? Research Report No. 2011-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Ewing, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found a positive relationship between AP® participation and performance with various college outcomes. Building on this work, the current study investigated the relationship between AP participation and performance with choice of college major. Specifically, this study examined whether students who take an AP Exam in a…

  3. Effects Of Country Risk Forecasts Based On Foreign Trade Performance And Currency Choices In Asset - Liability Management On Banks’ Liquidity Performance: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Muzır

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available he foremost purpose of this paper that presents some parametric and non-parametric model proposals towards measuring banks’ risk of technical insolvency (failure as based on their liquidity performance is to discern how specific choices regarding asset- liability structure of banks and country risk predictions concerning overall foreign trade performance affect liquidity position of those banks. Moreover, possible impacts of lending efficiency and capital adequacy on liquidity performance are argued. For this purpose, some parametric and non-parametric risk estimation models have been developed using the consolidated financial and non-financial data that were reported on a quarterly basis by 26 Turkish and foreign deposit banks within the period between March 2003 and March 2009 to predict changes in the balances of both net cash flows from banking activities and overall net cash flows. According to the findings of the models developed by undertaking Binary Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS, it is concluded that foreign trade performance based country risk forecasts are positively correlated with technical failure risk exposure while currency compositions of assets and liabilities are significantly effective on risk level. In addition, we also observe that foreign banks are relatively less exposed to technical failure risk and infer that increasing lending efficiency and better capital adequacy could lead to pretty liquidity performance, as expected

  4. Differences in the performance of NK1R−/− (‘knockout’) and wildtype mice in the 5‑Choice Continuous Performance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ashley J.; Pillidge, Katharine; Stanford, S. Clare; Young, Jared W.

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking functional NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptors typically display excessive inattentiveness (omission errors) and impulsivity (premature responses) when compared with wildtypes in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test (5-CSRTT). These abnormal behaviours are analogous to those seen in humans suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we used the 5-Choice Continuous‑Performance Test (5C-CPT) to ascertain whether NK1R−/− mice also display excessive false alarms (an inappropriate response to a ‘no-go’ signal), which is another form of impulsive behaviour. NK1R−/− mice completed more trials than wildtypes, confirming their ability to learn and carry out the task. At the start of Stage 1 of training, but not subsequently, they also scored more premature responses than wildtypes. When the mice were tested for the first time, neither false alarms nor premature responses was higher in NK1R−/− mice than wildtypes but, as in the 5-CSRTT, the latter behaviour was strongly dependent on time of day. NK1R−/− mice expressed excessive perseveration during all stages of the 5C-CPT. This behaviour is thought to reflect compulsive checking, which is common in ADHD patients. These findings point to differences in the 5-CSRTT and 5C-CPT protocols that could be important for distinguishing why the cognitive performance and response control of NK1R−/− mice differs from their wildtypes. The results further lead to the prediction that ADHD patients with polymorphism of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r) would express more perseveration, but not false alarms, in Continuous Performance Tests when compared with other groups of subjects. PMID:26522842

  5. Impaired response inhibition in the rat 5 choice continuous performance task during protracted abstinence from chronic alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Irimia

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive processing is a hallmark of addiction. In particular, deficits in inhibitory control can propel continued drug use despite adverse consequences. Clinical evidence shows that detoxified alcoholics exhibit poor inhibitory control in the Continuous Performance Task (CPT and related tests of motor impulsivity. Animal models may provide important insight into the neural mechanisms underlying this consequence of chronic alcohol exposure though pre-clinical investigations of behavioral inhibition during alcohol abstinence are sparse. The present study employed the rat 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT, a novel pre-clinical variant of the CPT, to evaluate attentional capacity and impulse control over the course of protracted abstinence from chronic intermittent alcohol consumption. In tests conducted with familiar 5C-CPT conditions EtOH-exposed rats exhibited impaired attentional capacity during the first hours of abstinence and impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms during the first 5d of abstinence that dissipated thereafter. Subsequent tests employing visual distractors that increase the cognitive load of the task revealed significant increases in impulsive action (premature responses at 3 and 5 weeks of abstinence, and the emergence of impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms at 7 weeks of abstinence. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the emergence of increased impulsive action in alcohol-dependent rats during protracted alcohol abstinence and suggest the 5C-CPT with visual distractors may provide a viable behavioral platform for characterizing the neurobiological substrates underlying impaired behavioral inhibition resulting from chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

  6. Design choices made by target users for a pay-for-performance program in primary care: an action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschner Kirsten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International interest in pay-for-performance (P4P initiatives to improve quality of health care is growing. Current programs vary in the methods of performance measurement, appraisal and reimbursement. One may assume that involvement of health care professionals in the goal setting and methods of quality measurement and subsequent payment schemes may enhance their commitment to and motivation for P4P programs and therefore the impact of these programs. We developed a P4P program in which the target users were involved in decisions about the P4P methods. Methods For the development of the P4P program a framework was used which distinguished three main components: performance measurement, appraisal and reimbursement. Based on this framework design choices were discussed in two panels of target users using an adapted Delphi procedure. The target users were 65 general practices and two health insurance companies in the South of the Netherlands. Results Performance measurement was linked to the Dutch accreditation program based on three domains (clinical care, practice management and patient experience. The general practice was chosen as unit of assessment. Relative standards were set at the 25th percentile of group performance. The incentive for clinical care was set twice as high as the one for practice management and patient experience. Quality scores were to be calculated separately for all three domains, and for both the quality level and the improvement of performance. The incentive for quality level was set thrice as high as the one for the improvement of performance. For reimbursement, quality scores were divided into seven levels. A practice with a quality score in the lowest group was not supposed to receive a bonus. The additional payment grew proportionally for each extra group. The bonus aimed at was on average 5% to 10% of the practice income. Conclusions Designing a P4P program for primary care with involvement of

  7. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote. PMID:26398217

  8. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  9. Psychological and neural responses to art embody viewer and artwork histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Kaufman, James C

    2013-04-01

    The research programs of empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics have reflected deep concerns about viewers' sensitivities to artworks' historical contexts by investigating the impact of two factors on art perception: viewers' developmental (and educational) histories and the contextual histories of artworks. These considerations are consistent with data demonstrating that art perception is underwritten by dynamically reconfigured and evolutionarily adapted neural and psychological mechanisms. PMID:23507117

  10. Speaking "Out of Place": YouTube Documentaries and Viewers' Comment Culture as Political Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Marcelina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the comment culture that accompanies documentary films on YouTube as a site of (geo) political education. It considers how viewers try to teach each other about the proper "place" of critique in response to the global, national, and local rhetoric featured in one environmental documentary film. YouTube viewers use…

  11. 76 FR 38306 - Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension and Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... FR 81491, December 28, 2010, are effective on June 30, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Home Viewer Extension and Reauthorization Act of 2004, ET Docket No. 06-94; FCC 10-195, 75 FR 81491... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension...

  12. A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

  13. The Impact of Students' Choice of Time of Day for Class Activity and Their Sleep Quality on Academic Performance in Multidisciplinary Distance Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the impact of students' choice of time of day for class activity and their sleep quality on academic performance in multidisciplinary distance education courses at a southeastern U.S. state college. The research addressed the relationship of other individual student characteristics (i.e., age, gender,…

  14. The Impact of Item Position in Multiple-Choice Test on Student Performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollennu, Sam Nii Nmai; Etsey, Y. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of item position in multiple-choice test on student performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) level in Ghana. The sample consisted of 810 Junior Secondary School (JSS) Form 3 students selected from 12 different schools. A quasi-experimental design was used. The instrument for the project…

  15. Story understanding of a nonexplanatory film affects viewers' premotor activity and empathy for fictional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Ogawa,1 Sotaro Shimada2 1Faculty of Social Sciences, Hosei University, Tokyo, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kanagawa, Japan Objective: The present study aimed to examine whether the story understanding of a nonexplanatory film affects mirror neuron system (MNS activity and to discuss the interactive process involved in generating empathy for fictional characters during participants’ viewing of the film under natural viewing conditions.Methods: The material of the experiment was a Japanese film entitled Dolls. It is a nonexplanatory fiction film, in which the two (male and female main characters show only minimal actions or facial expressions; therefore, the viewers hardly understand the story until it has been developed to some extent. We measured twelve participants’ MNS activity by using near-infrared spectroscopy during the viewing of the first 20 minutes of the film. Additionally, we measured the brain activity while performing their own hand and leg motions after viewing the film to identify their motor cortices.Results: The results showed that the viewer’s MNS activity increased gradually as the introductory part of the story developed. Subsequent analyses revealed a significant increase in MNS activity in the later chapters of the film at the right premotor and supplementary motor cortices (P<0.05. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the MNS activity and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scores (P<0.05.Conclusion: These results indicate that the viewer’s MNS activity was enhanced by the story understanding of a fiction film. We suggest that MNS activity during viewing fiction films can be used as a measure of how much the story, and rhetoric of a narrative, induces empathy in the viewers even if characters show only minimal actions or facial expressions. Keywords: mirror neuron system, MNS, empathy, nonexplanatory film, story

  16. Spatial and temporal dynamics of visual search tasks distinguish subtypes of unilateral spatial neglect: Comparison of two cases with viewer-centered and stimulus-centered neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kato, Kenji; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Liu, Meigen

    2016-08-01

    We developed a computerised test to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect (USN) using a touchscreen display, and estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of visual search in USN patients. The results between a viewer-centered USN patient and a stimulus-centered USN patient were compared. Two right-brain-damaged patients with USN, a patient without USN, and 16 healthy subjects performed a simple cancellation test, the circle test, a visuomotor search test, and a visual search test. According to the results of the circle test, one USN patient had stimulus-centered neglect and a one had viewer-centered neglect. The spatial and temporal patterns of these two USN patients were compared. The spatial and temporal patterns of cancellation were different in the stimulus-centered USN patient and the viewer-centered USN patient. The viewer-centered USN patient completed the simple cancellation task, but paused when transferring from the right side to the left side of the display. Unexpectedly, this patient did not exhibit rightward attention bias on the visuomotor and visual search tests, but the stimulus-centered USN patient did. The computer-based assessment system provided information on the dynamic visual search strategy of patients with USN. The spatial and temporal pattern of cancellation and visual search were different across the two patients with different subtypes of neglect.

  17. Television Sex Roles in the 1980s: Do Viewers' Sex and Sex Role Orientation Change the Picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrot, Faye H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the viewer perceptions of female and male television characters as a result of viewer sex and sex role orientation, based on the responses of 677 young adults to the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Viewer gender had an impact on the rating of female characters. (FMW)

  18. All-CMOS night vision viewer with integrated microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosen, Marius E.; Venter, Petrus J.; du Plessis, Monuko; Faure, Nicolaas M.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    The unrivalled integration potential of CMOS has made it the dominant technology for digital integrated circuits. With the advent of visible light emission from silicon through hot carrier electroluminescence, several applications arose, all of which rely upon the advantages of mature CMOS technologies for a competitive edge in a very active and attractive market. In this paper we present a low-cost night vision viewer which employs only standard CMOS technologies. A commercial CMOS imager is utilized for near infrared image capturing with a 128x96 pixel all-CMOS microdisplay implemented to convey the image to the user. The display is implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, with no process alterations or post processing. The display features a 25 μm pixel pitch and a 3.2 mm x 2.4 mm active area, which through magnification presents the virtual image to the user equivalent of a 19-inch display viewed from a distance of 3 meters. This work represents the first application of a CMOS microdisplay in a low-cost consumer product.

  19. The Cloud-Based Integrated Data Viewer (IDV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining software compatibility across new computing environments and the associated underlying hardware is a common problem for software engineers and scientific programmers. While there are a suite of tools and methodologies used in traditional software engineering environments to mitigate this issue, they are typically ignored by developers lacking a background in software engineering. The result is a large body of software which is simultaneously critical and difficult to maintain. Visualization software is particularly vulnerable to this problem, given the inherent dependency on particular graphics hardware and software API's. The advent of cloud computing has provided a solution to this problem, which was not previously practical on a large scale; Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations, with little-to-no re-engineering required. Through application streaming we are able to bring the same visualization to a desktop, a netbook, a smartphone, and the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be. Unidata has been able to harness Application Streaming to provide a tablet-compatible version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved. We will also discuss the differences between local software and software-as-a-service.

  20. Open Government as a Tool to Develop School Choice and School Performance: Analysis of Situation in Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascanean, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    The Open Government Partnership is an international initiative, committing governments to its principles of transparency. This article examines how it can advance the topic of freedom of educational choice, as it emphasizes the importance of parents' involvement in the decision-making process at the school level. The article is based on the…

  1. "Ask a Silly Question...": How the CPB Handled a Study of Public Television Viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Karen Stefflre

    1976-01-01

    A researcher takes a critical look at the Corporation for Public Broadcasting report of a Roper survey of public television viewers and finds it "littered with procedural and reporting inadequacies." (Author)

  2. NOAA Digital Coast Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer depicts potential sea level rise and its associated impacts on the nation's coastal areas. These coastal...

  3. Agent-based modeling of zapping behavior of viewers, television commercial allocation, and advertisement markets

    CERN Document Server

    Kyan, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple probabilistic model of zapping behavior of television viewers. Our model might be regarded as a `theoretical platform' to investigate the human collective behavior in the macroscopic scale through the zapping action of each viewer at the microscopic level. The stochastic process of audience measurements as macroscopic quantities such as television program rating point or the so-called gross rating point (GRP for short) are reconstructed using the microscopic modeling of each viewer's decision making. Assuming that each viewer decides the television station to watch by means of three factors, namely, physical constraints on television controllers, exogenous information such as advertisement of program by television station, and endogenous information given by `word-of-mouth communication' through the past market history, we shall construct an aggregation probability of Gibbs-Boltzmann-type with the energy function. We discuss the possibility for the ingredients of the model system to exhibi...

  4. Video Installation, Memory and Storytelling: the viewer as narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Charleson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Much has been written about memory and its link with the visual where memory is likened to our recollection of vignettes or visual traces. Conway (1999 tells us that the brain takes in experience as word and image.  Gibson (2002 suggests that “imagistic cognition” is a process whereby we run image sequences through our heads while trying to make sense of experience. He links this psychological phenomenon with notions of film editing theory and practice. He goes on to suggest that the power of the cinema is linked to this primal experience of remembering that elicits the intense pleasures of childhood and access to a means of navigating the self. This paper will explore the role video installation can play in creating an open, enticing, non-threatening and immersive environment, where viewers can transcend the everyday, reflect on their own memories and recall their personal stories. I will argue that there is a symbiotic link between what I will call the viewer as flâneur and the producer of the work such that a new form of storytelling can be created through this relationship.

    Résumé: Il existe une littérature abondante sur les liens entre la mémoire et l'image, notamment en ce qui concerne le traitement de traces visuelles par les fonctions mémorielles. Conway (1999 insiste quant à lui sur le fait que le

  5. Agent-based modeling of zapping behavior of viewers, television commercial allocation, and advertisement markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kyan, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple probabilistic model of zapping behavior of television viewers. Our model might be regarded as a `theoretical platform' to investigate the human collective behavior in the macroscopic scale through the zapping action of each viewer at the microscopic level. The stochastic process of audience measurements as macroscopic quantities such as television program rating point or the so-called gross rating point (GRP for short) are reconstructed using the microscopic modeling of ea...

  6. In Front of And Behind The Second Screen: Viewer and Producer Perspectives on a Companion App

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, David; Leenheer, Rinze; De Grooff, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The growing success of tablets and smartphones has shifted the focus of the interactive TV industry to the introduction of second screen applications. One example is second screen companion apps that offer extra information about a television program, often synchronized with what happens on screen. In this paper, we investigate a second screen companion app, from the perspective of the viewers and producers of such apps. Based on observations and interviews with viewers and producers, and act...

  7. A tale of two audiences: spectators, television viewers and outcome uncertainty in Spanish football

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, R.; Buraimo, B

    2007-01-01

    This paper tests for the impact of match outcome uncertainty on two types of audience for Spanish football, fans at the stadium and television viewers. We find that fans inside the stadium prefer games that are less and not more likely to finish with a close score. This is contrary to much theoretical literature in sports economics which argues that fans prefer close contests and imposes this assumption in formal modelling. We also find that television viewers prefer close contests to more pr...

  8. Dose- and parameter-dependent effects of atipamezole, an alpha 2-antagonist, on the performance of rats in a five-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, J; Jäkälä, P; Mazurkiewicz, M; Haapalinna, A; Riekkinen, P; Riekkinen, P J

    1993-05-01

    The present study investigated whether atipamezole (ATI), a potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist that increases the release of noradrenaline in brain, improves attention in rats. Thus, the effects of ATI on the performance of adult male rats in the five-choice serial reaction time task were studied. Food-deprived rats were trained to detect and respond to brief flashes of light presented randomly in one of five spatially diverse locations. The effects of single-dose administration of ATI (0.03-3.0 mg/kg) on the performance of rats under different parametric manipulations of the task were tested: 1) the visual stimuli were presented at unpredictable intertrial intervals (ITIs) or b) the intensity (brightness) of visual stimuli was reduced, thus placing an additional load on attentional processing for animals. Presenting the stimuli earlier than normally or reducing its intensity markedly impaired the choice accuracy of rats. At doses of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg, ATI improved the choice accuracy of rats when tested using reduced stimulus intensity. ATI 3.0 mg/kg did not affect accuracy performance when tested using reduced stimulus intensity but impaired it when tested using unpredictable ITIs. The other doses of ATI (0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) did not markedly affect choice accuracy of rats tested using unpredictable ITI. Our results could be explained by the assumption that an acute, systemic administration of ATI affects arousal mechanisms and facilitates the processing of visual stimuli related to reward. PMID:8100071

  9. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  10. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Villarreal, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Cody, R. P.; Copenhaver, W.; Dover, M.; Score, R.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various arctic observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess such progress when so many agencies, organizations, research groups and others are making such rapid progress. To help meet the strategic needs of the U.S. SEARCH-AON program and facilitate the development of SAON and related initiatives, the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org) has been developed. This web mapping application compiles detailed information pertaining to U.S. Arctic Observing efforts. Contributing partners include the U.S. NSF, USGS, ACADIS, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, AON, ARMAP, BAID, IASOA, INTERACT, and others. Over 6100 sites are currently in the AOV database and the application allows users to visualize, navigate, select, advance search, draw, print, and more. AOV is founded on principles of software and data interoperability and includes an emerging "Project" metadata standard, which uses ISO 19115-1 and compatible web services. In the last year, substantial efforts have focused on maintaining and centralizing all database information. In order to keep up with emerging technologies and demand for the application, the AOV data set has been structured and centralized within a relational database; furthermore, the application front-end has been ported to HTML5. Porting the application to HTML5 will now provide access to mobile users utilizing tablets and cell phone devices. Other application enhancements include an embedded Apache Solr search platform which provides users with the capability to perform advance searches throughout the AOV dataset, and an administration web based data management system which allows the administrators to add, update, and delete data in real time. We encourage all collaborators to use AOV tools and services for their own purposes and to help us extend the impact of our efforts and ensure AOV complements other cyber-resources. Reinforcing dispersed but interoperable resources in this

  11. The Arctic Observing Viewer: A Web-mapping Application for U.S. Arctic Observing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R. P.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Villarreal, S.; Barba, M.; Dover, M.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Habermann, T.; Kozimor, J.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made with various arctic observing efforts, it can be difficult to assess such progress when so many agencies, organizations, research groups and others are making such rapid progress over such a large expanse of the Arctic. To help meet the strategic needs of the U.S. SEARCH-AON program and facilitate the development of SAON and other related initiatives, the Arctic Observing Viewer (AOV; http://ArcticObservingViewer.org) has been developed. This web mapping application compiles detailed information pertaining to U.S. Arctic Observing efforts. Contributing partners include the U.S. NSF, USGS, ACADIS, ADIwg, AOOS, a2dc, AON, ARMAP, BAID, IASOA, INTERACT, and others. Over 7700 observation sites are currently in the AOV database and the application allows users to visualize, navigate, select, advance search, draw, print, and more. During 2015, the web mapping application has been enhanced by the addition of a query builder that allows users to create rich and complex queries. AOV is founded on principles of software and data interoperability and includes an emerging "Project" metadata standard, which uses ISO 19115-1 and compatible web services. Substantial efforts have focused on maintaining and centralizing all database information. In order to keep up with emerging technologies, the AOV data set has been structured and centralized within a relational database and the application front-end has been ported to HTML5 to enable mobile access. Other application enhancements include an embedded Apache Solr search platform which provides users with the capability to perform advance searches and an administration web based data management system that allows administrators to add, update, and delete information in real time. We encourage all collaborators to use AOV tools and services for their own purposes and to help us extend the impact of our efforts and ensure AOV complements other cyber-resources. Reinforcing dispersed but

  12. Content analysis of antismoking videos on YouTube: message sensation value, message appeals, and their relationships with viewer responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Kyongseok; Hove, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Focusing on several message features that are prominent in antismoking campaign literature, this content-analytic study examines 934 antismoking video clips on YouTube for the following characteristics: message sensation value (MSV) and three types of message appeal (threat, social and humor). These four characteristics are then linked to YouTube's interactive audience response mechanisms (number of viewers, viewer ratings and number of comments) to capture message reach, viewer preference and viewer engagement. The findings suggest the following: (i) antismoking messages are prevalent on YouTube, (ii) MSV levels of online antismoking videos are relatively low compared with MSV levels of televised antismoking messages, (iii) threat appeals are the videos' predominant message strategy and (iv) message characteristics are related to viewer reach and viewer preference.

  13. The Connectome Viewer Toolkit: an open source framework to manage, analyze and visualize connectomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eGerhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced neuroinformatics tools are required for methods of connectome mapping, analysis and visualization. The inherent multi-modality of connectome datasets poses new challenges for data organization, integration and sharing. We have designed and implemented the Connectome Viewer Toolkit --- a set of free and extensible open-source neuroimaging tools written in Python. The key components of the toolkit are as follows: 1. The Connectome File Format is an XML-based container format to standardize multi-modal data integration and structured metadata annotation. 2. The Connectome File Format Library enables management and sharing of connectome files. 3. The Connectome Viewer is an integrated research and development environment for visualization and analysis of multi-modal connectome data. The Connectome Viewer's plugin architecture supports extensions with network analysis packages and an interactive scripting shell, to enable easy development and community contributions. Integration with tools from the scientific Python community allows the leveraging of numerous existing libraries for powerful connectome data mining, exploration and comparison. We demonstrate the applicability of the Connectome Viewer Toolkit using Diffusion MRI datasets processed by the Connectome Mapper. The Connectome Viewer Toolkit is available from http://www.cmtk.org/.

  14. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio P. Iraira; Ana Madruga; María Pérez-Juan; José L. Ruíz-de-la-Torre; María Rodríguez-Prado; Sergio Calsamiglia; Xavier Manteca; Alfred Ferret

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR) or separately as a free choice (FCH) to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/d...

  15. MR imaging measurement of the femoral anteversional angle as a PACS image viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate measurement of the femoral anteversion is very important to the practice of orthopedic and osteotomy. It is measured by means of the axis of head and neck of the femur and the knee axis. At the present time, widely used computed tomography method of measuring anteversion on femoral necks of patients. Measurement by the manual method and image viewer of computed tomography to determine the anteversion of femoral head were carried out on both femurs. In September and October 2002, 5 patients 28 to 36 years of age were randomly selected from Seoul National University Hospital. The purpose of this paper was to introduce a new method to measure femoral anteversion angle utilizing PACS image viewer program in the MR imaging. Significant difference was observed between the right and left side the image viewer measurement of femoral anteversion. In conclusion, MR imaging very usefulness in the measured the angle of the femoral anteversion

  16. Assessment of DICOM Viewers Capable of Loading Patient-specific 3D Models Obtained by Different Segmentation Platforms in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Giuseppe; Carbone, Marina; Ciriaci, Damiano; Aramini, Daniele; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    Patient-specific 3D models obtained by the segmentation of volumetric diagnostic images play an increasingly important role in surgical planning. Surgeons use the virtual models reconstructed through segmentation to plan challenging surgeries. Many solutions exist for the different anatomical districts and surgical interventions. The possibility to bring the 3D virtual reconstructions with native radiological images in the operating room is essential for fostering the use of intraoperative planning. To the best of our knowledge, current DICOM viewers are not able to simultaneously connect to the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and import 3D models generated by external platforms to allow a straight integration in the operating room. A total of 26 DICOM viewers were evaluated: 22 open source and four commercial. Two DICOM viewers can connect to PACS and import segmentations achieved by other applications: Synapse 3D® by Fujifilm and OsiriX by University of Geneva. We developed a software network that converts diffuse visual tool kit (VTK) format 3D model segmentations, obtained by any software platform, to a DICOM format that can be displayed using OsiriX or Synapse 3D. Both OsiriX and Synapse 3D were suitable for our purposes and had comparable performance. Although Synapse 3D loads native images and segmentations faster, the main benefits of OsiriX are its user-friendly loading of elaborated images and it being both free of charge and open source. PMID:25739346

  17. Tom Tabor, the owner of Tabor Communications, presents Wolfgang von Rüden with the Editors Choice Award of HPCwire, which was awarded to CERN for its commitment to educating the public about high-performance computing.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Tom Tabor, the owner of Tabor Communications, presents Wolfgang von Rüden with the Editors Choice Award of HPCwire, which was awarded to CERN for its commitment to educating the public about high-performance computing.

  18. Hard Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The international community is still faced with the difficult choice of how to finally solve the North Korean nuclear crisis after the new UN resolution After intensive consultations, members of the UN Security Council finally worked out a multilateral response to North Korea's recent nuclear test with the adoption of Resolution 1718 on October 14. Despite the strict economic sanctions it imposes on North Korea under ChapterⅦof the Charter of the

  19. Verbatim, Standard, or Edited? Reading Patterns of Different Captioning Styles among Deaf, Hard of Hearing, and Hearing Viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowska, Agnieszka; Krejtz, Izabela; Klyszejko, Zuzanna; Wieczorek, Anna

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequently recurring themes in captioning is whether captions should be edited or verbatim. The authors report on the results of an eye-tracking study of captioning for deaf and hard of hearing viewers reading different types of captions. By examining eye movement patterns when these viewers were watching clips with verbatim,…

  20. Television for the Promotion of Health and Nutrition Information--A Study of Indian Urban Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibaba, A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of urban television viewers in India that examined television as an educational medium for promoting health and nutrition information. Data are reported on audience characteristics, viewing patterns and times, special audience programs, health and nutrition programs, format preferences, and audience reaction. (EAM)

  1. The Psychological Effect of Television Characters: The Case of Archie Bunker and Authoritarian Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Bowden, Elizabeth

    Reference group theory suggests that a perceived similarity between interacting individuals leads to future interaction, increased source credibility, and more frequent agreement on specific issues. This study shows how the reference group theory applies to the authoritarian television character Archie Bunker and television viewers that watch "All…

  2. Visualization of the ROOT 3D class objects with OpenInventor-like viewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The class library for conversion of the ROOT 3D class objects to the .iv format for 3D image viewers is described in this paper. At present the library was tested using the STAR and ATLAS detector geometry without any changes and revision for concrete detector

  3. Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study used content analysis to explore how much and what type of advertising is present in television programming aimed at toddlers and preschool-aged children and what methods of persuasion are being used to sell products and to promote brands to the youngest viewers. Methods: Four randomly selected, 4-hour blocks (9 AM to 1 PM)…

  4. MGcV: the microbial genomic context viewer for comparative genome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, L.; Kerkhoven, R.; Siezen, R.J.; Francke, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conserved gene context is used in many types of comparative genome analyses. It is used to provide leads on gene function, to guide the discovery of regulatory sequences, but also to aid in the reconstruction of metabolic networks. We present the Microbial Genomic context Viewer (MGcV),

  5. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  6. 75 FR 81491 - Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension and Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... distant network television signals. 4. The Commission subsequently adopted the SHVERA NPRM, 75 FR 46885... of Proposed Rulemaking (SHVERA NPRM), 75 FR 46885, August 4, 2010, and Further Notice of Proposed... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension...

  7. Selection and Maintenance of Stimulus-Response Rules during Preparation and Performance of a Spatial Choice-Reaction Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Eric H.; Cole, Michael W.; D’Esposito, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The ability to select an appropriate response among competing alternatives is a fundamental requirement for successful performance of a huge variety of everyday tasks. Recent research suggests that a frontal-parietal network of brain regions (including dorsal prefrontal, dorsal premotor and superior parietal cortices) mediate response selection for spatial material. Most of this research has used blocked experimental designs. Thus, the frontal-parietal activity reported may be due either to tonic activity across a block or to processing occurring at the trial level. Our current event-related fMRI study investigated response selection at the level of the trial in order to identify possible response selection sub-processes. In the study, participants responded to a visually presented stimulus with either a spatially compatible or incompatible manual response. On some trials, several seconds prior to stimulus onset, a cue indicated which task was to be performed. In this way we could identify separate brain regions for task preparation and task performance, if they exist. Our results showed that the frontal-parietal network for spatial response selection activated both during task preparation as well as during task performance. We found no evidence for preparation specific brain mechanisms in this task. These data suggest that spatial response selection and response preparation processes rely on the same neurocognitive mechanisms. PMID:17223091

  8. Design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of water-cooled beam viewer for undulator front-ends of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water-cooled beam viewer is developed indigenously to observe the bright synchrotron light coming from recently installed undulators in Indus-2 storage ring at RRCAT, Indore. The beam viewer is installed in the undulator front-end. The frontend is a long ultra high vacuum (UHV) assembly consisting of UHV valves, shutters, vacuum pumps and beam diagnostic devices. The front-end acts as an interface between Indus-2 ring and beamline. The beam viewer uses a fluorescent sheet of Chromium doped Alumina (CHROMOX) which produces visible fluorescent light when bright synchrotron light from the undulator falls on it. This visible fluorescent light is observed through a glass window by a CCD camera. The beam viewer has been successfully tested and commissioned in Indus-2 front-end for undulator. At present, the beam viewer is operating under vacuum of 5 x 10-10 mbar in the Indus-2 undulator front-end

  9. Is the Performance of a Specialist Herbivore Affected by Female Choices and the Adaptability of the Offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Visintin da Silva Galdino

    Full Text Available The performance of herbivorous insects is related to the locations of defenses and nutrients found in the different plant organs on which they feed. In this context, the females of herbivorous insect species select certain parts of the plant where their offspring can develop well. In addition, their offspring can adapt to plant defenses. A system where these ecological relationships can be studied occurs in the specialist herbivore, Tuta absoluta, on tomato plants. In our experiments we evaluated: (i the performance of the herbivore T. absoluta in relation to the tomato plant parts on which their offspring had fed, (ii the spatial distribution of the insect stages on the plant canopy and (iii the larval resistance to starvation and their walking speed at different instar stages. We found that the T. absoluta females preferred to lay their eggs in the tomato plant parts where their offspring had greater chances of success. We verified that the T. absoluta females laid their eggs on both sides of the leaves to better exploit resources. We also observed that the older larvae (3rd and 4th instars moved to the most nutritious parts of the plant, thus increasing their performance. The T. absoluta females and offspring (larvae were capable of identifying plant sites where their chances of better performance were higher. Additionally, their offspring (larvae spread across the plant to better exploit the available plant nutrients. These behavioral strategies of T. absoluta facilitate improvement in their performance after acquiring better resources, which help reduce their mortality by preventing the stimulation of plant defense compounds and the action of natural enemies.

  10. Applications of "Integrated Data Viewer'' (IDV in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, weather products utilized in synoptic meteorology reduce phenomena occurring in four dimensions to a 2-dimensional form. This constitutes a road-block for non-atmospheric-science majors who need to take meteorology as a non-mathematical and complementary course to their major programs. This research examines the use of Integrated Data Viewer-IDV as a teaching tool, as it allows a 4-dimensional representation of weather products. IDV was tested in the teaching of synoptic meteorology, weather analysis, and weather map interpretation to non-science students in the laboratory sessions of an introductory meteorology class at Western Michigan University. Comparison of student exam scores according to the laboratory teaching techniques, i.e., traditional lab manual and IDV was performed for short- and long-term learning. Results of the statistical analysis show that the Fall 2004 students in the IDV-based lab session retained learning. However, in the Spring 2005 the exam scores did not reflect retention in learning when compared with IDV-based and MANUAL-based lab scores (short term learning, i.e., exam taken one week after the lab exercise. Testing the long-term learning, seven weeks between the two exams in the Spring 2005, show no statistically significant difference between IDV-based group scores and MANUAL-based group scores. However, the IDV group obtained exam score average slightly higher than the MANUAL group. Statistical testing of the principal hypothesis in this study, leads to the conclusion that the IDV-based method did not prove to be a better teaching tool than the traditional paper-based method. Future studies could potentially find significant differences in the effectiveness of both manual and IDV methods if the conditions had been more controlled. That is, students in the control group should not be exposed to the weather analysis using IDV during lecture.

  11. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  12. The Evaluation of Preprocessing Choices in Single-Subject BOLD fMRI Using NPAIRS Performance Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, LaConte; Rottenberg, David; Strother, Stephen;

    2003-01-01

    This work proposes an alternative to simulation-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for assessment of fMRI data analysis methodologies. Specifically, we apply the rapidly developing nonparametric prediction, activation, influence, and reproducibility resampling (NPAIRS) framework...... to obtain cross-validation-based model performance estimates of prediction accuracy and global reproducibility for various degrees of model complexity. We rely on the concept of an analysis chain meta-model in which all parameters of the preprocessing steps along with the final statistical model are treated...

  13. Diagnostic mirrors for ITER: A material choice and the impact of erosion and deposition on their performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litnovsky, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ TEC, FZ-Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: a.litnovsky@fz-juelich.de; Wienhold, P.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G.; Schmitz, O.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Droste, S.; Samm, U.; Mertens, Ph. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ TEC, FZ-Juelich (Germany); Donne, A.H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics ' Rijnhuizen' , TEC, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Rudakov, D. [University of California at San-Diego, CA (United States); Allen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States); Boivin, R. [General Atomics, San-Diego, CA (United States); McLean, A. [University of Toronto, Department of Aerospace Studies, (Canada); Stangeby, P. [General Atomics, San-Diego, CA (United States)]|[University of Toronto, Department of Aerospace Studies, (Canada); West, W.; Wong, C. [General Atomics, San-Diego, CA (United States); Lipa, M.; Schunke, B. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DRFC-DSM-CEA, Cadarache (France); De Temmerman, G. [Institute of Physics, University of Basel (Switzerland); Pitts, R. [EPFL Lausanne, Association EURATOM (Switzerland); Costley, A. [ITER Naka Joint Work Site (Japan); Voitsenya, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine); Vukolov, K. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Oelhafen, P. [Institute of Physics, University of Basel (Switzerland); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, KTH, Association EURATOM - VR, Stockholm (Sweden); Romanyuk, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Metal mirrors will be implemented in about half of the ITER diagnostics. Mirrors in ITER will have to withstand radiation loads, erosion by charge-exchange neutrals, deposition of impurities, particle implantation and neutron irradiation. It is believed that the optical properties of diagnostic mirrors will be primarily influenced by erosion and deposition. A solution is needed for optimal performance of mirrors in ITER throughout the entire lifetime of the machine. A multi-machine research on diagnostic mirrors is currently underway in fusion facilities at several institutions and laboratories worldwide. Among others, dedicated investigations of ITER-candidate mirror materials are ongoing in Tore-Supra, TEXTOR, DIII-D, TCV, T-10 and JET. Laboratory studies are underway at IPP Kharkov (Ukraine), Kurchatov Institute (Russia) and the University of Basel (Switzerland). An overview of current research on diagnostic mirrors along with an outlook on future investigations is the subject of this paper.

  14. A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display

    KAUST Repository

    Kooima, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the value of autostereoscopy for 3D displays in public contexts, we pursue the goal of large-scale, high-resolution, immersive virtual reality using lenticular displays. Our contributions include the scalable tiling of lenticular displays to large fields of view and the use of GPU image interleaving and application optimization for real-time performance. In this context, we examine several ways to improve group-viewing by combining user tracking with multi-view displays. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  15. Performance of the TPSS Functional on Predicting Core Level Binding Energies of Main Group Elements Containing Molecules: A Good Choice for Molecules Adsorbed on Metal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Bellafont, Noèlia; Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc

    2016-01-12

    Here we explored the performance of Hartree-Fock (HF), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), and Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) functionals in predicting core level 1s binding energies (BEs) and BE shifts (ΔBEs) for a large set of 68 molecules containing a wide variety of functional groups for main group elements B → F and considering up to 185 core levels. A statistical analysis comparing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments shows that BEs estimations are very accurate, TPSS exhibiting the best performance. Considering ΔBEs, the three methods yield very similar and excellent results, with mean absolute deviations of ∼0.25 eV. When considering relativistic effects, BEs deviations drop approaching experimental values. So, the largest mean percentage deviation is of 0.25% only. Linear trends among experimental and estimated values have been found, gaining offsets with respect to ideality. By adding relativistic effects to offsets, HF and TPSS methods underestimate experimental values by solely 0.11 and 0.05 eV, respectively, well within XPS chemical precision. TPSS is posed as an excellent choice for the characterization, by XPS, of molecules on metal solid substrates, given its suitability in describing metal substrates bonds and atomic and/or molecular orbitals.

  16. D-amphetamine improves attention performance in adolescent Wistar, but not in SHR rats, in a two-choice visual discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizot, Jean-Charles; Cogrel, Nicolas; Massé, Fabienne; Chauvin, Virgile; Brault, Léa; David, Sabrina; Trovero, Fabrice

    2015-09-01

    The validity of spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored by comparing SHR with Wistar rats in a test of attention, the two-choice visual discrimination task (2-CVDT). Animals were 4-5 weeks old during the training phase of the experiment and 6-7 weeks old during the testing phase in which they were tested with D-amphetamine, a stimulant drug used for the treatment of ADHD. As compared to Wistar, SHR showed a slightly better attention performance, a slightly lower impulsivity level, and a lower general activity during the training phase, but these differences disappeared or lessened thereafter, during the testing phase. D-amphetamine (0.5, 1 mg/kg) improved attention performance in Wistar, but not in SHR, and did not modify impulsivity and activity in the two strains. In conclusion, the present study did not demonstrate that SHR represents a valid model of ADHD, since it did not show face validity regarding the behavioral symptoms of ADHD and predictive validity regarding the effect of a compound used for the treatment of ADHD. On the other hand, this study showed that the 2-CVDT may represent a suitable tool for evaluating in adolescent Wistar rats the effect on attention of compounds intended for the treatment of ADHD. PMID:26037943

  17. LookSeq: A browser-based viewer for deep sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Manske, Heinrich Magnus; Dominic P Kwiatkowski

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing a genome to great depth can be highly informative about heterogeneity within an individual or a population. Here we address the problem of how to visualize the multiple layers of information contained in deep sequencing data. We propose an interactive AJAX-based web viewer for browsing large data sets of aligned sequence reads. By enabling seamless browsing and fast zooming, the LookSeq program assists the user to assimilate information at different levels of resolution, from an ov...

  18. Applications of "Integrated Data Viewer'' (IDV) in the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nogueira; E. M. Cutrim

    2006-01-01

    Conventionally, weather products utilized in synoptic meteorology reduce phenomena occurring in four dimensions to a 2-dimensional form. This constitutes a road-block for non-atmospheric-science majors who need to take meteorology as a non-mathematical and complementary course to their major programs. This research examines the use of Integrated Data Viewer-IDV as a teaching tool, as it allows a 4-dimensional representation of weather products. IDV was tested in the teaching of synoptic meteo...

  19. The Viewer Behaviors During 'Prime-Time' Commercials in Turkish Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Altas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When television is being watched the most, commercials reach much more audience. Television viewers constantly face the dilemma of changing the channel or not when commercials appear on their favorite shows. Networks strategically time their commercials in such a way that content viewers have to decide whether they should wait for the commercials to end or start flipping the channels in the hope of finding a better program. If it is accepted the commercials shown in the first minute of breaking up television shows, is being watched the most, then whether there is a significant difference in changing of the amount of viewers among the channels. This article uses the factors such as gender, age, and socio-economic status, and channels-four national television channels in Turkey, to compare the watching ratings during first minute of television commercials in each television channels by using descriptive statistics techniques and chi-square criterion. The paper can be useful for commercial owners especially first minute to determine the types of people watching. In addition to this, it determines Turkish people's attitudes in most widely towards television commercials.

  20. The Viewer Behaviors During ‘Prime-Time’ Commercials in Turkish Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Altas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When television is being watched the most, commercials reach much more audience. Television viewers constantly face the dilemma of changing the channel or not when commercials appear on their favorite shows. Networks strategically time their commercials in such a way that content viewers have to decide whether they should wait for the commercials to end or start flipping the channels in the hope of finding a better program. If it is accepted the commercials shown in the first minute of breaking up television shows, is being watched the most, then whether there is a significant difference in changing of the amount of viewers among the channels. This article uses the factors such as gender, age, and socio-economic status, and channels-four national television channels in Turkey, to compare the watching ratings during first minute of television commercials in each television channels by using descriptive statistics techniques and chi-square criterion. The paper can be useful for commercial owners especially first minute to determine the types of people watching. In addition to this, it determines Turkish people’s attitudes in most widely towards television commercials.

  1. Doubly dissociable effects of median- and dorsal-raphé lesions on the performance of the five-choice serial reaction time test of attention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A A; Everitt, B J; Robbins, T W

    1997-12-01

    Six experiments examined the effects of selective median (MRN)- and dorsal (DRN)-raphé nucleus lesions on the performance of the five-choice serial reaction time task. In this test rats are required to localize brief visual stimuli presented randomly in one of five locations in approximately 30 min sessions of 100 trials. Both accuracy and latency to respond are measured, as well as the incidence of premature and perseverative responding. Selective 5-HT lesions were induced by intra-raphé infusions of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine following pretreatment with both a noradrenergic and a dopaminergic re-uptake inhibitor. Analysis of tissue monoamine content demonstrated that the MRN lesion profoundly depleted hippocampal 5-HT (by about 90%) without affecting noradrenaline and dopamine, whereas the DRN lesion primarily depleted (by about 80%) nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen 5-HT. Rats with 5-HT lesions of the MRN performed the task with a similar degree of accuracy to that exhibited by sham-operated controls. Although the MRN lesion did not affect the latency to respond correctly to the visual targets the lesioned animals collected the food reward significantly faster than the controls. A transient increase in the number of premature responses also resulted from this lesion. In contrast the DRN lesion produced a transient but significant increase in the accuracy of performance, and increased both the speed and the probability of responding. The similarity of the effects following global forebrain 5-HT depletion and the selective DRN lesion suggests that the 5-HT projections of the DRN rather than the MRN may play an important role in impulsive behaviour following 5-HT depletion. PMID:9475622

  2. The low interaction of viewers of video clips on the internet The case study of YouTube Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Jorge-Alonso, Ph.D.; Jorge Gallardo-Camacho, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    This research study demonstrates that viewers of video clips on the Internet adopt a viewing attitude that is as passive as the one adopted when watching unidirectional and traditional media. Research on the attitude of the viewer of video clips on the Internet is almost non-existent. The authors dispute the widespread myths and the few studies that suggest that most Internet users exercise the interactive potentiality of this medium. The article focuses on Youtube Spain as the main referent ...

  3. Effects of choice white grease or poultry fat on growth performance, carcass leanness, and meat quality characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J J; Smith, J W; Unruh, J A; Goodband, R D; O'Quinn, P R; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L

    2001-06-01

    Eighty-four crossbred gilts were used to evaluate the effects of dietary choice white grease (CWG) or poultry fat (PF) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and quality characteristics of longissimus muscle (LM), belly, and bacon of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs (initially 60 kg) were fed a control diet with no added fat or diets containing 2, 4, or 6% CWG or PF. Diets were fed from 60 to 110 kg and contained 2.26 g lysine/Mcal ME. Data were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial plus a control with main effects of fat source (CWG and PF) and fat level (2, 4, and 6%). Pigs fed the control diet, 2% fat, and 4% fat had greater (P 0.05) were observed for ADG, dressing percentage, leaf fat weight, LM pH, backfat depth, LM area, percentage lean, LM visual evaluation, LM waterholding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation of the LM and bacon, fat color and firmness measurements, or bacon processing characteristics. Adding dietary fat improved G/F and altered the fatty acid profiles of the LM and bacon, but differences in growth rate, carcass characteristics, and quality and sensory characteristics of the LM and bacon were minimal. Dietary additions of up to 6% CWG or PF can be made with little effect on quality of pork LM, belly, or bacon.

  4. The effects of p-chlorophenylalanine-induced serotonin synthesis inhibition and muscarinic blockade on the performance of rats in a 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkälä, P; Sirviö, J; Jolkkonen, J; Riekkinen, P; Acsady, L; Riekkinen, P

    1992-10-31

    The effects of serotonergic dysfunction induced by treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, and cholinergic dysfunction induced by scopolamine on the performance of adult rats in the 5-choice serial reaction time task measuring selective attention were studied. Food-deprived rats were trained to detect and respond to brief flashes of light presented randomly in one of five locations, until they reached a stable level of performance (about 4 months). Scopolamine 0.2 mg/kg produced a marked variation in the performance but did not, however, induce any consistent impairment in the discriminative accuracy. Other doses of scopolamine (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or N-methyl-scopolamine 0.2 mg/kg, a peripheral muscarinic receptor antagonist, did not affect discriminative accuracy. Furthermore, scopolamine as well as N-methyl-scopolamine produced a number of other performance deficits, such as significantly decreased overall probability of responding and significantly increased response latencies. PCPA treatment induced an almost total depletion (> 99%) of frontal cortical serotonin and its major metabolite 5-HIAA and reduced the frontal cortical concentrations of noradrenaline (-30%) and dopamine (-42%). During baseline testing conditions, there was a trend for the discriminative accuracy to be decreased by PCPA, although this effect failed to reach significance (P = 0.07). Presenting the stimuli at unpredictable intervals or reducing the intensity of the visual stimulus impaired discriminative accuracy in both PCPA-treated and control rats. The decrease in discriminative accuracy induced by PCPA reached statistical significance when the stimuli were presented faster than normally or the intensity of the visual stimulus was reduced. PCPA treatment did not make the rats more susceptible to the effects of scopolamine on discriminative accuracy. However, PCPA treatment also induced a number of other performance deficits, resulting in a

  5. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio P. Iraira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR or separately as a free choice (FCH to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001, whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01 in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence.

  6. Impact of the dual defence system of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feeding choice behaviour of Amata mogadorensis larvae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Gehring, René; Müller, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Iridoid glycosides are plant defence compounds with potentially detrimental effects on non-adapted herbivores. Some plant species possess β-glucosidases that hydrolyse iridoid glycosides and thereby release protein-denaturing aglycones. To test the hypothesis that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidases form a dual defence system, we used Plantago lanceolata and a polyphagous caterpillar species. To analyse the impact of leaf-age dependent differences in iridoid glycoside concentrations and β-glucosidase activities on insect performance, old or young leaves were freeze-dried and incorporated into artificial diets or were provided freshly to the larvae. We determined larval consumption rates and the amounts of assimilated nitrogen. Furthermore, we quantified β-glucosidase activities in artificial diets and fresh leaves and the amount of iridoid glycosides that larvae feeding on fresh leaves ingested and excreted. Compared to fresh leaves, caterpillars grew faster on artificial diets, on which larval weight gain correlated positively to the absorbed amount of nitrogen. When feeding fresh young leaves, larvae even lost weight and excreted only minute proportions of the ingested iridoid glycosides intact with the faeces, indicating that the hydrolysis of these compounds might have interfered with nitrogen assimilation and impaired larval growth. To disentangle physiological effects from deterrent effects of iridoid glycosides, we performed dual choice feeding assays. Young leaves, their methanolic extracts and pure catalpol reduced larval feeding in comparison to the respective controls, while aucubin had no effect on larval consumption. We conclude that the dual defence system of P. lanceolata consisting of iridoid glycosides and β-glucosidases interferes with the nutrient utilisation via the hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides and also mediates larval feeding behaviour in a concentration- and substance-specific manner. PMID:26306994

  7. Prediction of human observer performance in a 2-alternative forced choice low-contrast detection task using channelized Hotelling observer: Impact of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Lifeng; Leng Shuai; Chen Lingyun; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey E. [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Efficient optimization of CT protocols demands a quantitative approach to predicting human observer performance on specific tasks at various scan and reconstruction settings. The goal of this work was to investigate how well a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can predict human observer performance on 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) lesion-detection tasks at various dose levels and two different reconstruction algorithms: a filtered-backprojection (FBP) and an iterative reconstruction (IR) method. Methods: A 35 Multiplication-Sign 26 cm{sup 2} torso-shaped phantom filled with water was used to simulate an average-sized patient. Three rods with different diameters (small: 3 mm; medium: 5 mm; large: 9 mm) were placed in the center region of the phantom to simulate small, medium, and large lesions. The contrast relative to background was -15 HU at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times using automatic exposure control each at 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 quality reference mAs on a 128-slice scanner. After removing the three rods, the water phantom was again scanned 100 times to provide signal-absent background images at the exact same locations. By extracting regions of interest around the three rods and on the signal-absent images, the authors generated 21 2AFC studies. Each 2AFC study had 100 trials, with each trial consisting of a signal-present image and a signal-absent image side-by-side in randomized order. In total, 2100 trials were presented to both the model and human observers. Four medical physicists acted as human observers. For the model observer, the authors used a CHO with Gabor channels, which involves six channel passbands, five orientations, and two phases, leading to a total of 60 channels. The performance predicted by the CHO was compared with that obtained by four medical physicists at each 2AFC study. Results: The human and model observers were highly correlated at each dose level for each lesion size for both FBP and IR. The

  8. Wise Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Lyngsie, Jacob; Foss, Nicolai Juul;

    2015-01-01

    Firms need to invest their scarce resources into the most promising new business opportunities (e.g., new engineering technologies). Yet, the literature on strategic entrepreneurship pays little attention to how, and how thoroughly, firms appraise potential opportunities based on technical as well...... as managerial criteria. Given that such evaluation takes considerable time, energy, attention, and skill on the part of employees, we propose that firms need to establish a fit between the thoroughness of opportunity appraisal and their reward as well as performance evaluation practices. Evidence from a double...

  9. Television Viewing Pattern of Primary School Children and Its Relationship to Academic Performance and Cognitive Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Jigisha; Mohite, Prerana

    1997-01-01

    Classified primary students in India into light, moderate, and heavy television viewers (controlling for socioeconomic status) and assessed them for either academic performance or cognitive skills, using various instruments. Found no significant differences among groups, but light viewers performed significantly better on oral reading; results may…

  10. Rational choice by two sequential criteria

    OpenAIRE

    García-Sanz, María D.; Alcantud, José Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under multiple criteria. We perform a preliminary study of the properties of decision made by the sequential application of rational choices. This is then used to obtain a characterization of set-valued choice functions that are rational by two sequential criteria, which follows the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (Amer. Econ. Rev., 2007) for single-valued choice functions. Uniqueness is not guaranteed but ...

  11. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and randomly assigned (Strata: physical activity (PA, BMI, gender, workload to a prompt (INT or non-prompt (CON group. INT received three daily screen-based prompts within 12 weeks. CON was only instructed once concerning the benefits of using HAWDs prior to the start of the study. Sitting and standing times were objectively assessed as primary outcomes for one entire working week using the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT at baseline (pre, after 6 (mid and 12 weeks (post. Concentration (d2-test, postural sway during upright stance (under single, dual and triple task and lower limb strength endurance (heel-rise were collected as secondary outcomes. Results: With large but not statistically significant within group effects from pre to post, INT increased weekly standing time at work by 9% (p = 0.22, d = 0.8 representing an increase from 7.2 h (4.8 to 9.7 (6.6 h (p = 0.07. Concentration and neuromuscular performance did not change from pre to post testing (0.23 < p < 0.95; 0.001 < ηp² < 0.05. Conclusion: Low-frequent and low cost screen-based point of choice prompts (3 per day within 12 weeks already result in notable increases of occupational standing time of approx. daily 30 min. These stimuli, however, did not relevantly affect neuromuscular outcomes.

  12. PACS Viewer Based on Java Applet in B/S Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENFei; ZHOULi; LIKai-yang; YUXue-feng; YANGXuan-dong

    2004-01-01

    PACS can be applied in the network architecture of Client/Server (C/S) and Browser/Server (B/S) in current application of hospital information system. PACS Viewer of B/S model is realized by means of the browser commonly, but web browser does not support DICOM standard. In this article, how to use Java Applet to realize the display and operations of DICOM images will be discussed. The lightweight method to view DICOM images is very fit for telemedical treatment, and the situations not require strong ability in image operations。

  13. BRAGI: linking and visualization of database information in a 3D viewer and modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Joachim; Dieterich, Guido; Kvesic, Marsel; Schomburg, Dietmar; Heinz, Dirk W

    2005-04-01

    BRAGI is a well-established package for viewing and modeling of three-dimensional (3D) structures of biological macromolecules. A new version of BRAGI has been developed that is supported on Windows, Linux and SGI. The user interface has been rewritten to give the standard 'look and feel' of the chosen operating system and to provide a more intuitive, easier usage. A large number of new features have been added. Information from public databases such as SWISS-PROT, InterPro, DALI and OMIM can be displayed in the 3D viewer. Structures can be searched for homologous sequences using the NCBI BLAST server.

  14. Viewing multiple sequence alignments with the JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV) is designed as a simple-to-use JavaScript component for displaying sequence alignments on web pages. The display of sequences is highly configurable with options to allow alternative coloring schemes, sorting of sequences and ’dotifying’ repeated amino acids. An option is also available to submit selected sequences to another web site, or to other JavaScript code. JSAV is implemented purely in JavaScript making use of the JQuery and JQuery-UI li...

  15. 3D Viewer Platform of Cloud Clustering Management System: Google Map 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Ja; Lee, Gang-Soo

    The new management system of framework for cloud envrionemnt is needed by the platfrom of convergence according to computing environments of changes. A ISV and small business model is hard to adapt management system of platform which is offered from super business. This article suggest the clustering management system of cloud computing envirionments for ISV and a man of enterprise in small business model. It applies the 3D viewer adapt from map3D & earth of google. It is called 3DV_CCMS as expand the CCMS[1].

  16. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  17. Performance deficits of NK1 receptor knockout mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task: effects of d-amphetamine, stress and time of day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Carrie Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurochemical status and hyperactivity of mice lacking functional substance P-preferring NK1 receptors (NK1R-/- resemble abnormalities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Here we tested whether NK1R-/- mice express other core features of ADHD (impulsivity and inattentiveness and, if so, whether they are diminished by d-amphetamine, as in ADHD. Prompted by evidence that circadian rhythms are disrupted in ADHD, we also compared the performance of mice that were trained and tested in the morning or afternoon. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT was used to evaluate the cognitive performance of NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes. After training, animals were tested using a long (LITI and a variable (VITI inter-trial interval: these tests were carried out with, and without, d-amphetamine pretreatment (0.3 or 1 mg/kg i.p.. NK1R-/- mice expressed greater omissions (inattentiveness, perseveration and premature responses (impulsivity in the 5-CSRTT. In NK1R-/- mice, perseveration in the LITI was increased by injection-stress but reduced by d-amphetamine. Omissions by NK1R-/- mice in the VITI were unaffected by d-amphetamine, but premature responses were exacerbated by this psychostimulant. Omissions in the VITI were higher, overall, in the morning than the afternoon but, in the LITI, premature responses of NK1R-/- mice were higher in the afternoon than the morning. CONCLUSION: In addition to locomotor hyperactivity, NK1R-/- mice express inattentiveness, perseveration and impulsivity in the 5-CSRTT, thereby matching core criteria for a model of ADHD. Because d-amphetamine reduced perseveration in NK1R-/- mice, this action does not require functional NK1R. However, the lack of any improvement of omissions and premature responses in NK1R-/- mice given d-amphetamine suggests that beneficial effects of this psychostimulant in other rodent models, and ADHD patients, need functional NK1R. Finally

  18. Social Defaults: Observed Choices Become Choice Defaults

    OpenAIRE

    Young Eun Huh; Joachim Vosgerau; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Defaults effects can be created by social contexts. The observed choices of others can become social defaults, increasing their choice share. Social default effects are a novel form of social influence not due to normative or informational influence: participants were more likely to mimic observed choices when choosing in private than in public (experiment 1) and when stakes were low rather than high (experiment 2). Like other default effects, social default effects were greater for uncertain...

  19. Viewers vs. doers. The relationship between watching food television and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Latimer, Lara; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine where nutritional gatekeepers obtain information about new foods, and whether information source is associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), as well as whether any association varied according to how often the participant cooked from scratch. A national panel survey of 501 females aged 20-35 assessed how participants obtained information on new recipes, and asked a series of questions about their cooking habits, their weight and height. Linear regressions were run to determine associations between information source, cooking from scratch, and BMI. Obtaining information from cooking shows was positively correlated with BMI (p watching cooking shows and cooking from scratch indicated that cooking from scratch, as well as watching cooking shows was associated with higher BMI (p watching cooking shows may have a differential effect on BMI for those who are merely TV "viewers," versus those who are "doers." Promoting healthy foods on cooking shows may be one way to positively influence the weight status of "doers" as well as "viewers." PMID:25747286

  20. HistoViewer: an interactive e-learning platform facilitating group and peer group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Bjoern; Golas, Mariola Monika

    2013-01-01

    Understanding tissue architecture and the morphological characteristics of cells is a central prerequisite to comprehending the basis of physiological tissue function in healthy individuals and relating this to disease states. Traditionally, medical curricula include courses where students examine glass slides of cytological or tissue samples under a light microscope. However, it is challenging to implement group and peer group learning in these courses and to give students sufficient time to study specimens. An increasing number of medical schools have thus started to implement digital slide viewers, so-called virtual microscopes, in histology and histopathology. These websites are mostly based on standard commercial software and offer limited adaptation to the special needs of first-year students. An e-learning platform has therefore been developed for use in cytology and histology courses. This virtual microscopy tool is coupled to a central database in which students can label and store the positions of individual structures for later repetition. As learning in pairs and peer groups has been shown to provide a high learning outcome, identified structures can be shared and discussed with students' peers or faculty via a built-in communication module. This website has the possibility of opening an arbitrary number of frames which all can actively be moved and changed in magnification to enable the comparison of specimens and thus encourage a more global understanding of related tissues. HistoViewer is thus suggested as an e-learning tool combining several modern teaching concepts. PMID:23184574

  1. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Andrew P; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Philip A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers' attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content.

  2. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Andrew P; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Philip A; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers' attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content. PMID:27487003

  3. Influência do desempenho educacional na escolha da profissão The influence of educational performance on the choice of career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Nogueira Gramani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estuda a influência do desempenho em Matemática na educação básica na escolha de carreiras no ensino superior. A análise, em duas fases, calcula, na primeira delas, uma eficiência relativa educacional em Matemática para cada unidade da federação, utilizando os dados do Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica e do Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio. Na segunda fase, correlaciona essa eficiência com a procura por cursos no vestibular. Se a correlação for forte e positiva, pode-se dizer que o estado com maior eficiência educacional em Matemática apresenta maior procura por esse curso. Os resultados mostram que os estados com maior eficiência em relação à Matemática também são aqueles onde os estudantes escolhem as carreiras mais diretamente ligadas a ela, em especial as engenharias. Outro resultado, e mais preocupante, sugere que as carreiras relativas à formação de professores na área de exatas, como Física e Matemática, são mais procuradas em estados com menor eficiência em Matemática.This article addresses the influence of Mathematics performance in basic education on the choice of career in higher education. In Phase 1, this two-phase analysis calculates a relative educational efficiency in mathematics for each Unit of the Federation (i.e. State, using data from the Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Básica [National Basic Education System], and the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio [National Secondary Education Exam]. Phase two correlates this efficiency with demand for courses at university entrance. If there is a strong positive association, it can be stated that the State with greatest educational efficiency in mathematics has a greater demand for this course. Results show that the most efficient States in relation to Mathematics are also those where students choose careers more closely related to mathematics, especially various types of engineering courses. Another more troubling

  4. Historical time in the age of big data: Cultural psychology, historical change, and the Google Books Ngram Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Launched in 2010, the Google Books Ngram Viewer offers a novel means of tracing cultural change over time. This digital tool offers exciting possibilities for cultural psychology by rendering questions about variation across historical time more quantitative. Psychologists have begun to use the viewer to bolster theories about a historical shift in the United States from a more collectivist to individualist form of selfhood and society. I raise 4 methodological cautions about the Ngram Viewer's use among psychologists: (a) the extent to which print culture can be taken to represent culture as a whole, (b) the difference between viewing the past in terms of trends versus events, (c) assumptions about the stability of a word's meaning over time, and (d) inconsistencies in the scales and ranges used to measure change over time. The aim is to foster discussion about the standards of evidence needed for incorporating historical big data into empirical research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100927

  5. Effects of television weather broadcasters on viewers during severe weather: To be or not to be on-screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda Marie

    An association was tested between the presence of a television weather broadcaster on-screen and viewers' likelihood to seek shelter, measured via risk perception and preventative behavior. Social networking websites were used to recruit respondents. Four clips of archived severe weather videos, one pair (on-screen and off-screen broadcaster) using the reflectivity product and another pair (on-screen and off-screen broadcaster) using velocity product, were presented to participants. Viewers' trust and weather salience were also quantified for additional interactions. A relationship between viewers' risk perception (preflectivity = 0.821, pvelocity = 0.625) and preventative behavior (preflectivity = 0.217, p velocity = 0.236) and the presence of the broadcaster on-screen was not found. The reflectivity product was associated with higher risk perception and preventative behavior scores than the velocity product (prp = 0.000, ppb = 0.000).

  6. Bedside patient data viewer using RFID and e-Ink technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodijevic, Aleksandar; Pichler, Patrick; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the daily routine of hospitals, which work with paper based medical records, the staff has to find the appropriate patient file if it needs information about the patient. With the introduction of ELGA the Austrian hospitals have to use specific standards for their clinical documentation. These structured documents can be used to feed an e-Ink reader with information about every patient in a hospital. Combined with RFID and security measures, the clinical staff is supported during the patient file searching process. The developed experimental setup of the Bedside Patient Data Viewer demonstrates a prototype of such a system. An Amazon Kindle Paperwhite is used to display processed data, supplied by a Raspberry Pi with an attached RFID module for identification purposes. Results show that such a system can be implemented, however a lot of organizational and technical issues remain to be solved. PMID:24825678

  7. C-scope under-sodium viewer for sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C-scope under-sodium viewer has been developed for monitoring the interior of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. Consisting of a transducer that emits and receives ultrasonic waves under liquid sodium, a mechanism that drives the transducer under liquid sodium and an image displaying section, it inspects the fuel assembly through its image in optically opaque high-temperature (3000C) liquid sodium. The results of its evaluation test are: (1) The transducer could continue satisfactory operation under 3500C (at the highest) sodium for more than a month. (2) The driving mechanism, though it was the first of the kind appearing in Japan, has been proved that it could continue operation for a week under 3000C sodium. (3) The image displaying section, in spite of the low speed of the transducer (below 20 rpm), could display stable and clear images. (4) The image in 3000C was as clear as that in room-temperature water. (auth.)

  8. Hibernate Combined TableViewer in the Application of Medicines Inventory Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Wen-qiang; CHE Chao; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Xiao-peng

    2014-01-01

    To solve the data persistence problem in the management system, this paper used the popular object-relational mapping framework Hibernate to achieve the persistence layer which in a medicines inventory management system. This paper described the advantages and principles of the Hibernate, and then showed the written work of the configuration files, mapping files, persistent classes, etc. Finally, the paper showed how to display the specific data information in the TableViewer based on the Eclipse RCP framework. It is observed that, operating the objects in the Hibernate framework is more flexible and efficient than using JDBC directly. Ad in addition, the application based on Eclipse RCP framework can take over many excellent features of Eclipse, and the developers can improve their efficiency by these features.

  9. Viewing multiple sequence alignments with the JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew C R

    2014-01-01

    The JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV) is designed as a simple-to-use JavaScript component for displaying sequence alignments on web pages. The display of sequences is highly configurable with options to allow alternative coloring schemes, sorting of sequences and 'dotifying' repeated amino acids. An option is also available to submit selected sequences to another web site, or to other JavaScript code. JSAV is implemented purely in JavaScript making use of the JQuery and JQuery-UI libraries. It does not use any HTML5-specific options to help with browser compatibility. The code is documented using JSDOC and is available from http://www.bioinf.org.uk/software/jsav/.

  10. Viewing multiple sequence alignments with the JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew C R

    2014-01-01

    The JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV) is designed as a simple-to-use JavaScript component for displaying sequence alignments on web pages. The display of sequences is highly configurable with options to allow alternative coloring schemes, sorting of sequences and 'dotifying' repeated amino acids. An option is also available to submit selected sequences to another web site, or to other JavaScript code. JSAV is implemented purely in JavaScript making use of the JQuery and JQuery-UI libraries. It does not use any HTML5-specific options to help with browser compatibility. The code is documented using JSDOC and is available from http://www.bioinf.org.uk/software/jsav/. PMID:25653836

  11. Bedside patient data viewer using RFID and e-Ink technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodijevic, Aleksandar; Pichler, Patrick; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the daily routine of hospitals, which work with paper based medical records, the staff has to find the appropriate patient file if it needs information about the patient. With the introduction of ELGA the Austrian hospitals have to use specific standards for their clinical documentation. These structured documents can be used to feed an e-Ink reader with information about every patient in a hospital. Combined with RFID and security measures, the clinical staff is supported during the patient file searching process. The developed experimental setup of the Bedside Patient Data Viewer demonstrates a prototype of such a system. An Amazon Kindle Paperwhite is used to display processed data, supplied by a Raspberry Pi with an attached RFID module for identification purposes. Results show that such a system can be implemented, however a lot of organizational and technical issues remain to be solved.

  12. Julgamento de telespectadores a partir de uma proposta de intervenção fonoaudiológica com telejornalistas Viewers' perception on television journalists after a proposed speech-language intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bueno Meirelles de Azevedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o julgamento do desempenho de um grupo de telejornalistas, de acordo com a situação, pré e pós uma proposta de intervenção fonoaudiológica, na opinião de telespectadores. MÉTODOS: seis telejornalistas de uma emissora de televisão universitária foram filmados em leitura simulada de apresentação de telejornal, e posteriormente submetidos a uma proposta de intervenção fonoaudiológica. Uma nova filmagem foi realizada após a intervenção sob as mesmas condições anteriores. O material pré e pós-intervenção foi editado de forma aleatória e determinado por sorteio intra-sujeito. A edição foi apresentada, individualmente para 50 telespectadores adultos, para julgamento do desempenho dos telejornalistas. RESULTADOS: no julgamento dos telespectadores observou-se que, dos seis telejornalistas, quatro apresentaram um percentual estatisticamente significante de preferência dos telespectadores na situação pós-intervenção. CONCLUSÃO: verificou-se percentual estatisticamente significante de preferência para os telespectadores na situação pósintervenção, dado que demonstra o efeito positivo da intervenção fonoaudiológica realizada com os telejornalistas.PURPOSE: to examine viewers' perception on television newscaster performance before and after speech-language intervention. METHODS: six university station newscasters were videotaped reading while pretending to be in a news-broadcasting situation. They were then subjected to a speech-language program. The program consisted of four meetings, each lasting two hours and thirty minutes. After the end of the program, the journalists were videotaped for a second time, under the same conditions as before the beginning of the intervention. The recorded pre and post-program material was randomly edited and the order of appearances determined by an intra-subject draw. Subsequently, the edited material was shown to 50 adult viewers, who were asked to provide

  13. Visualizadores de imagens médicas gratuitos: é possível trabalhar apenas com eles? Freeware medical image viewers: can we rely only on them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ramos Barra

    2010-10-01

    analysis: ClearCanvas Workstation, KPACS, Onis, Synedra View Personal, Mito and Tudor DicomViewer. Sixteen functions selected according to the authors' needs were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the six applications, two presented 10 of the 16 functions, and one of them presented only two. Three perform MPR (multiplanar reconstruction, one performs MIP (maximum intensity projection, two perform VR (volume rendering, two can run as a PACS server, two can create CDs, one performs images fusion, three allow the use of multiple monitors and only one is not compatible with Windows 7. CONCLUSION: Although several freeware applications are available, no one of them is complete. It is up to the users to analyze and select the software that best suits their needs. However, Onis, Synedra and ClearCanvas stand out because of their own peculiarities. The use of freeware image viewers is entirely feasible in the radiologists' daily routine.

  14. A web-based multi-genome synteny viewer for customized data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanna Kashi V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based synteny visualization tools are important for sharing data and revealing patterns of complicated genome conservation and rearrangements. Such tools should allow biologists to upload genomic data for their own analysis. This requirement is critical because individual biologists are generating large amounts of genomic sequences that quickly overwhelm any centralized web resources to collect and display all those data. Recently, we published a web-based synteny viewer, GSV, which was designed to satisfy the above requirement. However, GSV can only compare two genomes at a given time. Extending the functionality of GSV to visualize multiple genomes is important to meet the increasing demand of the research community. Results We have developed a multi-Genome Synteny Viewer (mGSV. Similar to GSV, mGSV is a web-based tool that allows users to upload their own genomic data files for visualization. Multiple genomes can be presented in a single integrated view with an enhanced user interface. Users can navigate through all the selected genomes in either pairwise or multiple viewing mode to examine conserved genomic regions as well as the accompanying genome annotations. Besides serving users who manually interact with the web server, mGSV also provides Web Services for machine-to-machine communication to accept data sent by other remote resources. The entire mGSV package can also be downloaded for easy local installation. Conclusions mGSV significantly enhances the original functionalities of GSV. A web server hosting mGSV is provided at http://cas-bioinfo.cas.unt.edu/mgsv.

  15. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  16. Savage Misunderstandings about Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Although Jonathan Kozol is well-informed about choice program imperfections, schools of choice are superior to traditional schools. In places like East Harlem, school choice is helping transform youngsters from captive, disenfranchised malcontents to true students involved in their education. The challenge is to make every district school worthy…

  17. Approaching Science by Watching TV: What Do Entertainment Programs Contribute to Viewers' Competence in Genetic Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Carina; Löb, Charlotte; Mattheiß, Tamara; Vorderer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the potential of entertainment-education (E-E) for promoting engagement with a science issue. It was assumed that certain entertaining features of a media experience increase viewers' perceived knowledge about an issue. Drawing on different theoretical models of E-E and on persuasive effects of narrative media messages,…

  18. Programs for the work with ENSDF format files: Evaluator's editor EVE, Viewer for the nuclear level schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, G I

    2010-01-01

    Tools for the regular work of the nuclear data evaluator are presented: the context-dependent editor EVE and the viewer for the level schemes of nuclei from ENSDF datasets. These programs may be used by everybody who works with the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File and for the educational purposed.

  19. Safe at School: Planning for Children with Special Needs: A Videotape Training Program and Viewer's Guide. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver. School of Nursing.

    This half-hour videotape and accompanying viewer's guide are designed to assist school personnel in the identification of real and potentially hazardous conditions which threaten the physical safety of children with special needs. The tape presents a systematic process for assessing risk factors and implementing intervention strategies. Policies…

  20. Assessment of 3D Viewers for the Display of Interactive Documents in the Learning of Graphic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Mate, Esteban Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which 3D viewers should be used for the display of interactive graphic engineering documents, so that the visualization and manipulation of 3D models provide useful support to students of industrial engineering (mechanical, organizational, electronic engineering, etc). The technical features of 26 3D…

  1. 75 FR 46885 - Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 and Satellite Home Viewer Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act of 2010 and Satellite Home Viewer.... SUMMARY: In this document the Commission proposes to implement provisions of the ``Satellite...

  2. Inside the Agenda-Setting Process: How Political Advertising and TV News Prime Viewers Think about Issues and Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuder, Joan; And Others

    A study of the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on adult viewers explored (in a series of five experiments) how political knowledge stored in long term memory can be activated by the media, leading to decisions about issue salience. Spreading activation theory formed the basis for the study, and priming--the concept that the activation…

  3. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  4. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor. PMID:26735263

  5. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jeffery L; Pant, Santosh; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

    2014-01-01

    In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated independently

  6. Mate choice in adult female Bengalese finches: females express consistent preferences for individual males and prefer female-directed song performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery L Dunning

    Full Text Available In the process of mate selection by female songbirds, male suitors advertise their quality through reproductive displays in which song plays an important role. Females evaluate the quality of each signal and the associated male, and the results of that evaluation guide expression of selective courtship displays. Some studies reveal broad agreement among females in their preferences for specific signal characteristics, indicating that those features are especially salient in female mate choice. Other studies reveal that females differ in their preference for specific characteristics, indicating that in those cases female evaluation of signal quality is influenced by factors other than simply the physical properties of the signal. Thus, both the physical properties of male signals and specific traits of female signal evaluation can impact female mate choice. Here, we characterized the mate preferences of female Bengalese finches. We found that calls and copulation solicitation displays are equally reliable indicators of female preference. In response to songs from an array of males, each female expressed an individual-specific song preference, and those preferences were consistent across tests spanning many months. Across a population of females, songs of some males were more commonly preferred than others, and females preferred female-directed songs more than undirected songs, suggesting that some song features are broadly attractive. Preferences were indistinguishable for females that did or did not have social experience with the singers, indicating that female preference is strongly directed by song features rather than experiences associated with the singer. Analysis of song properties revealed several candidate parameters that may influence female evaluation. In an initial investigation of those parameters, females could be very selective for one song feature yet not selective for another. Therefore, multiple song parameters are evaluated

  7. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...

  8. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  9. "What if we made the wrong choice?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    As a corollary of the Bologna process, the two-tiered study structure introduced increased freedom of choice for enrolled and prospective university students. This article investigates how Danish university students, within the two-tiered system, perform the choices determining their educational...

  10. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  11. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  12. A pilot study exploring the relationship between internists' self-reported sleepiness, performance on multiple-choice exam items and prefrontal cortex activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Capaldi, V.F., 2nd; Artino, A.R.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beckman, T.J.; Costanzo, M.; Holmboe, E.; Schuwirth, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of resident fatigue and performance have shown mixed results. However, research has not examined daytime sleepiness and performance among attending physicians. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, performance and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activit

  13. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  14. The Impact of Choice Expression Modalities on Choice Rationality and Choice Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation comprises two empirical studies that investigate the impact of manual versus oral choice expression modalities on the objective rationality of choice (Study 1) and the impact of oral versus manual choice expression modalities on choice satisfaction (Study 2).

  15. Metadyn View: Fast web-based viewer of free energy surfaces calculated by metadynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošek, Petr; Spiwok, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Metadynamics is a highly successful enhanced sampling technique for simulation of molecular processes and prediction of their free energy surfaces. An in-depth analysis of data obtained by this method is as important as the simulation itself. Although there are several tools to compute free energy surfaces from metadynamics data, they usually lack user friendliness and a build-in visualization part. Here we introduce Metadyn View as a fast and user friendly viewer of bias potential/free energy surfaces calculated by metadynamics in Plumed package. It is based on modern web technologies including HTML5, JavaScript and Cascade Style Sheets (CSS). It can be used by visiting the web site and uploading a HILLS file. It calculates the bias potential/free energy surface on the client-side, so it can run online or offline without necessity to install additional web engines. Moreover, it includes tools for measurement of free energies and free energy differences and data/image export.

  16. The Effect of Background Music in Shark Documentaries on Viewers' Perceptions of Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Philip A.; Gneezy, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark ‘attacks’ and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries. Using three experiments, we show that participants rated sharks more negatively and less positively after viewing a 60-second video clip of swimming sharks set to ominous background music, compared to participants who watched the same video clip set to uplifting background music, or silence. This finding was not an artifact of soundtrack alone because attitudes toward sharks did not differ among participants assigned to audio-only control treatments. This is the first study to demonstrate empirically that the connotative attributes of background music accompanying shark footage affect viewers’ attitudes toward sharks. Given that nature documentaries are often regarded as objective and authoritative sources of information, it is critical that documentary filmmakers and viewers are aware of how the soundtrack can affect the interpretation of the educational content. PMID:27487003

  17. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning. PMID:27089305

  18. Pirkle-type chiral stationary phase on core-shell and fully porous particles: Are superficially porous particles always the better choice toward ultrafast high-performance enantioseparations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Omar H; Pasti, Luisa; Ciogli, Alessia; Villani, Claudio; Kocergin, Jelena; Anderson, Scott; Gasparrini, Francesco; Cavazzini, Alberto; Catani, Martina

    2016-09-30

    Pirkle-type Whelk-O1 chiral stationary phase (CSP) was prepared on 2.6μm superficially porous particles (SPPs). The chromatographic behavior of columns packed with this new CSP was compared with that of columns packed respectively with 1.8 and 2.5μm Whelk-O1 fully porous particles (FPPs). In the comparison, both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects were considered. Contrary to initial expectations, chiral columns packed with 2.6μm SPPs were quasi-comparable to those packed with 2.5μm FPPs, apparently due to larger contributions to band broadening from both eddy dispersion and, especially for the second eluted enantiomer, adsorption-desorption kinetics. These findings raise the question if SPPs, in spite of the undeniable advantages of their morphology to speed up mass transfer, are always the best choice for high-efficient ultrafast chiral separations. The last part of the work focuses on the use of short columns (10mm long) and very high flow rates to realize the separation of the enantiomers of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) in normal phase mode in less than 1s.

  19. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning.

  20. Latinos and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…

  1. Children's Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

  2. Children's Choices for 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)

  3. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  4. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  5. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Henry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These factors include; brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, price, convenience and brand loyalty. The study concludes that all the six factors contribute to the factors that drive consumer choice of telecommunications service in Ghana.

  6. LVTree Viewer:An Interactive Display for the All-Species Living Tree Incorporating Automatic Comparison with Prokaryotic Systematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghong Zuo; Xiaoyang Zhi; Zhao Xu; Bailin Hao

    2016-01-01

    We describe an interactive viewer for the All-Species Living Tree (LVTree). The viewer incorporates treeing and lineage information from the ARB-SILVA website. It allows collapsing the tree branches at different taxonomic ranks and expanding the collapsed branches as well, keeping the overall topology of the tree unchanged. It also enables the user to observe the consequence of trial lineage modifications by re-collapsing the tree. The system reports taxon statistics at all ranks automatically after each collapsing and re-collapsing. These features greatly facilitate the compar-ison of the 16S rRNA sequence phylogeny with prokaryotic taxonomy in a taxon by taxon manner. In view of the fact that the present prokaryotic systematics is largely based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the current viewer may help reveal discrepancies between phylogeny and taxonomy. As an application, we show that in the latest release of LVTree, based on 11,939 rRNA sequences, as few as 24 lineage modifications are enough to bring all but two phyla (Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) to monophyletic clusters.

  7. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng Henry; Maapa Kwame Quansah

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These...

  8. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    presents results of research that aims to provide a methodology for museums and cultural institutions for prototyping a 3D viewer within a webpage, thereby not only allowing institutions to promote their collections via the internet but also providing a tool for users to engage in a meaningful way with cultural heritage datasets. The design process encompasses evaluation as the central part of the design methodology; focusing on how slight changes to navigation, object engagement and aesthetic appearance can influence the user's experience. The prototype used in this paper, was created using WebGL with the Three.Js (Three.JS, 2013) library and datasets were loaded as the OpenCTM (Geelnard, 2010) file format. The overall design is centred on creating an easy-tolearn interface allowing non-skilled users to interact with the datasets, and also providing tools allowing skilled users to discover more about the cultural heritage object. User testing was carried out, allowing users to interact with 3D datasets within the interactive viewer. The results are analysed and the insights learned are discussed in relation to an interface designed to interact with 3D content. The results will lead to the design of interfaces for interacting with 3D objects, which allow for both skilled and non skilled users to engage with 3D cultural heritage objects in a meaningful way.

  9. Visualization of documents and concepts in neuroinformatics with the 3D-SE viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine P Naud

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new interactive visualization tool is proposed for mining text data from various fields of neuroscience. Applications to several text datasets are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed interactive tool to visualize complex relationships between pairs of lexical entities (with some semantic contents such as terms, keywords, posters, or papers' abstracts. Implemented as a Java applet, this tool is based on the spherical embedding (SE algorithm, which was designed for the visualization of bipartite graphs. Items such as words and documents are linked on the basis of occurrence relationships, which can be represented in a bipartite graph. These items are visualized by embedding the vertices of the bipartite graph on spheres in a three-dimensional (3-D space. The main advantage of the proposed visualization tool is that 3-D layouts can convey more information than planar or linear displays of items or graphs. Different kinds of information extracted from texts, such as keywords, indexing terms, or topics are visualized, allowing interactive browsing of various fields of research featured by keywords, topics, or research teams. A typical use of the 3D-SE viewer is quick browsing of topics displayed on a sphere, then selecting one or several item(s displays links to related terms on another sphere representing, e.g., documents or abstracts, and provides direct online access to the document source in a database, such as the Visiome Platform or the SfN Annual Meeting. Developed as a Java applet, it operates as a tool on top of existing resources.

  10. Dcs Data Viewer, an Application that Accesses ATLAS DCS Historical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarouchas, C.; Schlenker, S.; Dimitrov, G.; Jahn, G.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is one of the four Large Hadron Collider experiments. The Detector Control System (DCS) of ATLAS is responsible for the supervision of the detector equipment, the reading of operational parameters, the propagation of the alarms and the archiving of important operational data in a relational database (DB). DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is an application that provides access to the ATLAS DCS historical data through a web interface. Its design is structured using a client-server architecture. The pythonic server connects to the DB and fetches the data by using optimized SQL requests. It communicates with the outside world, by accepting HTTP requests and it can be used stand alone. The client is an AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) interactive web application developed under the Google Web Toolkit (GWT) framework. Its web interface is user friendly, platform and browser independent. The selection of metadata is done via a column-tree view or with a powerful search engine. The final visualization of the data is done using java applets or java script applications as plugins. The default output is a value-over-time chart, but other types of outputs like tables, ascii or ROOT files are supported too. Excessive access or malicious use of the database is prevented by a dedicated protection mechanism, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of inexperienced users. The current configuration of the client and of the outputs can be saved in an XML file. Protection against web security attacks is foreseen and authentication constrains have been taken into account, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of users world wide. Due to its flexible interface and its generic and modular approach, DDV could be easily used for other experiment control systems.

  11. DCS data viewer, an application that accesses ATLAS DCS historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is one of the four Large Hadron Collider experiments. The Detector Control System (DCS) of ATLAS is responsible for the supervision of the detector equipment, the reading of operational parameters, the propagation of the alarms and the archiving of important operational data in a relational database (DB). DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is an application that provides access to the ATLAS DCS historical data through a web interface. Its design is structured using a client-server architecture. The pythonic server connects to the DB and fetches the data by using optimized SQL requests. It communicates with the outside world, by accepting HTTP requests and it can be used stand alone. The client is an AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) interactive web application developed under the Google Web Toolkit (GWT) framework. Its web interface is user friendly, platform and browser independent. The selection of metadata is done via a column-tree view or with a powerful search engine. The final visualization of the data is done using java applets or java script applications as plugins. The default output is a value-over-time chart, but other types of outputs like tables, ascii or ROOT files are supported too. Excessive access or malicious use of the database is prevented by a dedicated protection mechanism, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of inexperienced users. The current configuration of the client and of the outputs can be saved in an XML file. Protection against web security attacks is foreseen and authentication constrains have been taken into account, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of users world wide. Due to its flexible interface and its generic and modular approach, DDV could be easily used for other experiment control systems.

  12. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  13. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  14. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  15. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  16. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  17. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  18. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2013-01-01

    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance...... is influenced by the way in which store choice behaviour is conceptualized. A survey among 631 consuemrs was performed in order to examine the research proposition. Structural equation results suggest that the negative effect of distance on store choice behaviour is larger when store choice behaviour...... is measured as number of visits to a particular store than wehen store cjoice behaviour is measured as the percentage of budget spend at a particular store. Our results indicate that researchers should carefully consider the measurement of store choice behaviour when carrying out empirical research invlving...

  19. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

  20. The GEON Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) for Exploration of Geoscience Data With Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, S.; Meertens, C.

    2008-12-01

    The GEON Integrated Data Viewer (GEON IDV) is a fully interactive, research-level, true 3D and 4D (latitude, longitude, depth or altitude, and time) tool to display and explore almost any data located on the Earth, inside the Earth, or above the Earth's surface. Although the GEON IDV makes impressive 3D displays, it is primarily designed for data exploration and analysis. The GEON IDV is designed to meet the challenge of investigating complex, multi-variate, time-varying, three- dimensional geoscience questions anywhere on earth. The GEON IDV supports simultaneous displays of data sets of differing sources and data type or character, with complete control over map projection and area, time animation, vertical scale, and color schemes. The GEON IDV displays gridded and point data, images, GIS shape files, and other types of data, from files, HTTP servers, OPeNDAP catalogs, RSS feeds, and web map servers. GEON IDV displays include images and geology maps on 3D topographic relief surfaces, vertical geologic cross sections in their correct depth extent, tectonic plate boundaries and plate motion vectors including time animation, GPS velocity vectors and error ellipses, GPS time series at a station, earthquake locations in depth optionally colored and sized by magnitude, earthquake focal mechanisms 'beachballs,' 2D grids of gravity or magnetic anomalies, 2D grids of crustal strain imagery, seismic raypaths, seismic tomography model 3D grids as vertical and horizontal cross sections and isosurfaces, 3D grids of crust and mantle structure for any property, and time animation of 3D grids of mantle convection models as cross sections and isosurfaces. The IDV can also show tracks of aircraft, ships, drifting buoys and marine animals, colored observed values, borehole soundings, and vertical probes of 3D grids. The GEON IDV can drive a GeoWall or other 3D stereo system. IDV output files include imagery, movies, and KML files for Google Earth. The IDV has built in analysis

  1. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  2. Complex Laparoscopic Myomectomy with Severe Adhesions Performed with Proper Preventive Measures and Power Morcellation Provides a Safe Choice in Certain Infertility Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Alfaro, Jaime; Flores-Manzur, María de los Ángeles; Nevarez-Bernal, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy offers a real benefit to infertile patients with uterine fibroids and peritoneal adhesions. The procedure requires a skilled surgeon and laparoscopy technique to minimize adhesion formation and other proven benefits. Restrictions arise since this procedure requires power morcellation for fibroid tissue extraction. Two years ago, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States of America (FDA) issued the alert on power morcellation for uterine leiomyomas, addressing the risk of malignant cell spreading within the abdominal cavity (actual risk assessment from 1 in 360 to 1 in 7400 cases). We review a 30-year-old female, without previous gestations, hypermenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, and chronic pelvic pain. Transvaginal ultrasound reports multiple fibroids in the right portion of a bicornuate uterus. Relevant history includes open myomectomy 6 years before and a complicated appendectomy, developing peritonitis within a year. Laparoscopy revealed multiple adhesions blocking uterine access, a bicornuate uterus, and myomas in the expected site. Myomectomy was performed utilizing power morcellation with good results. FDA recommendations have diminished this procedure's selection, converting many to open variants. This particular case was technically challenging, requiring morcellation, and safety device deployment was impossible, yet the infertility issue was properly addressed. Patient evaluation, safety measures, and laparoscopy benefits may outweigh the risks in particular cases as this one. PMID:27668110

  3. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  4. Measuring improved patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, M; Rovner, D R

    2000-08-01

    Patient decision support (PDS) tools or decision aids have been developed as adjuncts to the clinical encounter. Their aim is to support evidence-based patient choice. Clinical trials of PDS tools have used an array of outcome measures to determine efficacy, including knowledge, satisfaction, health status and consistency between patient choice and values. This paper proposes that the correlation between 'subjective expected utility' (SEU) and decision may be the best primary endpoint for trials. SEU is a measure usually used in behavioural decision theory. The paper first describes how decision support tools may use decision analysis to structure the presentation of evidence and guide patient decision-making. Uses of expected utility (EU) are suggested for evaluating PDS tools when improving population health status is the objective. SEU is the theoretically better measure when internal consistency of patient choices is the objective. PMID:11083037

  5. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  6. Salience and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Bordalo, Pedro; Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present a theory of context-dependent choice in which a consumer's attention is drawn to salient attributes of goods, such as quality or price. An attribute is salient for a good when it stands out among the good's characteristics, in the precise sense of being furthest away in that good from its average level in the choice set (or more generally, an evoked set). A local thinker chooses among goods by attaching disproportionately high weights to their salient attributes. When goods are cha...

  7. Affective biasing of choices in gambling task decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, John M; Whitney, Paul; Holben, Heather; Wirick, Aaron K

    2006-09-01

    The proponents of the somatic marker hypothesis presume that rational decision making is guided by emotional reactions that are developed from prior experience. Supporting evidence for the hypothesis comes almost exclusively from the short-term affective reactions that are learned during the course of a hypothetical decision-making task--the gambling task (GT). We examined GT performance and affective reactions to choices when those choices were biased by words that had preexisting affective value. In one experiment, affectively valued words directly signaled good and bad choices. A congruent relation between affective value of word and choice outcome improved GT performance, whereas an incongruent relation greatly interfered with performance. In another experiment, affectively valued words were maintained as a working memory (WM) load between GT choices. A WM load with affectively positive words somewhat improved GT performance, whereas affectively negative words interfered with performance. Somatic markers-indicated by differential anticipatory skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude for good and bad choices-appeared at a point in the GT session when choice performance was superior. However, differential SCR developed during the session after good choice performance was already established. These results indicate that preexisting affective biases can influence GT decision making. In addition, the somatic markers that are regular accompaniments of GT decision making appeared to be temporally lagging indicators of choice performance.

  8. Electricity mix and ecological assessments. Consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services; Strommix in Oekobilanzen. Auswirkungen der Strommodellwahl fuer Produkt- und Betriebs-Oekobilanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U

    1998-12-01

    The study aims at analysing the methodological issues associated with the definition of electricity mixes and discussing the consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report has been designed as a guideline to support LCA practitioners in the systematic identification of the most appropriate electricity mixes for LCA applications. A detailed checklist has been developed for this purpose. It includes the following items: type of electricity supply (from the net, self production, direct contracts); voltage level; country/place of utilisation; year of utilisation; season/daytime of utilisation; import/export model; and, marginal vs. average approach. A few examples, utilising published LCA studies, illustrate the impacts of the insights gained in the present work. Although primarily aimed at applications in Switzerland, the main concepts, the modelling and parts of the information provided can also be applied to other European countries. In addition to the three models proposed earlier for the assessment of the Swiss yearly average electricity mix, a new model (M4) has been developed in the frame of the present task in order to take into account the conditions characteristic for Switzerland as a transit land for electricity trades between its neighbour countries. All existing electricity mix models as well as selected environmental inventories are described and compared in the report. As an example of results, the CO{sub 2} emissions calculated for the Swiss yearly electricity supply mix are relatively small (48 g/kWh with model M4, as compared with 497 g/kWh for the average UCPTE mix). Key information on the structure of electricity generation and trade in Europe is provided. The modelling of the electricity supply for most of the European countries is less sensitive to the choice of an electricity model than for Switzerland. Considering

  9. Concordance in mate choice in female mound-building mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigneux, Emilie; Féron, Christophe; Gouat, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Females must evaluate male quality to perform mate choice. Since females generally base their selection on different male features, individual females may differ in their choice. In this study, we show that concordance between females in mate choice decisions may arise without any experimental maximization of a particular attractive trait. Choice tests were performed in mound-building mice, Mus spicilegus, a monogamous species. Body odours of two male donors were presented to 12 female subjects individually. To determine female choice, the same pair of males was presented three times to a female. Four different pairs of male body odours were used. Male donors, not related to females, were selected at random in our polymorphic breeding stock. Using this two-way choice design, female mice displayed a clear choice and had a similar preference for particular males.

  10. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  11. Children's Choice for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)

  12. Children's Choices for 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents 103 titles for the 2003 Children's Choice grouped by reading levels: beginning, young, intermediate, and advanced readers. Provides the title, author, illustrator, publisher, ISBN, and price for each title as well as a brief annotation prepared by a review team. (SG)

  13. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  14. Choices and changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model...

  15. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl;

    2011-01-01

    sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  16. The Choice for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  17. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  18. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  19. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The year 2012 was the 30th anniversary of William H. Riker’s modern classic Liberalism against populism (1982) and is marked by the present special issue. In this introduction, we seek to identify some core elements and evaluate the current status of the Rikerian research program and its empirical...... applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...... of manipulation of the decisions (heresthetics). These topics are then connected to the contributions to the current special issue....

  20. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  1. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...

  2. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.;

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  3. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  4. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  5. Experimentation and Job Choice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine optimal job choices when jobs differ in the rate at which they reveal information about workers' skills. We then analyze how the optimal level of experimentation changes over a worker's career and characterize job transitions and wage growth over the life cycle. Using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles merged with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we then construct an index of how much information different occupations reveal about workers' skills ...

  6. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  7. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence. PMID:21227154

  8. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  9. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  10. Apollo2Go: a web service adapter for the Apollo genome viewer to enable distributed genome annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Klaus FX

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apollo, a genome annotation viewer and editor, has become a widely used genome annotation and visualization tool for distributed genome annotation projects. When using Apollo for annotation, database updates are carried out by uploading intermediate annotation files into the respective database. This non-direct database upload is laborious and evokes problems of data synchronicity. Results To overcome these limitations we extended the Apollo data adapter with a generic, configurable web service client that is able to retrieve annotation data in a GAME-XML-formatted string and pass it on to Apollo's internal input routine. Conclusion This Apollo web service adapter, Apollo2Go, simplifies the data exchange in distributed projects and aims to render the annotation process more comfortable. The Apollo2Go software is freely available from ftp://ftpmips.gsf.de/plants/apollo_webservice.

  11. Dissociable effects of AMPA-induced lesions of the vertical limb diagonal band of Broca on performance of the 5-choice serial reaction time task and on acquisition of a conditional visual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J L; Bussey, T J; Everitt, B J; Robbins, T W

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the cholinergic innervation of the cingulate cortex in visual attentional function and acquisition of a visual conditional discrimination task. Following AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) lesions of the vertical limb diagonal band of Broca (VDB) which provides the main cholinergic projection to cingulate cortex, animals were not significantly impaired on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. This task, which provides a continuous performance test of visual attention, has previously been shown to be sensitive to AMPA lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM). In contrast to the results obtained for visual attentional function, lesions of the VDB did significantly affect the acquisition of a visual conditional discrimination. While showing a significant facilitation in the early learning stage of acquiring this task animals with lesions of the VDB were significantly impaired during the late stages of learning this task. This late learning deficit was not the result of the animals being unable to learn the task due to the presence of the lesion throughout task acquisition as the results of a second experiment revealed that when animals were pre-trained to 70% accuracy on the task and then lesioned, the impairment in late learning was still apparent. In light of the results presented in the accompanying paper (Bussey et al., Behav. Brain Res., 1996), these results suggest that the early learning effects may be due to cholinergic denervation of the anterior cingulate cortex while the late learning effects may be due to denervation of the posterior cingulate cortex. Taken together with previous work indicating a role for the nbM cholinergic system in visual attentional function, these results suggest a role for the cholinergic innervation of the cingulate cortex in conditional learning but not for continuous attentional performance.

  12. Effects of lesions to ascending noradrenergic neurones on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction task in rats; implications for theories of dorsal noradrenergic bundle function based on selective attention and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, M; Robbins, T W; Evenden, J L; Everitt, B J

    1983-09-01

    Five experiments examined the effects of destruction of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNAB), arising in the locus coeruleus, both on brightness and spatial visual discrimination, and selective attention. An analogue o Leonard's 5-choice serial reaction task for human subjects was used. Hungry rats were trained to detect brief (0.5 sec) flashes of light presented randomly in one of 5 locations with a fixed intertrial interval of 5 sec, paced by the rat. Correct responses were rewarded with food and incorrect responses punished by time-out (darkness + delay). Following training to high levels of accuracy (80%, with less than 20% errors of omission), rats received either 6-OHDA (4 micrograms/2 microliters) injected bilaterally into the trajectory of the dorsal bundle, or injection of vehicle (0.1% ascorbic acid in 0.9% saline). The 6-OHDA lesion was sufficient to reduce cortical NA by 84%. Performance on both the spatial discrimination and brightness (produced by graded reductions in the brightness of the stimuli) discrimination was unaffected by DNAB lesions. However, the DNAB lesion produced significant decreases in accuracy and increases in omissions when the stimuli were presented at faster, unpredictable rates. In addition, although intense white noise failed to produce differential impairments when presented simultaneously with the visual discriminanda, the DNAB lesion significantly impaired accuracy when the noise was presented immediately prior to, but not overlapping, the onset of the visual stimuli. The implications of this pattern of deficits in performance found following DNAB lesions is discussed in terms of disruptive effects of cortical NA depletion upon mechanisms of selective attention and arousal. PMID:6639741

  13. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  14. Sequential rationalization of multivalued choice

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanz, María Dolores; Rodríguez Alcantud, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    [EN]This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under sequential criteria. Following the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (2007) for single-valued choice functions, we characterize choice correspondences that are rational by two sequential criteria under a mild consistency axiom. Rationales ensuring the sequential rationalization are explicitly constructed and a uniquely determined, canonical solution is provided.

  15. Mate-choice copying as Bayesian decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takashi; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Iwasa, Yo

    2005-03-01

    Mate-choice copying by females has been reported in fishes (e.g., guppies) and lekking birds. Presumably, females assess males' quality using both information from direct observation of males and information acquired by observing other females' choices. Here, we study mathematically the conditions under which mate-choice copying is advantageous on the basis of Bayesian decision theory. A female may observe the mate choice of another female, called the model female, who has performed an optimal choice based on her own judgment. The conditions required for the focal female to choose the same mate as that chosen by the model female should depend on the male's appearance to her, the reliability of her own judgment of male quality, and the reliability of the model females. When three or more females are involved, the optimal mate choice critically depends on whether multiple model females make decisions independently or they themselves copy the choices of others. If two equally reliable females choose different males, the choice of the second female, made knowing the choice of the first, should have a stronger effect on the choice of the third (focal) female. This "last-choice precedence" should be tested experimentally.

  16. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider...

  17. Choice and Procrastination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    JEL#: A12, B49, C70, D11, D60, D74, D91, E21 Keywords: choice, naivete, partial naivete, present-biased preferences, procrastination, self control, sophistication, time inconsistency Recent models of procrastination due to self-control problems assume that a procrastinator considers just one option and is unaware of her self-control problems. We develop a model where a person chooses from a menu of options and is partially aware of her self-control problems. This menu model replicates earlier...

  18. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  19. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider....... However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...

  20. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  1. Time, Self & Intertemporal Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia eRetz Lucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting. Consequently, time perception is fundamental to IC and it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying time processing in different situations; to investigate when human time perception differs from time as represented by the calendar metric system; and to study how time perception predicts choices. This paper surveys the recent literature on time perception in order to discuss the measuring of IC through time-perception specificities. The notion of self is also discussed within this temporal perspective. If time perception modulates discounting, and time perception is related to self, the relationship between self and time perception becomes a new path to be explored in the IC studies.

  2. Comportamento racional e desempenho da análise gráfica no mercado acionário brasileiro THE PERFORMANCE OF RATIONAL CHOICE AND TECHNICAL ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Ribeiro de Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    methodology for the Lorenzoni et al. (2007 test to check the presence of informational content in technical analysis. This autonomous system consists of a modified routine of rational choice constant in Arrow (1959 which seeks maximum profit trying to simulate human behavior as a strategy for triggering orders. It was tested 352 different combinations of possible orders when attached to the rational behavior for each series tested. The data used were companies listed in FGV-100 index (theoretical portfolio of the year 2009 and Ibovespa (theoretical portfolio of Sept/Dez 2009 with a total of 129 companies from 3/01/2000 to 09/30/2009. The main results show that the best results were obtained by moving average followed by Bollinger bands and, finally the histogram, which has not proved by self efficient. Orders were counted in quantities. It was found rational choice behaviors of buy/sell with superior performance to its peers when compared in terms of profitability with the returns obtained by Ibovespa. The statistics of White (2000 and the modified test of Lorenzoni et al. (2007, proposed by the author, had suggested the presence of informational content for the majority of the series tested in the sample when the graphs indicated long position for both the original data and for the recreated data from the AR(1-GARCH(1,1 model.

  3. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  4. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that these assumptions are implausible, and that more accurate assumptions could have been made based on prior attention and eye movement research. Future decision making research would benefit from greater integration with attention research....

  5. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  6. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  7. Consumer satisfaction with primary care provider choice and associated trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkrishnan Rajesh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of managed care, characterized by limited provider choice, is believed to undermine trust. Provider choice has been identified as strongly associated with physician trust. Stakeholders in a competitive healthcare market have competing agendas related to choice. The purpose of this study is to analyze variables associated with consumer's satisfaction that they have enough choice when selecting their primary care provider (PCP, and to analyze the importance of these variables on provider trust. Methods A 1999 randomized national cross-sectional telephone survey conducted of United States residential households, who had a telephone, had seen a medical professional at least twice in the past two years, and aged ≥ 20 years was selected for secondary data analyses. Among 1,117 households interviewed, 564 were selected as the final sample. Subjects responded to a core set of questions related to provider trust, and a subset of questions related to trust in the insurer. A previously developed conceptual framework was adopted. Linear and logistic regressions were performed based on this framework. Results Results affirmed 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' was significantly (p Conclusion This study confirmed the association of 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' with provider trust. Results affirmed 'enough PCP choice' was a strong predictor of provider trust. 'Second opinion on PCP' may indicate distrust in the provider. Data such as 'trust in providers in general' and 'the role of provider performance information' in choice, though import in PCP choice, were not available for analysis and should be explored in future studies. Results have implications for rethinking the relationships among consumer choice, consumer behaviors in making trade-offs in PCP choice, and the role of healthcare experiences in 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' or 'provider trust.'

  8. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Swetlana Gutjar; ter Horst, Gert J.; Kees de Graaf; Renken, Remco J.; Gerry Jager

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  9. Reading virtual slide using web viewers: results of subjective experience with three different solutions

    OpenAIRE

    González Jesús; Murillo Cristina; Peces Carlos; González Lucía; Gallardo Antonio J; Rojo Marcial; Sacristán Jose

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Virtual slides are viewed using interactive software that enables the user to simulate the behaviour of a conventional optical microscope, like adjusting magnifications and navigating to any portion of the image. Nowadays, information about the performance and features of web-based solutions for reading slides in real environments is still scarce. The objective of this study is analyzing the subjective experience of pathologists with virtual slides, comparing the time need...

  10. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  11. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  12. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers. PMID:26285361

  13. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  14. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  15. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  16. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  17. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  18. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  19. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  20. Spoilt for choice. Insulation materials; Qual der Wahl. Daemmstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    The large number of supplied insulation materials is not made easy for the customers to make a choice: Products from renewable raw materials have an excellent quality in the competition. Conventional products also perform well.

  1. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  2. What Do Social Media Say About Makeovers? A Content Analysis of Cosmetic Surgery Videos and Viewers' Responses on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Nainan; Chia, Stella C; Hao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This study examines portrayals of cosmetic surgery on YouTube, where we found a substantial number of cosmetic surgery videos. Most of the videos came from cosmetic surgeons who appeared to be aggressively using social media in their practices. Except for videos that explained cosmetic surgery procedures, most videos in our sample emphasized the benefits of cosmetic surgery, and only a small number of the videos addressed the involved risks. We also found that tactics of persuasive communication-namely, related to message source and message sensation value (MSV)-have been used in Web-based social media to attract viewers' attention and interests. Expert sources were used predominantly, although typical-consumer sources tended to generate greater viewer interest in cosmetic surgery than other types of message sources. High MSV, moreover, was found to increase a video's popularity. PMID:25257243

  3. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  4. School Choice or Schools' Choice? Managing in an Era of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on a year and a half of ethnographic research in three New York City small high schools, this study examines the role of the school in managing school choice and asks what social processes are associated with principals' disparate approaches. Although district policy did not allow principals to select students based on their performance,…

  5. Strategic Currency Choice in International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    How exporters choose currency for their exports? Using highly disaggregated data on the population of Russian Federation exporting firms between 2005 and 2009 this paper studies the strategic determinants of currency invoicing decisions. Strategic morives embrace two occurrences in currency choice: firstly, the realisation of bargaining powers of the seller and the buyer, where I perform a novel firm-level test. Notably, in contrast to the micro and macro determinants, bargaining powers are f...

  6. Performative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack-Nielsen, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the potential of building skins being climate-adaptive. The principle of folding, and the relation between form and performance of facades are discussed here.......The article describes the potential of building skins being climate-adaptive. The principle of folding, and the relation between form and performance of facades are discussed here....

  7. Earthscape, a Multi-Purpose Interactive 3d Globe Viewer for Hybrid Data Visualization and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarthou, A.; Mas, S.; Jacquin, M.; Moreno, N.; Salamon, A.

    2015-08-01

    The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane), raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  8. EARTHSCAPE, A MULTI-PURPOSE INTERACTIVE 3D GLOBE VIEWER FOR HYBRID DATA VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarthou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid visualization and interaction tool EarthScape is presented here. The software is able to display simultaneously LiDAR point clouds, draped videos with moving footprint, volume scientific data (using volume rendering, isosurface and slice plane, raster data such as still satellite images, vector data and 3D models such as buildings or vehicles. The application runs on touch screen devices such as tablets. The software is based on open source libraries, such as OpenSceneGraph, osgEarth and OpenCV, and shader programming is used to implement volume rendering of scientific data. The next goal of EarthScape is to perform data analysis using ENVI Services Engine, a cloud data analysis solution. EarthScape is also designed to be a client of Jagwire which provides multisource geo-referenced video fluxes. When all these components will be included, EarthScape will be a multi-purpose platform that will provide at the same time data analysis, hybrid visualization and complex interactions. The software is available on demand for free at france@exelisvis.com.

  9. Comprehending body language and mimics: an ERP and neuroimaging study on Italian actors and viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the neural mechanism subserving the ability to understand people's emotional and mental states by observing their body language (facial expression, body posture and mimics) was investigated in healthy volunteers. ERPs were recorded in 30 Italian University students while they evaluated 280 pictures of highly ecological displays of emotional body language that were acted out by 8 male and female Italian actors. Pictures were briefly flashed and preceded by short verbal descriptions (e.g., "What a bore!") that were incongruent half of the time (e.g., a picture of a very attentive and concentrated person shown after the previous example verbal description). ERP data and source reconstruction indicated that the first recognition of incongruent body language occurred 300 ms post-stimulus. swLORETA performed on the N400 identified the strongest generators of this effect in the right rectal gyrus (BA11) of the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, the bilateral uncus (limbic system) and the cingulate cortex, the cortical areas devoted to face and body processing (STS, FFA EBA) and the premotor cortex (BA6), which is involved in action understanding. These results indicate that face and body mimics undergo a prioritized processing that is mostly represented in the affective brain and is rapidly compared with verbal information. This process is likely able to regulate social interactions by providing on-line information about the sincerity and trustfulness of others.

  10. Comprehending body language and mimics: an ERP and neuroimaging study on Italian actors and viewers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available In this study, the neural mechanism subserving the ability to understand people's emotional and mental states by observing their body language (facial expression, body posture and mimics was investigated in healthy volunteers. ERPs were recorded in 30 Italian University students while they evaluated 280 pictures of highly ecological displays of emotional body language that were acted out by 8 male and female Italian actors. Pictures were briefly flashed and preceded by short verbal descriptions (e.g., "What a bore!" that were incongruent half of the time (e.g., a picture of a very attentive and concentrated person shown after the previous example verbal description. ERP data and source reconstruction indicated that the first recognition of incongruent body language occurred 300 ms post-stimulus. swLORETA performed on the N400 identified the strongest generators of this effect in the right rectal gyrus (BA11 of the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, the bilateral uncus (limbic system and the cingulate cortex, the cortical areas devoted to face and body processing (STS, FFA EBA and the premotor cortex (BA6, which is involved in action understanding. These results indicate that face and body mimics undergo a prioritized processing that is mostly represented in the affective brain and is rapidly compared with verbal information. This process is likely able to regulate social interactions by providing on-line information about the sincerity and trustfulness of others.

  11. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  12. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  13. Constructing cultural self and other in the internet discussion of a Korean historical TV drama: A discourse analysis of weblog messages of Hong Kong viewers of Dae Jang Geum

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, A; Tong, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper messages from viewers of the popular Korean historical TV drama - Dae Jang Geum (Da Chang Jin) - in a Hong Kong web-based discussion forum are analyzed to see how some Hong Kong viewers construct their Chinese cultural identities through discursive moves of positioning (Harrè and van Langenhove, 1999). Different subject positions are adopted by these forum discussion participants to draw, maintain, and shift the boundary between "self" and "other" in different storylines project...

  14. Appreciating "Thirdspace": An Alternative Way of Viewing and Valuing Site-Specific Dance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjee, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific dance performance involves the presentation of choreography in connection with a site. The context of the site combined with a viewer's personal history, beliefs, and identity impact the reading and appreciation of the performance. Although both stage and site dance performance valuing elicit multiple interpretations of artistic…

  15. DataViewer3D: An open-source, cross-platform multi-modal neuroimaging data visualization tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre D Gouws

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration and display of results from multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. MRI, MEG, EEG relies on display of a diverse range of data within a common, defined coordinate frame. DataViewer3D (DV3D is a multi-modal imaging data visualization tool offering a cross-platform, open-source solution to simultaneous data overlay visualization requirements of imaging studies. While DV3D is primarily a visualization tool, the package allows an analysis approach where results from one imaging modality can guide comparative analysis of another modality in a single coordinate space. DV3D is built on Python, a dynamic object-oriented programming language with support for integration of modular toolkits, and development of cross-platform software for neuroimaging. DV3D harnesses the power of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK for 2D and 3D rendering, calling VTK's low level C++ functions from Python. Users interact with data via an intuitive interface that uses Python to bind wxWidgets, which in turn calls the user's operating system dialogs and graphical user interface tools. DV3D currently supports NIfTI-1, ANALYZE™ and DICOM formats for MRI data display (including statistical data overlay. Formats for other data types are supported. The modularity of DV3D and ease of use of Python allows rapid integration of additonal format support and user development. DV3D has been tested on Mac OSX, RedHat Linux and Microsoft Windows XP. DV3D is offered for free download with an extensive set of tutorial resources and example data.

  16. "It's Our Best Choice Right Now": Exploring How Charter School Parents Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying premises of the charter school movement is that quality drives consumer choice. As educational consumers, parents are viewed as rational actors who, if given the choice, will select better performing school. In examining the choice processes of charter school parents, however, this study calls into question the extent to…

  17. CHOICE, DYNAMIC REINFORCEMENT, AND CHANGEOVER RESPONSE REQUIREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE A. BALDERRAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that choice does not require steady state performance to show sensitivity toreinforcement. This idea was further explored in a choice situation in which a changeover responserequirement was manipulated. The parameters of the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974 were usedto assess changes in preference due to an increasing fixed-ratio changeover-response requirement. Theratio of reinforcement provided by two levers (27:1, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9, 1:27 was manipulated betweensessions to prevent steady state concurrent performance. In different conditions, the changeoverrequirement took on values of 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 responses. The results showed local effects of reinforcementon choice behavior; from one reinforcer to the next, the distribution of responses favored thealternative associated with the highest probability of reinforcement. Although sensitivity to reinforcementdid not increase with increasing changeover response requirements, as the rats experienced thedynamic reinforcing environment along the experiment the value of the parameter s stabilized above 1.0.

  18. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  19. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  20. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  1. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Vegetarian choices You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods Vegetarian choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get ...

  2. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice. PMID:26243016

  3. Allegheny County Property Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Webmap of Allegheny municipalities and parcel data. Zoom for a clickable parcel map with owner name, property photograph, and link to the County Real Estate...

  4. The MHC motif viewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas Philippe Jean-Pierre; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the onset of cellular immune reactions is controlled by presentation of peptides in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to T cell receptors. In humans, MHCs are called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Different MHC molecules present different subsets of...... peptides, and knowledge of their binding specificities is important for understanding differences in the immune response between individuals. Algorithms predicting which peptides bind a given MHC molecule have recently been developed with high prediction accuracy. The utility of these algorithms is...... binding motif for each MHC molecule is predicted using state-of-the-art, pan-specific peptide-MHC binding-prediction methods, and is visualized as a sequence logo, in a format that allows for a comprehensive interpretation of binding motif anchor positions and amino acid preferences....

  5. MHC motif viewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas Philippe Jean-Pierre; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    In vertebrates, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents peptides to the immune system. In humans, MHCs are called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), and some of the loci encoding them are the most polymorphic in the human genome. Different MHC molecules present different subsets of....... Algorithms that predict which peptides MHC molecules bind have recently been developed and cover many different alleles, but the utility of these algorithms is hampered by the lack of tools for browsing and comparing the specificity of these molecules. We have, therefore, developed a web server, MHC motif...

  6. Forced-choice testing provides evidence of malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, L M

    1992-04-01

    Assessment of motivation using forced-choice testing is described and illustrated with case reports. Two injured workers with protracted disability complained of numbness and loss of sensation in their fingers. Each patient received a forced-choice, multiple-choice finger graphesthesia test, with a 0.5 probability of guessing correctly on each item. Both patients performed significantly below the chance level, indicating that they had deliberately provided wrong answers. One patient did not exaggerate until the difficulty level of the task was enhanced. Forced-choice testing, particularly with enhancement of difficulty levels, is proposed as a specific measure to detect faked poor performance. Identification of malingering reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage. The subjective complaints of malingerers must be viewed with skepticism.

  7. The dynamics of user perception, decision making and route choice

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Travellers’ response to performance changes in the traffic system is a decisive factor in the effectiveness of traffic management measures. This thesis provides an empirical and quantitative assessment of choice behaviour and the effects of perception error on choice outcomes. It considers users’ perception of time in traffic and factors influencing time perception for routes and signalised intersections. A new framework is presented that integrates the implications of thresholds in transport...

  8. Developing a concept of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Our adult concept of choice is not a simple idea, but rather a complex set of beliefs about the causes of actions. These beliefs are situation-, individual- and culture-dependent, and are thus likely constructed through social learning. This chapter takes a rational constructivist approach to examining the development of a concept of choice in young children. Initially, infants' combine assumptions of rational agency with their capacity for statistical inference to reason about alternative possibilities for, and constraints on, action. Preschoolers' build on this basic understanding by integrating domain-specific causal knowledge of physical, biological, and psychological possibility into their appraisal of their own and others' ability to choose. However, preschoolers continue to view both psychological and social motivations as constraints on choice--for example, stating that one cannot choose to harm another, or to act against personal desires. It is not until later that children share the adult belief that choice mediates between conflicting motivations for action. The chapter concludes by suggesting avenues for future research--to better characterize conceptual changes in beliefs about choice, and to understand how such beliefs arise from children's everyday experiences. PMID:23205412

  9. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structur...

  10. Choice probabilities and response times of binary preferential choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Maarten Willem

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigates human choice behavior. We describe several experiments in which we offer the subject a referential stimulus and later two other stimuli that differ in several aspects from each other and the reference. The subject has to decide which of two alternatives resembles the ref

  11. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  12. Viewing multiple sequence alignments with the JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV) [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4io

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Andrew C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV) is designed as a simple-to-use JavaScript component for displaying sequence alignments on web pages. The display of sequences is highly configurable with options to allow alternative coloring schemes, sorting of sequences and ’dotifying’ repeated amino acids. An option is also available to submit selected sequences to another web site, or to other JavaScript code. JSAV is implemented purely in JavaScript making use of the JQuery and JQuery-UI li...

  13. Egalitarianism in Multi-Choice Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the equal division core for arbitrary multi-choice games and the constrained egalitarian solution for con- vex multi-choice games, using a multi-choice version of the Dutta-Ray algorithm for traditional convex games. These egalitarian solutions for multi-choice games have

  14. Corrective Action and School Choice in NYC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Hamman

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Districts play a critical role in reforming schools. In January 2000, NYC community school districts applied for Title I, IASA, funding to carry out corrective actions against historically low-performing schools. Our purpose was to examine (a how districts planned to take corrective action to address problems that cause low performance; and (b the extent to which school choice could be implemented in those districts which were applying for corrective action funding. Districts most commonly identified teacher turnover, poor-quality instruction, and student needs as causes of low performance. In response, districts proposed providing professional development related to instructional strategies, but often ignored other important issues. Moreover, most districts described plans to take corrective actions that would decrease schools’ decision-making authority, but then failed to identify steps to increase the districts’ own capacity to execute greater responsibility once control had been taken from the schools. Districts overall seemed unable to implement school choice plans in an effective manner.

  15. Threshold Choice Methods: the Missing Link

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Orallo, José; Ferri, Cèsar

    2011-01-01

    Many performance metrics have been introduced for the evaluation of classification performance, with different origins and niches of application: accuracy, macro-accuracy, area under the ROC curve, the ROC convex hull, the absolute error, and the Brier score (with its decomposition into refinement and calibration). One way of understanding the relation among some of these metrics is the use of variable operating conditions (either in the form of misclassification costs or class proportions). Thus, a metric may correspond to some expected loss over a range of operating conditions. One dimension for the analysis has been precisely the distribution we take for this range of operating conditions, leading to some important connections in the area of proper scoring rules. However, we show that there is another dimension which has not received attention in the analysis of performance metrics. This new dimension is given by the decision rule, which is typically implemented as a threshold choice method when using scor...

  16. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  17. Process algebra with partial choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to bridge the gap between ACP and TCSP. To this end, ACP is extended with two non-deterministic choice operators in a setting of bisimulation semantics. With these operators, we can express safety properties of systems without the use of silent steps, and we can verify

  18. How to make moral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Moral choice is committing to act for what one believes is right and good. It is less about what we know than about defining who we are. Three cases typical of those used in the principles or dilemmas approach to teaching ethics are presented. But they are analyzed using an alternative approach based on seven moral choice heuristics--approaches proven to increase the likelihood of locating the best course of action. The approaches suggested for analyzing moral choice situations include: (a) identify the outcomes of available alternative courses of action; (b) rule out strategies that involve deception, coercion, reneging on promises, collusion, and contempt for others; (c) be authentic (do not deceive yourself); (d) relate to others on a human basis; (e) downplay rational justifications; (f) match the solution to the problem, not the other way around; (g) execute on the best solution, do not hold out for the perfect one; and (h) take action to improve the choice after it has been made. PMID:22416620

  19. The Multiple-Choice Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De meerkeuzemaatschappij. There are many areas of life where people have more choice than ever before. The leisure industry bombards consumers with a flood of goods and services; the family and the Church have lost their dominant position in the structuring of people's lives; there

  20. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  1. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction...

  2. Differentiated Bayesian Conjoint Choice Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sándor (Zsolt); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevious conjoint choice design construction procedures have produced a single design that is administered to all subjects. This paper proposes to construct a limited set of different designs. The designs are constructed in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account prior uncertainty about

  3. Educational Choice and Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…

  4. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bronner; R. de Hoog

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice op

  5. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive tha

  6. Model choice versus model criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Christian P.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Chen, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The new perspectives on ABC and Bayesian model criticisms presented in Ratmann et al.(2009) are challenging standard approaches to Bayesian model choice. We discuss here some issues arising from the authors' approach, including prior influence, model assessment and criticism, and the meaning of error in ABC.

  7. Thought and Choice in Chess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Adriaan D.

    2008-01-01

    What does a chessmaster think when he prepartes his next move? How are his thoughts organized? Which methods and strategies does he use by solving his problem of choice? To answer these questions, the author did an experimental study in 1938, to which famous chessmasters participated (Alekhine, Max

  8. Informational geometry of social choice

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, Donald G.

    1997-01-01

    Elementary geometry is used to understand, extend and resolve basic informational difficulties in choice theory. This includes axiomatic conclusions such as Arrow's Theorem, Chichilnisky's dictator, and the Gibbard-Satterthwaite result. In this manner new results about positional voting methods are outlined, and difficulties with axiomatic approach are discussed. A topological result about "dictatorial" behavior is offered.

  9. A Probit Model of Choice Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Purushottam Papatla; Lakshman Krishnamurthi

    1992-01-01

    There are many products which are repeatedly purchased by consumers. In such cases it is likely that choice history, that is the sequence of choices made in the past, as well as marketing variables affect subsequent choice decisions. Attempts to model the effects of choice history have been generally based on the inclusion of variables that represent brand loyalty and/or variety seeking behavior. In this paper we present a model of dynamic choice behavior which is more general and incorporate...

  10. Patterns of brand and store choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The sublects of brand choice and store choice have been widely studied, but these two aspects of consumer behaviour have tended to be treated in isolation from each other. This thesis therefore provides a detailed examination of the way in which brand choice and store choice patterns compare and interact. The results are based on AGB consumer panel data, and relate to three frequently-bought grocery products. Despite the multiplicity of factors believed to influence brand and store choice, at...

  11. Impact of Transit Network Layout on Resident Mode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the impact of public transit network layout (TNL on resident mode choice. The review of TNL as a factor uses variables divided into three groups: a variable set without considering the TNL, one considering TNL from the zone level, and one considering TNL from the individual level. Using Baoding’s travel survey data, a Multinomial Logit (MNL model is used, and the parameter estimation result shows that TNL has significant effect on resident mode choice. Based on parameter estimation, the factors affecting mode choice are further screened. The screened variable set is regarded as the input data to the BP neural network’s training and forecasting. Both forecasting results indicate that introducing TNL can improve the performance of mode choice forecasting.

  12. Influence of the choice of the inlet turbulence intensity on the performance of numerically simulated moderate Reynolds jet flows – Part 1 – the near exit region of the jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu DOLINSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A real problem when trying to develop a numerical model reproducing the flow through an orifice is the choice of a correct value for the turbulence intensity at the inlet of the numerical domain in order to obtain at the exit plane of the jet the same values of the turbulence intensity as in the experimental evaluation. There are few indications in the literature concerning this issue, and the imposed boundary conditions are usually taken into consideration by usage without any physical fundament. In this article we tried to check the influence of the variation of the inlet turbulence intensity on the jet flow behavior. This article is focusing only on the near exit region of the jet. Five values of the inlet turbulence intensity Tu were imposed at the inlet of the computational domain, from 1.5% to 30%. One of these values, Tu= 2% was the one measured with a hot wire anemometer at the jet exit plane, and another one Tu= 8.8% was issued from the recommendation of Jaramillo [1]. The choice of the mesh-grid and of the turbulence model which was the SST k-ω model were previously established [2]. We found that in the initial region of the jet flow, the mean streamwise velocity profiles and the volumetric flow rate do not seem to be sensitive at all at the variation of the inlet turbulence intensity. On the opposite, for the vorticity and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE distributions we found a difference between the maximum values as high as 30%. The closest values to the experimental case were found for the lowest value of Tu, on the same order of magnitude as the measurement at the exit plane of the jet flow. Mean streamwise velocity is not affected by these differences of the TKE distributions. Contrary, the transverse field is modified as it was displayed by the vorticity distributions. This observation allows us to predict a possible modification of the entire mean flow field in the far region of the jet flow.

  13. Is non-directive counseling for patient choice cesarean delivery ethically justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Robin B; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    The current controversy concerning patient choice cesarean delivery potentially affects all women of child-bearing age and the physicians who care for them. The purpose of this paper is to address three salient issues within the patient choice cesarean delivery controversy. First, is performing patient choice cesarean delivery consistent with good professional medical practice? Second, how should physicians respond to or counsel patients who request patient choice cesarean delivery? And, third, should patient choice cesarean delivery be routinely offered to all pregnant women?

  14. Conceptualizing ¬the Abstractions of Earthquakes Through an Instructional Sequence Using SeisMac and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.; Wysession, M.

    2007-12-01

    Newsworthy earthquakes provide an engaging hook for students in Earth science classes, particularly when discussing their effects on people and the landscape. However, engaging students in an analysis of earthquakes that extends beyond death and damage, is frequently hampered by the abstraction of recorded ground motion data in the form of raw seismograms and the inability of most students to personally relate to ground accelerations. To overcome these challenges, an educational sequence has been developed using two software tools: SeisMac by Daniel Griscom, and the Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS and DLESE. This sequence presents a unique opportunity for Earth Science teachers to "create" foundational experiences for students as they construction a framework of understanding of abstract concepts. The first activity is designed to introduce the concept of a three-component seismogram and to directly address the very abstract nature of seismograms through a kinesthetic experience. Students first learn to take the pulse of their classroom through a guided exploration of SeisMac, which displays the output of the laptop's built-in Sudden Motion Sensor (a 3-component accelerometer). This exploration allows students to view a 3-component seismogram as they move or tap the laptop and encourages them to propose and carry out experiments to explain the meaning of the 3-component seismogram. Once completed students are then asked to apply this new knowledge to a real 3-component seismogram printed from REV. Next the activity guides students through the process of identifying P and S waves and using SeisMac to connect the physical motion of the laptop to the "wiggles" they see on the SeisMac display and then comparing those to the "wiggles" they see on their seismogram. At this point students are more fully prepared to engage in an S-P location exercise such as those included in many state standards

  15. PivotViewer在图书馆OPAC交互中的应用%Application of PivotViewer in OPAC Interaction of Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓晨; 孙臻

    2012-01-01

    以新书通报为例,介绍PivotViewer的应用实现过程要点,全方位展示这种全新的数据可视化模式在图书馆OPAC显示中带来的效果,证明将PivotViewer应用到图书馆OPAC交互中可以为读者提供更加友好的人机对话和交流环境,并能有效提高读者的检索效率。%Taking the new books' notice for example, this paper introduces how to realize the application of PivotViewer in detail. It also shows the outstanding effects that the brand - new pattern of data visualization brings to OPAC interaction of library, which proves the application of PivotViewer in OPAC can provide readers with more friendly man - machine di- alogue and communication environment, and the retrieval efficiency can be highly improved.

  16. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    This study analyses visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments are found to be strongly affected by stimuli presentation format. These results...... suggest that presentation format has strong implications for the external validity of discrete choice estimates....

  17. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  18. Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Miklós; Szeidl, Adam

    2003-01-01

    The present Paper investigates the effects of incorporating illiquidity in a standard dynamic portfolio choice problem. Lack of liquidity means that an asset cannot be immediately traded at any point in time. We find the portfolio share of financial wealth invested in illiquid assets given the liquidity premium. Benchmark calibrations imply a portfolio share of 2-6% in cash. These numbers are in line with survey data and also with portfolio recommendations by practitioners. We also find that ...

  19. Time, Self, and Intertemporal Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia eRetz Lucci

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC) have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting...

  20. Business Choice of Enterprises' Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QinZheng; ZouJianjun; ChenShou

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of diversification has become an important approach to enterprise development A successful diversification strategy depends mainly on the correct business choice. Before choosing a new business, we must identify the core competeneies of the enterprise and research the attraction and criticai success factors of the target business. Then we should make sure whether the core competencies match the critical success factors or not.The new business should be useful for cuitivating sustainable competitive advantage.

  1. De controller als choice architect

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Victor

    2012-01-01

    textabstractManagement accountants are choice architects: they provide information that is used in managerial decision making and they have considerable influence on the monetary and non-monetary incentives that drive managers’ decision-making processes. Over the past two decades, our know - ledge of how people make economic decisions has increased tremendously. However, this has had only very little impact on the design of management accounting and control systems in organizations. Consequen...

  2. Social Preferences and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, A.M.; Smeets, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether social preferences influence portfolio choices of retail investors. We use administrative investor trading records which we link to decisions of the same investors in experiments with real money at stake. We show that social preferences rather than return expectations or risk perceptions are the main driver of investments in socially responsible (SRI) mutual funds. Social preferences are only associated with investments in SRI funds without tax benefits, but are un...

  3. CEO Power and Auditor Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ouyang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of CEO power on auditor choice. We are motivated by the competing financial reporting incentives arising from CEO power. Our empirical finding suggests that powerful CEOs are more likely to hire high-quality auditors as a signal of superior financial reporting quality. We contribute to the literature of auditor switch and extend the research on the links between CEO power and firm behaviors.

  4. Experimental Economics Meets Language Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Barañano Mentxaka, Ilaski; Kovarik, Jaromir; Uriarte Ayo, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Roughly one half of World's languages are in danger of extinction. The endangered languages, spoken by minorities, typically compete with powerful languages such as En- glish or Spanish. Consequently, the speakers of minority languages have to consider that not everybody can speak their language, converting the language choice into strategic,coordination-like situation. We show experimentally that the displacement of minority languages may be partially explained by the imperfect informa...

  5. A HARD CHOICE (CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    KRAVCHENKO NATALIYA A.; KUZNETSOVA SVETLANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The case describes the problems of strategic choice: a small company successfully working in the engineering market (automation of technological processes) in the electric power industry has to make a decision on its further development in a changing external environment and increased competition. The case was carried out to be used in training programs of different levels within the courses “Strategic Management”, “Innovation Management”, “Strategic Analysis Methods”, “Change Management” whe...

  6. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  7. Quickly making the correct choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2015-08-01

    In daily life, unconscious choices guide many of our on-going actions. Such choices need to be made quickly, because the options change as the action progresses. We confirmed that people make reasonable choices when they have to quickly decide between two alternatives, and studied the basis of such decisions. The task was to tap with their finger on as many targets as possible within 2 min. A new target appeared after every tap, sometimes accompanied by a second target that was easier to hit. When there was only one target, subjects had to find the right balance between speed and accuracy. When there were two targets, they also had to choose between them. We examined to what extent subjects switched to the target that was easier to hit when it appeared some time after the original one. Subjects generally switched to the easier target whenever doing so would help them hit more targets within the 2-min session. This was so, irrespective of whether the different delays were presented in separate sessions or were interleaved within one session. Whether or not they switched did not depend on how successful they were at hitting the targets on earlier attempts, but it did depend on the position of the finger at the moment that the easy target appeared. We conclude that people have continuous access to reasonable estimates of how long various movement options would take and of how precise the endpoints are likely to be, given the instantaneous circumstances. PMID:25913027

  8. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  9. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  10. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  11. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  12. The RISCO RapidIce Viewer: An application for monitoring the polar ice sheets with multi-resolution, multi-temporal, multi-sensor satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herried, B.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Howat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO) is a NASA-funded, inter-organizational collaboration created to provide a systematic framework for gathering, processing, analyzing, and distributing consistent satellite imagery of polar ice sheet change for Antarctica and Greenland. RISCO gathers observations over areas of rapid change and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media, and the general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO distributes processed georeferenced raster image data products in JPEG and GeoTIFF formats, making them immediately viewable in a browser-based application. Currently, the archive includes 16 sensors including: MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, MODIS Terra Bands 3-6-7, Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI, EO-1, SPOT, ASTER VNIR, Operation IceBridge ATM and LVIS, and commercial satellites such as WorldView-1, WorldView-2, QuickBird-2, GeoEye-1 and IKONOS. The RISCO RapidIce Viewer is a lightweight JavaScript application that provides an interface to viewing and downloading the satellite imagery from predefined areas-of-interest (or 'subsets'), which are normally between 10,000 and 20,000 sq km. Users select a subset (from a map or drop-down) and the archive of individual granules is loaded in a thumbnail grid, sorted chronologically (newest first). For each thumbnail, users can choose to view a larger preview JPG, download a GeoTIFF, or be redirected back to the original data center to see the original imagery or view metadata. There are several options for filtering displayed including by sensor, by date range, by month, or by cloud cover. Last, users can select multiple images to play back as an animation. The RapidIce Viewer is an easy-to-use, software independent application for researchers to quickly monitor daily changes in ice sheets or download historical

  13. Performance Auditing:Path Choice for Promoting and Perfecting National Governance%绩效审计:推动完善国家治理的路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李四能

    2013-01-01

    国家审计是国家治理的重要组成部分。绩效审计应该从强化审计预防、揭示和抵御的“免疫系统”功能出发。在现阶段应以财政审计为基础,强化绩效评价为重点,实施绩效审计与经济责任审计相结合的审计模式。应进一步提升服务国家治理的绩效审计层次,充分发挥审计治理职能,以推动完善国家治理。%National auditing is an important part of national governance . Performance auditing should start from functions of strengthening prevention ,disclosing and resisting immune system .Now-adays we should base on financial auditing ,emphasize strengthening performance evaluation ,and adopt an auditing mode of combining performance audit with economic duty audition .In order to promote and perfect national governance ,the performance auditing level of serving national governance should be further improved and the function of audit governance should be fully leveraged .

  14. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  15. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van, J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice for fresh foods have been formulated and empirically tested

  16. 高管团队社会责任战略选择与企业绩效过程机制实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Process Mechanism of Top Management Team Social Responsibility Strategic Choice and Firm Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪悦

    2012-01-01

    为了深入探究企业社会责任战略选择和企业绩效之间的关系,本文构建了企业社会责任战略、企业社会表现及企业绩效的过程传导模型。运用156家企业高管团队的478份问卷数据进行论证,研究结果表明,企业社会责任战略会显著影响企业社会表现,企业社会表现的改善有利于全面提升企业绩效,其中企业社会表现有着显著的中介效应。本文首次将企业社会责任战略、企业社会表现及企业绩效纳入同一个研究框架中。%In order to make a deep study on the relationship between corporate social responsibility strategic choice and corporate performance,this paper has constructed the process transfer model involving corporate social responsibility strategy,corporate social performance and enterprise performance.The 478 survey data based from 156 enterprises top management teams show that the corporate social responsibility strategy significantly influence it's social performance;that the improvement of corporate social performance is conducive to the comprehensive promotion of enterprise performance;and that the corporate social performance plays an intermediary role.This is a pilot study which incorporates the corporate social responsibility strategy,corporate social performance and enterprise performance into a research frame.

  17. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations. PMID:12612165

  18. Viewing multiple sequence alignments with the JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4io

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. R. Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The JavaScript Sequence Alignment Viewer (JSAV is designed as a simple-to-use JavaScript component for displaying sequence alignments on web pages. The display of sequences is highly configurable with options to allow alternative coloring schemes, sorting of sequences and ’dotifying’ repeated amino acids. An option is also available to submit selected sequences to another web site, or to other JavaScript code. JSAV is implemented purely in JavaScript making use of the JQuery and JQuery-UI libraries. It does not use any HTML5-specific options to help with browser compatibility. The code is documented using JSDOC and is available from http://www.bioinf.org.uk/software/jsav/.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF THE TELEVISION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG VIEWERS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONVERGENCE AND THE CULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITHZA SANDOVAL ESCOBAR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing relation between the consumption of television and the behavior of the children and adolescentshas been a topic of interest for different sciences implied in the analysis and intervention on thecollective social behavior. Although a definitive answer does not exist, the evidence demonstrates thattelevision has important effects on the aggressive behavior, but questions subsist about the conditionsunder which these effects appear. Since one is a global social phenomenon, the relation between televisingmedia and the behavior of the viewers extends the analysis and intervention of the individual behavior,so that it becomes necessary to use a more integrating and interdisciplinary frame to explain and topredict the effects. Of such form, this article reviews the positive evidence of the hypothesis of injuriouseffects of the television, shows a more integrating frame to include and understand the effect of televisingmedia from the perspective of the cultural practices and explains the social effects of the televisionfrom the analysis of the convergence.

  20. The PXIE LEBT Design Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Typical front-ends of modern light-ion high-intensity accelerators typically consist of an ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a Radiofrequency Quadrupole and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT), which is followed by the main linac accelerating structures. Over the years, many LEBTs have been designed, constructed and operated very successfully. In this paper, we present the guiding principles and compromises that lead to the design choices of the PXIE LEBT, including the rationale for a beam line that allows un-neutralized transport over a significant portion of the LEBT whether the beam is pulsed or DC.

  1. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  2. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  3. 锂离子动力电池的性能选择及安全性保护%Lithium ion battery power of choice and safety protection performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芙琴

    2012-01-01

    The lithium ion battery is a widely used rechargeable batteries, relative performance is good, especially the lithium ion battery power has become the new energy industrial environment. Along with the expanding the use of lithium ion power battery performance selection, the charging and discharging safety protection is becoming ever more important.%锂离子电池是一种应用广泛的可充电电池,相对性能比较好,特别是锂离子动力电池已成为工业化环境中的新能源。随着其使用面的扩大,对锂离子动力电池的性能选择、充放电的安全保护显得愈发重要。

  4. Porous Monoliths: Stationary Phases of Choice for High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Various Formats%用于高效液相色谱的不同形式的多孔整体固定相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SVEC Frantisek

    2005-01-01

    Modern porous monoliths have been conceived as a new class of stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in classical columns in the early 1990s and later extended to the capillary format. These monolithic materials are prepared using simple processes carried out in an external mold (inorganic monoliths) or within the confines of the column (organic monoliths and all capillary columns). These methods afford macroporous materials with large through-pores that enable applications in a rapid flow-through mode. Since all the mobile phase must flow through the monolith, the convection considerably accelerates mass transport within the monolithic separation medium and improves the separations. As a result, the monolithic columns perform well even at very high flow rates. The applications of monolithic capillary columns are demonstrated on numerous separations in the HPLC mode.

  5. Transactional Leadership, Competitive Intensity, Technological Innovation Choices and Firm Performance%交易型领导、竞争强度、技术创新选择与企业绩效的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧军; 杨建君

    2015-01-01

    Based on strategic leadership theory and competitive-based view, this research finds out the three-way interaction effects of transactional leadership, competitive intensity and technological innovation ( i.e., product and process innovation) on firm performance by detecting three-way interactions.Technological innovation is an important research topic that has stimulated significant interest among management scholars and practitioners.It also has been suggested to be a critical factor affecting firm performance.Numerous studies have documented that technological innovation positively influences firm performance, which is conceptualized as the degree to which a product or process has achieved its market share, sales, rates of asset return, rates of in-vestment return, and profit objectives.However, there is a lack of studies examining the interactions with which technological in-novation influences firm performance at the firm level.Therefore, this study investigate the processes with which such interaction effects are achieved and determine whether transactional leadership and competitive intensity as moderating factors influence this effect.To test the hypotheses, data were collected from 182 high-tech enterprises in China.By using the method of hierarchical regression analysis and three-way interaction, this paper finds that firms under transactional leadership would more likely conduct product innovation than process innovation.Firms conducting product innovation will get better performance than those conducting process innovations as competitions are intensified.Transactional leadership plays an important role in promoting performance when competition is moderate, but its functions weak as competitions are intensified.Moreover, the three-way interaction effort of transactional leadership, competitive intensity and product innovation is negatively related to firm performance.That is to say, firms with strong transactional leadership and high product innovation

  6. Exploring Familiarity and Destination Choice in International Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    familiarity) influence sub-destination choice in terms of its scale and popularity. A survey was conducted with Korean nationals as potential visitors to tourism destinations in Japan. Six one-way ANOVA tests and six chi-square tests were performed to identify the relationships and differences between...

  7. Neural Activity Reveals Preferences Without Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alec; Bernheim, B. Douglas; Camerer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inferring the choices people would make (if given the opportunity) based on their neural responses to the pertinent prospects when they are not engaged in actual decision making. The ability to make such inferences is of potential value when choice data are unavailable, or limited in ways that render standard methods of estimating choice mappings problematic. We formulate prediction models relating choices to “non-choice” neural responses and use them to predict out-of-sample choices for new items and for new groups of individuals. The predictions are sufficiently accurate to establish the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25729468

  8. School choice in Amsterdam: which schools are chosen when school choice is free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ruijs; H. Oosterbeek

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of increased school choice and competition assume that school choices are led by quality considerations. To test this assumption, this paper examines the determinants of secondary school choice in the city of Amsterdam. In this city there are many schools to choose from and school choice i

  9. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour.

  10. Preservation of What? Ideological Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Lundmark

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of these thoughts lie in situations involving choices – but also limited choices. DAUM, Dialekt-, ortnamns- och folkminnesarkivet, the Archive for Dialects, Placenames and Folklore, in Umeå, Sweden, is responsible for the documentation of a huge territory, which we do not regret. Nor do we regret the fact that the archive also grasps a wide range of subjects. We have, however, very few staff, and a feeling of insufficiency is not unusual. One way to conquer this feeling is offered by the ongoing discourse that takes place at our establishment – a discourse that is immaterial yet constitutes a solid ground from which to take bearings in our work with such a vast volume of cultural heritage. My first meeting with DAUM as an employee was full of inspiring brainstorming with the former head Jan Nilsson – an open-minded discussion which still continues with Ola Wennstedt, the present director of the archive. In the 1990s a reorganisation of the establishment (at the national level has been taking place and we have had to analyse the whole organisation and DAUM’s place therein. There were policy questions and economic cutbacks, and priorities had to be established in different spheres of activity. The discourse increased in strength and below I will give some examples of the different kind of questions that I am concerned with as an archivist at DAUM.

  11. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour. PMID:10817147

  12. Television as a Socialization Factor: A Study on the Effects of Television with Special Reference to the Portrayal of Violence and to Viewers' Behaviour. Report No. III (Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Hella

    1979-01-01

    Reanalyzes previously reported data (EBU Review; v27, n6, Nov 1976 and v29, n2, Mar 1978) on television viewing among 85 families in the Federal Republic of Germany to answer questions concerning aspects of viewer behavior in families, adult self-image, and children's daily viewing patterns. (RAO)

  13. Information Life-Cycle Management at the Erasmus Medical Center : Collaboratively Managing Digital Data for Care, Research, Education and the International Development of the GLOBE 3D Genome Viewer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); P. Walgemoed; H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractInformation Lifecycle Management at the Erasmus University Medical Centre. Collaboratively managing digital data for care, research and education using the international development of the GLOBE 3D Genome Viewer and Erasmus Computing Grid as catalyzing initiatives. The Rotterdam-bas

  14. A stated choice model of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, HJP Harry

    1996-01-01

    Stated preference and choice models currently used in urban planning are focused on predicting single choices. In this paper the intention is to extend these modelling approaches to the case of sequential choice behaviour. Design strategies and model specifications that allow one to predict sequential choice are discussed. The approach is illustrated in a study of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips. The research findings suggest that the proposed approach may ...

  15. A Cost-Minimizing Algorithm for School Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Sinan; Coppersmith, Chaya; Glass, Julie; Karaali, Gizem; Zhao, Xueying; Zhu, Xinjing

    2010-01-01

    The school choice problem concerns the design and implementation of matching mechanisms that produce school assignments for students within a given public school district. Previously considered criteria for evaluating proposed mechanisms such as stability, strategyproofness and Pareto efficiency do not always translate into desirable student assignments. In this note we propose methods to expand upon the notion of desirability for a given assignment mechanism by focusing on honoring student preferences. In particular we define two new student-optimal criteria that are not met by any previously employed mechanism in the school choice literature. We then use these criteria to adapt a well-known combinatorial optimization technique (Hungarian algorithm) to the school choice problem. In particular we create two mechanisms, each geared specifically to perform optimally with respect to one of the new criteria. Both mechanisms yield "student-optimal" outcomes. We discuss the practical implications and limitations of...

  16. Foreign Direct Investment Location Choice Factors: Some Evidence for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana KOREZ-VIDE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the liberalization and transformation of emerging markets economies, the attractiveness of these countries for foreign direct investors has been rising in the last decades. This paper explores foreign direct investment (FDI location choice factors of German and Austrian companies in Brazilian regions. We perform a quantitative analysis, based on the Multinomial Nested Logit Model and supplement its findings by the qualitative analysis, based on the semi-structured experts’ interview. The analyses show that investor-nation specific agglomeration, industry specialization, workforce qualification and physical infrastructure were important FDI location choice factors for German and Austrian companies in Brazil. Suggestions for future research of the FDI location choice factors are discussed.

  17. Voluntary Sleep Choice and Its Effects on Bayesian Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Drummond, Sean P A; Dyche, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether voluntary sleep restriction at commonly experienced levels impacts decision making in a Bayesian choice task. Participants recruited were largely traditional age college students from a regional state university (n = 100) and a federal military academy (n = 99; n = 56 and 43, respectively, used in final analysis). Sleep was measured by actigraphy over a one-week period, followed by performance of a decision task. The task involved two sources of information, base rate odds and sample evidence, with subjects asked to make a probability judgment. Results found that subjects with nightly sleep sleep deprived = SD), relative to those with > 7 hr, placed less decision weight on new evidence, relative to base rate information, in making difficult choices. This result is strongest among female subjects. For easier choices, voluntary SD did not affect relative decision weights placed on the two sources of available information.

  18. Choice PTTM guidewire for recanalization of total occlusive coronary arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ping; HE Shi-hua; CHEN Wei-Kang; WOO Carrie

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of 0. 014″Choice PTTM wire in chronic total occlusion angioplasty. Methods: Balloon angioplasty was attempted in 25 arteries with chronic total occlusion,with the mean time of occlusion of 17±13 months (ranging from 2 to 84 months) and mean length of 14±6mm (ranging from 5 to 25 mm). The morphology of the lesions included bridging collaterals (4 cases), calcification (3 cases) and major side branch at the lesion (4 cases) . Choice PTTM wire was used electively in all the cases. Results: Lesion was crossed successfully in 92% (23/25) cases, without incidences of dissection of the coronary artery with subintimal entry. Balloon angioplasy and stenting (n=21) were performed with good immediate angiograghic results. Acute myocardial infarction or death occurred in none of the patients.Conclusion Successful recanalization of chronic coronary total occlusions using Choice PTTM wire can be achieved with good safety.

  19. Voluntary Sleep Choice and Its Effects on Bayesian Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Drummond, Sean P A; Dyche, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether voluntary sleep restriction at commonly experienced levels impacts decision making in a Bayesian choice task. Participants recruited were largely traditional age college students from a regional state university (n = 100) and a federal military academy (n = 99; n = 56 and 43, respectively, used in final analysis). Sleep was measured by actigraphy over a one-week period, followed by performance of a decision task. The task involved two sources of information, base rate odds and sample evidence, with subjects asked to make a probability judgment. Results found that subjects with nightly sleep sleep deprived = SD), relative to those with > 7 hr, placed less decision weight on new evidence, relative to base rate information, in making difficult choices. This result is strongest among female subjects. For easier choices, voluntary SD did not affect relative decision weights placed on the two sources of available information. PMID:26507556

  20. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  1. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  2. Higher Education (Related) Choices in Portugal: Joint Decisions on Institution Type and Leaving Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Carla; Tavares, Diana Amado; Justino, Elsa; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to further investigate the type of higher education institution choice using individual-level data on first-year students, and to establish the link between institution choice and the decision whether to leave home. The analysis was performed for Portuguese higher education by means of a bivariate probit model.…

  3. School Choice, Student Mobility, and School Quality: Evidence from Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.; Duque, Matthew; McEachin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, school choice policies predicated on student mobility have gained prominence as urban districts address chronically low-performing schools. However, scholars have highlighted equity concerns related to choice policies. The case of post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans provides an opportunity to examine student mobility patterns in…

  4. Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). "Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in…

  5. Choice-Making in Vocational Activities Planning: Recommendations from Job Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Lachapelle, Yves; Morin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Choice in the job seeking process may lead to increased satisfaction with the chosen job, and improve attention, performance, and motivation. Consequently, providing opportunities to express choices and interests while planning vocational activities is a key factor in achieving employment outcomes. Despite their commitment to promoting…

  6. Reputation and Parental Logics of Action in Local School Choice Space in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosunen, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Differences in reputation between schools and in classes within schools shape parental choice in the Finnish urban context, even if the differences in school performance and the risks of making a "bad" choice are relatively small. This study analyses the instrumental and expressive orders of schools in a specific educational context. Two…

  7. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ghirlanda

    Full Text Available Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends.

  8. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  9. Can Free-Response Questions Be Approximated by Multiple-Choice Equivalents?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  10. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  11. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alexandria R.; Chow, Jonathan J.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior. PMID:27441394

  12. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    OpenAIRE

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations ...

  13. Information processing in children's choices among bets

    OpenAIRE

    Hommers, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    Children's information processing of risky choice alternatives was investigated in two studies without using verbal reports. In Study 1, the ability to integrate the probabilities and the payoffs of simple bets was examined using the rating scale methodology. Children's choices among three of those simple bets were recorded also. By cross-classifying the children's choice and rating behavior it was shown that a three-stage developmental hypothesis of decision making is not sufficient. A four-...

  14. Complex Choices: Producers Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, Joost M.E.; Isengildina, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Garcia, Philip; Frank, Julieta; Kuiper, W. Erno

    2005-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available. How do producers make a choice of risk management instruments? Using the recently developed choice bracketing framework, we examine what risk management strategies producers use and identify the factors that drive their risk management decisions. Our results identify that producers use a wide variety of combinations of risk management instruments and that they bracket their choices into sets of alternative risk management...

  15. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance. PMID:26167916

  16. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior. PMID:21300414

  17. Pemodelan Share-Of-Choice Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Dedy Juliandri

    2012-01-01

    Share-of-choice problem is to maximize the number of respondents to choose at least one product from a product line that has a high utility of each status-quo product. Model Share-of-choice with a budget price and aims to combine the price with budget constraints and minimum limits acceptable to the utility of each at- tribute selected by the share-of-choice problem. The proposed heuristics to solve models of share-of-choice problem with a budget price is a heuristic beam search.

  18. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation of prefere......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...

  19. Altered functional response to risky choice in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm G Connolly

    Full Text Available Risky decision-making is commonly observed in persons at risk for and infected with HIV and is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet it is currently unknown whether HIV alters brain processing of risk-taking decision-making.This study examined the neural substrate of a risky decision-making task in 21 HIV seropositive (HIV+ and 19 seronegative (HIV- comparison participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while participants performed the risky-gains task, which involves choosing among safe (20 cents and risky (40/80 cent win or loss choices. Linear mixed effects analyses examining group and decision type were conducted. Robust regressions were performed to examine the relationship between nadir CD4 count and Kalichman sexual compulsivity and brain activation in the HIV+ group. The overlap between the task effects and robust regressions was explored.Although there were no serostatus effects in behavioral performance on the risky-gains task, HIV+ individuals exhibited greater activation for risky choices in the basal ganglia, i.e. the caudate nucleus, but also in the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and insula relative to the HIV- group. The HIV+ group also demonstrated reduced functional responses to safe choices in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to the HIV- group. HIV+ individuals with higher nadir CD4 count and greater sexual compulsivity displayed lower differential responses to safe versus risky choices in many of these regions.This study demonstrated fronto-striatal loop dysfunction associated with HIV infection during risky decision-making. Combined with similar between-group task behavior, this suggests an adaptive functional response in regions critical to reward and behavioral control in the HIV+ group. HIV-infected individuals with higher CD4 nadirs demonstrated activation patterns more similar to seronegative individuals. This suggests that the severity of

  20. Teen Choice of Inwood House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Teen Choice Program in New York City was described and the outcome of the program evaluation was reported. Teen Choice is a school based sex education and pregnancy prevention program run by trained social workers. The aim is to provide information, counseling, and referrals on a range of issues relating to sexuality. The program is elective and meets during a regularly scheduled gym period for one or two semesters from the 7th to the 12th grades. There are single sex and coeducational classes. The program aim is to change attitudes toward birth control, to change risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected coitus, to offer accurate knowledge about contraception, and to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Abstinence is encouraged, but for those sexually experienced, there is attention to responsible and reliable use of contraception. Program methods include small group discussion, individual counseling, and classroom discussion. Topics of discussion range from sexuality issues and birth control to values clarification and peer pressure. Small groups may discuss human sexual growth, relationship formation, family life, responsibility to self and others, consequences of teenage pregnancy, and social and cultural peer pressures. Girls are encouraged to assume more assertive and less reactive roles. Communication skills are reinforced in respectful exchanges of personal views and questions. Differentiating facts and issues is a primary focus. A question about when an individual first had sex would be redirected to asking about the appropriate age to first have sex. Respect for privacy helps to build students confidence in the program. A longitudinal evaluation conducted between 1984 and 1987 found that the program was effective in reaching and recruiting high risk adolescents. Students left the program with increased knowledge about contraception, more mature and responsible attitudes about the use of birth control, and reduced frequency of unprotected coitus. Boys were

  1. The GEON Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) and IRIS DMC Services Illustrate CyberInfrastructure Support for Seismic Data Visualization and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, C.; Wier, S.; Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Weertman, B.; Laughbon, C.

    2008-12-01

    UNAVCO and the IRIS DMC are data service partners for seismic visualization, particularly for hypocentral data and tomography. UNAVCO provides the GEON Integrated Data Viewer (IDV), an extension of the Unidata IDV, a free, interactive, research-level, software display and analysis tool for data in 3D (latitude, longitude, depth) and 4D (with time), located on or inside the Earth. The GEON IDV is designed to meet the challenge of investigating complex, multi-variate, time-varying, three- dimensional geoscience data in the context of new remote and shared data sources. The GEON IDV supports data access from data sources using HTTP and FTP servers, OPeNDAP servers, THREDDS catalogs, RSS feeds, and WMS (web map) servers. The IRIS DMC (Data Management System) has developed web services providing data for earthquake hypocentral data and seismic tomography model grids. These services can be called by the GEON IDV to access data at IRIS without copying files. The IRIS Earthquake Browser (IEB) is a web-based query tool for hypocentral data. The IEB combines the DMC's large database of more than 1,900,000 earthquakes with the Google Maps web interface. With the IEB you can quickly find earthquakes in any region of the globe and then import this information into the GEON Integrated Data Viewer where the hypocenters may be visualized. You can select earthquakes by location region, time, depth, and magnitude. The IEB gives the IDV a URL to the selected data. The IDV then shows the data as maps or 3D displays, with interactive control of vertical scale, area, map projection, with symbol size and color control by magnitude or depth. The IDV can show progressive time animation of, for example, aftershocks filling a source region. The IRIS Tomoserver converts seismic tomography model output grids to NetCDF for use in the IDV. The Tomoserver accepts a tomographic model file as input from a user and provides an equivalent NetCDF file as output. The service supports NA04, S3D, A1D and

  2. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  3. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  4. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behaviour. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats: a verbal...... information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Presentation format was found to exert a significant bottom-up effect on visual attention and subsequent choice. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments were found to be strongly...... affected by stimuli presentation format. These results suggest that the choice of presentation format has strong implications for the external validity of discrete choice estimates and should be considered carefully by researchers....

  5. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  6. Choice and change of measures in performance-measurement models:

    OpenAIRE

    Malina, Mary A.; Selto, Frank H.

    2005-01-01

    Second Annual Acquisition Research Symposium The following article is taken as an excerpt from the proceedings of the annual Acquisition Research Program. This annual event showcases the research projects funded through the Acquisition Research Program at the Graduate School of Business and Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. Featuring keynote speakers, plenary panels, multiple panel sessions, a student research poster show and social events, the Annual Acquisition Research S...

  7. Testing Programming Skills with Multiple Choice Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David

    2004-01-01

    Multiple choice questions are a convenient and popular means of testing beginning students in programming courses. However, they are qualitatively different from exam questions. This paper reports on a study into which types of multiple choice programming questions discriminate well on a final exam, and how well they predict exam scores.

  8. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...... to increasing the number of trading dates and introducing a second risky asset and a correlation structure....

  9. School Choice for Transnational Parents in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    School choice is centred on parents deciding where and how their children will be educated, and this issue is similar--to varying degrees--for parents all around the world. Parental school choice is the authority that parents exercise in making decisions about where their children will attend school, and choosing a particular educational pathway…

  10. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  11. Instructional Innovation, School Choice, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.; Cannata, Marisa; Goldring, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    There is limited empirical research about innovation in various types of schools of choice, although viable choice policies tend to assume clear differentiation amongst schools. Innovation can be conceptualized in many ways and takes place at multiple levels of the school organization. Schools can innovate in terms of the roles and responsibility…

  12. Rationality in a general model of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdeb Lahiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.

  13. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...

  14. Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutjar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract  Introduction In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choic

  15. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  16. An investigation of brand choice processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.

    1974-01-01

    Here a brief recapitulation of the study of brand choice processes is given, and the major conclusions are reported.In chapter 2 we discussed the empirical brand choice data used throughout the study. We saw that these were purchase histories of members of the Dutch Attwood Consumer Panel for the pr

  17. Rapidice Viewer: a Web Application to Observe Near Real-Time Changes in Polar Ice Sheets and Glaciers with a Multi-Sensor Multi-Temporal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herried, B.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Howat, I. M.; Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (Risco)

    2011-12-01

    The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO) is an inter-organizational collaboration created to provide a systematic framework for gathering, processing, analyzing, and distributing consistent satellite imagery of polar ice sheet dynamics. With increased access to satellite imagery from a number of sources with a various licensing agreements, RISCO has gathered, processed, and served imagery from sensors at multiple spatial and temporal resolutions through time. Currently, sensors included in the data repository are LANDSAT, MODIS, ENVISAT, ASTER, SPOT, WorldView-01, WorldView-02, QuickBird-02, and, GeoEye-01. With the data, we observe glacial dynamics for polar regions and have developed an interactive web application to view and serve data. The RapidIce Viewer provides an interface to RISCO's satellite imagery repository, presenting it in an integrated, web-based application. Users can filter by date, sensor, and region to explore current or historical imagery. The application features options to download the processed satellite data as well as to view animated movies for specified date ranges and regions. It allows researchers to view ice sheet and glacial dynamics, statuses, trends, and events conveniently from a web browser.

  18. A Psychophysiological Study of Processing HIV/AIDS Public Service Announcements: The Effects of Novelty Appeals, Sexual Appeals, Narrative Versus Statistical Evidence, and Viewer's Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chen, Gina Masullo; Chock, T Makana; Wang, Yi; Ni, Liqiang; Schweisberger, Valarie

    2016-07-01

    This study used self-reports and physiological measures-heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL)-to examine the effects of novelty appeals, sexual appeals, narrative versus statistical evidence, and viewer's sex on cognitive and emotional processing of HIV/AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) among heterosexually active single college students. Novelty or sexual appeals differently affected self-reported attention and cognitive effort as measured by HR. High- rather than low-novelty HIV/AIDS PSAs, perceived as more attention-eliciting, did not lead to more cognitive effort. High- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs, not perceived as more attention-eliciting, led to more cognitive effort as reflected by greater HR deceleration. Novelty or sexual appeals also affected self-reported emotional arousal and SCL differently. HIV/AIDS PSAs with high rather than low levels of novelty or sexual appeals led to greater self-reported arousal, but not greater SCL. Message evidence interacted with message appeals to affect cognitive effort. Participants exerted greater cognitive effort during high- rather than low-novelty narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs, and during low- rather than high-novelty statistical ones. The advantage of high over low sexual appeals was more obvious in statistical than in narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs. Males reported greater emotional arousal than females during high- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs. PMID:26642917

  19. Choice Making Part I: How Children with Severe Disabilities Make Choices of Preference and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tubbergen, Marie; Omichinski, Donna; Warschausky, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Communication can be difficult for children with conditions such as cerebral palsy because of speech and physical impairments. For this group of children, choice-making is often limited to choices of personal preferences; however, preferences do not reveal intellectual abilities. Therefore, choice-making should be presented to these children in…

  20. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  1. Institutional Choice and Recognition in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    Abstract This thesis concerns the role of local institutions in fostering development including natural resource management, and how this role is shaped by relations with higher scale institutions such as development agencies and national governments. Specifically, it examines the choice of local...... objective of this thesis was to contribute to understanding processes and outcomes of institutional choice and recognition. It employed mixed methods but primarily semi structured interviews in multiple sites across Nepal. In responding to specific objectives, namely to better understand: i) the rationales...... behind choices of local institutional counterparts, ii) the belonging and citizenship available with local institutions, iii) the dynamics and mutuality of recognition between higher and lower scale institutions, and iv) the social outcomes of choice and recognition, this thesis shows that the way choice...

  2. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  3. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, L

    1986-11-01

    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  4. Brain microstructural correlates of visuospatial choice reaction time in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baaré, William F C; Skimminge, Arnold;

    2011-01-01

    in the corticospinal tracts and neostriatum. In a cohort of 75 typically-developing children aged 7 to 13years, mean 5-choice reaction times (RTs) were assessed. We hypothesised that children with faster choice RTs would show lower mean diffusivity (MD) in the corticospinal tracts and neostriatum and higher fractional......, and caudate. MD effects on RT were bilateral in the corticospinal tracts and putamen, whilst right caudate MD was more strongly related to performance than was left caudate MD. Our results suggest a link between motor performance variability in children and diffusivity in the motor system, which may...... be related to: individual differences in the phase of fibre tract and neostriatal maturation in children of similar age, individual differences in motor experience during childhood (i.e., use-dependent plasticity), and/or more stable individual differences in the architecture of the motor system....

  5. Lack of confidence in approximate Bayesian computation model choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christian P; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Marin, Jean-Michel; Pillai, Natesh S

    2011-09-13

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) have become an essential tool for the analysis of complex stochastic models. Grelaud et al. [(2009) Bayesian Anal 3:427-442] advocated the use of ABC for model choice in the specific case of Gibbs random fields, relying on an intermodel sufficiency property to show that the approximation was legitimate. We implemented ABC model choice in a wide range of phylogenetic models in the Do It Yourself-ABC (DIY-ABC) software [Cornuet et al. (2008) Bioinformatics 24:2713-2719]. We now present arguments as to why the theoretical arguments for ABC model choice are missing, because the algorithm involves an unknown loss of information induced by the use of insufficient summary statistics. The approximation error of the posterior probabilities of the models under comparison may thus be unrelated with the computational effort spent in running an ABC algorithm. We then conclude that additional empirical verifications of the performances of the ABC procedure as those available in DIY-ABC are necessary to conduct model choice. PMID:21876135

  6. Motivation and remuneration of human resources in the choice company

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVARCOVÁ, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of my work was performed the current state analysis of motivation and remuneration of human resources in the choice company and proposed the appropriated changes leading to superior firm prosperity. I choose the company XY Inc form my work. This company is carried business in processing industry and is settled in south Bohemia. In the firm I focused on motivation of employees, who work in workshop. Primary resource of information, needed to getting the basic finding about motivation a...

  7. Individual Differences, Aging, and IQ in Two-Choice Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in perfor...

  8. Choice of alkali element for DPAL scaling, a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Hua, Weihong; Xu, Xiaojun; Lu, Qisheng

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, from the efficiency point of view, a systematic comparison of Cesium, Rubidium and Potassium lasers is made. The different properties for the three types of lasers mainly arise from their energy structure, especially the difference of fine-structure energy gap. At a realistic pump intensity of several kW/cm2, the Cesium laser shows a best performance. Some other considerations for choice are also discussed.

  9. FeatureViewer, a BioJS component for visualization of position-based annotations in protein sequences [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2u2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Garcia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: FeatureViewer is a BioJS component that lays out, maps, orients, and renders position-based annotations for protein sequences. This component is highly flexible and customizable, allowing the presentation of annotations by rows, all centered, or distributed in non-overlapping tracks. It uses either lines or shapes for sites and rectangles for regions. The result is a powerful visualization tool that can be easily integrated into web applications as well as documents as it provides an export-to-image functionality. Availability: https://github.com/biojs/biojs/blob/master/src/main/javascript/Biojs.FeatureViewer.js; http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7719

  10. Do pregnant women and their partners make an informed choice about first trimester risk assessment for Down syndrome, and are they satisfied with the choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Louise; Tabor, Ann

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All pregnant women in Denmark are offered risk assessment for Down syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate whether women and partners make an informed choice about first trimester risk assessment, and their satisfaction with the choice. METHODS: A survey using multiple measure...... for Down syndrome, as many as 20% do not. At 30 weeks nearly all women and partners were satisfied to have had a risk assessment performed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  11. The effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A; Stephens, Richard; Jones, Kate; Owen, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    The effect of alcohol hangover on cognitive processing has received little attention. We explored the effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time (RT), a dominant dependent variable (DV) in cognitive research. Prior research of the effect of hangover on RT has produced mixed findings; all studies reviewed relied exclusively on estimates of central tendency (e.g. mean RT), which has limited information value. Here we present novel analytical methods by going beyond mean RT analysis. Specifically, we examined performance in hangover conditions (n=31) across the whole RT distribution by fitting ex-Gaussian models to participant data, providing a formal description of the RT distribution. This analysis showed detriments to performance under hangover conditions at the slower end of the RT distribution and increased RT variance under hangover conditions. We also fitted an explicit mathematical process model of choice RT - the diffusion model - which estimates parameters reflecting psychologically-meaningful processes underlying choice RT. This analysis showed that hangover reduced information processing efficiency during response selection, and increased response caution; changes in these parameters reflect hangover affecting core decisional-components of RT performance. The implications of the data as well as the methods used for hangover research are discussed. PMID:27166364

  12. Monoterpene effect on feeding choice by deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourc'h, Gwenaël; De Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Labbé, Alice; Rosolowski, Dimitri; Martin, Jean-Louis; Fritz, Hervé

    2002-12-01

    A previous study showed that Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) consumption was negatively correlated with monoterpene content in western redcedar (Thuja plicata). To test whether these monoterpenes were deterrent to Sitka black-tailed deer, we performed feeding choice experiments with four hydrocarbon (sabinene, myrcene, alpha-pinene, and d + l-limonene) and one oxygenated (alpha,beta-thujone) monoterpene solution at their highest natural concentration in western redcedar foliage. To test whether deer response was species specific, we ran similar experiments on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). In all experiments, monoterpenes were repellent. Solutions with alpha,beta-thujone, the major monoterpene in redcedar leaves, were the most repellent of the solutions tested. We then analyzed how black-tailed and roe deer responded to (1) an increase in concentration of the monoterpenes with the weakest repellent effects (hydrocarbon monoterpenes) and (2) a decrease in concentration of the monoterpene with strongest effect (alpha,beta-thujone). Repellency tended to increase with concentration for hydrocarbon monoterpenes, but remained strong for alpha,beta-thujone. As wild deer regularly feed on plants containing monoterpenes, this raises the question as to how the animals deal with these molecules. PMID:12564790

  13. Pro-choice: a new militancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S E

    1989-01-01

    Davis, a pro-choice advocate, describes the reactions of the abortion rights movement to the U.S. Supreme Court's opinion in the 1989 Webster v. Reproductive Health Services case. Viewing the decision that allows individual states to set some restrictions on abortion as a threat to women's reproductive rights, pro-choice advocates have responded "with a new sense of defiance and commitment." Davis describes the demonstrations, sit-ins, and coalitions that give evidence of the new activism of the pro-choice movement. PMID:2606658

  14. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  15. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    . The extended choice framework includes more behavioral richness through the explicit representation of the planning process preceding an action and its dynamics and the effects of context (family, friends, and market) on the process leading to a choice, as well as the inclusion of new types of subjective data...... in choice models. We discuss the key issues involved in applying the extended framework, focusing on richer data requirements, theories, and models, and present three partial demonstrations of the proposed framework. Future research challenges include the development of more comprehensive empirical tests...

  16. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality.

  17. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin

    2014-06-05

    The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.

  18. The Role of Marketing Mix Components in Destination Choices of Visitors and the Case of Dalyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ÖZER

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of the eight components of the marketing mix, as being product, price, distribution, promotion, person, partnership, program and package, upon choice of a destination.For this research purpose, data was collected by face-to-face interviews and survey from 260 foreign tourists visiting the region of Dalyan. First, the marketing mix components were classified according to their importance determined by the arithmetic averages. Then, multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether the marketing mix components had an effect on the destination choice. The analysis found that the variables of ‘product’ and ‘person’ had an effect on the Dalyan destination choice. This result shows that the ’product’ is an influencial factor, as expected, on the choice of the Dalyan destination, within the scope of ecotourism, visited by the tourists. In addition, ‘person’ is also important factor on the destination choice for the Dalyan region.

  19. Competitive Advantage, Strategic Choice and Performance Growth Model: Cross-case Study on China's High-tech Born Global Enterprises%企业竞争优势、战略选择与业绩增长模型——基于我国高科技天生全球化企业的跨案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴锐

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitive advantage,strategic choice and performance growth of Chings high-tech born global enterprises through the cross-case study,and points out that the main competitive advantage of these enterprises in the early stage of de- velopment shows in the following four aspects:technological innovation, network relationship, brand reputation and informatization. And these competitive advantages determine the competitive strategies of enterprises, namely differentiation and focus, which in business level shows as technology leadership,B2B marketing model, based-ODM brand model and various types of international approach. Enterprisers competitive strategy promotes its competitive advantage,and its growth performance is the result of its competitive advantage and competitive strategy to- gether.%针对我国高科技天生全球化企业的竞争优势、战略选择与业绩增长间的关系进行了跨案例研究。指出:此类企业在发展初期的竞争优势主要表现在技术创新、网络关系、品牌声誉和信息化四个方面;这些竞争优势决定了企业采取差异化和集聚两种竞争战略,在业务层面具体表现为技术领先、以B2B营销模式为主、以ODM品牌模式为主和采用多种类型的国际化方式;企业的竞争战略反过来促进其竞争优势的提升;业绩增长是竞争优势和竞争战略共同作用的结果。

  20. Refusing The Choice: Balancing Life and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Choice The intellect of man is forced to choose perfection of the life, or of the work, And if it take the second must refuse A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark. When all that story's finished, what's the news? In luck or out the toil has left its mark: That old perplexity an empty purse, Or the day's vanity, the night's remorse. William Butler Yeats William Yeats put forward The Choice that I feel too many scientists feel they must make. Too often, many choose to leave science. How do we refuse this choice and find balance between life and our careers? While I don't know the answer, I will share choices that have lead to not perfection but satisfaction in science careers and lives. The role of mentors, supportive spouses, the luck of the job, and flexibility in research directions have all contributed to being able to refuse to choose.

  1. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  2. Dynamic Choice Behavior in a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    the income that they bring to the game show. Allowing for this integration of income and game show prizes leads to choice behavior consistent with constant relative risk aversion. Third, we examine th e effects of allowing contestants to make choices characterized by non-standard decision models. We find...... linked to current choices. We have four major findings. First, we show that popular utility functions that assume constant relative or absolute risk aversion and expected utility theory defined over the prizes cannot characterize these choices, which exhibit increasing relative risk aversion over prizes...... ranging from a penny to nearly half a million U.S. dollars. Second, the argument of the utility function under expected utility theory reflects the integration of game show prizes with regular income. These decision makers do not segregate the income from the lotteries they face on the game show from...

  3. The Analysis of The Multiple Choice Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹吴惠

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes in detail the advantages, disadvantages and forming of the multiple choice item in examinations. On its basis, the author also exploree some aspects the teacher should pay attention to while setting an examination paper.

  4. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...... & Shugart (1995) are first tested using a fixed-effects model. The effect of the personal reputation of the candidates, measured by personal votes, on party choice is then tested using a multilevel multinomial logit model suggested by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (2008). The paper shows that both the electoral...... system and the personal reputation of local candidates have theoretically expected effects on party choice at local elections in Denmark. The methodology can be used for cross-national studies of multilevel effects on multi-party choice....

  5. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  6. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    by proposing and estimating a hybrid model that integrates latent variable and route choice models. Data contain information about latent variable indicators and chosen routes of travelers driving regularly from home to work in an urban network. Choice sets include alternative routes generated with a branch...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  7. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  8. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha)

    2004-03-01

    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  9. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)

    2003-01-01

    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  10. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  11. First experimental evidence for female mate choice in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craul, Mathias; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2004-10-01

    Female mate choice can be hypothesised in most nocturnal primates, since females show a higher investment in their offspring than males. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate if female grey mouse lemurs perform mate choice and whether age, relatedness (to the male), or male advertisement call activity systematically influence their decisions. A two-way mate choice design was developed in which females could choose between two males. Mate choice was deduced from the time spent in proximity to the males and from mating behaviour. During oestrus 12 of 17 females participated actively in the experiment and all of them showed either a significant spatial (n = 11) or behavioural (n = 1) preference for one male. In four cases copulations were observed. The influence of age on female mate choice was not statistically significant. In the cases with copulations, however, females mostly preferred the older male. This might indicate a preference for older age as an indicator of experience, fitness, and/or status. The influence of relatedness on female mate choice could not be definitely clarified. However, results imply a mechanism of kin recognition on the basis of familiarity. In the majority of choices, females preferred the male with higher trill call activity. Since trill call activity correlates with the relative dominance status of males, these results suggest an importance of the male dominance status for female mate choice in grey mouse lemurs. Altogether our findings indicate that females use a complex of different cues to choose their mates. PMID:15241637

  12. Multilinguals’ language choice for mental calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates self-reported language choice for mental calculations among 1,454 adult multilinguals from a variety of linguistic, social and ethnic backgrounds. As mental calculation is a complex cognitive operation involving both language-dependent and language independent processes, we sought to establish a baseline of first language (L1) or foreign language(s) (LX) use for mental calculation and identify the factors that influence multilinguals’ choice of...

  13. The National Interest, Westminster, and Public Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    There has been increasing scrutiny of government policy decisions and advice in recent years. The supremacy of the national interest has been questioned and self interest theories explored. Administrative systems have been reformed, and the role of the Westminster model of government decision-making endlessly reviewed. Increased interest by economists in the policy process has created a new subject area in economics, namely, public choice theory. It places greater emphasis on individual choic...

  14. Effects of mental accounting on intertemporal choices

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson Niklas; Gärling, Tommy; Selart, Marcus

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments with undergraduates as subjects were carried out with the aim of replicating and extending previous results showing that the implication of the behavioral life-cycle hypothesis (H. M. Shefrin & R. H. Thaler, 1988) that people classify assets in different mental accounts (current income, current assets, and future income) may explain how consumption choices are influenced by temporary income changes. In both experiments subjects made fictitious choices between paying for a goo...

  15. Choice Criteria of Cosmetics among Chinese Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...

  16. Choice of Aircraft Size - Explanations and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Givoni, Moshe; Rietveld, Piet

    2006-01-01

    To keep load factors high while offering high frequency service, airlines tend to reduce the size of the aircraft they use. At many of the world’s largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand for air transport is predicted to continue growing but aircraft size is not. This paper aims to investigate and explain this phenomenon, the choice of relatively small aircraft. It seems that this choice i...

  17. Transition choice probabilities and welfare in ARUM's

    OpenAIRE

    de Palma, André; Kilani, Karim

    2009-01-01

    We study the descriptive and the normative consequences of price and/or other attributes changes in additive random utility models. We first derive expressions for the transition choice probabilities associated to these changes. A closed-form formula is obtained for the logit. We then use these expressions to compute the cumulative distribution functions of the compensating variation conditional on ex-ante and/or ex-post choices. The unconditional distribution is also provided. The conditiona...

  18. Essays on Educational Choice and Intergenerational Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Nybom, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays. The first essay concerns educational choice and the returns to college in Sweden. I apply a recently introduced econometric framework that allows for self selection and treatment effect heterogeneity. I also examine the influence of cognitive and noncognitive ability on college choice and the returns to college. Essays two through four concern different aspects of intergenerational income mobility. In the second essay, we study the impact on...

  19. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  20. Choice and the relative immediacy of reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Roger; Fantino, Edmund

    1982-01-01

    The relative immediacy of reinforcement in concurrent-chain schedules was varied while the relative reduction in the overall average time to reinforcement associated with terminal-link entry was held constant. For each of four pigeons, choice did not vary with relative immediacy of reinforcement. Subsequently, choice by the same subjects was shown to be sensitive to relative reduction in average time to reinforcement.