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Sample records for chocolate milk consumption

  1. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk.

  3. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  4. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  5. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  6. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pmilk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (pmilk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  7. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  8. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  9. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli ...

  10. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155 Section 163.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable...

  11. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  12. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  13. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  14. What FDA Learned About Dark Chocolate and Milk Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dark Chocolate and Milk Allergies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... of the firm. Milk Detected in Individual Dark Chocolate Products Label/Package Statement Total number of dark ...

  15. Effects of chocolate milk consumption on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womack Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of chocolate milk (CM as a recovery beverage following a period of increased training duration (ITD was studied in intercollegiate soccer players. Methods 13 subjects completed one week of normal 'baseline' training followed by four days of ITD. After each day of ITD, subjects received either a high-carbohydrate (504 kcal; CHO: 122 g; 2 g Fat or isocaloric CM (504 kcal; 84 g CHO; 28 g Pro; 7 g Fat recovery beverage. Serum creatine kinase (CK, myoglobin (Mb, muscle soreness, fatigue ratings and isometric quadriceps force (MVC were obtained prior to ITD, and following 2- and 4-days of ITD. Performance tests (T-drill, vertical jump were performed within training sessions. Treatments were administered in a randomly counterbalanced protocol, and subjects repeated the procedures with the alternate beverage following a two-week washout period. Results Mean daily training time and HR increased (p -1 compared to CHO (431.6 ± 310.8 U·L-1. No treatment differences were observed for the performance tests. Conclusions Post-exercise CM provided similar muscle recovery responses to an isocaloric CHO beverage during four-days of ITD. Future studies should investigate if the attenuated CK levels observed with CM have functional significance during more demanding periods of training.

  16. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  17. Milk Options Observation (MOO): A Mixed-Methods Study of Chocolate Milk Removal on Beverage Consumption and Student/Staff Behaviors in a Rural Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M.; Spurlock, Margaret; Ramsey, Katrina; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    Providing flavored milk in school lunches is controversial, with conflicting evidence on its impact on nutritional intake versus added sugar consumption and excess weight gain. Nonindustry-sponsored studies using individual-level analyses are needed. Therefore, we conducted this mixed-methods study of flavored milk removal at a rural primary…

  18. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Orr, Jenna; Grear, Justine

    2014-03-01

    There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food and eating domain. We conducted two experiments that used a modified dot probe paradigm to train undergraduate women to direct their attention toward ("attend") or away from ("avoid") food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). In Experiment 1, attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the "attend" group, and decreased in the "avoid" group. Experiment 2 showed that these training effects generalized to novel, previously unseen chocolate pictures. Importantly, attentional retraining affected chocolate consumption and craving. In both experiments, participants in the "avoid" group ate less chocolate in a so-called taste test than did those in the "attend" group. In addition, in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1, the "attend" group reported stronger chocolate cravings following training, whereas the "avoid" group reported less intense cravings. The results support predictions of cognitive-motivational models of craving and consumption that attentional biases play a causal role in consumption behavior. Furthermore, they present a promising avenue for tackling unwanted food cravings and (over)eating. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  20. [Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Arbelaez, Edilbeto; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; López García, Esther

    2017-07-28

    There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.

  1. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  3. Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption--an attention bias modification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Field, Matt; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined experimentally whether a manipulated attention bias for food cues increases craving, chocolate intake and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. To test the effect of attention for food on subsequent chocolate intake, attention for chocolate was experimentally modified by instructing participants to look at chocolate stimuli ("attend chocolate" group) or at non-food stimuli ("attend shoes" group) during a novel attention bias modification task (antisaccade task). Chocolate consumption, changes in craving and search time for hidden chocolates were assessed. Eye-movement recordings were used to monitor the accuracy during the experimental attention modification task as possible moderator of effects. Regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of attention modification and modification accuracy on chocolate intake, craving and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. Results showed that participants with higher accuracy (+1 SD), ate more chocolate when they had to attend to chocolate and ate less chocolate when they had to attend to non-food stimuli. In contrast, for participants with lower accuracy (-1 SD), the results were exactly reversed. No effects of the experimental attention modification on craving or search time for hidden chocolates were found. We used chocolate as food stimuli so it remains unclear how our findings generalize to other types of food. These findings demonstrate further evidence for a link between attention for food and food intake, and provide an indication about the direction of this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chocolate milk as a post-exercise recovery aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason R; Johnston, Jeanne D; Tecklenburg, Sandra; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Fly, Alyce D; Stager, Joel M

    2006-02-01

    Nine male, endurance-trained cyclists performed an interval workout followed by 4 h of recovery, and a subsequent endurance trial to exhaustion at 70% VO2max, on three separate days. Immediately following the first exercise bout and 2 h of recovery, subjects drank isovolumic amounts of chocolate milk, fluid replacement drink (FR), or carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), in a single-blind, randomized design. Carbohydrate content was equivalent for chocolate milk and CR. Time to exhaustion (TTE), average heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and total work (WT) for the endurance exercise were compared between trials. TTE and WT were significantly greater for chocolate milk and FR trials compared to CR trial. The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.

  6. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  7. Oral processing of two milk chocolate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-da-Silva, Ana Margarida; Van Damme, Isabella; Taylor, Will; Hort, Joanne; Wolf, Bettina

    2013-02-26

    Oral processing of two milk chocolates, identical in composition and viscosity, was investigated to understand the textural behaviour. Previous studies had shown differences in mouthcoating and related attributes such as time of clearance from the oral cavity to be most discriminating between the samples. Properties of panellists' saliva, with regard to protein concentration and profile before and after eating the two chocolates, were included in the analysis but did not reveal any correlation with texture perception. The microstructure of the chocolate samples following oral processing, which resembled an emulsion as the chocolate phase inverts in-mouth, was clearly different and the sample that was found to be more mouthcoating appeared less flocculated after 20 chews. The differences in flocculation behaviour were mirrored in the volume based particle size distributions acquired with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The less mouthcoating and more flocculated sample showed a clear bimodal size distribution with peaks at around 40 and 500 μm, for 10 and 20 chews, compared to a smaller and then diminishing second peak for the other sample following 10 and 20 chews, respectively. The corresponding mean particle diameters after 20 chews were 184 ± 23 and 141 ± 10 μm for the less and more mouthcoating samples, respectively. Also, more of the mouthcoating sample had melted after both 10 and 20 chews (80 ± 8% compared to 72 ± 10% for 20 chews). Finally, the friction behaviour between a soft and hard surface (elastopolymer/steel) and at in-mouth temperature was investigated using a commercial tribology attachment on a rotational rheometer. Complex material behaviour was revealed. Observations included an unusual increase in friction coefficient at very low sliding speeds, initially overlapping for both samples, to a threefold higher value for the more mouthcoating sample. This was followed by a commonly observed decrease in friction coefficient with

  8. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of chocolate milk as a post-climbing recovery aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J; Fuller, B

    2015-12-01

    Recovery is essential to effective performance in climbing competitions which often involve repeated bouts, and sport climbing where climbers may work a route over a number of days prior to a complete ascent. This study employed a cross-over design to compare water with chocolate milk as recovery aids following an exhaustive bout of high intensity endurance climbing. Ten male climbers (age: 22±1 years; height: 178.5±7.9 cm; mass: 74.7±11.3 kg) climbed a Tredwall (Brewer Ledge M6) until volitional exhaustion. The participants consumed either water or chocolate milk 20 minutes after the climb and then again with their evening meal. The exercise protocol was repeated 24 hours after the original climb. The second condition was completed 7 days later. Workload indicators of heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and muscle soreness scores were recorded alongside climbing performance measures of duration and distance of the climb. A improved performance was found after the consumption of chocolate milk, with both a greater distance climbed (F(1,9)=11.704, P=0.008) and duration (F(1,9) =10.922, P=0.009), there were no differences in end of climb heart rate or RPE. Muscle soreness scores were lower three days after exercise following chocolate milk (t(8)=3.773, P=0.005). Chocolate milk as a recovery drink resulted in further sustained climbing, a decrease in muscle soreness, compared to water. It may be pertinent for climbers to consider its use as a recovery aid during repeated climbing bouts. Chocolate milk is a relatively unexplored recovery aid and warrants further attention.

  10. Chocolate consumption modulates cytokine production in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, S.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Jaeger, M.; Jansen, T.; Jacobs, L.; Miller-Tomaszewska, G.; Plantinga, T.S.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chocolate increases the incidence and severity of acne. Here we demonstrate that chocolate consumption primes human blood mononuclear cells from volunteers to release more interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-10 upon stimulation with Propionibacterium acne or

  11. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p training in the W condition but not in the CM condition. Salivary testosterone and SIgA responses were similar between treatments (p > 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss.

  13. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between chocolate consumption and fatness in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Castillo, Manuel J

    2014-02-01

    There is a substantial interest in the potential role of chocolate in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It has been recently reported that a higher frequency of chocolate intake is linked to lower body mass index (BMI) in adults. The aim of the present study was to determine if higher chocolate consumption also is associated with lower BMI, as well as other markers of total and central body fat, in adolescents. This study comprised 1458 adolescents (ages 12.5-17.5 y) participating in HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study). Dietary intake was self-registered using a computer-based tool for 24-h dietary recall on 2 non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Adiposity was estimated using skinfolds (Slaughter's equation) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Waist circumference was measured. Sexual maturation also was recorded. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower levels of total and central fatness, as estimated by BMI, body fat estimated from skinfolds and BIA, and waist circumference, regardless of potential confounders (P ≤ 0.01). Our results demonstrate that a higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower total and central fatness in European adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  16. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocolate hardness was examined using a piece of equipment called Texture Analyser, measuring the stress intensity which leads to chocolate crushing. Sensory analysis was performed using the point scoring method. The new manufacturing process, i.e. the manufacturing of chocolate in a ball mill improves sensory properties and hardness of milk chocolate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  17. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chia Meng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins, insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC, milk (MC, and white (WC chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93 between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  18. Phenolic and theobromine contents of commercial dark, milk and white chocolates on the Malaysian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cheng Chia; Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin

    2009-01-05

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  19. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  20. Effects of the amount of soy milk on thermorheological, thermal and textural properties of chocolate with soy milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a two-phase rheological system. The solid phase, consisting of non-fat cocoa particles, sugar and soy milk is wrapped in a fat phase - cocoa butter. Physical, thermal, textural and organoleptic properties of chocolate depend on the composition of the ingredients, manufacturing process and a properly conducted pre-crystallization phase. For this study, two chocolate masses were produced in a ball mill: one with 15% of soy milk powder (R1 and the other with 20% of soy milk powder (R2. The chocolate mass was produced at different milling times (30, 60 and 90 min, and pre-crystallization temperature (26, 28 and 30oC. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes caused by different amounts of soy milk powder on the quality of the chocolate. The quality of chocolate was evaluated by comparing the nutritional composition, hardness, thermorheological and thermal properties of the chocolate mass. The results show that chocolate mass R2, due to the presence of higher amounts of soy milk proteins, should be milled longer, and also needs lower temperatures for pre-crystallization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  1. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  2. Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Regular Consumption of a Flavanol-rich Chocolate can Improve Oxidant Stress in Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L. Keen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a diet rich in certain flavonoids, including the flavanol sub-class, has been associated with a reduced risk for vascular disease. We evaluated the effects of the regular consumption (14 d of a flavanol-containing milk chocolate (FCMC or cocoa butter chocolate (CBC on variables related to vascular disease risk, oxidative stress and physical activity. Twenty-eight free-living, young (18–20 years old male soccer players consumed daily 105 g of FCMC (168 mg of flavanols or CBC (<5 mg of flavanols, as part of their normal diet. The consumption of FCMC was significantly associated with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-5 mm Hg, mean blood pressure (-5 mm Hg, plasma cholesterol (-11%, LDL-cholesterol (-15%, malondialdehyde (-12%, urate (-11% and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (-11%, and an increase in vitamin E/cholesterol (+12%. No relevant changes in these variables were associated with CBC consumption. No changes in the plasma levels of (--epicatechin were observed following analysis of fasting blood samples. In conclusion, FCMC consumption was associated with changes in several variables often associated with cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results.

  4. Regular Consumption of a Flavanol-rich Chocolate can Improve Oxidant Stress in Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Cesar G.; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Ottaviani, Javier I.; Carrasquedo, Fernando; Lotito, Silvina B.; Lazarus, Sheryl; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a diet rich in certain flavonoids, including the flavanol sub-class, has been associated with a reduced risk for vascular disease. We evaluated the effects of the regular consumption (14 d) of a flavanol-containing milk chocolate (FCMC) or cocoa butter chocolate (CBC) on variables related to vascular disease risk, oxidative stress and physical activity. Twenty-eight free-living, young (18–20 years old) male soccer players consumed daily 105 g of FCMC (168 mg of flavanols) or CBC (flavanols), as part of their normal diet. The consumption of FCMC was significantly associated with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-5 mm Hg), mean blood pressure (-5 mm Hg), plasma cholesterol (-11%), LDL-cholesterol (-15%), malondialdehyde (-12%), urate (-11%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (-11%), and an increase in vitamin E/cholesterol (+12%). No relevant changes in these variables were associated with CBC consumption. No changes in the plasma levels of (-)-epicatechin were observed following analysis of fasting blood samples. In conclusion, FCMC consumption was associated with changes in several variables often associated with cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results. PMID:15712594

  5. Survival of Salmonella eastbourne and Salmonella typhimurium in milk chocolate prepared with artificially contaminated milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, S K; Beumer, R R; Kampelmacher, E H; van Leusden, F M

    1977-12-01

    Milk chocolate mass containing salmonellas was prepared by mixing artificially contaminated milk powder with the other ingredients at a temperature of about 40 degrees C. From this mass bars were made. Two series were prepared, with S. eastbourne and S. typhimurium respectively. The number of surviving salmonellas was counted after various periods of storage, up to 19 months. S. eastbourne was reduced in numbers during 19 months from an initial count of ca. 3 x 10(4) to ca. 3 x 10(2) per 100 g of chocolate. S. typhimurium died off more rapidly, and was not detectable in about 55 g after 15 months, in spite of an initial count of ca. 10(5) per 100 g.In these experiments the salmonellas in the milk powder had had to survive the spraying procedure and the adverse conditions in the dried powder. This may be the reason why S. eastbourne showed a distinctly better survival on storage than the same serotype showed in previous experiments in which the organism was added as a broth culture to the chocolate mix. With S. typhimurium, however, such a difference was hardly detectable.Possible explanations of these results are discussed.

  6. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hasni Dian; Rahmad Dedy

    2015-01-01

    Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%), milk po...

  7. Raw milk consumption and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  8. The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Noll, Sabrina W; Molokwu, Oluwatobi J

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30⁰C. Two types of chocolate were produced: chocolate with 20% of powdered cow’s milk (R1 and chocolate with 20% of soya milk powder (R2. The quality of chocolate was followed by comparing nutritive composition, 23 polyphenol content, hardness of chocolate, solid triglyceride content (SFC and rheological parameters (Casson yield flow (Pa, Casson viscosity (Pas, the area of the thixotropic loop, elastic modulus and creep curves. The aim of this paper is determining changes caused by replacing cow’s milk with soya milk powder in respect of nutritive, rheological and sensory properties, as well as defining optimal parameters: precrystallization temperature and refining time of soya milk chocolate in order to obtain suitable sensory and physical properties identical to those of milk chocolate mass. The results show that replacing powdered cow’s milk with soya milk powder affects the increase in nutritive value of soya milk chocolate. R2 chocolate mass showed the increase in essential amino acids and fatty acids. This chocolate mass also showed the increase in total polyphenols by 28.1% comparing to R1 chocolate mass. By comparing viscosity, yield stress, shear stress and the area of the thixotropic loop, it can be observed that R1 chocolate mass represents a more organized and simpler system than the mass with soya milk (R2, as it shows lower values for all the above mentioned parameters, regardless of the refining time and pre-crystallization temperature

  10. Risk of Salmonellosis Associated with Consumption of Chocolate in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torres-Vitela, Ma. Refugio; Escartin, Eduardo F; Castillo, Alejandro

    1995-01-01

    .... was investigated in retail wrapped and nonwrapped solid chocolate in Guadalajara, Mexico. Previously, the efficiency of preenrichment and enrichment methods to isolate low numbers of Salmonella in chocolate was compared...

  11. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (Pchocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  12. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-04-20

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose-response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82-0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (chocolate consumption and risk of HF ( p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88-0.97), 0.86 (0.78-0.94), 0.93 (0.85-1.03), and 1.07 (0.92-1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF.

  13. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  14. Chocolate consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: Two cohort studies and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in Swedish adults from two cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from cohort studies on this topic. Our study population comprised 40,009 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 32,486 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Incident AF cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. Published cohort studies of chocolate consumption in relation to risk of AF were identified by a PubMed search through September 14, 2017. During a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, AF was diagnosed in 9978 Swedish men and women. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio of AF for those in the highest category of chocolate consumption (≥3-4 servings/week) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04). In a random-effects meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, including 180,454 participants and 16,356 AF cases, the hazard ratios of AF were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) per 2 servings/week increase in chocolate consumption and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.03) for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption. Available data provide no evidence of an association of chocolate consumption with risk of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from an iron-fortified, chocolate-flavored milk drink in Jamaican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, L; Walczyk, T; Morris, A; Hurrell, R F

    1998-05-01

    The influence of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from an iron-fortified, chocolate-flavored milk drink (6.3 mg total Fe per serving) was evaluated with a stable-isotope technique in 20 6-7-y-old Jamaican children. Each child received two test meals labeled with 5.6 mg 57Fe and 3.0 mg 58Fe as ferrous sulfate on 2 consecutive days. Three different doses of ascorbic acid (0, 25, and 50 mg per 25-g serving) were evaluated in two separate studies by using a crossover design. Iron isotope ratios were measured by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry. In the first study, iron absorption was significantly greater (P ascorbic acid: geometric mean iron absorption was 1.6% (range: 0.9-4.2%) and 5.1% (2.2-17.3%) for the test meals containing 0 and 25 mg ascorbic acid, respectively. In the second study, a significant difference (P ascorbic acid content was increased from 25 to 50 mg: geometric mean iron absorption was 5.4% (range: 2.7-10.8%) compared with 7.7% (range: 4.7-16.5%), respectively. The chocolate drink contained relatively high amounts of polyphenolic compounds, phytic acid, and calcium, all well-known inhibitors of iron absorption. The low iron absorption without added ascorbic acid shows that chocolate milk is a poor vehicle for iron fortification unless sufficient amounts of an iron-absorption enhancer are added. Regular consumption of iron-fortified chocolate milk drinks containing added ascorbic acid could have a positive effect on iron nutrition in population groups vulnerable to iron deficiency.

  16. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.

  17. Acute Consumption of Flavan-3-ol-Enriched Dark Chocolate Affects Human Endogenous Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Philo, Mark; Colquhoun, Ian J; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; Kemsley, E Kate; de Roos, Baukje; Kroon, Paul A; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-07

    Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled crossover intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Plasma samples were assessed and showed differentiation between time points with no further separation among the three chocolate treatments. Multivariate statistics applied to urine samples could readily separate the postprandial time points and distinguish between the treatments. Most of the markers responsible for the multivariate discrimination between the chocolates were of dietary origin. Interestingly, small but significant level changes were also observed for a subset of endogenous metabolites. 1 H NMR revealed that flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and standard dark chocolate reduced urinary levels of creatinine, lactate, some amino acids, and related degradation products and increased the levels of pyruvate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, a phenolic compound of bacterial origin. This study demonstrates that an acute chocolate intervention can significantly affect human metabolism.

  18. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901

  19. Influence of temperature and fat content on ideal sucrose concentration, sweetening power, and sweetness equivalence of different sweeteners in chocolate milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, J A; Rodrigues, J B; Esmerino, E A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of new products catering to specific dietary needs and the corresponding changes in the consumer profile reflect a growing demand for diet and “light” products. However, little information is available regarding the sensory effects of different sweeteners in products consumed at different temperatures and with varying fat contents. In this regard, this study aimed to determine the influence of temperature and fat content on the ideal sucrose concentration and the sweetness equivalence and sweetening power of different sweeteners: Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL), aspartame, neosucralose, sucralose, and stevia (95% rebaudioside A), with sucrose as reference, in a chocolate milk beverage using a just-about-right (JAR) scale and magnitude estimation. Increasing temperature of consumption had an inverse effect on the ideal sucrose concentration in whole milk beverages, whereas no difference was noted in beverages made skim milk. In addition, a decrease in sweetening power was observed for all of the sweeteners analyzed considering the same conditions. The findings suggest that different optimal conditions exist for consumption of chocolate milk beverage related to sweetness perception, which depends on the fat level of milk used in the formulation. This information can be used by researchers and dairy processors when developing chocolate milk beverage formulations.

  20. Optimization of the Formulation of Prebiotic Milk Chocolate Based on Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannaneh Farzanmehr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties are very important parameters in the production of products with high-quality and desirable texture. So far, many attempts to produce low-calorie milk chocolate have not succeeded. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of sugar substitutes on rheological characteristics of prebiotic milk chocolate using Simplex-lattice mixture design. For doing this, a prebiotic compound (inulin with two bulking agents (polydextrose and maltodextrin at different levels (0–100 % along with sucralose were used. Fifteen formulations covering the entire range of a triangular simplex were examined in order to find the optimum levels. All chocolates showed thixotropic and shear thinning behaviour and among the evaluated mathematical models, Casson model showed the best fitting for predicting rheological properties. According to our findings, chocolate formulations containing high levels of sugar substitutes (where a single component predominated had higher moisture content, Casson viscosity and yield stress than others, including the control. In contrast, the lowest moisture content, Casson viscosity and yield stress were observed at medium levels. Therefore, the optimum values for substitution of sucrose and production of a low-calorie prebiotic milk chocolate are 8–28 % and 67–86 % for inulin, 0–19 % and 31–69 % for polydextrose and 0–47 % for maltodextrin, respectively.

  1. Optimization of Sugar Replacement with Date Syrup in Prebiotic Chocolate Milk Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate milk is one of the most commonly used non-fermentative dairy products, which, due to high level of sucrose, could lead to diabetes and tooth decay among children. Therefore, it is important to replace sucrose with other types of sweeteners, especially, natural ones. In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the ingredients formulation of prebiotic chocolate milk, date syrup as sweetener (4-10%w/w), inulin as prebiotic texturizer (0-0.5%w/w) and carrageenan as thickening agent (0-0.04%w/w) in the formulation of chocolate milk. The fitted models to predict the variables of selected responses such as pH, viscosity, total solid, sedimentation and overall acceptability of chocolate milk showed a high coefficient of determination. The independent effect of carrageenan was the most effective parameter which led to pH and sedimentation decrease but increased viscosity. Moreover, in most treatments, date syrup and inulin variables had significant effects which had a mutual impact. Optimization of the variables, based on the responses surface 3D plots showed that the sample containing 0.48% (w/w) of inulin, 0.04% (w/w) of carrageenan, and 10% of date syrup was selected as the optimum condition. PMID:28747831

  2. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  3. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  4. Consumption of chocolate in pregnant women and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preeclampsia, and have showed somewhat conflicting results. Methods/Design A systematic review of observational and experimental studies will be carried out. We will examine PubMed, Embase, and the entire Cochrane Library. Studies of chocolate consumption compared or not with placebo or low flavanol chocolate during pregnancy will be evaluated to investigate the effect of chocolate consumption in pregnant women on the risk of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by two reviewers in consultation with a third reviewer. Validity of the studies will be ascertained by using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Relative risk of preeclampsia will be the primary measure of treatment effect. Heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup analysis according to confounding factors and bias. Discussion This systematic review will contribute to establish the current state of knowledge concerning the possible association between chocolate consumption and prevention of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it will justify if additional experimental trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefits of chocolate consumption on the risk of preeclampsia. Trial registration This systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. The registration number is: CRD42013005338 PMID:24360219

  5. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians’ Health Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Andrew B; Sesso, Howard D; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with risk of DM. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is inversely associated with incident DM in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Design: We prospectively analyzed data on 18,235 PHS participants who were free of DM at baseline (1997–2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by a review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of DM. Results: The mean (±SD) age at baseline was 66.3 ± 9.2 y. During a mean follow up of 9.2 y, 1123 men (6.2%) developed DM. For self-reported chocolate consumption of none, 1–3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, and ≥2 servings/wk, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of DM adjusted for lifestyle, clinical, and dietary risk factors including total energy intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.93 (0.79, 1.09), 0.86 (0.72, 1.04), and 0.83 (0.69, 0.99), respectively (P-trend = 0.047). In secondary analyses, the inverse association of chocolate consumption and risk of DM was slightly stronger in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease or heart failure (P-trend = 0.023). In addition, both age and BMI modified the chocolate-DM relation (P chocolate intake with incident DM, which appears only to apply in younger and normal–body weight men after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption. PMID:25646334

  6. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Petrone, Andrew B; Sesso, Howard D; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with risk of DM. We tested the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is inversely associated with incident DM in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS). We prospectively analyzed data on 18,235 PHS participants who were free of DM at baseline (1997-2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by a review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of DM. The mean (±SD) age at baseline was 66.3 ± 9.2 y. During a mean follow up of 9.2 y, 1123 men (6.2%) developed DM. For self-reported chocolate consumption of none, 1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, and ≥2 servings/wk, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of DM adjusted for lifestyle, clinical, and dietary risk factors including total energy intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.93 (0.79, 1.09), 0.86 (0.72, 1.04), and 0.83 (0.69, 0.99), respectively (P-trend = 0.047). In secondary analyses, the inverse association of chocolate consumption and risk of DM was slightly stronger in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease or heart failure (P-trend = 0.023). In addition, both age and BMI modified the chocolate-DM relation (P chocolate intake with incident DM, which appears only to apply in younger and normal-body weight men after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Chocolate consumption and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Gigante, Bruna; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease, we used data from a prospective study of Swedish adults and we performed a meta-analysis of available prospective data. The Swedish prospective study included 67 640 women and men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort who had completed a food-frequency questionnaire and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Myocardial infarction (MI) cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from inception until 4 February 2016 to identify prospective studies on chocolate consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease. The results from eligible studies were combined using a random-effects model. During follow-up (1998-2010), 4417 MI cases were ascertained in the Swedish study. Chocolate consumption was inversely associated with MI risk. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable relative risk for those who consumed ≥3-4 servings/week of chocolate was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; p for trend =0.04). Five prospective studies on chocolate consumption and ischaemic heart disease were identified. Together with the Swedish study, the meta-analysis included six studies with a total of 6851 ischaemic heart disease cases. The overall relative risk for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97), with little heterogeneity among studies (I(2)=24.3%). Chocolate consumption is associated with lower risk of MI and ischaemic heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Pre-enrichment broths for recovery of Salmonella from milk chocolate and edible casein: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelma, P L; Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R

    1981-07-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to compare the relative efficiency of nonfat dry milk with brilliant green dye (NFDM-BG and buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broths for recovery of Salmonella from milk chocolate. Lactose broth and modified lactose broth with added 1% NaHCO3 and brilliant green dye were compared as pre-enrichment broths for recovery of Salmonella from edible casein. Two sets of 8 samples each of milk chocolate, containing initial levels of Salmonella ranging from less than 0.03 to 43 organisms/g, were examined by 13 collaborators. Of 104 determinations, 102 (98.1%) and 100 (96.2%) using NFDM-BG and BPW, respectively, were in agreement with sample results of the control laboratory. Two sets of 7 samples each of edible casein, containing initial levels of Salmonella ranging from less than 0.03 to 93 organisms/g, were also examined by the 13 collaborators. Of 91 determinations, 87 (95.6%) and 88 (96.7%) using lactose broth and modified lactose broth, respectively, were in agreement with sample results of the control laboratory. For recovery of Salmonella, therefore, NFDM-BG pre-enrichment is recommended for milk chocolate, and lactose broth is recommended for casein. The proposed revision of official final action method 46.054-46.067 has been adopted official first action.

  9. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about

  12. Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. Methods We studied in a cross-sectional design 4,970 participants aged 25 to 93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR=1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. Conclusions These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general population. PMID:20858571

  13. Influence of emulsifiers on the optimization of processing parameters of refining milk chocolate in the ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate manufacture is a complex process which includes a large number of technology operations. One of the obligatory phases is milling, called refining, which aims at obtaining the appropriate distribution of particle size, resulting in the chocolate with optimal physical and sensory characteristics. The aim of this work was to define and optimize the process parameters for the production of milk chocolate by a non-conventional procedure, using the ball mill. The quality of chocolate mass, produced on this way, is determined by measuring the following parameters: moisture, size of the largest cocoa particle, yield flow, and Casson plastic viscosity. A special consideration of this study is the optimization of the types and amounts of emulsifiers, which are responsible for achieving the appropriate rheological and physical characteristics of the chocolate mass. The obtained parameters are compared with those which are typical for the standard procedure.

  14. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  15. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, D.; Mars, M.; Oosterink, E.; Stalmach, A.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We

  16. Cycling Time Trial Performance 4 Hours After Glycogen-Lowering Exercise Is Similarly Enhanced by Recovery Nondairy Chocolate Beverages Versus Chocolate Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Adam U; Wong, Tiffany S; Bandegan, Arash; Lemon, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Postexercise chocolate milk ingestion has been shown to enhance both glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance. To assess whether nondairy chocolate beverage ingestion post-glycogen-lowering exercise can enhance 20-km cycling time trial performance 4 hr later, eight healthy trained male cyclists (21.8 ± 2.3y, VO2max = 61.2 ± 1.4 ml·kg-1·min-1; M ± SD) completed a series of intense cycling intervals designed to lower muscle glycogen (Jentjens & Jeukendrup, 2003) followed by 4 hr of recovery and a subsequent 20-km cycling time trial. During the first 2 hr of recovery, participants ingested chocolate dairy milk (DAIRYCHOC), chocolate soy beverage (SOYCHOC), chocolate hemp beverage (HEMPCHOC), low-fat dairy milk (MILK), or a low-energy artificially sweetened, flavored beverage (PLACEBO) at 30-min intervals in a double-blind, counterbalanced repeated-measures design. All drinks, except the PLACEBO (247 kJ) were isoenergetic (2,107 kJ), and all chocolate-flavored drinks provided 1-g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1. Fluid intake across treatments was equalized (2,262 ± 148 ml) by ingesting appropriate quantities of water based on drink intake. The CHO:PRO ratio was 4:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, and 6:1 for DAIRYCHOC, MILK, SOYCHOC, and HEMPCHOC, respectively. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed time trial performance (DAIRYCHOC = 34.58 ± 2.5 min, SOYCHOC = 34.83 ± 2.2 min, HEMPCHOC = 34.88 ± 1.1 min, MILK = 34.47 ± 1.7 min) was enhanced similarly vs PLACEBO (37.85 ± 2.1) for all treatments (p = .019) These data suggest that postexercise macronutrient and total energy intake are more important for same-day 20-km cycling time trial performance after glycogen-lowering exercise than protein type or protein-to-carbohydrate ratio.

  17. Habitual chocolate consumption and the risk of incident heart failure among healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C S; Loke, Y K; Welch, A A; Luben, R N; Lentjes, M A H; Boekholdt, S M; Pfister, R; Mamas, M A; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Myint, P K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of incident heart failure in a UK general population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this association. We used data from a prospective population-based study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Chocolate intake was quantified based on a food frequency questionnaire obtained at baseline (1993-1997) and incident heart failure was ascertained up to March 2009. We supplemented the primary data with a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which evaluated risk of incident heart failure with chocolate consumption. A total of 20,922 participants (53% women; mean age 58 ± 9 years) were included of whom 1101 developed heart failure during the follow up (mean 12.5 ± 2.7 years, total person years 262,291 years). After adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors, we found 19% relative reduction in heart failure incidence in the top (up to 100 g/d) compared to the bottom quintile of chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-0.98) but the results were no longer significant after controlling for comorbidities (HR 0.87 95%CI 0.71-1.06). Additional adjustment for potential mediators did not attenuate the results further. We identified five relevant studies including the current study (N = 75,408). The pooled results showed non-significant 19% relative risk reduction of heart failure incidence with higher chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-1.01). Our results suggest that higher chocolate intake is not associated with subsequent incident heart failure. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Habitual Chocolate Consumption May Increase Body Weight in a Dose-Response Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Buijsse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Habitual chocolate intake was recently found to be associated with lower body weight in three cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Our objective was to assess whether these cross-sectional results hold up in a more rigorous prospective analysis. Methods We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Usual dietary intake was assessed by questionnaire at baseline (1987–98), and after six years. Participants reported usual chocolate intake as the frequency of eating a 1-oz (∼28 g) serving. Body weight and height were measured at the two visits. Missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate cross-sectional and prospective associations between chocolate intake and adiposity. Results Data were from 15,732 and 12,830 participants at the first and second visit, respectively. More frequent chocolate consumption was associated with a significantly greater prospective weight gain over time, in a dose-response manner. For instance, compared to participants who ate a chocolate serving less often than monthly, those who ate it 1–4 times a month and at least weekly experienced an increase in Body Mass Index (kg/m2) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08, 0.44) and 0.39 (0.23, 0.55), respectively, during the six-year study period. In cross-sectional analyses the frequency of chocolate consumption was inversely associated with body weight. This inverse association was attenuated after excluding participants with preexisting obesity-related illness. Compared to participants without such illness, those with it had higher BMI and reported less frequent chocolate intake, lower caloric intake, and diets richer in fruits and vegetables. They tended to make these dietary changes after becoming ill. Conclusions Our prospective analysis found that a chocolate habit was associated with long-term weight gain, in a dose-response manner. Our cross-sectional finding that chocolate intake was associated with lower body

  19. Chocolate Consumption is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Afonso; Diógenes, Maria José; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Lunet, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2016-05-06

    Cocoa-related products like chocolate have taken an important place in our food habits and culture. In this work, we aim to examine the relationship between chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in an elderly cognitively healthy population. In the present longitudinal prospective study, a cohort of 531 participants aged 65 and over with normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; median 28) was selected. The median follow-up was 48 months. Dietary habits were evaluated at baseline. The MMSE was used to assess global cognitive function at baseline and at follow-up. Cognitive decline was defined by a decrease ≥ 2 points in the MMSE score between evaluations. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) estimates were adjusted for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. Chocolate intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.38-0.92). This protective effect was observed only among subjects with an average daily consumption of caffeine lower than 75 mg (69% of the participants; RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.82). To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to show an inverse association between regular long-term chocolate consumption and cognitive decline in humans.

  20. A new food frequency questionnaire to assess chocolate and cocoa consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Filipa; Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Rabanal, Manel; Rodríguez-Lagunas, María J; Pereira, Paula; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa has been highlighted as a food with potential benefits to human health because of its polyphenol content. However, few studies show the contribution of cocoa and chocolate products in polyphenol intake. The aim of this work was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluating the intake of food products containing cocoa (C-FFQ). A sample of 50 university students was recruited to complete the 90-item questionnaire, a validated questionnaire (called here European Food Safety Authority [EFSA]-Q) as well as a 24-hour dietary recall (24 HDR). Spearman correlation test, Bland-Altman plots, and quintile classification analysis were conducted together with the Wilcoxon test and descriptive statistics. Significant correlations between the C-FFQ and the EFSA-Q for the most common cocoa/chocolate products were observed (P chocolate products frequently consumed by the participants were detected by the C-FFQ and 24 HDR which were not included in the EFSA-Q. According to the C-FFQ, chocolate bars were the main source of cocoa in university students, but dairy products also provided an important amount of cocoa. The developed C-FFQ questionnaire can be considered as a valid option for assessing the consumption frequency of cocoa/chocolate-derived products, thereby allowing the evaluation of cocoa polyphenol intake in further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Raw Milk Consumption: Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, John A

    2015-07-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of "good" bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any "protective" effect.

  2. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2014-02-01

    The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.

  3. Can farm milk consumption prevent allergic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Fahrländer, C; von Mutius, E

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is an important part of human diet and a source of food allergy for some individuals. Medical guidance strongly discourages consumption of raw milk because of the known health risk associated with pathogenic bacteria present in unpasteurized milk. Despite these risks there is a growing body of epidemiological evidence suggesting that consumption of unprocessed cow's milk does not increase but rather decreases the risk of asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitisation. The article reviews the epidemiological literature and discusses components of unprocessed milk potentially responsible for this protection. It focuses on the role of bacteria in raw milk, the fatty acid profile, whey proteins and finally the role of allergens in milk. Although the epidemiological evidence consistently suggest a protective role of unprocessed cow's milk consumption on the development of asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitization the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood and the consumption of raw milk cannot be recommended as a preventive measure for allergic diseases. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effect of Inulin and Stevia on Some Physical Properties of Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni Rad, Aziz; Delshadian, Zohre; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafi; Alipour, Beitollah; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess physical properties of dietetic chocolate milk produced by stevia as a sugar replacer and inulin. Along with having prebiotic effect, inulin can also participate in enhancing textural properties of beverages. Therefore, this novel food will be useful for all people especially for diabetics. Methods: This study was carried out in Quality Control Laboratory of Food Science and Technology Department, Health and Nutrition Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Science, during 2011-2012. The assay was performed on nine treatments with three replications. Sugar was substituted with stevia in two proportions of sucrose to stevia; 50:50 and 0:100. Inulin, in four levels of 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%, was added to the treatments of 50% and 100% stevia. The control sample contained no stevia and no inulin, such as commercial ones. Precipitation amount and viscosity were measured 24 hours after production. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA, at the significant level of 0.05, using SPSS software ver. 17. Results: Sugar replacement with stevia caused significant increase in precipitation and significant decrease in viscosity (Pstevia and 6% inulin revealed a viscosity with a non-significant difference with the control (P>0.05). The sample containing 50% stevia and 6% inulin had the lowest precipitation while having a non-significantly difference with the control. Conclusion A thickener agent, such as inulin, should be used in the chocolate milk sweetened by stevia to improve physical properties of the product. PMID:24688916

  5. Can chocolate consumption reduce cardio-cerebrovascular risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfredi, Vincenza; Salvatori, Tania; Nucci, Daniele; Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo

    2018-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed to assess the relationship between chocolate intake and cardio-cerebrovascular risk in the general population. A structured search of the literature was performed in the PubMed database up to September 26, 2016, using predetermined keywords. Epidemiologic studies evaluating the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs; i.e., stroke, acute myocardial infarction [MI], heart failure, coronary heart disease) were included according to different rates of chocolate intake. The software ProMeta 3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. The systematic review identified 16 eligible studies. The majority of the studies showed a protective effect of chocolate intake compared with unexposed individuals. The overall risk ratio (effect size [ES]) of CVD for the highest versus the lowest category of chocolate consumption was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.84; P = 0.000) with a moderate heterogeneity. The risk related to subgroups of CVD and in particular, the risk for MI was further analyzed: ES = 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.94; P = 0.009) without statistical heterogeneity (I 2  = 46.56%; P = 0.13). Moreover, the analysis performed based on sex found an ES = 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003) for women, with a very low grade of heterogeneity (I 2  = 62.21%; P = 0.005). The results of the meta-analysis showed a potential protective effect of moderate consumption of chocolate on cardiovascular risk, especially for women, and against MI for both sexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niara da Silva Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  7. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  8. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  9. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng; Li, Xia; Jin, Yalei; Lu, Jinping

    2017-07-02

    Although epidemiological studies have examined the role of chocolate in preventing cardiometabolic disease, the results remain inconsistent. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the association between chocolate intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes. A systematical search in PubMed and Embase through March 2017, together with reference scrutiny of relevant literatures, was performed to identify eligible studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effect models. Fourteen prospective studies of primary prevention with 508,705 participants were finally included, with follow-up durations ranging from 5 to 16 years. The summary RRs for the highest versus lowest chocolate consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82-0.97; n = 6) for CHD, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.90; n = 7) for stroke, and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.96; n = 5) for diabetes. Dose-response meta-analysis suggested a nonlinear association of chocolate consumption with all outcomes. For both CHD and stroke, there was little additional risk reduction when consuming chocolate ≥3 servings/week (one serving was defined as 30 g of chocolate). For diabetes, the peak protective effect of chocolate emerged at 2 servings/week (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.89), with no benefit observed when increasing consumption above 6 servings/week. In conclusion, chocolate intake is associated with decreased risks of CHD, stroke, and diabetes. Consuming chocolate in moderation (≤6 servings/week) may be optimal for preventing these disorders.

  10. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Inulin and Stevia on Some Physical Properties of Chocolate Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess physical properties of dietetic chocolate milkproduced by stevia as a sugar replacer and inulin. Along with having prebiotic effect, inulin canalso participate in enhancing textural properties of beverages. Therefore, this novel food will beuseful for all people especially for diabetics.Methods: This study was carried out in Quality Control Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyDepartment, Health and Nutrition Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Science, during2011-2012. The assay was performed on nine treatments with three replications. Sugar was substitutedwith stevia in two proportions of sucrose to stevia; 50:50 and 0:100. Inulin, in four levelsof 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%, was added to the treatments of 50% and 100% stevia. The control samplecontained no stevia and no inulin, such as commercial ones. Precipitation amount and viscositywere measured 24 hours after production. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA, at the significantlevel of 0.05, using SPSS software ver. 17.Results: Sugar replacement with stevia caused significant increase in precipitation and significantdecrease in viscosity (P0.05. The sample containing50% stevia and 6% inulin had the lowest precipitation while having a non-significantlydifference with the control.Conclusion: A thickener agent, such as inulin, should be used in the chocolate milk sweetenedby stevia to improve physical properties of the product.

  12. A Comparison between Chocolate Milk and a Raw Milk Honey Solution’s Influence on Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hatchett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought to examine the effect that a chocolate milk solution (CMS and a raw milk solution (RMS had on lower extremity induced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS. Twenty trained male participants completed a set of questionnaires, prior to completing a lower extremity DOMS protocol, to determine the level of discomfort and functional limitations. Once the DOMS protocol was completed, participants were randomly assigned to either the CM or RM group. Once assigned, participants ingested 240 mL of the respective solution and completed the same set of questionnaires immediately post, 24-, 48- and 72-h post DOMS protocol. Additionally, for 10 days post-ingestion participants were contacted to learn if any negative effects were experienced as a result of ingesting either solution. Both groups reported an increase in lower extremity discomfort at each data collection interval post-DOMS protocol (post, 24-, 48- and 72-h. Participants assigned to the RM group reported high discomfort post and a relative decline in discomfort from immediately post-DOMS protocol to 72-h post. The RMS group reported substantially less discomfort at 72-h when compared to the CMS group. Ingestion of a raw milk solution immediately post strength exercise can substantially reduce the level of self-reported discomfort associated with DOMS.

  13. Association between noncow milk beverage consumption and childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Marie-Elssa; Birken, Catherine S; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; L'Abbé, Mary; Lee, Grace J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-08-01

    Background: Cow milk consumption in childhood has been associated with increased height, which is an important measure of children's growth and development. Many parents are choosing noncow milk beverages such as soy and almond milk because of perceived health benefits. However, noncow milk contains less protein and fat than cow milk and may not have the same effect on height.Objective: We sought to determine whether there is an association between noncow milk consumption and lower height in childhood and assess whether cow milk consumption mediates the relation between noncow milk consumption and height.Design: This was a cross-sectional study of 5034 healthy Canadian children aged 24-72 mo enrolled in the Applied Research Group for Kids cohort. The primary exposure was the volume of noncow milk consumption (number of 250-mL cups per day). The primary outcome was height, which was measured as height-for-age z score. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between noncow milk consumption and height. A mediation analysis was conducted to explore whether cow milk consumption mediated the association between noncow milk consumption and height.Results: There was a dose-dependent association between higher noncow milk consumption and lower height (P < 0.0001). For each daily cup of noncow milk consumed, children were 0.4 cm (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 cm) shorter. In the mediation analysis, lower cow milk consumption only partially mediated the association between noncow milk consumption and lower height. The height difference for a child aged 3 y consuming 3 cups noncow milk/d relative to 3 cups cow milk/d was 1.5 cm (95% CI: 0.8, 2.0 cm).Conclusions: Noncow milk consumption was associated with lower childhood height. Future research is needed to understand the causal relations between noncow milk consumption and height. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. The Impact of Chocolate Goat's and Cow's Milk on Postresistance Exercise Endocrine Responses and Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, David; LeBlanc, Nina R; Murphy, Kellie; Moody, Kaitlyn M; Buquet, Gina

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of chocolate cow's and goat's milk on endocrine responses and isometric mid-thigh pull performance post back squat exercise. Twelve college-aged males volunteered to participate and reported to the lab on four occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurement, one-repetition back squat (1RM), and familiarization with the isometric mid-thigh pull assessment (IMTP). During the subsequent three visits, five sets of eight repetitions of the back squat exercise at 80% of 1RM were performed. For these trials, the participants performed an IMTP and gave a saliva sample prior to, immediately after, 1 hr and 2 hr post exercise. After exercise, a treatment of low-fat chocolate goat's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), low-fat chocolate cow's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), or control (water 355 ml, 0 kcal) was given in a counterbalanced order. Saliva samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Cortisol and DHEA hormone were unaffected by exercise; however, testosterone values did increase significantly post exercise. For IMTP, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 8.41, p = .007) but no treatment or interactions effects. N changes were noted post supplementation for cortisol or DHEA, but testosterone was found to be significantly reduced in both diary treatments compared to control (F = 4.27, p = .022). Based upon these data, it appears that a single treatment of chocolate goat's or cow's milk results in similar endocrine alterations but both fail to enhance postexercise isometric strength following resistance exercise.

  15. Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary Arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Pankow, James S.; Borecki, Ingrid; North, Kari E.; Ellison, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims While a diet rich in anti-oxidant has been favorably associated with coronary disease and hypertension, limited data have evaluated the influence of such diet on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether chocolate consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries (CAC). Methods In a cross-sectional design, we studied 2,217 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and CAC was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC. Results There was an inverse association between frequency of chocolate consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.94 (0.66-1.35), 0.78 (0.53-1.13), and 0.68 (0.48-0.97) for chocolate consumption of 0, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.022), adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, waist-hip ratio, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, ratio of total-to-HDL-cholesterol, non-chocolate candy, and diabetes mellitus. Controlling for additional confounders did not alter the findings. Exclusion of subjects with coronary heart disease or diabetes mellitus did not materially change the odds ratio estimates but did modestly decrease the overall significance (p = 0.07). Conclusions These data suggest that chocolate consumption might be inversely associated with prevalent CAC. PMID:20655129

  16. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Chocolate consumption may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is still limited. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women in a large population-based cohort. A total of 38,182 men and 46,415 women aged 44-76 years, and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline in 1995 and 1998, were followed up until the end of 2009 and 2010, respectively. We obtained data on chocolate consumption for each participant using a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire that included 138 food and beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in relation to chocolate consumption. During a median follow-up of 12.9 years, we identified 3558 incident strokes cases (2146 cerebral infarctions and 1396 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjustment for age, body mass index, life styles, dietary intakes, and other risk factors, chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). However, the association in men was not significant (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.10). In addition, the association did not vary by stroke subtypes in either men or women. Findings from this large Japanese cohort supported a significant inverse association between chocolate consumption and risk of developing stroke in women. However, residual confounding could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  18. Cyclic Voltammetric Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Cocoa Powder, Dark Chocolate and Milk Chocolate Samples: Correlation with Spectrophotometric Assays and Individual Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra N. Pavlović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic antioxidants in cocoa powder, dark chocolate and milk chocolate samples are quantified electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry with a glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded from 0 to 800 mV at a scan rate of 100 mV/s. Phenolics with an ortho-diphenol group show the first oxidation peak in the potential range between 370 and 460 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl in 0.1 mol/L of the acetate buffer, pH=4. The first and third anodic current peaks, close to 670 mV, can be ascribed to the first and second oxidation of the catechin-type flavonoids that are present at a high concentration in samples. The second peak at around 560 mV can be ascribed to phenolic acids. Procyanidins B1, B2, B3 and B4 did not have any visible waves. Strong positive correlation was established between antioxidant activities deduced from cyclic voltammograms with those determined using spectrophotometric assays. HPLC method was used for the quantification of individual phenolic compounds.

  19. Metabolic effects of dark chocolate consumption on energy, gut microbiota, and stress-related metabolism in free-living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Rezzi, Serge; Peré-Trepat, Emma; Kamlage, Beate; Collino, Sebastiano; Leibold, Edgar; Kastler, Jürgen; Rein, Dietrich; Fay, Laurent B; Kochhar, Sunil

    2009-12-01

    Dietary preferences influence basal human metabolism and gut microbiome activity that in turn may have long-term health consequences. The present study reports the metabolic responses of free living subjects to a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate for up to 14 days. A clinical trial was performed on a population of 30 human subjects, who were classified in low and high anxiety traits using validated psychological questionnaires. Biological fluids (urine and blood plasma) were collected during 3 test days at the beginning, midtime and at the end of a 2 week study. NMR and MS-based metabonomics were employed to study global changes in metabolism due to the chocolate consumption. Human subjects with higher anxiety trait showed a distinct metabolic profile indicative of a different energy homeostasis (lactate, citrate, succinate, trans-aconitate, urea, proline), hormonal metabolism (adrenaline, DOPA, 3-methoxy-tyrosine) and gut microbial activity (methylamines, p-cresol sulfate, hippurate). Dark chocolate reduced the urinary excretion of the stress hormone cortisol and catecholamines and partially normalized stress-related differences in energy metabolism (glycine, citrate, trans-aconitate, proline, beta-alanine) and gut microbial activities (hippurate and p-cresol sulfate). The study provides strong evidence that a daily consumption of 40 g of dark chocolate during a period of 2 weeks is sufficient to modify the metabolism of free living and healthy human subjects, as per variation of both host and gut microbial metabolism.

  20. Theory of Reasoned Action predicts milk consumption in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J L; Blake, A J; Rankin, S A; Douglass, L W

    1999-01-01

    To determine the factors influencing the consumption or avoidance of milk in women. One hundred women completed food frequency questionnaires and a milk attitudes questionnaire framed within the Theory of Reasoned Action and performed sensory evaluations of different milk samples. Differences among milk types were assessed using 2-way analysis of variance and least-significant-difference mean comparison procedures. Correlation and multiple regression analyses, and standardized partial regression coefficients, were used to determine the contribution of each component of the model in predicting behavior. Mean age of the 100 subjects was 39 years (range = 20-70 years). Milk consumption among subjects was low; 23 subjects indicated that they seldom or never drank milk. Data from the dairy frequency questionnaire showed that the primary milk for 42%, 36%, 27%, and 18% of the milk drinkers was skim, 2%, 1%, and whole, respectively (subjects could indicate more than 1 type of milk consumed). The Theory of Reasoned Action indicated that health and familiarity belief items were most associated with attitudes toward milk consumption. Skim milk had significantly lower scores for taste and texture belief items than 1%, 2%, and whole milk (P reasons other than beliefs about taste and texture or actual sensory preference. This study identifies important factors contributing to milk consumption such as beliefs, attitudes, and sensory evaluation, which can be used to develop a specific framework in which to examine other components of milk consumption behavior.

  1. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Bujold, Emmanuel; Lemieux, Simone; Bourdages, Mélodie; Blanchet, Claudine; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Noël, Martin; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-04-08

    Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that flavanol-rich chocolate has beneficial effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP). However, no RCTs have evaluated these outcomes in pregnant women. The objective of this 2-group, parallel, double-blind RCT was to examine the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate on FMD and BP in pregnant women with normal BP. Forty-four healthy, pregnant women were randomized to the high-flavanol (n = 23) or low-flavanol (n = 21) chocolate consumption for 12 weeks. At randomization (0, 60, 120 and 180 min after a single 40-g dose of chocolate), 6 and 12 weeks after daily 20-g chocolate intake, we evaluated plasma concentrations of flavanols and theobromine, as well as the FMD and BP. Plasma epicatechin was significantly increased (p flavanol chocolate compared to low-flavanol chocolate. Theobromine concentrations were significantly higher 180 min and 12 weeks after the intake of experimental chocolate or low-flavanol chocolate (p flavanol-rich chocolate to an equivalent placebo during pregnancy and demonstrate higher plasma epicatechin and theobromine concentration in the intervention group after acute ingestion ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01659060.

  2. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that flavanol-rich chocolate has beneficial effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP). However, no RCTs have evaluated these outcomes in pregnant women. The objective of this 2-group, parallel, double-blind RCT was to examine the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate on FMD and BP in pregnant women with normal BP. Methods Forty-four healthy, pregnant women were randomized to the high-flavanol (n = 23) or low-flavanol (n = 21) chocolate consumption for 12 weeks. At randomization (0, 60, 120 and 180 min after a single 40-g dose of chocolate), 6 and 12 weeks after daily 20-g chocolate intake, we evaluated plasma concentrations of flavanols and theobromine, as well as the FMD and BP. Results Plasma epicatechin was significantly increased (p chocolate compared to low-flavanol chocolate. Theobromine concentrations were significantly higher 180 min and 12 weeks after the intake of experimental chocolate or low-flavanol chocolate (p chocolate to an equivalent placebo during pregnancy and demonstrate higher plasma epicatechin and theobromine concentration in the intervention group after acute ingestion Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01659060 PMID:23565841

  3. A comparison of commercially available peanut ELISA test kits on the analysis of samples of dark and milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffre; Krout, Earl R; Burks, Wesley R

    2002-01-01

    Reactions to peanut proteins by certain sensitive members of the population can result in dramatic and potentially catastrophic consequences. While peanut is not the only food known to cause allergies, it is the one that is most closely monitored. To address concerns related to peanut in food products, four commercial test kits have been developed to quantitatively analyze for peanut protein in finished products. This manuscript describes a study undertaken to compare these kits on reference samples of dark and milk chocolate containing known amounts of peanut. The results are mixed with the data suggesting that all kits were suitable for qualitative screening but were not suitable for general quantitative assays.

  4. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  5. [The effect of milk products consumption in mothers during breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Uribe-Medina, Aída; Ogando-Suárez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that milk products consumption by mothers during the nursing period induce colic in the newborns. However, when mothers interrupt milk consumption, the colic of the newborns disappears. to analyze milk composition in Mexican women according to maternal milk products consumption. Seven women were studied in puerperal period, three of them consumed milky products and four not. All were healthy; they gave a five cc milk sample, which was frozen until the moment of the analysis. A double dimension electrophoresis in polyacrilamide gels was carried out. The protein levels were determined by Lowry's method. Total lipid extraction and cromatography in thin plaque was carried out. Total carbohydrate content was quantified. No differences were found in protein electrophoresis neither in the chromatographic lipid analysis. Carbohydrate content was similar in both groups. Colic in newborn depends on the idiosyncrasy of each one, and not in the supposed induced modifications of milk products on maternal milk consumption.

  6. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.

  7. Milk consumption and mucus production in children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Many parents of children with asthma are becoming increasingly reluctant to add milk to their children’s diet because they believe it will worsen their children’s asthma owing to increased mucus secretion. Recognizing the importance of milk as part of a healthy diet in supporting growth and calcium consumption, is it advisable to restrict milk in the diet?

  8. Perception of Sheep and Goat Milk Consumption among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 120 respondents were purposively selected to study the perception of sheep and goat milk consumption among rural dwellers in South-Western Nigeria. The study showed that most of the respondents (72.5%) are not aware of the consumption of such milk and as such only few (10, 8%) claimed that they have ...

  9. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVSG Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. Objectives: To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate, filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate, and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Results: Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dark chocolate had a high fall in pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  10. Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardas, Marek; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Całyniuk, Beata; Kolasa, Ilona; Grajek, Mateusz; Bielaszka, Agnieszka; Kiciak, Agata; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Providing the appropriate amount of nutrients at every stage of life is a key element determining the proper development and functioning of the body. Because of the nutritional value and resulting position of milk and milk products in the daily diet, this study was undertaken to assess the consumption of milk and milk products among the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration. The survey covered 600 people, including 339 women (56.5%) and 261 men (43.5%) aged 18-78 years. To assess the consumption of milk and milk products, as a research tool an original survey with the closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. The questions concerned the characteristics of the surveyed group and various aspects of the consumption of milk and milk products. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistica 10.0 program with a chi-square test for quality features. The level of consumption of milk and milk products among the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants is insufficient in relation to nutrition recommendations. However, despite many controversies surrounding milk, the respondents also claimed that it played an important role in their daily diet. The most frequently consumed type of milk in the surveyed group is ultra heat treated (UHT) milk with average fat content.

  11. Chocolate aeration: art or science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Vieira, Joselio

    2011-01-01

    Bubble inclusion into chocolate results in a foam in which the gas is dispersed in the continuous fat phase of mainly cocoa butter, which also contains sugar, cocoa and milk powder particles. Aeration allows chocolate products to have a low weight in relation to volume, thereby reducing the calories in a portion (albeit not by weight). It also imparts a unique texture on the final product. A vast array of different aerated chocolate products can be found worldwide. Aeration of chocolate ha...

  12. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  13. Conching Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L.; Chaikin, Paul; Blanco, Elena; Poon, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    ``Conching'' is an intermediate step in the processing of chocolate where hydrophilic solid particles, such as sugar and milk proteins, are aggressively mixed into a fatty, fluid phase containing emulsifier, e.g. molten cocoa butter with lecithin. During conching, the system evolves from a fine powder to a coarser granulated material and ultimately into a thick cohesive paste. Our goal is to better understand the evolution of chocolate during conching and the transition from an effectively dry to a wet or immersed granular material. In particular, we focus on how mixing times change in response to variations in solid particle volume fractions and emulsifier concentration. As a function of volume fraction, mixing times are well-described by a conventional form that diverges at a finite volume fraction. Furthermore, mixing times can be collapsed onto a universal curve as a function of mixing speed and emulsifier concentration.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF MILK CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ANALYSIS OF ITS DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Habánová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of most households is to eliminate the negative effects of economic changes related mainly to the economic crisis by mobilizing available resources and reducing costs, but which cloud lead to a decrease in food consumption and changes in consumption patterns. Pensions and prices are factors that shape the demand for food and other estates. Both of these factors guarantee the economic viability of nutrition. Paper analyzes the development of the of milk consumption and level of its substitution by milk products. There was quantified the elasticity of demand and  estimated own price elasticity and income elasticity. For the past 17 years, consumption of milk, except cheese, cottage cheese, sour milk products and butter, decreased. Expressed by linear regression model in recent years (since 1995 in Slovakia occurred overall reduction in the consumption of milk and dairy products by an average of 0.988 kg per capita per year. This development was mainly conditioned by the annual descent of demand for milk, as its consumption with little variation in average decreased annually by up to 1.88 kg per capita. This development is largely due to the increase of milk prices and especially the increasing supply of a wide range of quality and flavored sour milk and cheese products. Acidified milk product consumption in recent observed years increased and is expressed by the average growth factor of 0.6748 kg per capita per year. Prognosis with a five percent risk of error of estimate could increase their consumption up to 13.936 kg per capita in 2014. Consumption of cheese and curd should the increase the current trend by an average of 0.0476 kg per person and would be able to achieve the level of consumption of 11.03 kg per capita in 2014.doi:10.5219/236

  15. Consumption of milk and dairy products: Facts and figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, Fabiana; Bucci, Cristina; Iovino, Paola; Ciacci, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of milk has been declining sharply in recent decades, particularly in developed countries. One of the reasons for this decline is the diagnosis or perception of lactose intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate average consumption of milk and dairy products in the Campania region of Italy, one of the main producers of dairy products in the country. Individuals aged 18 to 75 y and living in Campania were invited to answer an online questionnaire regarding their average consumption of milk and dairy products. The questionnaire was posted on the public access hospital site, as well as on several Facebook pages of friends and hospital personnel. The study found that 22.2% (260 of 1173) of responders from Campania do not drink milk, and 18.1% (213 of 1173) drink lactose-free milk, mainly because of gastrointestinal symptoms. The vast majority of the sample population chose to avoid consuming milk without undergoing the breath test for lactose intolerance or consulting a doctor. Women and underweight people drink more lactose-free milk than milk containing lactose. The population sample does not avoid dairy products; rather, they seem to be consumed quite frequently. The data support the need for mandatory implementation of a nutritional campaign to increase understanding regarding, for example, unnecessary avoidance of milk and excessive consumption of cheese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term effect of dark chocolate consumption on routine haemostasis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This experimental study was designed to investigate the sort-term impact of dark chocolate ingestion on routine haemostasis tests in healthy volunteers. The study population consisted in 15 healthy male volunteers who ingested 50 g of 90% cocoa chocolate within 3-5 min. Blood was drawn early in the morning, immediately before chocolate ingestion and 4 h afterwards, for assessment of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen. A significant increase of triglycerides (1.4 ± 0.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L; p chocolate, whereas fibrinogen values remained unchanged (2.6 ± 0.5 versus 2.5 ± 0.5 g/L; p = .063). Overall, we observed a mean percentage increase of 3.1% for APTT and 1.2% for PT. These results suggest that dark chocolate intake may have an impact on secondary haemostasis.

  17. Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Aalipour, Fathollah; Mirlohi, Maryam; Jalali, Mohammad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background The abundant use of tetracycline antibiotics in veterinary medicine may result in the presence of their residues in milk at unsafe concentrations that can adversely affect public health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of tetracycline residue (TET) intake via milk consumption amongst different age groups of human consumers in Iran. Methods To quantify the drug residues, HPLC analysis was performed under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 355?nm. Milk c...

  18. Daily chocolate consumption is inversely associated with insulin resistance and liver enzymes in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the association of chocolate consumption with insulin resistance and serum liver enzymes in a national sample of adults in Luxembourg. A random sample of 1153 individuals, aged 18-69 years, was recruited to participate in the cross-sectional Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. Chocolate consumption (g/d) was obtained from a semi-quantitative FFQ. Blood glucose and insulin levels were used for the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Hepatic biomarkers such as serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GT), serum aspartate transaminase and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (mg/l) were assessed using standard laboratory assays. Chocolate consumers (81·8 %) were more likely to be younger, physically active, affluent people with higher education levels and fewer chronic co-morbidities. After excluding subjects taking antidiabetic medications, higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower HOMA-IR (β=-0·16, P=0·004), serum insulin levels (β=-0·16, P=0·003) and γ-GT (β=-0·12, P=0·009) and ALT (β=-0·09, P=0·004), after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, including intakes of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, polyphenol-rich coffee and tea. This study reports an independent inverse relationship between daily chocolate consumption and levels of insulin, HOMA-IR and liver enzymes in adults, suggesting that chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance, a well-established risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. Further observational prospective research and well-designed randomised-controlled studies are needed to confirm this cross-sectional relationship and to comprehend the role and mechanisms that different types of chocolate may play in insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disorders.

  19. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known to have high nutritive value, efforts should be intensified to encourage its consumption through extensive health education campaigns. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 2(1) 2006: 6-11 ...

  20. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  1. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines...... of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption...

  2. Total antioxidant property and pH change of dental plaque and saliva in 6-11-year-old children after consumption of flavored milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Khodadadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antioxidant properties of chocolate and other flavored additives besides the sugar added to milk raises the question about the acidogenecity of flavored milk. This study was conducted to measure the pH changes of dental plaque and saliva after the consumption of flavored milk and evaluate the antioxidant property of them. Methods: This study was performed on 42 samples of dental plaque and 42 samples of saliva in 6-11 year old school going children. Milk with flavors of strawberry, chocolate, banana, honey and slim milk were evaluated, all from the same manufacturer with a similar production date. At the beginning of the study on the first day, children were given thorough oral propHylaxis and they were instructed to avoid any method of oral hygiene for 48 hours to permit enough plaque deposition. On the third day the children were divided into 7 groups, 6 children in each group. The supra-gingival plaque was collected through the help of an excavator #3 which was pulled twice with the same force on the tooth surface. The saliva was collected using spitting technique. Each child swished 10 cc of milk for 1 minute in his/her mouth. Fresh plaque samples after 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes and saliva samples immediately, after 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes were collected. The pH of the samples were recorded by a pH testing apparatus (Basic 20+, Crisom. To evaluate the antioxidant property of studied milk, Frap test was performed. The collected readings were reported as mean±SD and analyzed by ANOVA repeated measures, Post hoc Tukey and Paired T-test. In this study, p≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: After 30 minutes, honey milk caused the least drop 0.74±0.30 and banana milk caused the highest drop 1.38± 0.25 in plaque pH (p≤0.05. After 30 minutes, the pH of saliva showed no significant difference compared to the initial pH. Chocolate milk contained the highest (1000 micromol/liter and banana milk the lowest (706

  3. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  4. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  5. Association between elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake with normal liver enzymes in HIV-HCV infected individuals: results from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M Patrizia; Lions, Caroline; Sogni, Philippe; Winnock, Maria; Roux, Perrine; Mora, Marion; Bonnard, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort study of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to investigate whether polyphenol rich food intake through coffee and/or daily chocolate consumption could play a role in reducing liver enzymes levels. Longitudinal data collection included self-administered questionnaires and medical data (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver enzymes). Two analyses were performed to assess the association between coffee (≥3 cups a day) and daily chocolate intake and abnormal values of AST and ALT (AST or ALT >2.5 × upper normal limit (UNL)) (N=990) over time, after adjustment for known correlates. Logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to take into account the correlations between repeated measures and estimate adjusted odds ratio. After adjustment, patients reporting elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake were less likely to present abnormal ALT (OR=0.65; p=0.04 and OR=0.57; p=0.04, for coffee and chocolate respectively), while only patients reporting elevated coffee consumption were less likely to have abnormal AST values (p=0.05). Nevertheless, the combined indicator of coffee and chocolate intake was most significantly associated with approximately 40% reduced risk of abnormal liver enzymes (p=0.003 for AST; p=0.002 for ALT). Elevated coffee consumption and daily chocolate intake appear to be associated with reduced levels of liver enzymes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Further experimental and observational research is needed to better understand the role that polyphenol intake or supplementation can play on liver disease and liver injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotional and uncontrolled eating styles and chocolate chip cookie consumption. A controlled trial of the effects of positive mood enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sally Ann; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Warner, Lisa; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness of the positive mood enhancement may be more salient among those who have effective control of their eating. In this experimental study, respondents (N=106, 70% women, aged 16-45 years old) were assigned by means of cluster randomization to the control or positive mood enhancement condition (a comedy movie clip). Compared to the control condition, positive mood enhancement resulted in consuming on average 53.86 kcal less. Relationships between emotional eating style and cookie intake were mediated by uncontrolled eating. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that the effect of a mediator (uncontrolled eating) on cookie intake was moderated by the group assignment. Positive mood enhancement resulted in eating on average 3.3 cookies less among individuals with a more controlled eating style. By contrast, among those who presented uncontrolled eating, positive mood enhancement led to consuming an average of 1.7 cookies more. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk consumption and mucus production in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiara, Gurkaran; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-02-01

    Many parents of children with asthma are becoming increasingly reluctant to add milk to their children's diet because they believe it will worsen their children's asthma owing to increased mucus secretion. Recognizing the importance of milk as part of a healthy diet in supporting growth and calcium consumption, is it advisable to restrict milk in the diet? Dating back to the 12th century, milk has been proscribed for patients with asthma. However, to this very date studies have not been able to provide a definitive link for this recommendation. As there is a need for more conclusive evidence to determine the effect of milk among children with asthma and further understanding of mechanisms involved in mucus production, milk should not be eliminated or restricted. Health Canada recommends 2 servings of milk (0.5 L) a day for children 2 to 8 years of age and 3 to 4 servings of milk a day (0.75 to 1 L) for children 9 to 13 years of age for unrestricted healthy development.

  8. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  9. Evaluation of increased vitamin D fortification in high-temperature, short-time-processed 2% milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A L; Metzger, L E

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased vitamin D fortification (250 IU/serving) of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt on the sensory characteristics and stability of vitamin D during processing and storage. Three replicates of HTST pasteurized 2% fat milk, UHT pasteurized 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt were manufactured. Each of the 3 replicates for all products contained a control (no vitamin D fortification), a treatment group with 100 IU vitamin D/serving (current level of vitamin D fortification), and a treatment group with 250 IU vitamin D/serving. A cold-water dispersible vitamin D(3) concentrate was used for all fortifications. The HTST-processed 2% fat milk was stored for 21 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 14, and 21. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 14. The UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk was stored for 60 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 40, and 60. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 40. Low-fat strawberry yogurt was stored for 42 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing, and on d 0, 28, and 42. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 28. Vitamin D levels in the fortified products were found to be similar to the target levels of fortification (100 and 250 IU vitamin D per serving) for all products, indicating no loss of vitamin D during processing. Vitamin D was also found to be stable over the shelf life of each product. Increasing the fortification of vitamin D from 100 to 250 IU/serving did not result in a change in the sensory characteristics of HTST-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, or low-fat strawberry yogurt. These results indicate that it is feasible to increase vitamin D fortification from 100 to 250 IU per serving in these products. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  10. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Microbial diversity of consumption milk during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcellato, Davide; Aspholm, Marina; Skeie, Siv Borghild; Monshaugen, Marte; Brendehaug, Johanne; Mellegård, Hilde

    2018-02-02

    Bovine milk contains a complex microbial community that affects the quality and safety of the product. Detailed knowledge of this microbiota is, therefore, of importance for the dairy industry. In this study, the bacterial composition of consumption milk was assessed during different stages in the production line and throughout the storage in cartons by using culturing techniques and 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing. Monthly samples from two dairies were analyzed to capture the seasonal variations in the milk microbiota. Although there was a core microbiota present in milk samples from both dairies, the composition of the bacterial communities were significantly influenced by sampling month, processing stage and storage temperature. Overall, a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the order Bacillales was detected in samples of raw and pasteurized milk from the spring and summer months, while Pseudomonadales and Lactobacillales OTUs were predominant in the winter months. OTUs belonging to the order Lactobacillales, Pseudomonadales, Clostridiales and Bacillales were significantly more abundant in milk samples taken immediately after pasteurization compared to raw milk samples. During storage of milk in cartons at 4°C, the bacterial composition remained stable throughout the product shelf life, while storage at 8°C significantly increased the abundance of OTUs belonging to the genus Bacillus and the plate count levels of presumptive Bacillus cereus. The knowledge obtained in this work will be useful to the dairy industry during their quality assurance work and risk assessment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Milking systems and milking robots. Insight in energy consumption; Melksystemen en melkrobots. Inzicht in energiegebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wientjes, H.; Rougoor, C. [DLV Rundvee Advies, Uden (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Insight is given in the energy consumption during milking and how much energy can be saved. The goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, produce renewable energy and the minimization of energy consumption in the dairy industry [Dutch] Inzicht wordt gegeven in het energieverbruik bij de melkwinning en de vraag welke energiebesparing hierbij nog haalbaar is. Het doel is vermindering van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen, productie van duurzame energie en de minimalisatie van het energieverbruik in de melkveehouderij.

  13. Voluntary Binge Consumption of Ethanol in a Sweetened, Chocolate-Flavored Solution by Male and Female Adolescent Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosová, Dominika; Spear, Linda Patia

    2017-03-01

    The still maturing adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to lasting consequences of ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Yet, human adolescents are the age group most likely to engage in binge drinking (a pattern of drinking leading to blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 80 mg/dl or greater). Most studies to date assessing the long-term effects of adolescent EtOH exposure in outbred rodent populations have either used experimenter-administered EtOH to produce BECs in the binge range or assessed voluntary intake of EtOH at well below binge levels. Beginning with a modified schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) procedure, this study examined the suitability of several approaches to induce voluntary binge-like consumption during adolescence in an outbred rat strain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were food deprived to 85% projected free-feeding weights beginning on postnatal day (P) 24 and were given 30 minutes of access to 10% EtOH in chocolate Boost ® or Boost ® alone daily from P28 to P41 (followed later by their daily allocation of food). Animals were tested within operant chambers (Exp. 1a, 1b and Exp. 2) or home and novel cages (Exp. 3). Animals received either scheduled delivery of banana pellets to examine SIP (Exp. 1a,b) or massed pellet presentation (Exp. 2 and Exp. 3). Blood samples were collected via the lateral tail vein on P33 and P41. Intakes produced BECs frequently in the binge range (>80 mg/dl) and modeled binge-like consumption patterns, with high consumption days typically followed by 1 to 2 days of lower consumption; this variability was less evident with Boost ® alone. Consumption was not schedule induced and was generally high across all studies, although consumption in males appeared to be particularly pronounced when animals were tested in the presence of their cage mate. Binge-like patterns of EtOH consumption were produced using these procedures in adolescent Sprague Dawley rats of both sexes and may prove to be a useful

  14. Incidence of Mycotoxins in Local and Branded Samples of Chocolates Marketed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present overview was intended to evaluate the degree of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A contamination in different samples of bitter, dark, milk, and white chocolates marketed in Pakistan. For that exploration, two hundred (n=200 samples of chocolates, 100 branded and 100 local, were analyzed for mycotoxins profile by HPLC-FLD. The outcomes firmly sustained that the majority of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The incidence of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in branded samples was 83% and 90%, whereas the local samples showed 91% and 97% contamination, respectively. The highest amount of total aflatoxins was found in branded dark chocolates, that is, 2.27 μg/kg, and maximum ochratoxin A level was detected white chocolates (2.06 μg/kg. On average, the local white chocolates and dark chocolates faced the highest level of total aflatoxins (3.35 μg/kg and ochratoxin A (3.48 μg/kg, respectively. The local samples of chocolates were more contaminated with mycotoxins as compared to branded ones accredited to the lack of quality control and quality assurance during the manufacturing as well as packing processes. In recent years, consumption of chocolate is rapidly increasing especially by young generation, so monitoring of mycotoxin occurrence in them is a matter of great concern and more studies are required to comprehend the production of mycotoxins in these products.

  15. Consumption of Evaporated Milk of Household Level in Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Widiyanti, Rahayu; Mastuti, Sri

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the research was identity factors affecting consumption of evaporated milk at household level in Central Java. Data obtained were the primary data of SUSENAS for Central Java in the years of 1993, 1996 and 1999, which were collected by BPS. Sampling method occupied was statified proportional random sampling. Out of 20.600 household populations, 600 units were taken as samples. Sencoric data of SUSENAS were analyzed by using Tobit model, estimating method of maximum likelihood...

  16. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of chocolate intake on Perceived Stress; a Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sunni, Ahmed; Latif, Rabia

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to reduce stress in highly stressed, as well as normal healthy individuals, we wondered whether commercially available chocolate could reduce perceived stress in medical students or not, so we decided to conduct this study. Sixty students were divided into 3 groups (10 males + 10 females/group): i) Dark chocolate (DC) ii) Milk chocolate (MC) iii) White chocolate (WC). Subjects answered a PSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale) questionnaire at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 20. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Means were compared across the study groups by One-Way ANOVA and within the same group by paired 't' test. Mean stress scores compared between the groups by ANOVA revealed statistically not significant differences before (F =0.505; P=0.606) and after chocolate consumption (F=0.188; P=0.829). Paired 't' test compared stress scores means before and after chocolate supplementation within the same group and exhibited statistically significant decrease in DC (t = 2.341; p value = 0.03) and MC (t = 3.302; p value = 0.004) groups. Mean stress scores decreased, on average, by approximately 2 and 3 points in DC and MC groups, respectively, at 95% Confidence Interval. The difference was more evident and statistically significant in female students as compared to the males. Consumption of 40 g of Dark and Milk chocolate daily during a period of 2 weeks appear to be an effective way to reduce perceived stress in females.

  18. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  19. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  20. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  1. The effect of processing parameters on energy consumption of ball mill refiner for chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišteš Aleksandar Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory ball mill consisting of vertical cylinder, equipped with a rotating shaft with arms, and filled with steel balls as a grinding medium has been used in the experiments. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of agitator shaft speed and amount of grinding media (steel balls on power requirements and energy consumption of a ball mill. With constant mass of the steel balls (20 kg, 30 kg and 40 kg, the agitator shaft speed was increased from 10% to 100% of the maximum speed which corresponds to a speed of 50 rpm. The power consumption (W was recorded upon which milling energy consumption (J/kg has been calculated. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The increase of the agitator shaft speed, in steps of 10% to the maximum speed of 50 rpm, led to a statistically significant increase in milling energy consumption. At low agitator shaft speed (10%, increase in the mass of the steel balls had no influence on the power requirements. Power requirements for the grinding runs using 30 kg and 40 kg are similar and higher compared to power requirement in trial with 20 kg, as agitator shaft speed increases from 20% to 70%. At high agitator shaft speeds (≥80%, increase in steel balls mass led to the significant increase in power requirements of the ball mill.

  2. The continuing debate over increasing consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk: is it safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, K. N.; Hunt, K.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The debate on the consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk continues. On one side there is the risk of illness associated with pathogenic bacteria that may be in the milk, a risk that can be mitigated by pasteurisation of the milk prior to consumption. On the other side, there are those who believ...

  3. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the ... results not shown). What type of milk, by fat content, do children and adolescents consume? Among children ...

  4. Chocolate Maths!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret; Underwood, Val

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a varied day of stimulating mathematics with key stage 2 learners--all revolving around chocolate. They used a variety of stimuli organized around the chocolate theme. A whole day was spent on using and applying mathematics, and the exercise proved to be enjoyable for both staff and pupils. The children…

  5. Relationships between milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategy, and personality in Korean adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun Hyo Kim; Woo Kyoung Kim; Myung-Hee Kang

    2016-01-01

    .... This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS...

  6. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  7. Consumption of non–cow’s milk beverages and serum vitamin D levels in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace J.; Birken, Catherine S.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Maguire, Jonathon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D fortification of non–cow’s milk beverages is voluntary in North America. The effect of consuming non–cow’s milk beverages on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children is unclear. We studied the association between non–cow’s milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy preschool-aged children. We also explored whether cow’s milk consumption modified this association and analyzed the association between daily non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk consumption. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited children 1–6 years of age attending routinely scheduled well-child visits. Survey responses, and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were collected. The association between non–cow’s milk consumption and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels was tested using multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Cow’s milk consumption was explored as an effect modifier using an interaction term. The association between daily intake of non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk was explored using multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 2831 children were included. The interaction between non–cow’s milk and cow’s milk consumption was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Drinking non–cow’s milk beverages was associated with a 4.2-nmol/L decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level per 250-mL cup consumed among children who also drank cow’s milk (p = 0.008). Children who drank only non–cow’s milk were at higher risk of having a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 50 nmol/L than children who drank only cow’s milk (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.7). Interpretation: Consumption of non–cow’s milk beverages was associated with decreased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early childhood. This association was modified by cow’s milk consumption, which suggests a trade-off between consumption of cow’s milk fortified with higher levels of vitamin D and non–cow’s milk with lower

  8. Soy milk consumption and blood pressure among type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghajani, Maryam Sadat; Najafabadi, Mojgan Mortazavi; Surkan, Pamela J; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Mirlohi, Maryam; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soy milk consumption cardiovascular risk and biomarkers of renal function in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. This randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 29 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing soy milk, or a diet containing cow's milk, each for 4 weeks. There was a 2-week washout between the two intervention periods. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed according to standard protocols. The mean age and body mass index of patients were 51 ± 10 years and 28 ± 4 kg/m(2), respectively. Consumption of soy milk resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure compared with consumption of cow's milk (percent change: -4.50 vs. 5.89%; P = .03). Serum triglyceride levels decreased significantly after soy milk consumption (percent change: -15.22 vs. 2.37%; P = .02). After adjustment for carbohydrate intake, the effect of soy milk on triglyceride level was not significant. There were no significant differences between soy milk and cow's milk consumption in terms of their effect on cardiovascular risks and markers of kidney function. Soy milk consumption was associated with better blood pressure control among diabetic patients with nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chocolate rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vidal Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied, and it is known that chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals

  11. Validation of a Milk Consumption Stage of Change Algorithm among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gerfen, Elissa; Mosher, Revonda B.; Shad, Aziza T.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the construct validity of a milk consumption Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer ages 11 to 21 years (n = 75). Methods: Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a health behavior intervention were analyzed. Assessments included a milk consumption SOC…

  12. Consumption of milk and dairy products in context with lactose and casein intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    PÍCHA, David

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this bachelor thesis is the consumption of milk and dairy products in connection with lactose and casein intolerance. The theoretical part deals with the milk's structure, its creation process, division, different kinds of intolerance and health benefits. This thesis deals also with different kinds of dairy products. The practical part includes questionnaire concerning milk consumption and its following analysis. The main goal of this thesis is a seeking of how often, how even an...

  13. Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy L; Heyman, Melvin; Chao, Cewin; Wojcicki, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determine child intake in San Francisco based cohort recruited in 2006-7. Mother-child dyads were weighed and measured. The 24-hour recall data was analyzed to determine participants' consumption of whole milk, 2% milk, and 1% milk. The milk consumption data was used to calculate grams of milk fat consumed. The cross-sectional association between milk fat intake and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 99th percentile) was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Data were available for 145 children, of whom 17% were severely obese. Severely obese children had a lower mean intake of milk fat (5.3 g vs. 8.9 g) and fewer drank any milk (79% versus 95% for not severely obese children (p severe obesity and were included in a multivariate model. In the multivariate model, higher milk fat consumption was associated with lower odds of severe obesity (OR 0.88 CI 0.80-0.97). Higher milk fat consumption is associated with lower odds of severe obesity among Latino preschoolers. These results call into question recommendations that promote consumption of lower fat milk.

  14. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  15. Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kim, Claire E; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kang, Daehee

    2017-10-08

    It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults aged 40-69. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women) from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Milk consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP III). Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between milk consumption and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. In this study, the average milk consumption was 77.9 g/day, with the overall prevalence of MetS being 26.1% (29.1% in men and 24.6% in women). We found that the prevalence of the MetS was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk consumption (p milk consumption category (≥1 serving/day among men; ≥2 serving/day among women) than those in the lowest milk consumption category (OR: 0.92 95%CI: 0.86-0.99, p trend = 0.0160 in men; OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.60-0.76, p trend milk consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglyceride, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (all p trend milk consumption is associated with the lower odds of MetS in Korean adults.

  16. Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangah Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults aged 40–69. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Milk consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP III. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs between milk consumption and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. In this study, the average milk consumption was 77.9 g/day, with the overall prevalence of MetS being 26.1% (29.1% in men and 24.6% in women. We found that the prevalence of the MetS was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk consumption (p < 0.0001. Adjusted OR for MetS was significantly lower in the highest milk consumption category (≥1 serving/day among men; ≥2 serving/day among women than those in the lowest milk consumption category (OR: 0.92 95%CI: 0.86–0.99, p trend = 0.0160 in men; OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.60–0.76, p trend < 0.0001 in women. Overall, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglyceride, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (all p trend < 0.05. This study concludes that higher milk consumption is associated with the lower odds of MetS in Korean adults.

  17. Comment on: Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-analysis of prospective Studies, Nutrients 2017, 9, 688

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto F. Hurtado-Torres

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Shen Yuan et al. [1] highlight the protective cardiometabolic effects of chocolate intake. Without doubt, their work contributes to support evidence about the salutary and wide protective effects of chocolate compounds, particularly flavanols and its derivatives.[...

  18. The suitability of locally produced milk for human consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic premise of this paper is that the supply of milk and milk products from the Guildford Dairy Institute (GDI) at Egerton University (EU) in Kenya decreased drastically over the recent past as a result of a nearly six-fold increase in the human population in the area. A drop of 40 % of milk production from the university ...

  19. Disposal of human milk donated to a human milk bank before and after measures to reduce the amount of milk unsuitable for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin, Ana L; Grazziotin, Maria C B; Letti, Luiz A J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the causes of disposal of donated human milk and the impact of the measures taken to reduce the amount of milk unsuitable for consumption. A quasi-experimental, observational, comparative study was conducted with different populations of external donors in 2006 and 2008. In 2006, a simple form was used to record the criteria for disposal of the donated milk. We also interviewed the donors to find the reason of changes in the milk. In 2008, a checklist containing comprehensive guidance for milk collection and pre-storage was handed out to the donors. Next, we continued to survey the disposal criteria after the intervention using the same form administered in 2006. A case was defined as all bottles of milk of the same donor discarded per day. Data were analyzed by calculations based on comparison of proportions for 2006 and 2008. Twenty-four percent of the milk collected was discarded in 2006, while in 2008 only 10.5% of the milk was discarded. There was significant reduction in the disposal of milk for the items: cigarette odor; forgetting the milk outside the refrigerator, inside it or on its door; problems with the freezer; frequent opening of the refrigerator and freezer; expiration date; and unidentified cases. However, there was a significant increase in milk disposal for first milk collection without guidance; use of inappropriate bottle; milk transportation from work to home; and indirect guidance. The use of the step-by-step checklist had a positive impact on the reduction of the volume of donated milk discarded and changed the frequency of the causes of disposal, eliminating some of these causes.

  20. Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Georg; Depner, Martin; Ulfman, Laurien H; van Neerven, R J Joost; Hose, Alexander J; Genuneit, Jon; Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Kaulek, Vincent; Roduit, Caroline; Weber, Juliane; Lauener, Roger; Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Pekkanen, Juha; Vaarala, Outi; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J

    2015-01-01

    Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on common infections in infants. The PASTURE birth cohort followed 983 infants from rural areas in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland, for the first year of life, covering 37,306 person-weeks. Consumption of different types of cow's milk and occurrence of rhinitis, respiratory tract infections, otitis, and fever were assessed by weekly health diaries. C-reactive protein levels were assessed using blood samples taken at 12 months. When contrasted with ultra-heat treated milk, raw milk consumption was inversely associated with occurrence of rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio from longitudinal models [95% CI]: 0.71 [0.54-0.94]), respiratory tract infections (0.77 [0.59-0.99]), otitis (0.14 [0.05-0.42]), and fever (0.69 [0.47-1.01]). Boiled farm milk showed similar but weaker associations. Industrially processed pasteurized milk was inversely associated with fever. Raw farm milk consumption was inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels at 12 months (geometric means ratio [95% CI]: 0.66 [0.45-0.98]). Early life consumption of raw cow's milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30%. If the health hazards of raw milk could be overcome, the public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of similarly flavored milk replacers and starters on calf starter consumption and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, N K; Rindsig, R B

    1980-11-01

    One of three commercial feed flavors, butter, milk arome, or maple, was added to a milk replacer and a starter to determine if a flavor association by calves would increase starter consumption and growth. Eighty-five calves were randomized completely to 1 of 16 treatment combinations arranged in a 4 X 4 factorial experiment. Calves received milk replacer from day 6 to weaning at 5 wk. Starter was offered ad libitum from day 6 to 8 wk. Butter and milk arome flavor were added to milk replacer at 500 mg/kg and starter at 750 mg/kg. Maple was added to milk replacer at 990 mg/kg and starter at 1980 mg/kg., Data were subjected to analysis of covariance with sex, breed, date of birth, and birth weight as covariables. There was no effect of flavor in milk replacer on starter consumption or growth as compared to the control milk replacer. Calves fed maple starter consumed more starter to 8 wk and from 6 to 8 wk than did calves fed the control starter. Average daily gain to 5 wk and from 6 to 8 wk was greater for calves fed maple starter, and to 8 wk for calves fed either maple starter or milk arome starter than for calves fed the control starter. Least squares mean for starter consumption (kg) and average daily gain (g) to 8 wk for treatments control, butter, milk arome, and maple starters were 42.2, 367; 46.2, 427; 47.7, 431; and 48.8, 469. Starter consumption (kg) and average daily gain (g) to 8 wk for treatment combinations involving the same flavor were 45.2, 415 for control replacer-control starter; 45.4, 428 for butter replacer-butter starter; 48.9, 484 for milk arome replacer-milk arome starter; and 46.3, 427 for maple replacer-maple starter.

  2. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  3. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of draught use of cows on fertility, milk production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Mohammad A.

    1983-01-01

    Incidence of draught use of cows is high in Bangladesh due to shortage of male cattle. The consequences of this on fertility and milk production of cows and consumption of milk by farming households are shown empirically on the basis of a large survey in Bangladesh.

  5. Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loss, G.; Depner, M.; Ulfman, L.H.; Neerven, van R.J.J.; Hose, A.J.; Genuneit, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. Objective: To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on

  6. [Severe nutritional deficiencies in young infants with inappropriate plant milk consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louer, B; Lemale, J; Garcette, K; Orzechowski, C; Chalvon, A; Girardet, J-P; Tounian, P

    2014-05-01

    Over the past few years, we have observed increasing consumption of inappropriate plant milks as an alternative to infant milk formula. Some families believe that foods labeled as natural are the most healthy and an appropriate nutritional choice. However, their composition does not respect European recommendations. They are always hypocaloric and protein, vitamin, and mineral concentrations are inadequate. The aim of this study was to report severe nutritional complications after inappropriate plant milk consumption. Between 2008 and 2011, we studied severe nutritional deficiencies caused by consumption of plant milks bought in health food stores or online shops. Infants were identified in our centers and examined through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Nine cases of infants aged from 4 to 14 months were observed. In all cases, these milks were used as an alternative to milk formulas for supposed cow's milk allergy. At diagnosis, four patients were aged 6 months or less. They had received plant milk exclusively for 1-3 months. The beverages consumed were rice, soya, almond and sweet chestnut milks. In three cases, infants presented severe protein-calorie malnutrition with substantial hypoalbuminemia (beverages expose infants to severe nutritional deficiencies. Serious complications can occur. Early, exclusive, and extended use is riskier. These diseases are preventable, and parental education should be provided. Statutory measures forbidding their use in young infants should be organized to slow down the progress of this social trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  8. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  9. The suitability of locally produced milk for human consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 0.003 ppm Hg and sensory results indicated 'Liked Moderately' for all samples, which were within the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KBS) guidelines. Milk was available but the logistics to collect and pay for the milk need to be put in place. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 Number 2 (April-June 2001), pp ...

  10. Does Milk Consumption Contribute to Cardiometabolic Health and Overall Diet Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Benoît; Givens, D Ian; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita; Krauss, Ronald M; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Pan, An; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public domain. This article summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of milk in a balanced healthy diet. The evidence to date suggests at least a neutral effect of milk intake on health outcomes. The possibility that milk intake is simply a marker of diets higher in nutritional quality cannot be ruled out. This review also identifies a number of key research gaps pertaining to the impact of milk consumption on health. These need to be addressed to better inform future dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILK PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milk and dairy products market in Romania in the period 2007-2012 and to set up the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat and using the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. Milk production for consumption reached 210 thou tons in 2012 registering a descending trend. Despite that milk production decreased in the period 2007-2012, the production diversification applied by dairies supported the growth of dairy products output as follows: by 13.54 % for milk, by 3.45 % for sour cream, and by 13 % for butter. The forecast for the year 2015 provides that the production of dairy products will account for: 223,936.6 tons milk for consumption, 48,709.4 tons sour cream, 166,674.2 tons acidulated milk, 9,937.6 tons butter and 66,584.4 tons cheese. The development of milk processing imposes the improvement of production technologies, products quality, efficiency and competitiveness. Due to the unbalanced demand/offer ratio, after the elimination of milk quota, the Romanian milk and dairy products market will be invaded by foreign products.

  12. Relationships between milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategy, and personality in Korean adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A healthy diet has been reported to be associated with physical development, cognition and academic performance, and personality during adolescence. This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was divided into two parts. The first part was a survey on the relationship between milk consumption and academic performance, in which intakes of milk and milk products and academic scores were examined in percentiles among 630 middle and high school students residing in small and medium-sized cities in 2009. The second part was a survey on the relationships between milk consumption and learning motivation and strategy as well as personality, in which milk consumption habits were collected and Learning Motivation and Strategy Test (L-MOST) for adolescents and Total Personality Inventory for Adolescents (TPI-A) were conducted in 262 high school students in 2011. RESULTS In the 2009 survey, milk and milk product intakes of subjects were divided into a low intake group (LM: ≤ 60.2 g/day), medium intake group (MM: 60.3-150.9 g/day), and high intake group (HM: ≥ 151.0 g/day). Academic performance of each group was expressed as a percentile, and performance in Korean, social science, and mathematics was significantly higher in the HM group (P consumption showed significantly higher "learning strategy total," "testing technique," and "resources management technique" scores (P < 0.05) in all subjects. However, when subjects were divided by gender, milk intake frequency, learning strategy total, class participation technique, and testing technique showed significantly positive correlations (P < 0.05) in boys, whereas no correlation was observed in girls. Correlations between milk intake frequency and each item of the personality test were only detected in boys, and milk intake frequency showed

  13. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de bebida láctea achocolatada Sensory profile and acceptance of milk chocolate beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bertelli Pflanzer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O perfil sensorial de bebida láctea achocolatada foi obtido por meio da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, utilizando três marcas comerciais do produto. Doze termos descritivos foram desenvolvidos por uma equipe de provadores selecionados e treinados, que geraram também a definição de cada termo e as amostras referência. Os resultados foram submetidos à ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. A bebida láctea achocolatada da marca A caracterizou-se por apresentar maior intensidade de doçura, aroma e sabor de caramelo, enquanto as características predominantes da marca B foram a cor marrom, viscosidade e arenosidade muito intensos. O produto da marca C diferiu dos demais por apresentar maior aroma e sabor de leite. Foi também realizado um teste de aceitação para avaliar as amostras de uma forma global, quanto a intensidade do ideal de doçura e a intenção de compra. Todas as marcas apresentaram boa aceitabilidade global, não apresentando diferença significativa entre si, assim como a intenção de compra. O teste com o consumidor indicou que a amostra B apresentou intensidade de doçura ideal.The sensory profile of three commercial brands of milk chocolate beverage was obtained using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Twelve descriptive terms, their definitions, and reference samples were generated by a selected and trained panel. The statistical analysis included the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Tukey's Test for means, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Brand A showed strong sweetness taste, aroma, and caramel flavor, whereas the predominant characteristics of brand B were the brown color, viscosity, and very intense sandiness. Brand C differed from the others for presenting stronger aroma and milk flavor. An acceptance test was also performed to evaluate the samples thoroughly in terms of the intensity of the ideal sweetness and buying intention. All brands presented high acceptability, and

  14. The protective effect of farm milk consumption on childhood asthma and atopy: the GABRIELA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Georg; Apprich, Silvia; Waser, Marco; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Genuneit, Jon; Büchele, Gisela; Weber, Juliane; Sozanska, Barbara; Danielewicz, Hanna; Horak, Elisabeth; van Neerven, R J Joost; Heederik, Dick; Lorenzen, Peter C; von Mutius, Erika; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2011-10-01

    Farm milk consumption has been identified as an exposure that might contribute to the protective effect of farm life on childhood asthma and allergies. The mechanism of action and the role of particular constituents of farm milk, however, are not yet clear. We sought to investigate the farm milk effect and determine responsible milk constituents. In rural regions of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, a comprehensive questionnaire about farm milk consumption and other farm-related exposures was completed by parents of 8334 school-aged children, and 7606 of them provided serum samples to assess specific IgE levels. In 800 cow's milk samples collected at the participants' homes, viable bacterial counts, whey protein levels, and total fat content were analyzed. Asthma, atopy, and hay fever were associated to reported milk consumption and for the first time to objectively measured milk constituents by using multiple regression analyses. Reported raw milk consumption was inversely associated to asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.46-0.74), atopy (aOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90), and hay fever (aOR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.69) independent of other farm exposures. Boiled farm milk did not show a protective effect. Total viable bacterial counts and total fat content of milk were not significantly related to asthma or atopy. Increased levels of the whey proteins BSA (aOR for highest vs lowest levels and asthma, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.97), α-lactalbumin (aOR for interquartile range and asthma, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.97), and β-lactoglobulin (aOR for interquartile range and asthma, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97), however, were inversely associated with asthma but not with atopy. The findings suggest that the protective effect of raw milk consumption on asthma might be associated with the whey protein fraction of milk. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Milk Consumption and Framingham Risk Score: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam Seok; Yang, Sung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Choi, Sung Jin; Song, Byeng Chun; Yeum, Kyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of milk intake remains controversial. The association between milk consumption and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in a population consuming relatively low amounts of dairy products is undetermined. A total of 13736 adults (5718 male and 8018 female) aged 20-80 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011) were divided into groups according to milk consumption (rarely, monthly, weekly, and daily) and compared according to FRS after relevant variable adjustments. The mean FRS in males and females were 6.53 and 5.74, respectively. Males who consumed milk daily (15.9%) had a significantly lower FRS than males having milk rarely (31.6%) or monthly (17.4%; p=0.007). Females who consumed milk daily (22.3%) also had significantly lower FRS than rarely (29.8%), monthly (13.8%), or weekly (34%; p=0.001) consumers. In particular, males ≥60 years old who consumed milk daily had a significantly lower FRS than males who consumed less milk (pmilk consumption groups when compared with the daily milk consumption group. Milk consumption was associated with a lower FRS in a low milk-consuming population. In particular, daily milk consumption in males over 60 years old may be beneficial for those at risk for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  17. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  18. Association between Milk and Milk Product Consumption and Anthropometric Measures in Adult Men and Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Satija, A; Agrawal, S; Bowen, L.; Khandpur, N; Kinra, S; Prabhakaran, D.; Reddy, KS; Smith, GD; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. METHODS: Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men an...

  19. Brachial and Cerebrovascular Functions Are Enhanced in Postmenopausal Women after Ingestion of Chocolate with a High Concentration of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Carter, Howard H; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Kurt J; Pike, Kerryn E; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Cocoa contains polyphenols that are thought to be beneficial for vascular health. Objective: We assessed the impact of chocolate containing distinct concentrations of cocoa on cerebrovascular function and cognition. Methods: Using a counterbalanced within-subject design, we compared the acute impact of consumption of energy-matched chocolate containing 80%, 35%, and 0% single-origin cacao on vascular endothelial function, cognition, and cerebrovascular function in 12 healthy postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age: 57.3 ± 5.3 y). Participants attended a familiarization session, followed by 3 experimental trials, each separated by 1 wk. Outcome measures included cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF v ) responses, recorded before and during completion of a computerized cognitive assessment battery (CogState); brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD); and hemodynamic responses (heart rate and blood pressure). Results: When CBF v data before and after chocolate intake were compared between conditions through the use of 2-factor ANOVA, an interaction effect ( P = 0.003) and main effects for chocolate ( P = 0.043) and time ( P = 0.001) were evident. Post hoc analysis revealed that both milk chocolate (MC; 35% cocoa; P = 0.02) and dark chocolate (DC; 80% cocoa; P = 0.003) induced significantly lower cerebral blood flow responses during the cognitive tasks, after normalizing for changes in arterial pressure. DC consumption also increased brachial FMD compared with the baseline value before chocolate consumption ( P = 0.002), whereas MC and white chocolate (0% cocoa) caused no change ( P- interaction between conditions = 0.034). Conclusions: Consumption of chocolate containing high concentrations of cocoa enhanced vascular endothelial function, which was reflected by improvements in FMD. Cognitive function outcomes did not differ between conditions; however, cerebral blood flow responses during these cognitive tasks were lower in those consuming MC and DC. These

  20. Consumption of human milk glycoconjugates by infant-associated bifidobacteria: mechanisms and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Daniel; Dallas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a rich source of nutrients and energy, shaped by mammalian evolution to provide all the nutritive requirements of the newborn. In addition, several molecules in breast milk act as bioactive agents, playing an important role in infant protection and guiding a proper development. While major breast milk nutrients such as lactose, lipids and proteins are readily digested and consumed by the infant, other molecules, such as human milk oligosaccharides and glycosylated proteins and lipids, can escape intestinal digestion and transit through the gastrointestinal tract. In this environment, these molecules guide the composition of the developing infant intestinal microbiota by preventing the colonization of enteric pathogens and providing carbon and nitrogen sources for other colonic commensals. Only a few bacteria, in particular Bifidobacterium species, can gain access to the energetic content of milk as it is displayed in the colon, probably contributing to their predominance in the intestinal microbiota in the first year of life. Bifidobacteria deploy exquisite molecular mechanisms to utilize human milk oligosaccharides, and recent evidence indicates that their activities also target other human milk glycoconjugates. Here, we review advances in our understanding of how these microbes have been shaped by breast milk components and the strategies associated with their consumption of milk glycoconjugates. PMID:23460033

  1. Milk consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older Chinese: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbo Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dairy products consumption is increasingly common globally. Most of the evidence concerning dairy products comes from observational studies in western populations which are inevitably open to confounding. To triangulate the evidence concerning dairy products, we examined the associations of whole cow's milk consumption with cardiovascular risk factors in a non-Western setting with a different pattern of milk consumption and cardiovascular diseases from Western populations. METHODS: We used multivariable censored linear or logistic regression to examine cross-sectionally the adjusted associations of whole cow's milk consumption (none (n = 14892, 1-3/week (n = 2689 and 3+/week (n = 2754 with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese (≥50 years in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. RESULTS: Whole cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (3+/week compared to none -2.56 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI -3.63 to -1.49, diastolic blood pressure (-1.32 mmHg, 95% CI -1.87 to -0.77 and triglycerides (-0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.002, but was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/L,95% CI 0.01 to 0.04 and fasting glucose (0.08 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16 adjusted for age, sex, phase of study, socio-economic position, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity and adiposity, but had no obvious association with LDL-cholesterol or the presence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Whole cow's milk consumption had heterogeneous associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Higher whole cow's milk consumption was associated with lower levels of specific cardiovascular risk factors which might suggest risk factor specific biological pathways with different relations to blood pressure and lipids than glucose.

  2. Milk consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older Chinese: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yangbo; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products consumption is increasingly common globally. Most of the evidence concerning dairy products comes from observational studies in western populations which are inevitably open to confounding. To triangulate the evidence concerning dairy products, we examined the associations of whole cow's milk consumption with cardiovascular risk factors in a non-Western setting with a different pattern of milk consumption and cardiovascular diseases from Western populations. We used multivariable censored linear or logistic regression to examine cross-sectionally the adjusted associations of whole cow's milk consumption (none (n = 14892), 1-3/week (n = 2689) and 3+/week (n = 2754)) with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese (≥50 years) in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Whole cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (3+/week compared to none -2.56 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.63 to -1.49), diastolic blood pressure (-1.32 mmHg, 95% CI -1.87 to -0.77) and triglycerides (-0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.002), but was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/L,95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and fasting glucose (0.08 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16) adjusted for age, sex, phase of study, socio-economic position, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity) and adiposity, but had no obvious association with LDL-cholesterol or the presence of diabetes. Whole cow's milk consumption had heterogeneous associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Higher whole cow's milk consumption was associated with lower levels of specific cardiovascular risk factors which might suggest risk factor specific biological pathways with different relations to blood pressure and lipids than glucose.

  3. Relationships between milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategy, and personality in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    A healthy diet has been reported to be associated with physical development, cognition and academic performance, and personality during adolescence. This study was performed to investigate the relationships among milk consumption and academic performance, learning motivation and strategies, and personality among Korean adolescents. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was a survey on the relationship between milk consumption and academic performance, in which intakes of milk and milk products and academic scores were examined in percentiles among 630 middle and high school students residing in small and medium-sized cities in 2009. The second part was a survey on the relationships between milk consumption and learning motivation and strategy as well as personality, in which milk consumption habits were collected and Learning Motivation and Strategy Test (L-MOST) for adolescents and Total Personality Inventory for Adolescents (TPI-A) were conducted in 262 high school students in 2011. In the 2009 survey, milk and milk product intakes of subjects were divided into a low intake group (LM: ≤ 60.2 g/day), medium intake group (MM: 60.3-150.9 g/day), and high intake group (HM: ≥ 151.0 g/day). Academic performance of each group was expressed as a percentile, and performance in Korean, social science, and mathematics was significantly higher in the HM group (P learning strategy total," "testing technique," and "resources management technique" scores (P learning strategy total, class participation technique, and testing technique showed significantly positive correlations (P learning motivation and strategy as well as some items of the personality inventory.

  4. Fluid milk consumption and demand response to advertising for non-alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RICKERTSEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian fluid milk consumption has declined steadily over the last twenty years, despite the dairy industry spending increasing amounts of money on advertising. Using a two-stage model, we investigate whether advertising has increased the demand for milk. No effect of advertising on the demand for non-alcoholic beverages is found in the first stage. In the second stage, an almost ideal demand system including advertising expenditures on competing beverages is estimated. The effects of generic advertising within the beverage group are positive and significant for whole milk and negative and significant for lower fat milk. The own-advertising elasticity for the combined fluid milk group is 0.0008. This highly inelastic elasticity suggests that increased advertising will not be profitable for the producers. Several cross-advertising effects are statistically significant, emphasizing the usefulness of a demand system approach.

  5. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim T; Tapper, Katy

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-related products they consumed. They also completed a questionnaire measure of the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic, both before and after the 5-day period. Results showed that compared to controls, those in the cognitive defusion group ate significantly less chocolate from the bag (p = .046) and less chocolate according to the diary measure (p = .053). There was evidence that these changes were brought about by reductions in the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic. There were no differences in chocolate consumption between the acceptance and control groups. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of different mindfulness-based techniques. What is already known on this subject? Multicomponent mindfulness interventions have been successfully applied to a range of health behaviours. Low levels of self-control are associated with weight gain and a higher BMI. What does this study add? The results show that a brief mindfulness strategy (defusion) helps individuals resist chocolate over 5 days. The results suggest this may be brought about by reductions in the extent to which eating chocolate is automatic. A second brief mindfulness strategy (acceptance) failed to help individuals resist chocolate. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A

    2015-02-01

    In-vitro and rodent studies, and short-term human trials suggest that compounds in chocolate can enhance insulin sensitivity. Also, a recent prospective Japanese epidemiological analysis found that long-term chocolate consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk. The objective of the present analysis was to test the epidemiological association between long-term chocolate consumption and diabetes risk in a U.S. cohort. Multivariable prospective Cox Regression analysis with time-dependent covariates was used to examine data from 7802 participants in the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Cohort. The data included 861 new diabetes cases during 98,543 person-years of follow up (mean = 13.3 years). Compared to participants who ate 1 oz of chocolate less often than monthly, those who ate it 1-4 times/month, 2-6 times/week and ≥ 1 time/day had relative risks of being diagnosed with diabetes that were lower by 13% (95% confidence interval: -2%, 25%), 34% (18%, 47%) and 18% (-10%, 38%). These relative risks applied to participants without evidence of preexisting serious chronic disease that included diabetes, heart attacks, stroke or cancer. In conclusion, the risk of diabetes decreased as the frequency of chocolate intake increased, up to 2-6 servings (1 oz) per week. Consuming ≥ 1 serving per day did not yield significantly lower relative risk. These results suggest that consuming moderate amount of chocolate may reduce the risk of diabetes. Further research is required to confirm and explore these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival of Salmonella east bourne and Salmonella typhimurium in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, S K; Beumer, R R; Kampelmacher, E H; van Leusden, F M

    1976-02-01

    Experiments were carried out to assess the reduction rate of two salmonella strains (S. eastbourne and S. typhimurium) in chocolate bars. After artificial contamination of chocolate, after 'conching', with about 10(6) S. eastbourne/g. this organism was still recovered after 9 months storage. The strain of S. typhimurium was less resistant. Both serotypes died off more rapidly in bitter chocolate than in milk chocolate. After contamination with a smaller dose (about 10(3)/g.) with these two serotypes, similar differences were observed.

  10. Oil migration in chocolate-peanut butter paste confectionery as a function of chocolate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K L; McCarthy, M J

    2008-08-01

    Migration of oil from high oil content filling to the chocolate coating can result in undesirable quality changes in filled chocolate confectionery products. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in a 2-layer chocolate-peanut butter paste model confectionery. Spatial and temporal oil content changes were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Five formulations of chocolate, which varied in chocolate particle size, milk fat content, and emulsifier level, were assessed at 2 temperatures, 20 and 30 degrees C. The spatial and temporal experimental data were modeled using a Fickian-based diffusion model, fitting for the diffusion coefficient, D, over a time frame of 17 d. Values of the diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.82 to 3.23 x 10(-11) m2/s for the chocolate formulations stored at 30 degrees C. No significant mass transfer took place in the 20 degrees C samples over the experimental time frame. This study describes the dynamic nature of the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste layers, quantifies the mass transfer from the peanut butter paste to the chocolate, and reinforces the importance of temperature control.

  11. Associated Factors of Milk Consumption among Students: Using Health Belief Model (HBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAmong various food products, milk and dairy products are among the most basic nutrient foods. The consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran is much lower than the global rate of per capita consumption. This study used Health Belief Model to determine associated factors of milk consumption among 7-9th students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on seventh to ninth grade students in the city of Qom. Using multistage cluster sampling method, a total of 390 students were enrolled onto the study. In order to collect data in this study, we used a researcher made questionnaire which was designed based on health belief model. Using SPSS version 20.0 software, the collected data was analyzed via descriptive statistics and independent t-test and Chi-square test.ResultsOf all the participants, 41% consumed milk daily and 59% did not consume milk. The perceived benefits (P=0.007, perceived barriers (P< 0.001, perceived self-efficacy (P

  12. Does Milk Consumption Contribute to Cardiometabolic Health and Overall Diet Quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamarche, Benoît; Givens, D.I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita; Krauss, Ronald M.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Pan, An; Després, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public domain. This article summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of

  13. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  14. Shocking chocolate into shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Wouldn't you love chocolate to have less fat but all the taste? Stephen Ornes discovers how the study of electrorheological fluids has led one physicist to a develop a new way to trim the fat from chocolate

  15. water intake, feed consumption and milk production of intensively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    do not eat as much food as those animals that have access to water ad libitum. This results in poor growth, reproduction and lactation (Book and Carpenter, 1990). Consumption of water is a key point in animal feeding particularly in the arid regions where seasonal variation has been observed to have a detrimental effect on.

  16. A Case Study of Probit Model Analysis of Factors Affecting Consumption of Packed and Unpacked Milk in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Uzunoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the effects of some sociodemographic factors on the decision of the consumer to purchase packed or unpacked fluid milk in Sivas, Turkey. The data were collected from 300 consumers by using face-to-face survey technique. The sample size was determined using the possibility-sampling method. Probit model has been used to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting milk consumption of households. Four estimators (household size, income, milk preferences reason, and milk price in the probit model were found statistically significant. According to empirical results, consumers with lower household size and higher income levels tend to consume packed milk consumption. Our study findings suggest that consumers who were sensitive to price were less likely to consume packed milk and believe that packed milk price is expensive compared to unpacked milk price. Also, milk price was effective factor concerning packed and unpacked milk consumption behavior. The majority of consumers read the contents of packed fluid milk and are affected by safety food in their shopping preferences.

  17. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, R

    2013-03-01

    Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption.

  18. Supraventricular tachycardia induced by chocolate: is chocolate too sweet for the heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasramka, Saurabh; Dufresne, Alix

    2012-09-01

    Conflicting studies have been published concerning the association between chocolate and cardiovascular diseases. Fewer articles have described the potential arrhythmogenic risk related to chocolate intake. We present a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in a woman after consumption of large quantity of chocolate. A 53-year-old woman with no significant medical history presented to us with complaints of palpitations and shortness of breath after consuming large amounts of chocolate. Electrocardiogram showed supraventricular tachycardia at 165 beats per minute, which was restored to sinus rhythm after adenosine bolus injection. Electrophysiology studies showed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Chocolate contains caffeine and theobromine, which are methylxanthines and are competitive antagonists of adenosine and can have arrhythmogenic potential. Our case very well describes an episode of tachycardia precipitated by large amount of chocolate consumption in a patient with underlying substrate. There are occasional case reports describing association between chocolate, caffeine, and arrhythmias. A large Danish study, however, did not find any association between amount of daily caffeine consumption and risk of arrhythmia.

  19. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet......'s socioeconomic status The analyses included data from 50,117 mother-infant pairs. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) consumption of milk was 3.1 +/- 2.0 glasses/d. Milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of small-for gestational age (SGA) birth and directly with both large-for-gestational age (LGA) birth...... and mean birth weight (P for trend drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P...

  20. Molecularly-defined lactose malabsorption, milk consumption and anthropometric differences in adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugatschka, M; Dobnig, H; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Pietschmann, P; Kudlacek, S; Strele, A; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2005-12-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) may be associated with reduced skeletal calcium content. Diagnosis to date has been based on indirect methods, with a high false-negative rate. Identification of the LCT polymorphism led to development of a PCR-based test. To evaluate the PCR-based test compared to a combination the hydrogen breath test and the lactose tolerance test, and investigate anthropometrical differences, changes in bone mineral density and oral calcium intake according to LCT polymorphism and milk-drinking habits. All participants (n = 278) underwent clinical examination, with measurement of height, weight and bone density (DXA), and were genotyped for LCT polymorphism (LCT CC or LCT TT: CC is associated with LM). A subgroup (n = 51) had a hydrogen breath test and a lactose tolerance test, in addition to genotyping. Detection of LM by LCT polymorphism was highly significant (p = 0.001). The correlation between LCT genotype and self-reported milk-intolerance or dislike of milk with was slight, but the correlation with functional tests was highly significant. Non-milk-drinkers were lighter (-5 kg) and significantly shorter (-4 cm) than milk-drinkers (p = 0.07 and 0.04, respectively). Total calcium consumption was lower among non-milk-drinkers by about 18% (p = 0.03). Genotyping is an economic, quick and convenient method for diagnosing lactose malabsorption, with results comparable to existing tests. Sufficient calcium consumption may be relevant to body growth, as milk-drinkers were taller. Negative calcium bone balance may be prevented when provision is made for adequate calcium intake.

  1. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C. Larsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%, cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%, and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75% as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%. Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  2. Outbreak of staphylococcal food intoxication after consumption of pasteurized milk products, June 2007, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Fretz, Rainer; Winter, Petra; Mann, Michaela; Höger, Gerda; Stöger, Anna; Ruppitsch, Werner; Ladstätter, Johann; Mayer, Norbert; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    On June 13, 2007, the public health authority informed the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety about 40 children from two neighboring elementary schools who had fallen ill with abdominal cramps and vomiting on June 8. School milk products consumed on June 8 were suspected as the source of the outbreak. On June 8, the milk products provided by local dairy X to eight elementary schools and two nurseries. The short incubation period - all cases fell ill on the day on which the products were consumed - and the short duration of illness (1-2 days) strongly suggested intoxication. In order to identify the causative pathogen, its reservoir and the mode of transmission, a descriptive-epidemiological and microbiological investigation and a retrospective cohort study were conducted. Six of the 10 institutions served by dairy X completed questionnaires on demographics and food consumption. One school had a 79% response rate (203/258) and was chosen as the basis for our cohort study. A total of 166 of the 1025 children (16.2%) at the 10 institutions fulfilled the case definition. Consumption of milk, cacao milk or vanilla milk originating from dairy X was associated with a 37.8 times higher risk of becoming a case (95% CI: 2.3-116.5). Unopened milk products left over at the affected institutions yielded staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. Six out of 64 quarter milk samples from three of 16 cows producing milk for dairy X tested positive for S. aureus. The isolates produced enterotoxins A and D, yielded genes encoding enterotoxins and D, and showed spa type t2953. S. aureus isolated from the nasal swab of the dairy owner harbored genes encoding enterotoxins C, G, H and I, and showed spa type t635. Our investigation revealed that the milk products produced in dairy X on June 7 were the source of the outbreak on June 8. The cows - not the dairy owner - the likely reservoir of the enterotoxin-producing S. aureus. From the risk assessment of the production process at the

  3. Anticipatory and reactive responses to chocolate restriction in frequent chocolate consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Chelsey L; Mattes, Richard D; Tan, Sze-Yen

    2015-06-01

    Many individuals have difficulty adhering to a weight loss diet. One possible explanation could be that dietary restriction paradoxically contributes to overconsumption. The objective of this study was to examine ingestive behavior under a forced chocolate restriction with a focus on the anticipatory restriction period and the post-restriction period in frequent chocolate consumers. Fifty-six male (N = 18) and female (N = 38) high chocolate consumers with high (N = 25) or low (N = 31) cognitive disinhibition participated. Chocolate snacks were provided for a week each to establish baseline, pre-restriction, and post-restriction consumption, Chocolate snacks were replaced with nonchocolate snacks during a 3-week chocolate restriction period. Highly disinhibited participants felt more guilty and consumed significantly more energy than low disinhibited participants across snack conditions. Low disinhibited participants consumed significantly less in the post-restriction period compared to baseline and the pre-restriction period, while high disinhibited participants consumed the same amount across all conditions. Aggregating the data, high and low disinhibited chocolate consumers ate snacks more frequently in the pre- and post-restriction periods compared to the baseline period. This study suggests that for some individuals, restriction of a preferred food like chocolate may be contraindicated for energy restriction and weight management. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  4. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Bujold, Emmanuel; Lemieux, Simone; Bourdages, M?lodie; Blanchet, Claudine; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; No?l, Martin; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that flavanol-rich chocolate has beneficial effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP). However, no RCTs have evaluated these outcomes in pregnant women. The objective of this 2-group, parallel, double-blind RCT was to examine the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate on FMD and BP in pregnant women with normal BP. Methods Forty-four healthy, pregnant women were randomized to the high-flavanol (n?=?23) or low-flav...

  5. Does consumption of red grapefruit juice alter naringenin concentrations in milk produced by breastfeeding mothers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Romaszko

    Full Text Available The content of certain ingredients of human milk, such as flavonoids, depend on the types and amounts of plant products consumed and may vary from woman to woman. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent consumption of an average amount of grapefruit juice (250 ml affected naringenin content in human milk. A total of 14 breastfeeding mothers were included in the study. The subjects remained on a diet with restricted intake of naringenin for a total of five days except on the third day, when they drank a single serving of 250 ml of grapefruit juice. A considerable subject-to-subject variability in naringenin content was observed in both initial and subsequent determinations. Baseline concentration values, which may reflect naringenin content in the milk produced by the breastfeeding mother who eat an everyday (unmodified diet, ranged from 420.86 nmol/l to 1568.89 nmol/l, with a mean of 823.24 nmol/l. Switching to the modified diet resulted in a decrease in naringenin concentrations to the mean value of 673.89 nmol/l measured 48 hours after the switch. The highest mean values were observed four and 12 hours after consumption of the juice, equalling 908.25 nmol/l (SD ± 676.84 nmol/l and 868.96 nmol/l (SD ± 665.54 nmol/l, respectively. Naringenin is commonly found in human milk in quantities expressed in nmol/l, and its concentrations vary from woman to woman. Consumption of 250 ml of red grapefruit juice by breastfeeding mothers does not significantly alter naringenin concentrations in their milk.

  6. Nutrient intakes of children aged 1-2 years as a function of milk consumption, cows' milk or growing-up milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisolfi, Jacques; Fantino, Marc; Turck, Dominique; de Courcy, Geneviève Potier; Vidailhet, Michel

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the nutritional adequacy of diets in early childhood as a function of milk intake, cows' milk (CM) or growing-up milk (GUM). From a cross-sectional food consumption survey, two groups of children aged 1-2 years were defined: group CM fed exclusively on CM ≥ 250 ml/d and group GUM fed on GUM ≥ 250 ml/d. Proportions of children at risk of nutrient excess or insufficiency were estimated relative to the French recommended daily allowances, estimated average requirements or adequate intakes. Parents participating in the survey were recruited from all regions of France by a polling organization. Distribution was adjusted to that of the French population. Sixty-three (group CM) and fifty-five (group GUM) children. Total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in the two groups except protein intake of group CM, which was much higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance and significantly higher than in group GUM. A high percentage of children of Group CM had intake of linoleic acid (51%) and α-linolenic acid (84%) below the lower limit of the adequate intake, and intake of Fe (59%) vitamin C (49%) and alimentary vitamin D (100%) less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Significant differences were observed in the proportions of children with a risk of dietary inadequacy between the two groups for all the mentioned nutrients (P < 0.001). In group GUM, this imbalance was only observed for vitamin D. Intake of foods other than milk and dairy products could not account for these discrepancies. Consumption of CM (≥250 ml/d) entails the risk of insufficiency in α-linolenic acid, Fe, vitamin C and vitamin D. Use of GUM (≥250 ml/d) significantly reduces the risk of insufficiencies in the mentioned nutrients.

  7. Investigation into the Microstructure, Texture and Rheological Properties of Chocolate Ganache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Jade; Hartel, Rich W

    2018-01-22

    Ganache is a mixture of chocolate and dairy. Although a popular confection, little is known about how it functions as a system. Objectives were to (1) determine if dairy fats and cocoa butter mix in ganache, (2) characterize ganache microstructure, and how structure affects texture and rheology, and (3) identify how changes in chocolate composition alter ganache. Textural analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, stress sweep tests, and microscopy were used to examine ganache formulations that varied in dairy source (cream or butter) or in solid fat content (SFC), composition or type of chocolate. Melting temperatures for all ganache formulations were lower than for chocolate, indicating that cream milk fat globules rupture during processing, and mix with cocoa butter. Altering the SFC of chocolate affected ganache hardness, spreadability, melting enthalpy, and resistance to deformation. Chocolate systems made with constant fat content and greater amounts of defatted cocoa powder relative to sugar or nonfat milk powder yielded ganache that was harder, less spreadable, and more resistant to deformation. Ganache made with commercially produced dark, milk, and white chocolates behaved similarly to model chocolate systems. Ganache attributes are affected by chocolate crystalline fat content in addition to particle phase volume-greater levels of cocoa powder, which is mostly insoluble, strengthens ganache structure, producing a firmer product, whereas greater levels of milk powder and sugar, which dissolve in the aqueous cream component, produce a softer ganache. Understanding how ganache functions as a system and how differences in chocolate composition affect its textural and rheological properties may allow for greater control over the desired characteristics of the final product. For example, this research shows how changing cocoa content of the chocolate affects ganache, which is useful when developing formulations involving chocolates with different cocoa

  8. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane El Menchawy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (N=195, aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT milk and the fortified group received (FG daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0 and after 9 months (T9. Hemoglobin (Hb was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (p=0.037. Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%; more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410.

  9. Consumption of pasteurized human lysozyme transgenic goats' milk alters serum metabolite profile in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundige, Dottie R; Maga, Elizabeth A; Klasing, Kirk C; Murray, James D

    2010-08-01

    Nutrition, bacterial composition of the gastrointestinal tract, and general health status can all influence the metabolic profile of an organism. We previously demonstrated that feeding pasteurized transgenic goats' milk expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) can positively impact intestinal morphology and modulate intestinal microbiota composition in young pigs. The objective of this study was to further examine the effect of consuming hLZ-containing milk on young pigs by profiling serum metabolites. Pigs were placed into two groups and fed a diet of solid food and either control (non-transgenic) goats' milk or milk from hLZ-transgenic goats for 6 weeks. Serum samples were collected at the end of the feeding period and global metabolite profiling was performed. For a total of 225 metabolites (160 known, 65 unknown) semi-quantitative data was obtained. Levels of 18 known and 4 unknown metabolites differed significantly between the two groups with the direction of change in 13 of the 18 known metabolites being almost entirely congruent with improved health status, particularly in terms of the gastrointestinal tract health and immune response, with the effects of the other five being neutral or unknown. These results further support our hypothesis that consumption of hLZ-containing milk is beneficial to health.

  10. A dose-response relationship between fish consumption and human milk DHA content among Filipino women in Cebu City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, E A; Kuzawa, C W

    2012-10-01

      Human milk is the primary source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for most infants, an important fatty acid for neurological development. Milk DHA is largely incorporated from the maternal diet. Little is known about whether milk DHA varies within populations with differences in maternal fish consumption. Here, we investigate this association in a sample of marginally nourished Filipino women.   Milk samples were collected during in-home interviews with 117 lactating Filipino mothers from Cebu City, Philippines, nursing infants composition using gas chromatography. Multivariate regression was used to test the association between fish consumption and milk DHA.   Milk DHA showed a positive, dose-response relationship with maternal fish consumption (p Milk DHA was also positively related to protein intake, likely reflecting the association between fish and protein intake (p milk DHA (p = 0.03).   Increasing fish consumption during lactation may be a cost-effective means of maximizing DHA delivery to infants particularly in populations with marginal energy intakes during lactation. However, this must be weighed against the potential dangers of increasing exposure to fish-based pollutants. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  11. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsson, Susanna C; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    .... We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer...

  12. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from chocolate products.

  13. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A

    2013-12-14

    To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten. Median survival time of a chocolate. 191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, Pchocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%). From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.

  14. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs......, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...... was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology...

  15. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Rumbold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak, either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water, which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ, were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001. Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005. There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pasteurization on milk vitamins, and evidence for raw milk consumption and other health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lauren E; Brett, James; Kelton, David; Majowicz, Shannon E; Snedeker, Kate; Sargeant, Jan M

    2011-11-01

    Pasteurization of milk ensures safety for human consumption by reducing the number of viable pathogenic bacteria. Although the public health benefits of pasteurization are well established, pro-raw milk advocate organizations continue to promote raw milk as "nature's perfect food." Advocacy groups' claims include statements that pasteurization destroys important vitamins and that raw milk consumption can prevent and treat allergies, cancer, and lactose intolerance. A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed to summarize available evidence for these selected claims. Forty studies assessing the effects of pasteurization on vitamin levels were found. Qualitatively, vitamins B12 and E decreased following pasteurization, and vitamin A increased. Random effects meta-analysis revealed no significant effect of pasteurization on vitamin B6 concentrations (standardized mean difference [SMD], -2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.40, 0.8; P = 0.06) but a decrease in concentrations of vitamins B1 (SMD, -1.77; 95% CI, -2.57, -0.96; P effect of pasteurization on milk's nutritive value was minimal because many of these vitamins are naturally found in relatively low levels. However, milk is an important dietary source of vitamin B2, and the impact of heat treatment should be further considered. Raw milk consumption may have a protective association with allergy development (six studies), although this relationship may be potentially confounded by other farming-related factors. Raw milk consumption was not associated with cancer (two studies) or lactose intolerance (one study). Overall, these findings should be interpreted with caution given the poor quality of reported methodology in many of the included studies.

  17. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourozi, Mansoreh; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Hanachi, Parichehr

    2015-06-01

    To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women. Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG) and control (CG). Individuals in the SG (n = 34) received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl) and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl) per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23) received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3). The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month) using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire. A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05) years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031), while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical). Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  18. Effect of Soy Milk Consumption on Quality of Life in Iranian Postmenopausal Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Norrozi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG and control (CG. Individuals in the SG (n = 34 received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23 received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3. The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05 years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031, while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical.Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.

  19. Bovine leukaemia virus DNA in fresh milk and raw beef for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Galán, N N; Corredor-Figueroa, A P; Guzmán-Garzón, T C; Ríos-Hernandez, K S; Salas-Cárdenas, S P; Patarroyo, M A; Gutierrez, M F

    2017-11-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis, which has been reported worldwide. BLV has been found recently in human tissue and it could have a significant impact on human health. A possible hypothesis regarding viral entry to humans is through the consumption of infected foodstuffs. This study was aimed at detecting the presence of BLV DNA in raw beef and fresh milk for human consumption. Nested PCR directed at the BLV gag gene (272 bp) was used as a diagnostic test. PCR products were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Forty-nine per cent of the samples proved positive for the presence of proviral DNA. This is the first study highlighting the presence of the BLV gag gene in meat products for human consumption and confirms the presence of the viral DNA in raw milk, as in previous reports. The presence of viral DNA in food products could suggest that viral particles may also be found. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of infected viral particles, even though the present findings could represent a first approach to BLV transmission to humans through foodstuff consumption.

  20. Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of cow's milk (CM) by infants and toddlers has adverse effects on their iron stores, a finding that has been well documented in many localities. Several mechanisms have been identified that may contribute to iron deficiency in this young population group. The most important of these is probably the low iron content of CM, which makes it difficult for infants to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss associated with CM consumption during infancy, a condition that affects about 40% of otherwise healthy infants. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after the age of 1 year. A third mechanism is the inhibition of non-heme iron absorption by calcium and casein, both of which are present in high amounts in CM. Fortification of CM with iron, as practiced in some countries, can protect infants and toddlers against CM's negative effects on iron status. Consumption of CM produces a high renal solute load, which leads to a higher urine solute concentration than consumption of breast milk or formula, thereby narrowing the margin of safety during dehydrating events, such as diarrhea. The high protein intake from CM may also place infants at increased risk of obesity in later childhood. It is thus recommended that unmodified, unfortified CM not be fed to infants and that it be fed to toddlers in modest amounts only. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Factors Associated with Milk Consumption among College Students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Daily milk consumption can be introduced as a healthy dietary pattern associated with a range of health benefits. This study aimed to determine factors associated with milk consumption among students of Yazd university of medical sciences based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 385 students in 2014, who were selected via stratified random sampling. The study data was collected from a questionnaire based on the indirect construct of theory of planned behavior. Finally, the study data were analyzed using the T-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Results: In the present study, 64% of the students consumed milk daily. The behavioral intention, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs, and perceived power were significantly associated with the milk consumption (p<0.05. Conclusion: Educating the students in regard with the importance of receiving enough amount of milk, modifying their misconceptions as well as reinforcing positive beliefs can be effective in increasing milk consumption. In addition, increasing access to milk in university campuses should be taken into consideration.

  2. Effects of postexercise milk consumption on whole body protein balance in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W

    2014-11-15

    In adults, adding protein to a postexercise beverage increases muscle protein turnover and replenishes amino acid stores. Recent focus has shifted toward the use of bovine-based milk and milk products as potential postexercise beverages; however, little is known about how this research translates to the pediatric population. Twenty-eight (15 girls) pre- to early pubertal (PEP, 7-11 yr) and mid- to late-pubertal (MLP, 14-17 yr) children consumed an oral dose of [(15)N]glycine prior to performing 2 × 20-min cycling bouts at 60% V̇O(2 peak) in a warm environment (34.5°C, 47.3% relative humidity). Following exercise, participants consumed either water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES), or skim milk (SM) in a randomized, cross-over fashion in a volume equal to 100% of their body mass loss during exercise. Whole body nitrogen turnover (Q), protein synthesis (S), protein breakdown (B), and whole body protein balance (WBPB) were measured over 16 h. Protein intake from SM was 0.40 ± 0.10 g/kg. Over 16 h, Q and S were significantly greater (P milk consumption enhances WBPB compared with W and CES; however, additional protein intake may be required to sustain a net anabolic environment over 16 h. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Public health risks and benefits associated with breast milk and infant formula consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2018-01-02

    The safety and quality of infant milk, whether it is breast milk (BM) or infant formula (IF), are a major concern for parents and public health authorities. BM is recommended as the gold standard at WHO level. However, nowadays IF appears as an essential alternative in Western countries, challenging producers to optimize nutritional quality and safety of IF. The aim of the present article is to give an overview on the assessment and comparison of risks and benefits associated with BM and IF consumption. To date, this intensively debated subject has been mainly investigated. It has been shown that both diets could be sources of beneficial health effects in terms of nutrition and also risks in terms of chemical safety. Moreover, microbiologists have demonstrated that IF consumption can cause illness due to product contamination or inappropriate milk preparation. The article concludes on the bottlenecks and gaps that should be investigated to further progress the quantification of the impact of early diet on infant health. Performing a multi-disciplinary risk-benefit assessment with DALY as endpoint might be a future option to help prioritize management options.

  4. Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillinger, T L; Barriga, P; Escárcega, S; Jimenez, M; Salazar Lowe, D; Grivetti, L E

    2000-08-01

    The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations.

  5. Does milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy influence fetal growth and infant birthweight? A systematic literature review

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    Inga Thorsdottir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly acknowledged that the maternal diet influences fetal development and health of the child. Milk and milk products contribute essential nutrients and bioactive substances; they are of ample supply and have a long tradition in Nordic countries. To revise and update dietary guidelines for pregnant women valid in Nordic countries, the Pregnancy and Lactation expert group within the NNR5 project identified a need to systematically review recent scientific data on infant growth measures and maternal milk consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth through a systematic review of studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. A literature search was run in June 2011. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 495 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. A complementary search in January 2012 revealed 64 additional abstracts published during the period June to December 2011, among them one study of interest previously identified. Of the 33 studies extracted, eight were relevant research papers. Five were prospective cohort studies (including a retrospective chart review, one was a case–control study, and two were retrospective cohort studies. For fetal length or infant birth length, three studies reported no association and two reported positive associations with milk or dairy consumption. For birthweight related outcomes, two studies reported no associations, and four studies reported positive associations with milk and/or dairy consumption. There was large heterogeneity in exposure range and effect size between studies. A beneficial fetal growth-increase was most pronounced for increasing maternal milk intake in the lower end of the consumption range. Evidence from prospective cohort studies is limited but suggestive that moderate milk consumption relative to none or very low intake, is positively

  6. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults

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    Holloman Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1 to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2 to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. Methods A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Results Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%. Conclusion Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  7. Evaluation of effectiveness of class-based nutrition intervention on changes in soft drink and milk consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie; Holloman, Christopher; Lowry-Gordon, Karen

    2009-10-26

    During last few decades, soft drink consumption has steadily increased while milk intake has decreased. Excess consumption of soft drinks and low milk intake may pose risks of several diseases such as dental caries, obesity, and osteoporosis. Although beverage consumption habits form during young adulthood, which has a strong impact on beverage choices in later life, nutrition education programs on beverages are scarce in this population. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to assess soft drink and milk consumption and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of 15-week class-based nutrition intervention in changing beverage choices among college students. A total of 80 college students aged 18 to 24 years who were enrolled in basic nutrition class participated in the study. Three-day dietary records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Class lectures focused on healthful dietary choices related to prevention of chronic diseases and were combined with interactive hands on activities and dietary feedback. Class-based nutrition intervention combining traditional lecture and interactive activities was successful in decreasing soft drink consumption. Total milk consumption, specifically fat free milk, increased in females and male students changed milk choice favoring skim milk over low fat milk. (1% and 2%). Class-based nutrition education focusing on prevention of chronic diseases can be an effective strategy in improving both male and female college students' beverage choices. Using this type of intervention in a general nutrition course may be an effective approach to motivate changes in eating behaviors in a college setting.

  8. Childhood and adult milk consumption and risk of premenopausal breast cancer in a cohort of 48,844 women - the Norwegian women and cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, A; Laake, P; Lund, E

    2001-09-01

    Analyses of dairy consumption and breast cancer incidence have yielded conflicting results. In this prospective cohort study of 48,844 premenopausal Norwegian women, we examined the relationship between childhood and adult milk consumption and breast cancer incidence. During a mean follow-up time of 6.2 years, 317 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Information on childhood and adult milk consumption was obtained from frequency questions mailed to the participants in 1991-92. Milk consumption as a child was negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer among the youngest women (34-39 years) (p for trend = 0.001), but not among older ones (40-49 years). Adult milk consumption tended to be negatively related to breast cancer incidence (p for trend = 0.12) after adjustment for age, reproductive and hormonal factors, body mass index, education, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Women drinking more than 3 glasses of milk per day had an incidence rate ratio of breast cancer of 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.31-1.01) compared with women not drinking milk. Analyses according to type of milk consumed and milk fat consumption did not reveal any clear associations. A combination of childhood and adult milk consumption produced a clear negative trend in breast cancer incidence rate ratios with increasing milk consumption (p = 0.03). Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Interactions of caseins with phenolic acids found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuting; Seo, Sooyoun; Alli, Inteaz; Chang, Yu-Wei

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the interactions between caseins and phenolic acids, such as the ones present in chocolate, casein was incubated with protocatechuic acid or p-coumaric acid at 55°C. In addition, casein was isolated from chocolate and the phenolic compounds within these caseins were quantified. Electrophoresis results revealed that casein-phenolic interactions were induced by incubation; minor aggregation of casein subunits was observed after incubation of casein with protocatechuic acid. Minor aggregation of casein isolated from milk chocolate was also observed. In vitro hydrolysis of casein control, casein-protocatechuic acid, casein-p-coumaric acid, caseins isolated from milk chocolate and white chocolate using trypsin showed degree of hydrolysis of 19.3, 18.6, 17.7, 10.4 and 17.8% respectively. The presence of protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid in the model system and the presence of phenolic compounds in milk chocolate, in addition to the structural changes occurring during processing, affected the peptide profiles of casein hydrolysates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Better chocolate through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the cacao or chocolate tree, is a tropical understory tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate. And like any important crop, cacao is the subject of much research. On September 15, 2010, scientists publicly released a preliminary sequence of the cacao genome--which contains all o...

  11. Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the life history consequences of cow milk consumption at different stages in early life (prenatal to adolescence), especially with regard to linear growth and age at menarche and the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating a relationship among milk, growth and development, and long-term biological outcomes. United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and review of existing literature. The literature tends to support milk's role in enhancing growth early in life (prior to age 5 years), but there is less support for this relationship during middle childhood. Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence. NHANES data show a positive relationship between milk intake and linear growth in early childhood and adolescence, but not middle childhood, a period of relatively slow growth. IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development, although the mechanism by which it may exert such effects is unknown. Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers

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    Anna Richard

    2017-09-01

    , hedonic deprivation in the absence of an energy deficit increases food cravings. However, this effect can only be observed for individuals with high trait craving levels. Thus, if attractive foods are strictly avoided through a selective deprivation, HCs are at risk to experience craving bouts in the absence of an energy deficit. As implicit preference was unaffected by chocolate deprivation, strong implicit preference for chocolate likely characterize a stable mechanism that drives consumption in HCs.

  13. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Friese, Malte; Blechert, Jens

    2017-01-01

    deprivation in the absence of an energy deficit increases food cravings. However, this effect can only be observed for individuals with high trait craving levels. Thus, if attractive foods are strictly avoided through a selective deprivation, HCs are at risk to experience craving bouts in the absence of an energy deficit. As implicit preference was unaffected by chocolate deprivation, strong implicit preference for chocolate likely characterize a stable mechanism that drives consumption in HCs.

  14. Association between milk and milk product consumption and anthropometric measures in adult men and women in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Agrawal, Sutapa; Bowen, Liza; Khandpur, Neha; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries. To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians. Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women), conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders. After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43-0.76;p ≤ 0.0001) and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51-0.87;p = 0.005), and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm) was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54-0.93;p = 0.005) and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59-1.05;p>0.05) who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥ 1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00-2.25;p>0.050) and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08-2.51;p>0.019) among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women. The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore

  15. Association between milk and milk product consumption and anthropometric measures in adult men and women in India: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Satija

    Full Text Available The nutritional aetiology of obesity remains unclear, especially with regard to the role of dairy products in developing countries.To examine whether milk/milk product consumption is associated with obesity and high waist circumference among adult Indians.Information on plain milk, tea, curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire was obtained from the cross-sectional sib-pair designed Indian Migration Study (3698 men and 2659 women, conducted at four factory locations across north, central and south India. The anthropometric measures included were Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were conducted to accommodate sib-pair design and adjust for potential confounders.After controlling for potential confounders, the risk of being obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 was lower among women (OR = 0.57;95%CI:0.43-0.76;p ≤ 0.0001 and men (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.51-0.87;p = 0.005, and the risk of a high WC (men: >90 cm; women: >80 cm was lower among men (OR = 0.71;95%CI:0.54-0.93;p = 0.005 and women (OR = 0.79;95%CI:0.59-1.05;p>0.05 who consume ≥1 portions of plain milk daily than those who do not consume any milk. The inverse association between daily plain milk consumption and obesity was also confirmed in sibling-pair analyses. Daily tea consumption of ≥ 1 portion was associated with obesity (OR = 1.51;95%CI:1.00-2.25;p>0.050 and high WC (OR = 1.65;95%CI:1.08-2.51;p>0.019 among men but not among women but there was no strong evidence of association of curd and buttermilk/lassi consumption with obesity and high waist circumference among both men and women.The independent, inverse association of daily plain milk consumption with the risk of being obese suggests that high plain milk intake may lower the risk of obesity in adult Indians. However, this is an observational finding and uncontrolled confounding cannot be excluded as an explanation for the association. Therefore

  16. Association of Milk and Dairy Products Consumption During Pregnancy with Fetal and Neonatal Head Circumferences: A Systematic Review

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    Razieh Karimbeiki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Milk and dairy products consumed by mothers seem to be effective for fetal and neonatal anthropometric measurements, because they contain various nutrients. Objectives The aim of this study was to systematically review the influence of milk and dairy products consumption by mothers on fetal and neonatal head circumferences. Data Sources Systematic searches were conducted in electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI, Ovid, Embase, Medlib, Google Scholar, clinical trials and Cochrane central register of clinical trials. Study Selection All studies that assessed the relationship between milk and dairy products consumption in healthy females during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal head circumferences were included in our systematic review. Finally, seven studies were relevant that included five cohort studies, one cross-sectional study and one randomized clinical trial. Data Extraction This systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting item for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA statement recommendation, and for quality assessment, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS for cohort studies, the adapted NOS for a cross-sectional study and the Jadad quality assessment score for a randomized clinical trial, were used. Results Seven studies that comprised of more than 50000 pregnant females were included in this review. One cohort study, one cross-sectional study and one randomized controlled trial study showed that milk or dairy products consumption by pregnant mothers was not associated with neonatal birth head circumference, while three cohort studies reported that maternal milk or dairy products intake had a positive effect on neonatal birth head circumference. Two cohort studies showed that there was no relationship between maternal milk or dairy products consumption and fetal head circumference while a cross-sectional study reported that there was a positive relationship between milk or dairy products

  17. MILK CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR IN HOUSEHOLD HAVING CHILDREN IN GROWING AGE IN YOGYAKARTA SPECIAL PROVINCE

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    R. Widiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine socio-economic factors that influence milkconsumption and propensity to routine milk consuming in a household that have children in growing agein both urban and rural area of Yogyakarta Special Province. Numbers of respondent were 122households in urban area and 102 in rural area. Survey method was used to collect data usingquestionnaires presented to respondents. The data were analyzed quantitatively using a log linearmultiple regression and binomial logistic regression models. Results of the research showed that milkprice and mother’s education background were highly significant factors in determining the milkconsumption expenditure. Individually, the income was not significant factor. Furthermore, urbanhousehold group with higher mother’s education and household income were different significantly withthe rural one. A number of children who were less than 12 years old had significantly greater propensityto consume milk routinely. The program to increase milk consumption for children in growing ageshould be focused on improving the knowledge of mothers in low income communities especially inrural areas accompanied with required skills to get employment opportunities and extra cash income.

  18. Desire lies in the eyes: attention bias for chocolate is related to craving and self-endorsed eating permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2013-11-01

    The present study tested the impact of experimentally manipulated perceived availability of chocolate on attention for chocolate stimuli, momentary (state) craving for chocolate and consumption of chocolate in healthy weight female students. It was hypothesized that eating forbiddance would be related to attentional avoidance (thus diminished attention focus on food cues in an attempt to prevent oneself from processing food cues) and that eating motivation would be related to attentional approach (thus maintained attentional focus on food cues). High chronic chocolate cravers (n=40) and low cravers (n=40) participated in one of four perceived availability contexts (required to eat, forbidden to eat, individual choice to eat, and 50% chance to eat) following a brief chocolate exposure. Attention for chocolate was measured using eye-tracking; momentary craving from self-report; and the consumption of chocolate was assessed from direct observation. The perceived availability of chocolate did not significantly influence attention allocation for chocolate stimuli, momentary craving or chocolate intake. High chocolate cravers reported significantly higher momentary craving for chocolate (d=1.29, pchocolate, than low cravers (d=0.63, pchocolate, irrespective of the availability instruction they received, showed significantly less craving (d=0.96, pchocolate stimuli than participants who permitted themselves to eat chocolate (d=0.53, pchocolate craving, and self-endorsed eating permission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-05-01

    Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF RAW MILK CONSUMPTION RELATED TO STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING

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    Elsa Helena Walter Santana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the risks of staphylococcal food poisoning due to the consumption of raw milk. Fifty-one farms in Londrina (PR and 50 in Pelotas (RS were analyzed, to determinethe population of coagulase-positive staphylococci (UFC/ mL, as well as to verify the ability of producing Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA by immunodifusion (OSP, the presence of the gene for the production of SEA (PCR in the cultures, and the research of enterotoxin (SEA to SEE in milk samples using ELISA commercial kit. Considering the 101 farms analyzed, 19 (18.8% presented coagulase-positive staphylococci count above 105 UFC/mL. For the evaluation of the enterotoxigenic ability (SEA by the OSP technique, six cultures coagulase-positive (5.5% were positive to the test and identified as S. aureus. From the coagualse-negative sample, one (5.5% was OSP positive. For the evaluation of the presence of the gene for EEA synthesis, 51 cultures of staphylococci were tested. From this total, 14 (27.45% presented the gene, and from that, only 5 (9.81% cultures were capable of expressing it in the technique of the OSP. The morphologiccharacteristic of the evaluated cultures that had enterotoxigenic capacity, from the 14 (33,3% cultures that presented the gene for EEA production, 05 (11.9% were characterized as typical cultures of S.aureus in Baird Parker agar. All the 12 milk samples studied for the presence of EEA to EEE in milk were negative. Thus, it can be concluded that there is extensive contamination of raw milk for staphylococci coagulase, however, most of the isolated strains were not enterotoxigenic or did not express such a characteristic. Only 9.81% of the tested colonies expressed the gene and effectivelyproduced SEA. None of the samples had sufficient counts to produce detectable amounts of SEA. The milk samples did not present risk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning if consumed in natura until the collection moment.

  1. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  2. Associations of Milk Consumption and Vitamin B2 and Β12 Derived from Milk with Fitness, Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in Children. The Healthy Growth Study

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    George Moschonis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B2 and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9–13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children’s dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations, dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT (β = 0.10; p = 0.017 and negatively with body mass index (BMI (β = −0.10; p = 0.014, after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (β = 0.10; p = 0.015 and β = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.

  3. Mineral essential elements for nutrition in different chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquanta, Luciano; Di Cesare, Cinzia; Manoni, Remo; Piano, Angela; Roberti, Piero; Salvatori, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the essential mineral nutritional elements in cocoa beans, in chocolates at different cocoa percentage (60,70,80 and 90%) and in milk chocolate are evaluated. Dark chocolates are confirmed as an excellent source of magnesium (252.2 mg/100 g) and iron (10.9 mg/100 g): in chocolate containing 90% cocoa, their content corresponds to, respectively, 67.0% and 80.3 of Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) in the European Union. The chocolate containing 90% cocoa is also a good source of zinc (3.5 mg/100 g), which is important for the immune system, and selenium (0.1 mg/100 g). Three main components suitable to explain the mineral concentrations are analyzed by factor analysis. The component 1 can be interpreted as the contribution from the cocoa beans, owing to the mineral characteristics of the soil in which they have grown; the component 2 is mainly due to the manipulation and transformation of the cocoa in chocolate, while the component 3 represents the milk powder.

  4. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Variation in consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Totten, Sarah M; Garrido, Daniel A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2013-10-01

    Human milk contains a high concentration of complex oligosaccharides that influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants. Previous studies have indicated that select species such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum can utilize human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) in vitro as the sole carbon source, while the relatively few B. longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium breve isolates tested appear less adapted to these substrates. Considering the high frequency at which B. breve is isolated from breast-fed infant feces, we postulated that some B. breve strains can more vigorously consume HMO and thus are enriched in the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract. To examine this, a number of B. breve isolates from breast-fed infant feces were characterized for the presence of different glycosyl hydrolases that participate in HMO utilization, as well as by their ability to grow on HMO or specific HMO species such as lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and fucosyllactose. All B. breve strains showed high levels of growth on LNT and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and, in general, growth on total HMO was moderate for most of the strains, with several strain differences. Growth and consumption of fucosylated HMO were strain dependent, mostly in isolates possessing a glycosyl hydrolase family 29 α-fucosidase. Glycoprofiling of the spent supernatant after HMO fermentation by select strains revealed that all B. breve strains can utilize sialylated HMO to a certain extent, especially sialyl-lacto-N-tetraose. Interestingly, this specific oligosaccharide was depleted before neutral LNT by strain SC95. In aggregate, this work indicates that the HMO consumption phenotype in B. breve is variable; however, some strains display specific adaptations to these substrates, enabling more vigorous consumption of fucosylated and sialylated HMO. These results provide a rationale for the predominance of this species in breast-fed infant feces and

  6. Research to Understand Milk Consumption Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jaye Finnell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about what influences consumer behavior of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP recipients toward the type of milk used or the prevalence of low-fat milk use among this population. This cross-sectional telephone survey of SNAP recipients (n = 520 documented that 7.5% of this population usually consumes low-fat milk, a prevalence that lags behind national figures (34.4% for the same time-period. There was a weak association between sociodemographic characteristics of SNAP recipients and low-fat milk use. Instead, less low-fat milk consumption was associated with a knowledge gap and misperceptions of the nutritional properties of the different types of milk. Promoting low-fat milk use by correcting these misperceptions can improve the diet of America’s low-income population and reduce food insecurity by maximizing the nutritional value of the foods consumed.

  7. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Damiano; Rosi, Fabia

    2014-07-23

    In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower ( p milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower ( p UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower ( p UHT milk. Leptin was correlated ( p milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT) is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  8. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  9. Association of Milk and Meat Consumption with the Development of Breast Cancer in a Western Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Salazar, Hector R.; Arreola-Cruz, Alejandro; Madrigal-Pérez, Daniela; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D.; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose; Montes-Galindo, Daniel A.; López-Flores, Rodrigo A.; Espinoza-Gomez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A.; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L.; Briseño-Gomez, Xochitl G.; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breast cancer is a public health problem and it is the most common gynecologic neoplasia worldwide. The risk factors for its development are of both hereditary and environmental origin. Certain foods have been clearly associated with modifying the breast cancer risk. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the effects of cow's milk and meat consumption on the development of breast cancer in a population from Western Mexico (Colima). Material and Methods We studied 97 patients presenting with a histopathologic diagnosis of breast cancer and 104 control individuals who did not present with the disease (Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) 1-2). 80% of the population belonged to a low socioeconomic stratum. The main clinical characteristics were analyzed along with the lifetime consumption of meat and milk. Results High milk consumption increased the breast cancer risk by 7.2 times (p = 0.008) whereas the consumption of meat was not significantly associated with the disease. Conclusions High consumption of cow's milk was a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of dietary patterns on the development of breast cancer in diverse populations with ethnic, cultural, and economic differences. PMID:26989358

  10. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. PMID:23792967

  11. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  12. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  13. Objective quantification of the food proximity effect on grapes, chocolate and cracker consumption in a Swedish high school. A temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, Billy; Fagerberg, Petter; Glossner, Andrew; Ioakimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Close food proximity leads to increased short-term energy intake, potentially contributing to the long-term development of obesity. However, its precise effects on eating behaviour are still unclear, especially with food available for extended periods of time. This study involved two similar high school student groups (15-17 years old), which had ad libitum access to grapes, chocolates and crackers during an hour-long experimental session. In the distal condition the foods were placed 6 meters away from the students (n = 24), in contrast to the proximal condition (n = 17) were the food was placed near the students. The identification of the type and the quantification of the amount of each food selected, for each individual serving, was facilitated through use of food scales and video recording. In the proximal condition individuals served themselves grapes and crackers more often and consumed more chocolate than in the distal condition. In total, participants in the proximal condition ingested significantly more energy (726 kcal vs. 504 kcal; p = 0.029), without reporting higher fullness. Food proximity also affected the temporal distribution of servings, with the first five minutes of the sessions corresponding to 53.1% and 45.6% of the total energy intake for the distal and proximal conditions, respectively. After the first five minutes, the servings in the distal condition were strongly clustered in time, with many students getting food together. In the proximal condition however, students displayed an unstructured pattern of servings over time. In conclusion, this study strengthens past evidence regarding the important role of food proximity on individual energy intake and, for the first time, it associates continuous food proximity to the emergence of unstructured eating over time. These conclusions, expanded upon by future studies, could support the creation of meaningful intervention strategies based on spatially and temporally controlled food availability.

  14. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and its effects on atopy and asthma in children and adult inhabitants in rural Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozańska, B; Pearce, N; Dudek, K; Cullinan, P

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of unpasteurized cow's milk has been identified as a possible protective factor for atopy and asthma. Most studies have been conducted among children and in farming populations. We investigated the effects of consumption of unpasteurized milk in early life on atopy, asthma, and rhinitis in village and town inhabitants in a region of Poland and assessed whether any protective effects of milk consumption differed according to place of residence and farming status. We surveyed the inhabitants (aged >5 years) of a small town and seven nearby villages in southwest Poland (n = 1700, response rate 88%). Participants (or their parents for those asthma and rhinitis. In particular, information was collected on unpasteurized milk consumption in early life. Atopy was assessed using skin prick tests. Consumption of unpasteurized milk in the first year of life was inversely associated with atopy and asthma both among town and village inhabitants - town: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for atopy 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.52] asthma 0.51 (0.32-0.74); villages: atopy 0.59 (0.44-0.70) and asthma 0.59 (0.42-0.74). For atopy, the protective effect was more clearly seen among nonfarmers (0.42; 0.34-0.46) than in farmers (0.82; 0.54-1.11). For doctor-diagnosed hay fever and current rhinitis symptoms, the protective effect was only observed among town inhabitants and/or nonfarmers. Early-life exposure to unpasteurized milk may protect against atopy, asthma, and related conditions, independently of place of residence and farming status, and in both children and adults. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Influence of nutrition on somatotropic axis: Milk consumption in adult individuals with moderate-severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Falco, Andrea; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Orio, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Savastano, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    Nutrition is the major environmental factor that influences the risk of developing pathologies, such as obesity. Although a number of recent reviews pinpoint a protective effects of milk on body weight and obesity related co-morbidities, an inaccurate estimate of milk might contribute to hamper its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Seven-day food records provide prospective food intake data, reducing recall bias and providing extra details about specific food items. Milk intake stimulates the somatotropic axis at multiple levels by increasing both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion. On the other hand, obesity is associated with reduced spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion and basal IGF-1 levels. Aim of this study was to evaluate the milk consumption by using the 7-days food record in obese individuals and to investigate the association between milk intake and GH secretory status in these subjects. Cross-sectional observational study carried out on 281 adult individuals (200 women and 81 men, aged 18-74 years) with moderate-severe obesity (BMI 35.2-69.4 kg/m2). Baseline milk intake data were collected using a 7 day food record. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical profile were determined. The GH/IGF-1 axis was evaluated by peak GH response after GHRH + ARGININE and IGF-1 standard deviation score (SDS). The majority of individuals (72.2%) reported consuming milk; 250 mL low-fat milk was the most frequently serving of milk consumed, while no subjects reported to consume whole milk. Milk consumers vs no milk consumers presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile. At the bivariate proportional odds ratio model, after adjusting for BMI, age and gender, milk consumption was associated the better GH status (OR = 0.60; p skip breakfast, and suggests the need of a growing cooperation between Nutritionists and Endocrinologists in the management of the obese patients. Copyright © 2015 The

  16. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetically predicted milk consumption and bone health, ischemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Lin, S L; Au Yeung, S L; Kwok, M K; Xu, L; Leung, G M; Schooling, C M

    2017-08-01

    Milk provides protein and micronutrients, and is recommended by some dietary guidelines, particularly for bone health. Meta-analysis of small randomized controlled trials suggests that milk may increase bone mineral density, but they are very heterogeneous. No randomized controlled trial has assessed the effects of milk on major chronic diseases. Previous Mendelian randomization studies of milk did not consider bone health, found no effects on ischemic heart disease (IHD) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) but higher body mass index. Using larger genetic studies, we estimated the effects of milk on osteoporosis, IHD, T2D, adiposity, lipids and glycemic traits. Instrumental variable analysis based on a genetic variant endowing lactase persistence (rs4988235 (MCM6)) was used to obtain estimates for osteoporosis (GEFOS), IHD (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D), T2D (DIAGRAM), adiposity (GIANT), lipids (GLGC) and glycaemic traits (MAGIC). Eye color was a negative control for IHD, as it mirrors the distribution of lactase persistence and IHD in Western Europe. Genetically predicted adult milk consumption was not clearly associated with bone mineral density, IHD (odds ratio (OR): 1.03 per s.d., 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.12) and or T2D (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.83-1.02) but was associated with higher log-transformed fasting insulin (0.05, 95% CI: 0.02-0.07) and body mass index (0.06, 95% CI: 0.03-0.09). Genetically predicted eye color was not associated with IHD. The lack of association of genetically predicted milk consumption with bone health, IHD or T2D suggests few beneficial effects but is more consistent with milk promoting adiposity.

  18. Exploring consumer perception about the different types of chocolate Explorando a percepção do consumidor sobre diferentes tipos de chocolate

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    Adriana Gámbaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Word Association technique was used to analyze the perception of 120 Uruguayan consumers concerning the different types of chocolate. Similarly, it was estimated how healthy consumers perceived dark, white and milk chocolate to be. As a generic product, chocolate was associated with good taste, positive feelings, sweetness, feelings of warmth and calories/energy. White, dark and milk chocolate were significantly associated with other concepts (creaminess, bitterness, intense taste, etc.. A cluster analysis was performed on the scores regarding the perceived healthiness as reported by the consumers. 3 clusters were identified: Cluster 1 did not perceive any of the three types of chocolate to be very healthy, Cluster 2 considered dark chocolate to be very healthy but white chocolate to be less healthy and Cluster 3 perceived the three types of chocolate as very healthy. The Word Association technique enabled us to identify the differences between the associations made by each cluster.A técnica de Associação de Palavras foi utilizada para analisar a percepção que 120 consumidores uruguaios tinham em relação a diferentes tipos de chocolate. Da mesma forma, estimou-se o quão saudável os consumidores percebiam cada tipo de chocolate: escuro, branco e ao leite. Como um produto genérico, o chocolate foi associado com bom gosto, sentimentos positivos, doçura, sensação de calor e calorias/energia. Chocolates dos tipos branco, escuro e ao leite foram significativamente associados com outros conceitos (cremosidade, amargura, sabor intenso, etc.. Uma análise de agrupamento foi realizada na pontuação em relação à saudabilidade percebida, reportada pelos consumidores. Três grupos foram identificados: Grupo 1 - não percebem qualquer um dos três tipos de chocolate como sendo muito saudável; Grupo 2 - consideram o chocolate escuro como muito saudável e o chocolate branco foi considerado como menos saudável; Grupo 3 - percebem os tr

  19. Chocolate--A Sweet Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a brief history of manufacturing chocolate and an outline of production methods. Describes laboratory techniques used to monitor liquid chocolate viscosity. Discusses a simple experiment which can be performed in the classroom. (Author/CW)

  20. How dark chocolate is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  1. High milk consumption does not affect prostate tumor progression in two mouse models of benign and neoplastic lesions.

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    Sophie Bernichtein

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies that have investigated whether dairy (mainly milk diets are associated with prostate cancer risk have led to controversial conclusions. In addition, no existing study clearly evaluated the effects of dairy/milk diets on prostate tumor progression, which is clinically highly relevant in view of the millions of men presenting with prostate pathologies worldwide, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN. We report here a unique interventional animal study to address this issue. We used two mouse models of fully penetrant genetically-induced prostate tumorigenesis that were investigated at the stages of benign hyperplasia (probasin-Prl mice, Pb-Prl or pre-cancerous PIN lesions (KIMAP mice. Mice were fed high milk diets (skim or whole for 15 to 27 weeks of time depending on the kinetics of prostate tumor development in each model. Prostate tumor progression was assessed by tissue histopathology examination, epithelial proliferation, stromal inflammation and fibrosis, tumor invasiveness potency and expression of various tumor markers relevant for each model (c-Fes, Gprc6a, activated Stat5 and p63. Our results show that high milk consumption (either skim or whole did not promote progression of existing prostate tumors when assessed at early stages of tumorigenesis (hyperplasia and neoplasia. For some parameters, and depending on milk type, milk regimen could even exhibit slight protective effects towards prostate tumor progression by decreasing the expression of tumor-related markers like Ki-67 and Gprc6a. In conclusion, our study suggests that regular milk consumption should not be considered detrimental for patients presenting with early-stage prostate tumors.

  2. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Design Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Setting Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Participants Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Intervention Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study con...

  3. Independent and joint effects of tea and milk consumption on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Cai, Lin; Cai, Guoxi; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; He, Baochang

    2017-07-25

    This study aims to evaluate the independent and joint effects of tea and milk consumption on oral cancer risk among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NS/ND). A hospital-based case-control study was performed in Fujian, China. 421 cases and frequency-matched 1398 controls were included without tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking habits. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship of tea and milk consumption with oral cancer risk. Tea and milk consumption were significantly associated with decreased risk of oral cancer, the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54-0.97) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.88), respectively. According to subgroup analysis, the inverse associations between tea consumption and oral cancer risk were only observed among the elders (>60 years) and urban residents. While the protect effect of milk drinking was more obvious in males, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), urban residents and those age ≤ 60 years. Additionally, a significantly multiplicative interaction between tea and milk consumption was observed for oral cancer risk (P = 0.001). The present study is the first to simultaneously assess the association of tea consumption and milk drinking with oral cancer risk. The results suggest that tea and milk consumption are independent protective factors for oral cancer among NS/ND, with a joint effect between them.

  4. Evaluation of the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire used in the IDEFICS study by relating urinary calcium and potassium to milk consumption frequencies among European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, I; Börnhorst, C; Pala, V; Moreno, L A; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Fraterman, A; Veidebaum, T; Hebestreit, A; Sieri, S; Ottevaere, C; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Ahrens, W; De Henauw, S

    2011-04-01

    Measuring dietary intake in children is notoriously difficult. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the performance of dietary intake assessment methods in children. Given the important contribution of milk consumption to calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) intakes, urinary calcium (UCa) and potassium (UK) excretions in spot urine samples could be used for estimating correlations with milk consumption frequencies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the assessment of milk consumption frequencies derived from the Food Frequency Questionnaire section of the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) used in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants) study by comparing with UCa and UK excretions in spot urine samples. This study was conducted as a setting-based community-oriented intervention study and results from the first cross-sectional survey have been included in the analysis. A total of 10,309 children aged 2-10 years from eight European countries are included in this analysis. UCa and UK excretions were measured in morning spot urine samples. Calcium and potassium urine concentrations were standardised for urinary creatinine (Cr) excretion. Ratios of UCa/Cr and UK/Cr were used for multivariate regression analyses after logarithmic transformation to obtain normal distributions of data. Milk consumption frequencies were obtained from the CEHQ-FFQ. Multivariate regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of milk consumption frequencies on UCa and UK concentrations, adjusting for age, gender, study centre, soft drink consumption and frequency of main meals consumed at home. A significant positive correlation was found between milk consumption frequencies and ratios of UK/Cr and a weaker but still significant positive correlation with ratios of UCa/Cr, when using crude or partial Spearman's correlations. Multivariate regression analyses showed that milk consumption frequencies

  5. A comparison of two low-calorie sweeteners and sugar in dark chocolate on sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagast, Sofie; De Steur, Hans; Schouteten, Joachim J; Gellynck, Xavier

    2017-08-14

    Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes. The chocolate with tagatose was perceived as more similar to the chocolate with sugar than with stevia on overall liking, texture, bitterness, duration of aftertaste and intensity of aftertaste. Furthermore, chocolate with sugar and chocolate with tagatose both elicited positive emotional conceptualisations whereas chocolate with stevia elicited negative emotional conceptualisations. In conclusion, dark chocolate with tagatose did not significantly differ from sugar in overall liking, most sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisation.

  6. Consumption of transgenic cows' milk containing human lactoferrin results in beneficial changes in the gastrointestinal tract and systemic health of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Nelson, Kathryn M; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2013-06-01

    Lactoferrin is an antimicrobial and immunomodulatory protein that is produced in high quantities in human milk and aids in the gastrointestinal (GI) maturation of infants. Beneficial health effects have been observed when supplementing human and animal diets with lactoferrin. A herd of genetically engineered cattle that secrete recombinant human lactoferrin in their milk (rhLF-milk) have been generated which provide an efficient production system and ideal medium for rhLF consumption. The effects of consumption of rhLF-milk were tested on young pigs as an animal model for the GI tract of children. When comparing rhLF-milk fed pigs to non-transgenic milk fed pigs (control), we observed that rhLF-milk fed pigs had beneficial changes in circulating leukocyte populations. There was a significant decrease in neutrophils (p = 0.0036) and increase in lymphocytes (p = 0.0017), leading to a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p = 0.0153), which is an indicator of decreased systemic inflammation. We also observed changes in intestinal villi architecture. In the duodenum, rhLF-milk fed pigs tended to have taller villi (p = 0.0914) with significantly deeper crypts (p milk had villi that were significantly taller (p = 0.0002), with deeper crypts (p milk and control-milk fed pigs, indicating that consumption of rhLF-milk did not change cytokine signaling in the intestines. Overall favorable changes in systemic health and GI villi architecture were observed; indicating that consumption of rhLF-milk has the potential to induce positive changes in the GI tract.

  7. Development of the composition of chocolate mass that resistant to bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Tkeshelashvili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate or used as a coating on the surface of the sweets chocolate mass when exposed to a temperature drop and/or a drop in the humidity of the environment, change color, lose gloss and acquire an unwanted grayish-white surface. The loss of the appearance of chocolate – the effect of bloom is the reason for the return of products from the trading network causing highly tangible the economic damage to the producers. In this connection, experimental researches devoted to the problem of preventing bloom and developing consist of chocolate masses preclusion to bloom appear to be an urgent task. The purpose of the research is develop consist of chocolate and covering chocolate resistant to bloom. The work is performed at the Scientific research institute of «Applied research of innovative technologies and food quality» of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. For an investigation, samples of chocolate and covering chocolate based on cocoa butter were made in the formulation of which an additive including milk fat/isomalt/polydextrose. The control samples were dark chocolate and covering chocolate prepared according to a unified formula. For the formation of blooming, the samples were exposed to temperature fluctuations and relative humidity. The measurement of the color of chocolate is implementation by an instrumental method based on the analysis of the optical characteristics of the product. The coefficients of reflection spectra of samples of chocolate were converted into color coordinates of space CIEL ? a ? b* 1976. The emergence of a bloom of chocolate by changing the parameter lightness L ? (CIEL ? a ? b* was diagnosed. The effect of introducing an additive, including milk fat/isomalt/polydextrose on fat and sugar bloom, was determined in the formulation of chocolate masses. Based on research the consist of the chocolate mass has been developed which practically does not change the taste of the finished chocolate products

  8. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  9. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelhon, T.S.; Grossiord, N.; Morgan, A.R.; Bon, S.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a route toward the preparation of healthier fruit juice infused chocolate candy. Up to 50 wt% of the fat content in chocolate, that is cocoa butter and milk fats, is replaced with fruit juice in the form of emulsion droplets using a quiescent Pickering emulsion fabrication strategy.

  10. PRODUCTION ECONOMY OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK: PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Peterková Jana; Rádlová Lucie; Boudný Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the breeding of dairy cows in organic farming systems in the Czech Republic in the years 2010–2014, an evaluation of the organic milk production and a comparison of the production economy of organic milk and milk produced in the conventional manner. The growing popularity of organic milk is reflected in the increasing number of organic dairy farmers and thereby also in increasing production of organic milk. The sad fact is that the growth of this industry is currentl...

  11. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bottle milk feeding and its association with food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics in Chinese young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Suey; Chan, Ruth; Li, Liz; Leung, Shirley; Woo, Jean

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended that infants from the age of 12 months should be weaned from bottles. However, an overwhelming proportion of young children were still using bottle after the recommended age of bottle-weaning. This cross-sectional study examined the association between utensils for milk drinking and food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics among young children. Data from the Survey of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Hong Kong were analyzed for 649 children aged 18-48 months old. Dietary outcomes were obtained via 3-day dietary records, while utensils for milk drinking and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from a self-developed questionnaire. Length/height and weight of the children were measured by the nurses. Results showed that daily consumption of formula milk was significantly greater among bottle users or bottle plus cup users than non-bottle users (p bottle users had significantly lower intakes of meat and meat alternatives than bottle plus cup users for the 18 to 24-month group (p = 0.001) and lower intakes of fruits than non-bottle users in the 48-month group (p = 0.015). BMI z-score was significantly higher for exclusive bottle users than non-bottle users, even after adjusting for socio-economic factors and child's age (p = 0.006). The results showed that the milk drinking utensil was associated with the amount of formula milk and food group consumption as well as BMI z-score. There is a need to actively discourage prolonged bottle use in order to help young children develop good dietary habits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Chocolate and women's sexual health: An intriguing correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonia, Andrea; Fabbri, Fabio; Zanni, Giuseppe; Scavini, Marina; Fantini, Gemma Viola; Briganti, Alberto; Naspro, Richard; Parazzini, Fabio; Gori, Enzo; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2006-05-01

    Historically chocolate has been reported to exert several effects on human sexuality, mainly acting as an effective aphrodisiac, increasing sexual desire, and improving sexual pleasure. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is an association between daily chocolate intake and sexual function in a convenience sample of Northern Italian women. A convenience sample of 163 women (mean +/- SD age: 35.3 +/- 9.2 years; body mass index [BMI]: 22.5 +/- 3.5 kg/m2), recruited through advertising, completed an anonymous semistructured interview on recreational habits and questionnaires to assess sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI]), sexual distress (Female Sexual Distress Scale), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Survey Depression Scale). Complete data were available for 153/163 (93.8%) women. Participants who reported daily chocolate intake (Group 1: 120 women) were significantly younger than those (Group 2: 33 women) who did not report to eat chocolate (33.9 +/- 0.8 years vs. 40.4 +/- 1.6 years, respectively) (P = 0.0003), despite a similar BMI. Participants in Group 1 had significantly higher total (P = 0.002) and desire domain (P = 0.01) FSFI scores than participants in Group 2. No differences between the two groups were observed concerning sexual arousal and satisfaction, sexual distress and depression. Our data also confirm that aging has a high statistically significant impact on women's sexual function. It is alluring to hypothesize that chocolate can have either a psychological or a biological positive impact on women's sexuality. In our sample women reporting chocolate consumption have higher FSFI scores than women who do not eat chocolate. However, when data are adjusted for age FSFI scores are similar, regardless of chocolate consumption.

  14. PRODUCTION ECONOMY OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK: PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the breeding of dairy cows in organic farming systems in the Czech Republic in the years 2010–2014, an evaluation of the organic milk production and a comparison of the production economy of organic milk and milk produced in the conventional manner. The growing popularity of organic milk is reflected in the increasing number of organic dairy farmers and thereby also in increasing production of organic milk. The sad fact is that the growth of this industry is currently driven mainly by an interest occurring in foreign countries, where organic milk can be marketed as an organic product and simultaneously it is possible to achieve a better evaluation. Although the number of businesses breeding cows and the organic milk production are growing, with regards to both scale of production and economic importance, the production of organic milk can be characterised as less important. The increase of interest in producing organic milk is primarily a matter of the production economy, which is unfavourable. The market price of milk even with aid has not covered production costs. In 2014, as estimated, the production economy of organic milk improved.

  15. Urban consumption of meat and milk and its green and blue water footprints-Patterns in the 1980s and 2000s for Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosire, Caroline K; Lannerstad, Mats; de Leeuw, Jan; Krol, Maarten S; Ogutu, Joseph O; Ochungo, Pamela A; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2017-02-01

    Various studies show that the developing world experiences and will continue to experience a rise in consumption of animal proteins, particularly in cities, as a result of continued urbanization and income growth. Given the relatively large water footprint (WF) of animal products, this trend is likely to increase the pressure on already scarce water resources. We estimate, analyse and interpret the changes in consumption of meat and milk between the 1980s and 2000s for three income classes in Nairobi, the ratio of domestic production to imports, and the WF (the volume of freshwater consumed) to produce these commodities in Kenya and abroad. Nairobi's middle-income class grew much faster than the overall population. In addition, milk consumption per capita by the middle-income group grew faster than for the city's population as a whole. Contrary to expectation, average meat consumption per capita across all income groups in Nairobi declined by 11%. Nevertheless, total meat consumption increased by a factor 2.2 as a result of population growth, while total milk consumption grew by a factor 5. As a result, the total WF of meat consumption increased by a factor 2.3 and the total WF of milk consumption by a factor 4.2. The increase in milk consumption was met by increased domestic production, whereas the growth in meat consumption was partly met through imports and an enlargement of the footprint in the countries neighbouring Kenya. A likely future rise in the consumption of meat and milk in Nairobi will further enlarge the city's WF. Given Kenya's looming blue water scarcity, it is anticipated that this WF will increasingly spill over the borders of the country. Accordingly, policies aimed at meeting the rise in demand for meat and milk should consider the associated environmental constraints and the economic implications both nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  17. [Determination of milk and diary products consumption and their connection with lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance in selected disorders of the alimentary tract in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutyra, Tomasz; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Lactose stimulates proliferation and colonization of acidophilic bacteria, which due to fermentation processes lower colonic pH and simplified absorption of some microelements from the intestine. However, the common problem in children is intolerance of this carbohydrate. Treatment, quite simple, is based on partial or total elimination of lactose from diet. Some substitutional products with equivalent nutritional value should be introduced to prevent deficiencies symptoms during lactose-free diet. Determination of milk and dairy products consumption and their connection with lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance in children above 5 years of age in selected disorders of the alimentary tract: food allergy, celiac disease, secondary enteropathy, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and deficiency of body weight and height. The number of 301 patients above 5 years of age (135 boys and 166 girls; mean age 11.5 years) were included into the study. Milk and dairy products consumption habits, lactose intolerance symptoms, hydrogen breath test, activity of lactase and villous atrophy were investigated. Decreased sweet milk consumption from, 33.33% in children with food allergy to 55.38% in children with functional indigestion was observed, in spite of gastrointestinal complaints after ingestion of milk. The biggest lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance frequency was observed in children with decreased sweet milk consumption due to complaints after ingestion of milk and in children who didn't drink milk. There were no statistically significant difference between frequency of lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance symptoms in children with different dairy products consumption habits. There were no statistically significant difference between frequency of hypolactasia in children with different sweet milk or dairy products consumption habits. Frequent (33-55%) decreased sweet milk consumption in children in spite of clinical symptoms after

  18. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153 Section 163.153 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable...

  19. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit. PMID:28649251

  20. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  1. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  2. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  3. Probiotic Soy Milk Consumption and Renal Function Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghajani, Maryam; Zaghian, Nafiseh; Dehkohneh, Abolfazl; Mirlohi, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-09-08

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one the most important complications of diabetes leading to end-stage renal disease. Dietary approaches have been considered to control of the kidney function deterioration among these patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of fortified soy milk with Lactobacillus plantarum A7 on renal function biomarkers in type 2 DN patients. Forty-eight DN subjects were attended to this parallel randomized trial study. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing 200 mL/day probiotic soy milk in intervention group or soy milk in the control condition for 8 weeks. An inflammatory adipokine-Progranulin (PGRN), a cytokine receptor-soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), and serum levels of Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C (Cys-C) as the new renal function biomarkers were measured after 8 weeks of intervention according to the standard protocol. Our analysis showed that consumption of probiotic soy milk resulted in a significant reduction in the Cys-C and PGRN levels compared with the soy milk (P = 0.01) in the final adjusted model. In addition, after adjustment for age, weight, and energy intake, a marginally significant in the NGAL level was seen between two groups (P = 0.05). However, there was no significant differences on the sTNFR1concenteration between two groups (P = 0.06). Overall, intake of probiotic soy milk may have a beneficial effect on the renal function in patients with DN.

  4. β-Glucan and dark chocolate: a randomized crossover study on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Asli; Dasgin, Halil; Ayaz, Aylin; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Besler, H Tanju

    2014-09-23

    The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON), oat β-glucan (B-GLU), dark chocolate (DARK) or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK) were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS) scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014). The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  5. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Akyol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25 were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON, oat β-glucan (B-GLU, dark chocolate (DARK or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  6. Mood food: chocolate and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-04-26

    Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, >or=16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, >or=22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score >or=16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (>or=22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, <.01). These associations extended to both men and women. These findings did not appear to be explained by a general increase in fat, carbohydrate, or energy intake. Higher CES-D depression scores were associated with greater chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study.

  7. Short communication: Determination of withdrawal time for oxytetracycline in different types of goats for milk consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela; Woldesenbet, Sela

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry and the presence of antibiotics in milk is a health hazard. The objective of this study was to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in fresh, aged, and pasteurized milk of 3 breeds of goats using HPLC analysis. It was also essential to determine the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats. The quantitative results obtained using the HPLC system were compared with the tolerance limit of oxytetracycline in milk in the United States. Fifteen milking does, 5 Nubians, 5 Alpines, and 5 LaManchas were randomly selected from the milking herd at the International Goat Research Center at Prairie View A&M University. A simple sample preparation and isocratic HPLC method using ultraviolet detection was used for analysis of milk samples. The HPLC results indicated that the withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in treated Alpine does was 82h (7 milking), whereas for Nubian does the period was 58h (5 milking), and for LaManchas the period was 72h (6 milking) after drug administration. The overall withdrawal period for all the treated goats of 3 breeds was 72h. Although these results indicated that the depletion rate of this antibiotic was faster in goats than the reported data for cows, the 96-h withdrawal period that is currently used for lactating cows is still necessary for these 3 breeds of goats. Additionally, our results indicated that oxytetracycline is not stable in goat milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and will decrease significantly. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Park, Keigan M

    2012-05-01

    Although evidence has linked the consumption of saturated fat (SF) to increased LDL levels and an increased risk of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent findings have indicated that the link between CVD and SF may be less straightforward than originally thought. This may be due to the fact that some food sources high in SF contain an array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each of which may differentially affect lipoprotein metabolism, as well as contribute significant amounts of other nutrients, which may alter CVD risk. The purpose of this review is to examine the published research on the relationship between milk fat containing dairy foods and cardiovascular health. The findings indicate that the majority of observational studies have failed to find an association between the intake of dairy products and increased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, regardless of milk fat levels. Results from short-term intervention studies on CVD biomarkers have indicated that a diet higher in SF from whole milk and butter increases LDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates or unsaturated fatty acids; however, they may also increase HDL and therefore might not affect or even lower the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. The results from the review also indicate that cheese intake lowers LDL cholesterol compared with butter of equal milk fat content. In addition, the review highlights some significant gaps in the research surrounding the effects of full-fat dairy on CVD outcomes, pointing to the need for long-term intervention studies.

  9. Assessment risk to children's health due to consumption of cow's milk in polluted areas in Puebla and Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Gonzalez, Numa Pompilio; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Calderón Sánchez, Francisco; Moreno Ortega, Alicia; Juarez Meneses, Mayté

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the heavy metal content in cow's milk produced in areas irrigated with waste water and to evaluate the health risk with daily consumption of milk for children. The sample consisted of four zones in which small farmers were selected and the milk of 160 cows in two seasons of the year. On average, the metals in the milk in decreasing order were 0.36; 0.046; 0.035; 0.029; 0.015; 0.012, and 0.002 mg kg-1 for Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Cd, respectively. The Pb exceeded the limits allowed by Codex. The values shown in the hazard quotient for the As of more than 1 and HI were higher. On the other hand, the individual risk of cancer showed a descending order As> Cd> Cr> Pb, while the total risk indicated that the combined effect of metals put girls and boys at serious risk.

  10. Mothers' Consumption of Soy Drink But Not Black Tea Increases the Flavonoid Content of Term Breast Milk: A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Frank; Alteheld, Birgit; Meinardus, Pamela; Dahlinger, Norbert; Nomayo, Antonia; Stehle, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We performed a pilot RCT to prove the hypothesis that a controlled ingestion of polyphenol-rich beverages (soy drink, decaffeinated black tea) in nutritive dosages by nursing women has an effect on the composition (flavonoid concentration, total antioxidant capacity) of breast milk. Healthy nursing women were supplemented with either 250 mL of a soy drink (12 mg isoflavones; n = 18), 300 mL decaffeinated black tea (67 mg catechins; n = 18), or 300 mL water (n = 8, control) for 6 days. Milk samples were collected before, during, and after intervention. Flavonoid content (isoflavones/catechins, HPLC) and total antioxidant capacity of milk and test drinks in milk specimens were assessed. Isoflavone content (genistein and daidzein) in breast milk increased up to 12 nmol/L after soy drink consumption; the major flavonoids constituents of black tea (catechin, epicatechin, and respective conjugates) could not be detected in milk samples. With both interventions, the total antioxidant capacity of breast milk was not affected. Mothers' daily consumption of a soy drink considerably increases isoflavone content of breast milk resulting in an estimated daily exposure of 9.6 nmol isoflavones in a 4-month-old suckling infant. Luminal flavanol uptake from black tea consumed by the nursing mother may be too low to affect flavanol concentrations in breast milk. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Dirk; Dreesman, Johannes; Feil, Fabian; van Treeck, Ulrich; Fell, Gerhard; Ethelberg, Steen; Hauri, Anja M; Roggentin, Peter; Prager, Rita; Fisher, Ian S T; Behnke, Susanne C; Bartelt, Edda; Weise, Ekkehard; Ellis, Andrea; Siitonen, Anja; Andersson, Yvonne; Tschäpe, Helmut; Kramer, Michael H; Ammon, Andrea

    2005-02-03

    This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-26.5), having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2-23.0), and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1-47.0) were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks.

  12. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

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    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  13. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Ekkehard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S. Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–26.5, having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2–23.0, and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1–47.0 were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Conclusions Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks.

  14. Consumption of transgenic milk containing the antimicrobials lactoferrin and lysozyme separately and in conjunction by 6-week-old pigs improves intestinal and systemic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2014-02-01

    Lactoferrin and lysozyme are antimicrobial and immunomodulatory proteins produced in high quantities in human milk that aid in gastrointestinal (GI) health and have beneficial effects when supplemented separately and in conjunction in human and animal diets. Ruminants produce low levels of lactoferrin and lysozyme; however, there are genetically engineered cattle and goats that respectively secrete recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF-milk), and human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk. Effects of consumption of rhLF-milk, hLZ-milk and a combination of rhLF-and hLZ-milk were tested on young pigs as an animal model for the GI tract of children. Compared with control milk-fed pigs, pigs fed a combination of rhLF and hLZ (rhLF+hLZ) milk had a significantly deeper intestinal crypts and a thinner lamina propria layer. Pigs fed hLZ-milk, rhLF-milk and rhLF+hLZ had significantly reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cells (RBCs) were significantly increased in pigs fed hLZ-milk and rhLF-milk and tended to be increased in rhLF+hLZ-fed pigs, indicating more mature RBCs. These results support previous research demonstrating that pigs fed milk containing rhLF or hLZ had decreased intestinal inflammation, and suggest that in some parameters the combination of lactoferrin and lysozyme have additive effects, in contrast to the synergistic effects reported when utilising in-vitro models.

  15. Effect of ewe's (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow's milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study included 30 healthy adults (16 women) to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three consecutive 5-weeks periods separated by 4-week washouts. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of each period for the analysis of serum cholesterol (total, HDL-, LDL-) and triglycerides. We found no differences in the serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein fractions of the volunteers after the intake of any of the three types of yogurts. When the volunteers were grouped into two risk groups of risk according to their total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, the same differences between the groups in terms of the cholesterol (HDL-, LDL-) and triglyceride responses at baseline and after yogurt intake were found, with no effects due to the different types of yogurts. Moreover, we performed compositional analysis of the yogurts including determination of protein, fat, minerals and fatty acids (FA). Contents in protein, calcium, magnesium, non-protein nitrogen and some FA (mainly short-chain-FA) were higher for ewe's than for cow's milk yogurt. n6-n3 ratio was lower in the ewe's milk yogurt. In conclusion, yogurt intake, from ewe's and cow's milk, at levels of consumption compatible with a varied diet, neither decreases nor increases plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in apparently healthy individuals. As ewe's milk yogurt has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, certain target populations could benefit from its consumption.

  16. Learning Biochemistry by Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Guedes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Both sensations and biochemical reactions taken place or promoted during ingestion of chocolate were the motivation for  investigating  the  organic  compounds  present  in  this  source.  Cocoa  and  chocolate  are  composed  by  several substances , among them, aminoacids and alkaloids.The objective of this investigation was to purpose a contextured approach  of  biochemistry  through  the  sensations  and  reactions  involving  aminoacids,  theobromine  and  hormones. Methodology: 1. Theoretical part:  constituted  by theoretical  and tutorial classes  about aminoacids, theobromine and hormones  involved  at  the  metabolism;  2.  Questionary:  ten  questions  based  upon  theoretical  classes,  personal sensations  and  general  aspects  of chocolate;  3.Lecture:  Cientific  articles  searched  in  periodics  by  own  students  as well  as  newspaper  reports;  4.  Experimental:  Laboratory  experiments  including  extraction,  characterization, spectrometric quantification  after  specific reactions  and identification by  Rf  comparison with  standards  on TLC  from cocoa  almonds  and  both  powder  cocoa  and  chocolate.  The  study  was  applied  in  30  students  from  a  chemistry college. Results: The results pointed out to a higher frequency of the students and to a increased interest  from them by   biochemistry  issues  and  cientific  lectures,  as  well  as  a  satisfactory  acquirement  of  theoretical  and  practice knowledge of aminoacids and hormones, spectrometry and chromatography. Conclusion: A contextured approach is quite positive for learning biochemistry to chemists.

  17. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption and to determine the public health significance of isolates, especially their role in causing human diseases.Materials and Methods: Atotal of 100 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients, with history of raw milk consumption were collected from primary health centres in and around Anand city, under aseptic conditions and a total of 50 raw milk samples were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city in sterilized sample bottles. MacConkey broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on MacConkey agar and EMB agar was used as the selective media. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping,E. coli isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute (CRI, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh.Detection of virulence genes was performed using PCR technique.Results: During the present investigation, 26 (52% E. coli isolates from 50 milk samples and 59 (59% E. coli isolates from 100 stool samples were recovered. Out of 85 E. coli isolates sent for serotyping, 74 isolates could be typed which were further distributed into 13 different serogroups O2, O4, O8, O17, O22, O25, O29, O36, O45, O60, O90, O116 and O172, whereas 8 isolates were found untypable and 3 isolates were reported rough isolates. Of the 59 E. coli isolates from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients tested, 15 isolates (25.42% were reported to be positive for stx genes, among that 6 (10.16% were positive for stx1 gene, 9 (15.25% isolates were positive for stx2 gene, while 3 isolates (5.08% were positive for eaeA gene. In this study, 21 E. coliisolates were found to be Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC while none of the isolates were positive for the serotype O157. Conclusions: Our present findings indicate that raw

  18. Survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow's milk for human consumption in Kerman Province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Fatemeh Ganjeizadeh; Aminaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Kianfar, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples from Kerman, Iran. AFM1 was detected in 72 samples, ranging in concentration from Milk samples were collected from six dairy farms. AFM1 was found in ∼ 50% of the milk samples. The average level of AFM1 was below the tolerance limit (0.05 µg l(-1)), but 50% of the samples had greater levels than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by EU and the Iranian national standard. The method detection limit and limit of quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 µg l(-1), respectively, and recovery of the method was 87%. The results showed that AFM1 contamination is a serious problem for public health. To achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk, cattle feed must be monitored regularly for aflatoxin contamination and protected from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  19. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  20. [Effects of daily consumption of milk powder on menstrual cycles and urine sex hormone concentrations of young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man; Ju, Jing; Wang, Zhixu; Wu, Jieshu; Geng, Shanshan; Liu, Jing; Yang, Yuexin

    2014-09-01

    To observe the effects of daily consumption of milk powder on Healthy young women, including the effect on menstrual cycles, ovulation time and sex hormone concentrations in morning urine. Thirty-two young women were recruited as subjects and randomly assigned into two groups for a milk powder consumption experiment which lasted three menstrual cycles. The first menstrual cycle is control cycle, the second menstrual cycle is milk-taking cycle. The subjects take milk diluted by 33g or 55g milk powder each day, from the 4th to the 24th day of the second menstrual cycle. The third menstrual cycles is control cycle after milk-taking. During the whole three menstrual cycle, record the length of each menstrual cycle, determine ovulation time by using basal body temperature and oviposit test paper, collect their morning urine samples at specified times (the 4th, 7th, 10th, 13rd, 16th, 19th and 24th day of first and the third menstrual cycle; the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 12nd, 15th, 18th, 21st and 24th day of the second menstrual cycle), determine the concentrations of estradiol, pregnanediol and creatinine in morning urine samples; draw the curve of the concentration changing over time and calculate the area under the curve to the 24th day. In the high-dose group, the mean of the menstrual cycle length are (29.60 ±3.180) d, (28.87 ± 3.021) d, (29.60 ± 2.995) d, the mean of the ovulation time are (15.47 ± 2.200) d. There was no significant difference in menstrual cycle length and ovulation time among cycles and between groups (P>0.05). Calculate the difference between the first and the second menstrual cycle, and the difference between the two groups. In the high-dose group, the area under the curve of estradiol concentrations adjusted by creatinine are (7160.28 ±2305.52), (6700.26 ±2066.67); (6676.24 ±2573.89); the area under the curve of pregnanediol concentrations corrected by creatinine are (51.93 ±18.80), (44.55 ±14.62) and (46.49 ±22.44). In the low

  1. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Chocolate Bar with Natural Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest period of time the people’s interest for natural products without synthetic dyes, with benefits to the human body has significantly increased. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world. The pleasure derived from the consumption of chocolate is accompanied by a whole range of effects on the human health, which may explain their its attractiveness. One of the objectives of this reaserch was to extract dyes from various plants (fruits and vegetables and incorporating them in white chocolate. In order to characterize the new product, several physicochemical analyses were conducted (moisture, dry matter, ash content, total extract and acidity. Also the consumer perception was followed by conducting a sensory analysis. The new product can be placed in the free synthetic dyes category

  2. Raw milk consumption and other early-life farm exposures and adult pulmonary function in the Agricultural Lung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Annah B; House, John S; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Hankinson, John L; Long, Stuart; Henneberger, Paul K; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P; O'Connell, Elizabeth Long; Cummings, Christie Barker; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J

    2017-07-08

    Literature suggests that early exposure to the farming environment protects against atopy and asthma; few studies have examined pulmonary function. We evaluated associations between early-life farming exposures and pulmonary function in 3061 adults (mean age=63) from a US farming population using linear regression. Childhood raw milk consumption was associated with higher FEV1 (β=49.5 mL, 95% CI 2.8 to 96.1 mL, p=0.04) and FVC (β=66.2 mL, 95% CI 13.2 to 119.1 mL, p=0.01). We did not find appreciable associations with other early-life farming exposures. We report a novel association between raw milk consumption and higher pulmonary function that lasts into older adulthood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Effect of Educational Program on Milk Consumption based on the Theory of Planned Behavior among Girl Students

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    Afsaneh Gholipour-Baboli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background An adequate level of calcium intake during growth years can extensively help to stabilize calcium level and increase bone density. However, calcium intake in female school-age students is low. This study aimed to determine effect of educational programs on milk consumption based on the theory of planned behavior among 7th grade girl students in Kashan city, Iran. Materials and Methods: This studywas interventional quasi‑experimentalresearch. 220 girl students (110 for interventional group and 110 for control group, were selected by simple random sampling from schools in Kashan city, Iran. The researcher-made questionnaire based on theory of planned behavior used for data collection. Interventional programs were performed using lectures, poster, and pamphlet. The questionnaire was completed by the students twice, before and two months after the implementation of educational program. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. Results: After the implementation of the educational programs, the rate of milk consumption at home significantly increased among the interventional group (P

  4. Cow's milk-based beverage consumption in 1- to 4-year-olds and allergic manifestations: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, M V; Ribeiro, T C M; Ribeiro, H; de Mattos, A P; Almeida, I R; Leal, V M; Cabral, G N; Stolz, S; Zhuang, W; Scalabrin, D M F

    2016-02-27

    Nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prebiotics and β-glucan have been associated with reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and allergic manifestations (AM). Our objective was to assess if consumption of a cow's milk-based beverage with these and other nutrients supports respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin health in otherwise well-nourished, healthy children. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, healthy children (1-4 years of age) from two daycare centers in Brazil were fed three servings/day of a cow's milk-based beverage (CMBB; n = 125) containing DHA, the prebiotics polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), β-glucan, and other key nutrients, or a control cow's milk-based beverage (control; n = 131) for up to 28 weeks. Occurrence of respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and AM was assessed by study pediatricians and the number of episodes were analyzed with the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and the Andersen-Gill model. The CMBB group had fewer episodes of AM, which included allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis, wheezing, allergic cough, eczema and urticaria, compared to the control group (p = 0.021). The hazard ratio for increased number of episodes of AM was lower in the CMBB group compared to control (HR, 0.64; 95 % CI 0.47-0.89; p = 0.007). There was no difference in the incidence of respiratory infections and diarrheal disease between groups. A cow's milk-based beverage containing DHA, PDX/GOS, and yeast β-glucan, and supplemented with micronutrients, including zinc, vitamin A and iron, when consumed 3 times/day for 28 weeks by healthy 1- to 4-year-old children was associated with fewer episodes of allergic manifestations in the skin and the respiratory tract. registration number: NCT01431469.

  5. Influence of Dairy Product and Milk Fat Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Review of the Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J.; Park, Keigan M.

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence has linked the consumption of saturated fat (SF) to increased LDL levels and an increased risk of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent findings have indicated that the link between CVD and SF may be less straightforward than originally thought. This may be due to the fact that some food sources high in SF contain an array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each of which may differentially affect lipoprotein metabolism, as well as contribute significant amounts of other nutrients, which may alter CVD risk. The purpose of this review is to examine the published research on the relationship between milk fat containing dairy foods and cardiovascular health. The findings indicate that the majority of observational studies have failed to find an association between the intake of dairy products and increased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, regardless of milk fat levels. Results from short-term intervention studies on CVD biomarkers have indicated that a diet higher in SF from whole milk and butter increases LDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates or unsaturated fatty acids; however, they may also increase HDL and therefore might not affect or even lower the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. The results from the review also indicate that cheese intake lowers LDL cholesterol compared with butter of equal milk fat content. In addition, the review highlights some significant gaps in the research surrounding the effects of full-fat dairy on CVD outcomes, pointing to the need for long-term intervention studies. PMID:22585901

  6. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  7. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose-response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up...

  8. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  9. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  10. Dark chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Catasca, Elisa; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Brancorsini, Monica; Nocella, Cristina; De Falco, Elena; Bartimoccia, Simona; Frati, Giacomo; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2014-07-02

    NOX-2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, has a key role in the formation of reactive oxidant species and is implicated in impairing flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Dark chocolate exerts artery dilatation via down-regulating NOX2-mediated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark chocolate improves walking autonomy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. FMD, serum levels of isoprostanes, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and sNOX2-dp, a marker of blood NOX2 activity, maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT) were studied in 20 PAD patients (14 males and 6 females, mean age: 69±9 years) randomly allocated to 40 g of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa) in a single blind, cross-over design. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after chocolate ingestion. Dark chocolate intake significantly increased MWD (+11%; Pchocolate intake. Serum epicatechin and its methylated metabolite significantly increased only after dark chocolate ingestion. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Δ of MWD was independently associated with Δ of MWT (Pchocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947712. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Dark Chocolate Acutely Improves Walking Autonomy in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Catasca, Elisa; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Brancorsini, Monica; Nocella, Cristina; De Falco, Elena; Bartimoccia, Simona; Frati, Giacomo; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background NOX‐2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, has a key role in the formation of reactive oxidant species and is implicated in impairing flow‐mediated dilation (FMD). Dark chocolate exerts artery dilatation via down‐regulating NOX2‐mediated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark chocolate improves walking autonomy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients via an oxidative stress‐mediated mechanism. Methods and Results FMD, serum levels of isoprostanes, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and sNOX2‐dp, a marker of blood NOX2 activity, maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT) were studied in 20 PAD patients (14 males and 6 females, mean age: 69±9 years) randomly allocated to 40 g of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa) in a single blind, cross‐over design. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after chocolate ingestion. Dark chocolate intake significantly increased MWD (+11%; Pchocolate intake. Serum epicatechin and its methylated metabolite significantly increased only after dark chocolate ingestion. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Δ of MWD was independently associated with Δ of MWT (Pchocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress‐mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947712. PMID:24990275

  12. Chemometric analysis of metal contents in different types of chocolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevrić Lidija R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the contents of various metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Al in 38 different milk chocolate samples were studied using a chemometric approach. The chemometric expressions were generated using a training set of 25 chocolate samples and the predictive ability of the resulting models was evaluated against a test set of 13 chocolate samples. The chemometric analysis was based on the application of multiple linear regression analysis (MLR. MLR was performed in order to select the significant models for predicting the metal contents. The MLR equations that represent the content of one metal as a function of the contents of other metals were established. High agreement between experimental and predicted values, obtained in the validation procedure, indicated the good quality of the models. It enables the researchers to establish reliable relationships between the contents of various metals which can be used for their prediction in different types of chocolate prior to their analysis. This can reduce the trial-and-error element and experimental costs in the production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31055, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  13. THE EFFECT OF 'ORGANIC' LABELS ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Kiss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important success factors in the organic food industry is the positive image that a significant number of customers attach to organic products in many countries, which includes the perception of healthiness and also sensory characteristics such as smell, texture or taste. Several papers have examined the effect of organic certification on consumer perceptions for many types of products from a number of perspectives. The present study aims to reveal the effect of organic (‘bio’ labels on customers’ evaluation of chocolates regarding five product attributes: fragrance, taste, healthiness, calorie content and price. The two research questions are: (1 ‘How do consumers modify their perceptions about a given chocolate after receiving information as to whether the given chocolate is an organic or a non-organic product?’ and (2 ‘How do consumers’ evaluations of organic and non-organic chocolates relative to each other change after it is revealed which ones have an organic certificate?’ To find the answers an experiment was conducted on a sample of 32 second year bachelor university students from the ‘Commerce and Marketing’ major. During the experiment the students tasted 4 dark (2 regular and 2 organic and 3 milk (2 regular and 1 organic chocolates in two phases. In the first phase they had no information as to whether organic products were involved in the experiment, but in the second the organic products were labelled. The students had to evaluate fragrance, taste, healthiness, and calorie content, and estimate the price in both phases. The results show that ‘organic’ labels can significantly modify consumers’ perception and evaluation of chocolates with every attribute for one or more of the chocolates. Labelling can also widen the perceived gap between organic and regular chocolates according to fragrance, healthiness, calorie content and price. However, changes were identified only in the case of

  14. Determination of Toxic Metals in Different Brand of Chocolates and Candies, Marketed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jalbani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni and lead (Pb were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P = 0.05. The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 µg/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies.

  15. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  16. Assessment of antibacterial drug residues in milk for consumption in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Adem; Lucatello, Lorena; Benetti, Cristiana; Galina, Guglielmo; Bajraktari, Drita

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of drug residues in the raw milk collected from individual farms and milk collection points during 2009-2010 in six different major regions of Kosovo (Prishtinë, Gjilan, Mitrovicë, Pejë, Gjakovë, Prizren). In the present study, a total of 1734 raw milk samples were collected, and qualitatively screened with two different tests, the Delvotest SP assay and an enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay (SNAP). Overall, 106 (6.11%) out of 1734 samples examined with Delvotest SP contained possible drug residues (5.12% and 7.51% of samples from 2009 and 2010, respectively). All suspect samples were further analyzed by three distinct enzyme-linked receptor-binding assays specific for β-lactams (new β-lactam test), tetracyclines (SNAP tetracycline test), and sulfonamides (SNAP sulfamethazine test). Only the new SNAP β-lactam test detected residues in 40 out of 52 samples in 2009 and 54 out of 54 suspect samples in 2010. A confirmatory method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of β-lactam drug residues in samples detected by the enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay. Amoxicillin, penicillin G, and cloxacillin were the most frequently detected residues and were in a concentration range between 2.1 μg/kg and 1973 μg/kg. Seventeen of the positive samples exceeded the maximum residue levels for one or more β-lactam drug. The highest number of positive milk samples came from the Pejë Region (58.8%) and Gjakovë Region (23.5%), and the lowest number of positive samples originated from Gjilan (5.88%), with no positive samples detected in two regions, Mitrovicë and Prizren. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Assessment of antibacterial drug residues in milk for consumption in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Rama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of drug residues in the raw milk collected from individual farms and milk collection points during 2009–2010 in six different major regions of Kosovo (Prishtinë, Gjilan, Mitrovicë, Pejë, Gjakovë, Prizren. In the present study, a total of 1734 raw milk samples were collected, and qualitatively screened with two different tests, the Delvotest SP assay and an enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay (SNAP. Overall, 106 (6.11% out of 1734 samples examined with Delvotest SP contained possible drug residues (5.12% and 7.51% of samples from 2009 and 2010, respectively. All suspect samples were further analyzed by three distinct enzyme-linked receptor-binding assays specific for β-lactams (new β-lactam test, tetracyclines (SNAP tetracycline test, and sulfonamides (SNAP sulfamethazine test. Only the new SNAP β-lactam test detected residues in 40 out of 52 samples in 2009 and 54 out of 54 suspect samples in 2010. A confirmatory method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of β-lactam drug residues in samples detected by the enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay. Amoxicillin, penicillin G, and cloxacillin were the most frequently detected residues and were in a concentration range between 2.1 μg/kg and 1973 μg/kg. Seventeen of the positive samples exceeded the maximum residue levels for one or more β-lactam drug. The highest number of positive milk samples came from the Pejë Region (58.8% and Gjakovë Region (23.5%, and the lowest number of positive samples originated from Gjilan (5.88%, with no positive samples detected in two regions, Mitrovicë and Prizren.

  18. The influence of sardine consumption on the omega-3 fatty acid content of mature human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Rose V; Vítolo, Márcia R; Valverde, Mara A; Carvalho, Patrícia O; Pastore, Gláucia M; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect the ingestion of sardines, rich in omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, has on the composition of breastmilk. This was a prospective study of 31 nursing mothers under observation at the Hospital Guilherme Alvaro. Each was given 2 kg of fresh sardines twice with a 15-day interval. Milk was sampled and a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was applied on days 0, 15 and 30. Milk was assayed for fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using nonparametric tests with significance set at p milk collection resulted in higher concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at 15 and 30 days into the study. Fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 series exhibited a significant correlation, r2 was 0.58 and 0.59 at 15 and 30 days, respectively. These results suggest that incorporating fish into the diets of nursing mother during lactation, in the form of 100 g of sardines two or three times a week, contributes to an increase in omega-3 series fatty acids.

  19. Invasive human brucellosis infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M; Williams, David N; Hansen, Glen T

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the commonest zoonosis worldwide and typically results from ingestion of unpasteurized goat and sheep milk and cheese. Consumption of camel milk is common in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, but is an infrequently reported source of brucellosis. We report three immigrant patients seen in one hospital system between 2007 and 2013 with brucellosis due to the consumption of camel milk. The case patients presented after 3-14 days of symptoms following travel to countries where Brucella is endemic. All three patients were bacteremic. One patient had definite infective endocarditis, one had possible endocarditis and one patient presented with acute brucellosis. The diagnoses were made expeditiously and appropriate treatment initiated. Knowledge of travel, local customs and immigration patterns are keys to early Brucella diagnosis and optimal treatment. Previous reports implicating camel milk as the source of Brucella infection have been limited to patients living in or traveling to and from the Middle East. This report highlights the acquisition of Brucella infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of camel milk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Study on the effect of removal of milk consumption for infants and adults after accidents involving radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.N.G.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Wasserman, M.AV.; Conti, L.F.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, it was observed that milk had a relevant contribution to ingestion doses after the contamination of rural areas. Three nuclides were very significant for the ingestion exposure for members of the public after this accident: {sup 131}I, which had great significance in the initial phase and considered responsible for the cases of thyroid cancer seen in children living at the contaminated areas of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus; and {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, considered as relevant radionuclides contributing also to long-term doses to the public. Although this accident led to an extensive knowledge on the environmental behavior of these radionuclides, there are few studies reporting data for tropical areas. This work aims to assess the contribution of these three radionuclides to the dose due to milk ingested by babies and adults, and to evaluate the effect of milk removal from consumption as a countermeasure to reduce public exposure, as a function of the season of the year when the accident occurs and on the time after the deposition when the removal from diet is implemented. The effects on reducing exposures were assessed for short, medium and long term doses considering the deposition of 1 kBq/m{sup 2} of each radionuclide individually. The results show that this countermeasure leads to a larger percentage on dose reduction, despite the significant effect of seasonality. Regarding the {sup 131}I, the countermeasure is to be seen as urgent and should be implemented shortly after deposition to be effective. (author)

  1. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanhaak, S.; Havenaar, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, and immune parameters in humans. Subjects: Twenty healthy male subjects aged 40-65 years were

  2. Chocolate and health-related quality of life: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life (HRQL). We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years). Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline. At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10 g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.94 to 0.80) and in those who consumed >10 g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75); corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression. No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL.

  3. Chocolate and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F.; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Materials and methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008–2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years). Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline. Results At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.94 to 0.80) and in those who consumed >10g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75); corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression. Conclusions No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL. PMID:25901348

  4. Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, EC; Morais, AR; Cruz, AG; Bolini, HMA

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers...

  5. Effect of ewe’s (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow’s milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study included 30 healthy adults (16 women) to consume 250 g/yogurt/day during three consecutive 5-weeks periods separated by 4-week washouts. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of each period for the analysis of serum cholesterol (total, HDL-, LDL-) and triglycerides. We found no differences in the serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein fractions of the volunteers after the intake of any of the three types of yogurts. When the volunteers were grouped into two risk groups of risk according to their total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, the same differences between the groups in terms of the cholesterol (HDL-, LDL-) and triglyceride responses at baseline and after yogurt intake were found, with no effects due to the different types of yogurts. Moreover, we performed compositional analysis of the yogurts including determination of protein, fat, minerals and fatty acids (FA). Contents in protein, calcium, magnesium, non-protein nitrogen and some FA (mainly short-chain-FA) were higher for ewe’s than for cow’s milk yogurt. n6-n3 ratio was lower in the ewe’s milk yogurt. In conclusion, yogurt intake, from ewe’s and cow’s milk, at levels of consumption compatible with a varied diet, neither decreases nor increases plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in apparently healthy individuals. As ewe’s milk yogurt has a high content of macro- and micronutrients, certain target populations could benefit from its consumption. PMID:29151833

  6. Could Chocolate Guard Against an Irregular Heartbeat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165862.html Could Chocolate Guard Against an Irregular Heartbeat? 13-year study ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's delicious news for chocolate lovers: New research suggests the sweet might help ...

  7. Consumers' behavior in quantitative microbial risk assessment for pathogens in raw milk: Incorporation of the likelihood of consumption as a function of storage time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, Matteo; Paterlini, Franco; Rizzi, Rita; Guitian, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Foodborne disease as a result of raw milk consumption is an increasing concern in Western countries. Quantitative microbial risk assessment models have been used to estimate the risk of illness due to different pathogens in raw milk. In these models, the duration and temperature of storage before consumption have a critical influence in the final outcome of the simulations and are usually described and modeled as independent distributions in the consumer phase module. We hypothesize that this assumption can result in the computation, during simulations, of extreme scenarios that ultimately lead to an overestimation of the risk. In this study, a sensorial analysis was conducted to replicate consumers' behavior. The results of the analysis were used to establish, by means of a logistic model, the relationship between time-temperature combinations and the probability that a serving of raw milk is actually consumed. To assess our hypothesis, 2 recently published quantitative microbial risk assessment models quantifying the risks of listeriosis and salmonellosis related to the consumption of raw milk were implemented. First, the default settings described in the publications were kept; second, the likelihood of consumption as a function of the length and temperature of storage was included. When results were compared, the density of computed extreme scenarios decreased significantly in the modified model; consequently, the probability of illness and the expected number of cases per year also decreased. Reductions of 11.6 and 12.7% in the proportion of computed scenarios in which a contaminated milk serving was consumed were observed for the first and the second study, respectively. Our results confirm that overlooking the time-temperature dependency may yield to an important overestimation of the risk. Furthermore, we provide estimates of this dependency that could easily be implemented in future quantitative microbial risk assessment models of raw milk pathogens

  8. Optimization and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chocolate candies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rupender; Chaturvedi, Prashant; Ansari, Nasreen G; Murthy, Ramesh C; Patel, Devendra K

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate is a key ingredient in many foods such as milk shakes, candies, bars, cookies, and cereals. Chocolate candies are often consumed by mankind of all age groups. The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chocolate candies may result in health risk to people. A rapid, precise, and economic extraction method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in chocolate candy by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GS-MS) as a confirmatory technique. The method was optimized by using different solvents for liquid-liquid extraction, varying volume of de-emulsifying agent, and quantity of silica gel used for purification. The HPLC separation of 16 PAHs was carried out by C-18 column with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile : water (70 : 30) in isocratic mode with runtime of 20 min. Limit of detection, limit of quantification (LOQ), and correlation coefficients were found in the range of 0.3 to 4 ng g⁻¹, 0.9 to 12 ng g⁻¹, and 0.9109 to 0.9952, respectively. The exploration of 25 local chocolate candy samples for the presence of PAHs showed the mean content of benzo[a]pyrene as 1.62 ng g⁻¹, which representing the need to evaluate effective measures to prevent more severe PAHs contamination in chocolate candies in future. Chocolate is one of the most favorite food items among people, especially children. Chocolate candies are often consumed by mankind of all age groups. Chocolate candies are often consumed by children in large quantities. The presence PAHs in chocolate candies may result in health risk to people. In the present study, a precise and cost effective rapid method was employed for the determination of PAHs, which can be employed for daily routine analysis of PAHs in chocolate products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Flavanols and methylxanthines in commercially available dark chocolate: a study of the correlation with nonfat cocoa solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Swen; Marshall, Lisa J; Day, Andrea J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2011-08-10

    Intake of flavanols, a subgroup of dietary polyphenols present in many fruits and vegetables, may be associated with health benefits, particularly with reducing the risk of coronary diseases. Cocoa and chocolate products are rich in flavanol monomers, oligomers, and polymers (procyanidins). This study used normal phase HPLC to detect, identify, and quantify epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, procyanidin oligomers and polymers in 14 commercially available chocolate bars. In addition, methylxanthines (theobromine and caffeine) were also quantified. Nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) were determined both gravimetrically and by calculation from theobromine contents. The flavanol levels of 12 commonly consumed brands of dark chocolate have been quantified and correlated with % theobromine and % NFCS. Epicatechin comprised the largest fraction of total chocolate flavonoids, with the remainder being catechin and procyanidins. Calculated NFCS did not reflect epicatechin (R(2) = 0.41) or total flavanol contents (R(2) = 0.49). Epicatechin (R(2) = 0.96) was a reliable marker of total flavanols, catechin (R(2) = 0.67) to a lesser extent. All dark chocolate tested contained higher levels of total flavanols (93.5-651.1 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g of product) than a milk or a white "chocolate" (40.6 and 0.0 mg of epicatechin equiv/100 g, respectively). The amount and integrity of procyanidins often suffer in the manufacturing of chocolate, chiefly due to oxidation and alkalinization. In this study, the labeled cocoa content of the chocolate did not always reflect analyzed levels of flavonoids. Increasingly, high % NFCS is being used commercially to reflect chocolate quality. If the flavanol content of chocolate is accepted to be a key determinant of health benefits, then continued monitoring of flavanol levels in commercially available chocolate products may be essential for consumer assurance.

  10. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

  11. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [CONSUMPTION OF CHEESE AND MILK AND CHRONIC DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY, FRIEND OR FOE?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially the obstruction of the coronary arteries are the main health expenditure in most of the countries. However, France, according to WHO, has the lowest mortality from these causes but shows a high dietary intake of saturated fats, known as the French paradox. In addition, consumption of wine, small food intakes, regular exercise, increased intake of fruits and vegetables rich in dietary fiber, flavonoids and phytosterols and also cheese comsumption, are factors which together contribute to the paradox. There areseveral studies which link fat intake and CVD but not showing a high correlation. This fact could be justified by the divergent effect of saturated fat on lipoproteins. Dairy products content saturated fats, however recentlystudies have found an inverse correlation between its consumption and CVD, possibly due to their content of trans fatty acid palmitoleic, which allows to increase the levels of HDL cholesterol, decrease C reactive protein and triglicerides. In general, dairy products have an important variety of nutrients which can have several health benefits improving the response to insulin, adiponectin levels increase and decrease the presence of obesity, among other effects. Meanwhile, consumption of cheese, may have positive health effects, for example, is able toprevent cardiovascular infarctions, descend plasma TAGs and increases HDL cholesterol. This paper shows the results of several studies linking consumption of cheese with non-communicable diseases with special emphasis on CVD. The displayed data allow us to conclude that regular consumption has more beneficial than detrimental effects. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Health effects of cow's milk consumption in infants up to 3 years of age: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, Ursula; Bruckmüller, Melanie U; Kien, Christina; Dieminger, Birgit; Meidlinger, Bettina; Seper, Katrin; Hitthaller, Ariane; Emprechtinger, Robert; Wolf, Alexandra; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    To summarize the best available evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cow's milk intake in healthy, full-term infants up to 3 years of age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE and the Cochrane Library between 1960 and July 2013 and manually reviewed reference lists of pertinent articles. Two researchers independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles and extracted relevant data. We included (randomized/non-randomized) controlled trials and observational studies. We included data from twenty-three studies (one randomized controlled trial, four non-randomized controlled trials, eight case-control studies and ten cohort studies) for the evidence synthesis. Pooled results of four studies revealed a higher risk of Fe-deficiency anaemia for infants consuming cow's milk compared with those consuming follow-on formula (relative risk=3·76; 95 % CI 2·73, 5·19). For type 1 diabetes mellitus, six out of seven case-control studies did not show a difference in the risk of developing this disease based on the age of introduction of cow's milk. We did not find negative associations for other health effects. Cow's milk consumption in infancy is associated with an increased risk of developing Fe-deficiency anaemia. Limiting cow's milk consumption may be important to ensure an adequate Fe intake for infants and toddlers. High-quality patient information for caregivers is needed on how infants' Fe requirements can be met.

  14. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed. PMID:24416437

  17. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Blechert

    Full Text Available Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.

  18. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. With the exception of Working Memory, these relations were not attenuated with statistical control for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses revealed no association between cognitive function and chocolate intake measured up to 18 years later. Further intervention trials and longitudinal studies are needed to explore relations between chocolate, cocoa flavanols and cognition, and the underlying causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EDULCORANTES NATURALES UTILIZADOS EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTEBAN PALACIO VÁSQUEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of confectionery products and their massive consumption, leads to the agri-food industry include in its transformation processes inputs that improve the nutritional quality of the final products. Considering that chocolate has a high percentage of sugar (sucrose content of 30-60%, it is necessary to use alternative sweeteners for its elaboration, that promote a healthy diet. The objective of the present review is to characterize some natural sweeteners such as erythritol, stevia (stevioside and rebaudioside-A, thaumatin and bulking agents such as inulin and polydextrose with structural and rheological functions; highlighting aspects such as its origin, caloric intake, sweetening power, ADI (Admissible Daily Intake and its influence on chocolate quality parameters. Although they may affect their sensory properties, these sweeteners have wide advantages because of their low caloric content and high potency in sweetness compared to sucrose. This shows the need to perform studies to determine the sweetener and the bulking agent that best substitute sucrose in the manufacture of chocolates. Finally, it is evident that the use of natural sweeteners, generates health benefits and impact on the sensorial and rheological quality of chocolate.

  20. Effects of Perceived Sugar on Chocolate Intake on Self-Reported Food Cravings, Mood States, and Food Intake: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Lara J.

    1999-01-01

    Many dieters and compulsive overeaters report that sugar and chocolate are the most commonly craved foods. Further, many individuals have proclaimed themselves to be "addicted" to sugar or chocolate. It remains unclear, however, what factors lead to report of specific food addictions. A number of researchers have suggested that highly repetitive consumption of sugar and chocolate may result from various physiological processes (e.g., neurochemical imbalances, glucose/insulin malfunctioning). ...

  1. The Impact of Probiotic Soy Milk Consumption on Oxidative Stress Among Type 2 Diabetic Kidney Disease Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghajani, Maryam; Zaghian, Nafiseh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Feizi, Awat; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one the most important complications of diabetes leading to end-stage renal disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of probiotic soy milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in type 2 DKD patients. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing 200 mL/day probiotic soy milk in the intervention group or soy milk in the control condition. As determinants of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, oxidized glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were measured after 8 weeks of intervention according to the standard protocol. Between groups analysis showed that DKD patients in the probiotic soy milk group had a higher mean value of GSH compared with those in the soy milk group. In the final adjusted model, this difference remained significant. Consistently, oxidized glutathione concentration was significantly reduced among patients in the probiotic soy milk group. Also, for activity levels of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, significant increased levels were observed between 2 intervention groups in the final adjusted model. However, no significant reduction of the serum 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α or malondialdehyde and no induction of TAC concentrations within and between the 2 groups in the crude and adjusted models were detected. Overall, the results demonstrate that probiotic soy milk consumption could improve some oxidative stress factors among DKD patients. Further longitudinal studies with consideration of individual variation should be conducted. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Detection of a Disease Cluster by the Health Authorities of Stendal District due to Campylobacter jejuni in a Nursery After the Consumption of Raw Milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, N; Schubert, I

    2015-07-01

    A notification from a laboratory concerning the detection of Campylobacter jejuni in a 6-year-old boy initiated the investigation carried out by the health authorities from Stendal district, in order to explain the morbidity rate caused by the germ. The day after the boy's pediatrician informed about a visit to a farm, which was confirmed by the head of the nursery. She told the health authorities about the consumption of raw milk during their visit at the farm.The following days more children fell sick. Within 10 days the total number of diseased children was 21. The health authorities asked for stool samples of the diseased children, nursery nurses and the head of the farm since raw milk presents a potential cause of infection. The health authorities together with the Saxony-Anhalt State Office for Consumer Protection conducted a retrospective cohort study. The aim was to explain the association between the exposure from raw milk consumption and the occurrence of the disease from C. jejuni. Based on a questionnaire data about the food and milk intake at the nursery and at home and about the trip to the farm were collected. 91% of the children's cohort and 86% of the adults' cohort were captured.The exposed group at risk showed a higher risk of falling ill than the group, which was not exposed. The risk factor raw milk explained the difference. Furthermore, the analysis of milk samples taken by the district veterinary office from 2 cows and from the farm's tank was able to detect the germs. The correlation of the illness, the consumption of raw milk, the detection of C. jejuni in the samples taken from the children and the samples taken from the cows was evident. Based on the case the health authorities recommended that heads of nurseries as well as heads of dairy farming in the district of Stendal needed to be advised on raw milk. Nurseries are still allowed to take trips to farms. However, raw animal derivates including milk must not be consumed. © Georg Thieme

  3. Early consumption of liquids different to breast milk in Mexican infants under 1 year: results of the probabilistic National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia

    2016-02-16

    Introduction: Studies on infant dietary intake do not generally focus on the types of liquids consumed. Objective: To document by age and breastfeeding status, the types of liquids present in the diet of Mexican children under 1 year of age (< 1 y) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT-2012). Methods: Analysis of the infant < 1 y feeding practices from the ENSANUT-2012 survey in non-breastfed (non-BF) and breastfed (BF) infants by status quo for the consumption of liquids grouped in: water, formula, fortified LICONSA milk, nutritive liquids (NL; thin cereal-based gruel with water or milk and coffee with milk) and non-nutritive liquids (non-NL) as sugared water, water-based drinks, tea, beans or chicken broth, aguamieland coffee. In this infants < 1 y we analyzed the not grouped consumption of liquids in the first three days of life (newborns) from the mother’s recall. Percentage and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for survey design. Statistical differences were analyzed by Z test. Results: We observed a high consumption of human milk followed by formula (56.7%) and water (51.1%) in infants under 6 months of age (< 6 mo). The proportion of non-BF infants consuming non-NL was higher than for BF infants (p < 0.05). More than 60% of older infants (6 mo and < 1 y) consumed formula and were non-BF. In newborns formula consumption was predominant, followed by tea or infusion and water. Conclusions: Non-breast milk liquids are present undesirably in Mexican infants’ diet and non-NL are consumed earlier than NL, revealing inadequate early dietary practices.

  4. Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Application of Planned Behavior Theory to Predict the Consumption of Processed Body-Shaping Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Yulianti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aims were to identify the influence of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on intention to buy, and effect of intention to buy and perceive behavioral control over buying behavior on processed body-shapping milk which added by supplement for body shaping. Research was conducted in Sleman Regency and design used was survey. Sampling was taken by using judgmental sampling method with criteria that were female, aged 18-25 yr old and was categorized as normal to overweight appearance. Respondents used were 100 undergraduate female students. Questionnaire was used as an instrument in order for data collecting to measure research variable that had been tested on validity and reliability. Analyses used were single and multiple linier regression. The results showed that only attitude and perceived behavioral control influenced (P<0.05 intention to buy in normal-weight group, while in over-weight group attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control affected (P<0.001 attitude. Then, attitude and perceived behavioral control influenced buying behavior significantly both in normal and overweight. Therefore, it can be concluded that prediction capability of planned behavior theory are better when product relevancy to respondents was closed.

  6. Does Chocolate Intake During Pregnancy Reduce the Risks of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftlas, Audrey F.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beydoun, Hind; Bracken, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Chocolate consumption is associated with favorable levels of blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. We analyzed a prospective cohort study to determine if regular chocolate intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GH). Methods Subjects were recruited from 13 prenatal care practices in Connecticut (1988-1991). In-person interviews were administered at Chocolate consumption (servings/week) during the 1st and 3rd trimesters was ascertained at initial interview and immediately postpartum, respectively. Consumers of Chocolate intake was more frequent among normotensives (80.7%) than preeclamptics (62.5%) or GH women (75.8%), and associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia (1st trimester: aOR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.95; 3rd trimester: aOR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Only 1st trimester intake was associated with reduced odds of GH (aOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87). Conclusions These findings provide additional evidence of the benefits of chocolate. Prospective studies are needed to confirm and delineate protective effects of chocolate intake on risk of preeclampsia. PMID:20609337

  7. Normal/high-fat milk consumption is associated with higher lean body and muscle mass in Japanese women aged between 40 and 60 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenobe, Yuri; Terauchi, Masakazu; Hirose, Asuka; Hirano, Miho; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Miyasaka, Naoyuki

    2018-02-02

    Milk is known to contain various nutrients that may have health benefits for postmenopausal women who are at an increased risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases. We investigated the association between normal/high- and low-fat milk consumption and body composition in Japanese women aged 40 to 60 years. This cross-sectional study used the baseline data collected in a previous study that examined the effects of a dietary supplement on a variety of health parameters in 85 Japanese women aged 40 to 60 years. Participants had been assessed for age, menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and body composition. We estimated the consumption of normal/high- and low-fat milk using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Normal/high- and low-fat milk intake were classified as consumer (drank milk at least twice a week) or non-consumer (drank milk at most once a week), in order to identify the parameters that were independently associated with the consumption of normal/high- and low-fat milk. Of the 85 participants who completed the BDHQ, 27 were categorized as non-consumers, 18 as exclusive low-fat milk consumers, and 29 as exclusive normal/high-fat milk consumers. 11 women who consumed both low-fat and normal/high-fat milk were excluded from the analysis. Compared with non-consumers and exclusive low-fat milk consumers, exclusive high-fat milk consumers had significantly higher lean body mass (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 39.4 ± 2.7 kg vs. 37.9 ± 2.2 kg and 37.6 ± 2.9 kg, P fat milk consumption was associated with higher lean body and muscle mass in middle-aged Japanese women presumably through high vitamin D intake.

  8. Paediatric HUS Cases Related to the Consumption of Raw Milk Sold by Vending Machines in Italy: Quantitative Risk Assessment Based on Escherichia coli O157 Official Controls over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Bonilauri, P; Piva, S; Scavia, G; Amatiste, S; Bianchi, D M; Losio, M N; Bilei, S; Cascone, G; Comin, D; Daminelli, P; Decastelli, L; Merialdi, G; Mioni, R; Peli, A; Petruzzelli, A; Tonucci, F; Liuzzo, G; Serraino, A

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. In case of boiling milk before consumption, we assumed that the risk of HUS is fixed at zero. The model estimates clearly show that the public health significance of HUS cases due to raw milk STEC contamination depends on the current variability surrounding the risk profile of the food and the consumer behaviour has more impact than milk storage scenario. The estimated HUS cases predicted by our model are roughly in line with the effective STEC O157-associated HUS cases notified in Italy only when the proportion of consumers not boiling milk before consumption is assumed to be 1%. Raw milk consumption remains a source of E. coli O157:H7 for humans, but its overall relevance is likely to have subsided and significant caution should be exerted for temporal, geographical and consumers behaviour analysis. Health education programmes and regulatory actions are required to educate people, primarily children, on other STEC sources. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiology of Consumption of Human Milk Oligosaccharides by Infant Gut-associated Bifidobacteria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakuma, Sadaki; Hatakeyama, Emi; Urashima, Tadasu; Yoshida, Erina; Katayama, Takane; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Ashida, Hisashi; Hirose, Junko; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2011-01-01

    The bifidogenic effect of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) has long been known, yet the precise mechanism underlying it remains unresolved. Recent studies show that some species/subspecies of Bifidobacterium are equipped with genetic and enzymatic sets dedicated to the utilization of HMOs, and consequently they can grow on HMOs; however, the ability to metabolize HMOs has not been directly linked to the actual metabolic behavior of the bacteria. In this report, we clarify the fate of each HMO during cultivation of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM1222, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum JCM1217, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192 were selected for this purpose and were grown on HMO media containing a main neutral oligosaccharide fraction. The mono- and oligosaccharides in the spent media were labeled with 2-anthranilic acid, and their concentrations were determined at various incubation times using normal phase high performance liquid chromatography. The results reflect the metabolic abilities of the respective bifidobacteria. B. bifidum used secretory glycosidases to degrade HMOs, whereas B. longum subsp. infantis assimilated all HMOs by incorporating them in their intact forms. B. longum subsp. longum and B. breve consumed lacto-N-tetraose only. Interestingly, B. bifidum left degraded HMO metabolites outside of the cell even when the cells initiate vegetative growth, which indicates that the different species/subspecies can share the produced sugars. The predominance of type 1 chains in HMOs and the preferential use of type 1 HMO by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria suggest the coevolution of the bacteria with humans. PMID:21832085

  11. Lubrication of chocolate during oral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S A; Selway, N; Morgenstern, M P; Motoi, L; Stokes, J R; James, B J

    2017-02-22

    The structure of chocolate is drastically transformed during oral processing from a composite solid to an oil/water fluid emulsion. Using two commercial dark chocolates varying in cocoa solids content, this study develops a method to identify the factors that govern lubrication in molten chocolate and saliva's contribution to lubrication following oral processing. In addition to chocolate and its individual components, simulated boluses (molten chocolate and phosphate buffered saline), in vitro boluses (molten chocolate and whole human saliva) and ex vivo boluses (chocolate expectorated after chewing till the point of swallow) were tested. The results reveal that the lubrication of molten chocolate is strongly influenced by the presence of solid sugar particles and cocoa solids. The entrainment of particles into the contact zone between the interacting surfaces reduces friction such that the maximum friction coefficient measured for chocolate boluses is much lower than those for single-phase Newtonian fluids. The addition of whole human saliva or a substitute aqueous phase (PBS) to molten chocolate dissolves sugar and decreases the viscosity of molten chocolate so that thinner films are achieved. However, saliva is more lubricating than PBS, which results in lower friction coefficients for chocolate-saliva mixtures when compared to chocolate-PBS mixtures. A comparison of ex vivo and in vitro boluses also suggests that the quantity of saliva added and uniformity of mixing during oral processing affect bolus structure, which leads to differences in measured friction. It is hypothesized that inhomogeneous mixing in the mouth introduces large air bubbles and regions of non-emulsified fat into the ex vivo boluses, which enhance wetting and lubrication.

  12. Aggregated effects of combining daily milk consumption and aerobic exercise on short-term memory and sustained attention among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, In-Tyng; Moghadam, Sedigheh; Hashim, Hairul A

    2015-02-01

    Regular aerobic exercise and milk consumption have been found to have positive effects on certain cognitive functions such as short-term memory and sustained attention. However, aggregated effects of combining these modalities have not been explored. This study examined the combined effects of milk supplementation and aerobic exercise on the short-term memory and sustained attention of female students aged 16 yr. (N = 81). The intervention involved serving of 250 ml of regular milk during school days and/or a 1-hr. aerobic exercise period twice per week for 6 weeks. The Digit Span Test and Digit Vigilance Test were used to measure short-term memory and sustained attention, respectively. The combination group (milk and exercise) and exercise group performed significantly better than did the milk and control groups in terms of short-term memory. No significant interaction or group differences were found for sustained attention. The results suggest benefits of regular exercise for students' short-term memory.

  13. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H. E-mail: schenk@science.uva.nl; Peschar, R

    2004-11-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the {beta} phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the {beta} phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the {beta}-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  14. Productora, comercializadora y exportadora de chocolate Gourmet

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés Molina, María Dolores; Rubio Jiménez, María Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Ecuador al ser un productor por excelencia de Cacao fino de aroma es reconocido a nivel mundial, debido principalmente a que de los derivados del cacao ecuatoriano se realizan los mejores chocolates del mundo. Por otro lado, el consumo de chocolate ha aumentado significativamente, a nivel mundial en los últimos años, especialmente en el consumo de chocolate “dark. Al existir un potencial crecimiento en los productos derivados del cacao ecuatoriano, especialmente para la elaboración de...

  15. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Amount of Time to Eat Lunch is Associated with Children’s Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetable, and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Richardson, Scott; Cluggish, Sarah A.; Parker, Ellen; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are currently no national standards for school lunch period lengths and little is known about the association between the amount of time students have to eat and school food selection and consumption. Objectives To examine plate waste measurements from students in the control arm from the MEALS study (2011-2012 school year) for the association of the amount of time to eat with school meal selection and consumption. Design Prospective study using up to six repeated measures among students over the school year. Participants/Setting 1001 students in grades 3-8 attending 6 participating elementary/middle schools in an urban, low-income school district where lunch period lengths varied from 20-30 minutes. Main Outcome Measures School food selection and consumption were collected using plate waste methodology. Statistical Analyses Performed Logistic regression and mixed-model ANOVA was used to examine food selection and consumption. Results Compared with meal component selection when students had at least 25 minutes to eat, students were significantly less likely to select a fruit (44% vs. 57%; p=0.0001) compared with when students had fewer than 20 minutes to eat. There were no significant differences in entrée, milk, or vegetable selection. Among those who selected a meal component, students with fewer than 20 minutes to eat consumed 13% less of their entrée (p<0.0001), 10% less of their milk (p<0.0001), and 12% less of their vegetable (p=0.0002) compared to when students had at least 25 minutes to eat. Conclusions Over the school year, a substantial number of students had insufficient time to eat, which was associated with significantly decreased entrée, milk, and vegetable consumption compared with students who had more time to eat. School policies that encourage lunches with at least 25 minutes of seated time may reduce food waste and improve dietary intake. PMID:26372337

  17. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  18. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D D; Sathyapalan, T; Kilpatrick, E S; Beckett, S; Atkin, S L

    2010-11-01

    To examine the effects of chocolate on lipid profiles, weight and glycaemic control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. Subjects were randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8 weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period. Changes in weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. HDL cholesterol increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 ± 0.08 vs. 1.26 ± 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio (4.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycaemic control.

  19. The impact of dark chocolate intake on arterial elasticity in individuals with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART: a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrea Mariana Nunes da Costa; Luzia, Liania Alves; de Souza, Suelen Jorge; de Almeida Petrilli, Aline; Pontilho, Patrícia de Moraes; de Souza, Jose Maria Pacheco; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim; Efraim, Priscila; Picone, Camila de Melo; Rondo, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2017-06-21

    An increase in the frequency of cardiovascular diseases has been observed in the HIV/AIDS population. Studies involving healthy subjects or subjects with other diseases have shown benefits of chocolate supplementation on endothelial function and vasodilation. We evaluate the impact of chocolate consumption on arterial elasticity in people living with human immunodeficiency virus - PLHIV. A double-blind, crossover trial including 110 PLHIV (19 to 59 years) on antiretroviral therapy - ART for at least 6 months and with a viral load of chocolate or placebo with a 15-d washout period. Each participant received one of the two sequences: A (dark chocolate, placebo chocolate); B (placebo chocolate, dark chocolate). Arterial elasticity was measured using the HDI/PulseWave™ CR-2000 CardioVascular Profiling System®. Body composition, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also assessed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures using the Stata 11.0® program was used for cross-over analysis. Most subjects were men (59.0%) and Caucasian (46.1%) and the mean age was 44.6 ± 7.1 years. The mean time since diagnosis of HIV infection was 13.7 ± 5.3 years and the mean duration of ART was 12.9 ± 4.2 years. Chocolate consumption resulted in significant alterations in the large artery elasticity index - LAEI (p = 0.049) and the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.045). This is the first study to evaluate the effect of chocolate on arterial elasticity in PLHIV. The results showed that dark chocolate consumption for 15 days improved the elastic properties of the LAEI in PLHIV. These findings, added to the noninvasive method used, may expand the knowledge of CVDs in this population.

  20. Effect of cocoa fat content on wetting and surface energy of chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the quantification of the effect of the cocoa fat content on the wetting characteristics and surface free energy of different chocolate compositions. On the market, there are many different types of chocolate products which differ both in the sensory and physico-chemical properties together with their raw material compositions and the contents of the individual components. This paper focuses on differences in the use of different types of fats - cocoa butter, milk fat, equivalents or cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate products. Studied samples (prepared at Carla, Ltd. Company were followed by static contact angles of wetting measurements and by calculated surface free energies. There were investigated the effects of fat content and used fat types of the chocolate products on their final wettabilities and resulting surface free energies. There was found a linear dependence between total fat content and the surface free energy, which was gradually increasing with increasing fat content. Additionally, there were performed TG DTG and NIR spectrometry measurements of the tested materials with the aim to determine the melting point of studied fats used, as well as to determine and identify individual fat components of chocolate products which may affect the resulting value of surface free energy.

  1. Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets.

  2. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Ashley; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but didn't know their opinions about soy milk (50-66%). Intention was significantly correlated with intake (0.507, P ≤ 0.01; 0.308, P ≤ 0.05). Environmental beliefs (0.282 and 0.410, P ≤ 0.01) and expectancy beliefs (0.490 and 0.636, P ≤ 0.01) were correlated with intention. At site 1, 30% of the variance in intention to consume soy milk was explained by expectancy beliefs and subjective norm beliefs (P soy milk in WIC participants. Therefore, knowing more about the health benefits of soy and how to cook with soy milk would increase WIC participants' intention to consume soy milk. Positive messages about soy milk from health care providers could influence intake.

  3. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (-5.93 ± 6.25 vs. -1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (-6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (-7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.

  4. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  5. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  6. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  7. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  8. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  9. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  10. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  11. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  12. Effect of long-term consumption of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli and fluoride on dental caries and general health in preschool children: a cluster-randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Sjöström, I; Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    .05). In children who had participated during the whole 21-month intervention, fewer days with otitis media were reported (0.4 vs. 1.3 days, p side effects were reported. It is concluded that daily consumption of milk containing probiotic bacteria and fluoride reduced caries in preschool......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and fluoride on caries development and general health in preschool children. Children 1-5 years of age (n = 248) attending 14 day care centres with 27 units in northern Sweden entered the study.......6 in the control units and after 21 months 0.9 and 2.2 (p antibiotic therapy (mean 1.9 vs. 4.7 days) and 50% less days with otitis media (0.5 vs. 1.0) (p > 0...

  13. Severe Milk-Alkali Syndrome in a Patient with Hypoparathyroidism Associated with 1,25(OH2D, Hydrochlorothiazide and Anthranoid Laxative Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Morini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk-alkali syndrome is a life-threatening condition defined by the triad of hypercalcaemia, metabolic alkalosis and acute renal failure, and is associated with consumption of calcium and absorbable alkali. Methods: We report the case of a patient admitted to a step-down unit of a large hospital in Italy. Results: The patient was a 59-year-old woman with hypoparathyroidism and mild chronic kidney insufficiency, treated for a preceding episode of hypocalcaemia with high doses of calcitriol and calcium carbonate, who was also taking hydrochlorothiazide and unreported herbal anthranoid laxatives. The patient was admitted to hospital with severe hypercalcaemia, severe metabolic alkalosis and acute renal insufficiency. The patient was successfully treated with urgent dialysis, loop diuretics and calcitonin administration. Conclusions: This case underlines the need for caution when treating patients with impaired calcium metabolism regulation, and suggests that herbal anthranoid laxatives might act as triggers for milk-alkali syndrome..

  14. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  15. Kiss High Blood Pressure Goodbye: The Relationship between Dark Chocolate and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmoe, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a delicious finding from a recent study claiming a causal link between dark chocolate consumption and blood pressure reductions. In the article, I provide ideas for using this study to whet student appetites for a discussion of statistical ideas, including experimental design, measurement error and inference methods.

  16. Changing consumption patterns. The case of Polish health campaign ‘Drink milk. Grow to be great!’

    OpenAIRE

    Karbowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The following paper discusses the social marketing campaign ‘Drink milk. Grow to be great!’. This is the successful Polish health campaign which promotes milk drinking among Polish children. At the very beginning the case of Polish campaign is briefly presented in order to facilitate theoretical discussion in the core part of the article. Reflections on the long term effects of the given campaign and social marketing initiatives in general are included in the final parts.

  17. Does milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy influence fetal growth and infant birthweight? A systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Forsum, Elisabet; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2012-01-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that the maternal diet influences fetal development and health of the child. Milk and milk products contribute essential nutrients and bioactive substances; they are of ample supply and have a long tradition in Nordic countries. To revise and update dietary guidelines for pregnant women valid in Nordic countries, the Pregnancy and Lactation expert group within the NNR5 project identified a need to systematically review recent scientific data on infant growth me...

  18. Effects of dark chocolate on NOX-2-generated oxidative stress in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, L; Del Ben, M; Perri, L; Carnevale, R; Nocella, C; Catasca, E; Baratta, F; Ceci, F; Polimeni, L; Gozzo, P; Violi, F; Angelico, F

    2016-08-01

    Activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is considered a pathogenetic mechanism determining fibrosis and disease progression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Polyphenols exert antioxidant action and inhibit NADPH oxidase in humans. To analyse the effect of cocoa polyphenols on NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) activation, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis in a population affected by NASH. In a cross-sectional study comparing 19 NASH and 19 controls, oxidative stress, as assessed by serum NOX2 activity and F2-isoprostanes, and hepatocyte apoptosis, as assessed by serum cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) levels, were measured. Furthermore, the 19 NASH patients were randomly allocated in a crossover design to 40 g/day of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g/day of milk chocolate (chocolate intake. Compared to controls, NASH patients had higher sNOX2-dp, serum isoprostanes and CK-18 levels. A significant difference for treatments was found in subjects with respect to sNOX2-dp, serum isoprostanes and serum CK-18. The pairwise comparisons showed that, compared to baseline, after 14 days of dark chocolate intake, a significant reduction in sNOX2-dp serum isoprostanes and CK-18 M30 was found. No change was observed after milk chocolate ingestion. A simple linear regression analysis showed that ∆ of sNOX2-dp was associated with ∆ of serum isoprostanes. Cocoa polyphenols exert an antioxidant activity via NOX2 down-regulation in NASH patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk s...

  20. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissol Richter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o material se funde e quebra na boca. Muitos chocolates disponíveis no mercado são elaborados com ingredientes similares, porém apresentam diferentes sabores. Alguns produtores têm aromas específicos, sendo que existem trocas freqüentes nestes devido a variações no processo, acidez e temperatura, ocasionando variações de aroma e sabor no produto final. Por esta razão, as condições de produção do chocolate são mantidas freqüentemente em segredo. Os ingredientes utilizados na produção de chocolates e de seus produtos têm importante papel na aceitação pelo consumidor e na apresentação do produto.Chocolate is a product widely consumed throughout the world that has seen generally increasing production trends over the last years. Making chocolate requires an understanding of how the consumer perceives it. The preferred type of chocolate varies from country to country. The different tastes and uses for chocolate reflect the histories of the industry in different places. The taste of chocolate is partially determined by the chemistry of the product. Taste depends on the release of flavor compounds in the mouth and nose, while perceived texture is a function of the way in which the material melts and breaks up in the mouth. Most chocolates that are available on the market throughout the world are made from very similar ingredients, yet have very different flavors. Some manufacturers have specific house flavors, and very often this

  2. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-05

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon.

  4. Determinação de substitutos da manteiga de cacau em coberturas de chocolate através da análise de triacilgliceróis Determination of cocoa butter substitutes in coating chocolate.by analysis the triacylglycerol composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Paula Rodrigues MINIM

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira proíbe a adição de substitutos da manteiga de cacau ao chocolate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o padrão de qualidade de coberturas comercializadas na região de Campinas. Para isso, foram analisadas cinco marcas de cobertura de chocolate ao leite e quatro de cobertura de chocolate amargo. Para verificar a possível adição de substitutos determinou-se, por cromatografia gasosa a alta temperatura (CGAT, a composição em triacilgliceróis da gordura extraída e os resultados foram analisados pelo método matemático de Padley & Timms. Não foi detectada a presença de substitutos da manteiga de cacau nas amostras de cobertura de chocolate analisadas.Brazilian regulations prohibit the addition of cocoa butter replacements to chocolate, in total or partial substitution. The objective of the present work was to check the quality standards of four of coating bitter Brasilian chocolate bars and five of coating milk chocolate bars, commercialized in Campinas. In order to check the possible addition of substitutes, the triacylglycerol composition was determined, and the results were analysed by Padley & Timms mathematical method. The triacylglycerol composition of each sample was determined by high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC. The presence of cocoa butter replacements was not detected in the brands of coating chocolate.

  5. Prediction of reported consumption of selected fat-containing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorila, H; Pangborn, R M

    1988-10-01

    A total of 100 American females (mean age = 20.8 years) completed a questionnaire, in which their beliefs, evaluations, liking and consumption (frequency, consumption compared to others, intention to consume) of milk, cheese, ice cream, chocolate and "high-fat foods" were measured. For the design and analysis, the basic frame of reference was the Fishbein-Ajzen model of reasoned action, but the final analyses were carried out with stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition to the components of the Fishbein-Ajzen model, beliefs and evaluations were used as independent variables. On the average, subjects reported liking all the products but not "high-fat foods", and thought that milk and cheese were "good for you" whereas the remaining items were "bad for you". Principal component analysis for beliefs revealed factors related to pleasantness/benefit aspects, to health and weight concern and to the "functionality" of the foods. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, liking was the predominant predictor of reported consumption for all the foods, but various belief factors, particularly those related to concern with weight, also significantly predicted consumption. Social factors played only a minor role. The multiple R's of the predictive functions varied from 0.49 to 0.74. The fact that all four foods studied elicited individual sets of beliefs and belief structures, and that none of them was rated similar to the generic "high-fat foods", emphasizes that consumers attach meaning to integrated food entities rather than to ingredients.

  6. Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption, and in their newborn babies and breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerfving, S.

    1988-10-01

    The presence of methylmercury in fish is a major environmental problem. During the major epidemics of methylmercury poisoning through sea food in Minamata in Japan, and through dressed seed in Iraq, there was a high prevalence of infants, who developed cerebral palsy. This was generally assumed to be due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, as it is well known, that methylmercury is transferred through the placenta into the fetus. There is also a possibility that exposure occurred through breast milk, as high levels of mercury in breast milk have been reported in mothers from Minamata. Information on the relationship between methylmercury exposure, mercury levels in blood of mothers and their babies, and levels in breast milk are reported here.

  7. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

    2011-08-01

    Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

  8. Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: Findings from the Cohort of Swedish Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Levitan, Emily B; Dorans, Kirsten S; Håkansson, Niclas; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries. During 14 years of follow-up, 2,157 men were hospitalized (n=1,901) or died from incident HF (n=256). Compared with subjects who reported no chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99) for those consuming 1-3 servings per month, 0.83 (95% CI 0.72-0.94) for those consuming 1-2 servings per week, 0.82 (95% CI 0.68-0.99) for those consuming 3-6 servings per week, and 1.10 (95% CI 0.84-1.45) for those consuming ≥1 serving per day (P for quadratic trend=.001). In this large prospective cohort study, there was a J-shaped relationship between chocolate consumption and HF incidence. Moderate chocolate consumption was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed among individuals consuming ≥1 serving per day. Journal Subject Codes: Etiology: Epidemiology, Heart failure: Congestive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  10. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-11-15

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks.

  11. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2779–2811. PMID:21470061

  12. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  13. Consumption of Yogurt, Low-Fat Milk, and Other Low-Fat Dairy Products Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in an Elderly Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Arós, Fernando; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Lapetra, José; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Díaz-López, Andrés; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, J Alfredo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    The association between consumption of dairy products and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between consumption of dairy products (total and different subtypes) and incident MetS in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. We prospectively analyzed 1868 men and women (55-80 y old) without MetS at baseline, recruited from different PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) centers between October 2003 and June 2009 and followed up until December 2010. MetS was defined according to updated, harmonized criteria. At baseline and yearly thereafter, we determined anthropometric variables, dietary habits by a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and blood biochemistry. Multivariable-adjusted HRs of MetS or its components were estimated for each of the 2 upper tertiles (vs. the lowest one) of mean consumption of dairy products during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 3.2 y, we documented 930 incident MetS cases. In the multivariable-adjusted model, HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for the comparison of extreme tertiles of dairy product consumption were 0.72 (0.61, 0.86) for low-fat dairy, 0.73 (0.62, 0.86) for low-fat yogurt, 0.78 (0.66, 0.92) for whole-fat yogurt, and 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) for low-fat milk. The respective HR for cheese was 1.31 (1.10, 1.56). Higher consumption of low-fat dairy products, yogurt (total, low-fat, and whole-fat yogurt) and low-fat milk was associated with a reduced risk of MetS in individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk from a Mediterranean population. Conversely, higher consumption of cheese was related to a higher risk of MetS. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of low numbers of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-02-28

    The capacity to detect low levels of healthy and sub-lethally injured Salmonella enterica cells in chocolate by two alternative rapid detection methods iQ-Check(TM)Salmonella II real-time PCR (Bio-Rad) and VIDAS® Easy SLM (BioMérieux) was assessed and compared with ISO 6579:2005. Chocolate, a low moisture food known to support the survival of Salmonella, was challenged as food matrix. Buffered peptone water (BPW) did not support the recovery of low levels of sub-lethally injured S. enterica independent of the detection method, while BPW supplemented with milk powder enabled detection by the three examined methods. However, inhibition of real-time PCR was observed since for one out of three repetitions of chocolate inoculated with a low number of sub-lethally injured S. enterica cells, no PCR signal was obtained. Therefore, attention should be paid to the enrichment step to avoid false negative results due to the presence of especially sub-lethally injured Salmonella cells in chocolate. An appropriate sample preparation (such as enrichment media and conditions for incubation) remains the key factor for reliable detection including sub-lethally injured cells and should be evaluated, if necessary optimized, for each detection assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  17. Effects of phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kazemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer of pesticides from environment to animal products is inevitable, so the purpose of the present work was to evaluate phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite (SB on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep. Methods Twenty Baluchi ewes were divided into four treatments (P1 as control, P2, P3, and P4 of five animals in which phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide, was given via diet (only for P2 and P3 at a dose of 280 mg/sheep/day for 63 consecutive days. The SB (32 g/sheep/day; for P3 and P4 was also evaluated for its ability to reduce deleterious effects of phosalone in the sheep diets. The control group (P1 did not receive any phosalone and SB during the experiment. Sampling was conducted in two periods of time including weeks 5 and 9. Results Phosalone residues were observed in the milk samples of P2 and P3 groups during two sampling periods. During period 1, the transfer rate of phosalone from feed to milk was 0.23 and 0.02%, respectively for the contaminated diets (P2 and P3, which is relatively similar to period 2 (0.22 and 0.02%. Only 0.34 (period 1 and 0.36% (period 2 of phosalone residue are excreted in the feces of P2 group following its daily consumption. Transfer of phosalone from feed to milk was affected (P  0.05 on the dry matter intake (DMI and body weight (BW gain, but feed efficiency, milk production, milk fat, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, albumin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC affected by the treatments in period 1 or 2 (P < 0.05. The Hb, RBC, and MCHC were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 by about 9.72, 20.77, and 9.71%, respectively in the group P2 as compared to those of the control group during period 1

  18. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 encapsulated in chocolate during in vitro simulated passage of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klindt-Toldam, Stine; Larsen, Susanne K.; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    of the upper gastro-intestinal tract using both a static and a dynamic gastric in vitro model. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 equalling a total concentration of 2 × 108, 2 × 109 and 2 × 1010 CFU/g chocolate were added to samples of milk chocolate, 57% and 72% dark chocolate...... dairy and juice based probiotic products, chocolate was an excellent carrier for probiotic delivery, because of very good survival of probiotics during simulated passage of the upper GI tract. The viability of B. lactis was slightly higher than Lb. acidophilus and survival rates were >6.5 log CFU...

  19. The short-term effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Naim; Gedenk, Alexandra; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E; Stodtmeister, Richard

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and non-flavonoid-rich white chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls. Thirty glaucoma patients and 30 age-matched subjects were assigned to dark or white chocolate by randomization with forced equal distribution. The number in each of the four groups was 15. Measured parameters included systemic blood pressure (BP), blood glucose levels, static retinal vessel analysis, as measured by central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) (which relates to the diameter of the central retinal artery), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) (which relates to the diameter of central retinal vein) and the arterio-venous ratio (AVR), which represents the CRAE/CRVE ratio, dynamic retinal vessel analysis as measured by the change in vessel diameter in response to flicker light stimulation. Three recording cycles from each were averaged. Blood pressure parameters (systolic BP, diastolic BP and pulse), IOP and blood glucose levels did not differ significantly between both groups before and after consumption of white or dark chocolate. Static vessel analysis did not show any significant changes in CRAE, CRVE or AVR before and after dark or white chocolate in both groups (p > 0.05). Mean dilatation of the venules in the control group was 3.2 ± 0.9 % before dark chocolate and 4.2 ± 1.4 % after dark chocolate intake, which was statistically significantly different (p = 0.01). Mean dilatation of the arterioles in the control group was 2.8 ± 1.8 % before dark chocolate and 3.5 ± 1.8 % after dark chocolate intake with a trend to statistical significance (p = 0.14), but not reaching the significance level. Mean diameter changes in the glaucoma group did not show any significant differences after dark chocolate consumption. The present study showed a significant improvement of venous vasodilatation 2 hr after dark chocolate intake in the control group, but not in the glaucoma group. This

  20. The water and land footprints of meat and milk production and consumption in Kenya: implications for sustainability and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and production are increasingly becoming delinked due to enhanced agricultural productivity that has generated production surpluses in production areas and the globalization of trade. The environmental impact of food consumption is thus increasingly indirect, i.e. not immediately in

  1. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia na infância no Município de São Paulo Cow's milk consumption and childhood anemia in the city of São Paulo, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de consumo de leite de vaca sobre o risco de anemia em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se amostra domiciliar de menores de cinco anos do Município de São Paulo (n=584 em 1995 e 1996. O diagnóstico de anemia (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of cow's milk on the risk of anemia during childhood in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: We have studied a probabilistic sample (n=584 of underfive children living in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 1996. Anemia (hemoglobin <11g/dl was diagnosed using capillary blood obtained by fingertip puncture. The cow's milk content and the density of heme and nonheme iron in the child's diet were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cow's milk content in the diet and hemoglobin concentration or risk of anemia, and included statistical control for potential confounders (age, sex, birthweight, presence of intestinal parasites, family income, and mother's schooling. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 45.2% and the mean contribution of milk to the total caloric content of the children's diets was 22.0%. The association between milk consumption and risk of anemia remained significant, even after considering the dilutive effect of milk consumption on the density of iron in the diet, thus indicating a possible inhibitor effect of milk on the absorption of the iron present in the other foods ingested by the child. CONCLUSIONS: The relative participation of cow's milk in the child's diet showed a significant positive association with risk of anemia in children between ages six and 60 months, regardless of the density of iron in the diet.

  2. Effects of high flavanol dark chocolate on cardiovascular function and platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Gurvinder; Mohd-Zain, Zetty N; Shiel, Julian; Lundberg, Martina H; Collier, David J; Johnston, Atholl; Warner, Timothy D; Corder, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Regular consumption of chocolate and cocoa products has been linked to reduced cardiovascular mortality. This study compared the effects of high flavanol dark chocolate (HFDC; 1064mg flavanols/day for 6weeks) and low flavanol dark chocolate (LFDC; 88mg flavanols/day for 6weeks) on blood pressure, heart rate, vascular function and platelet aggregation in men with pre-hypertension or mild hypertension. Vascular function was assessed by pulse wave analysis using radial artery applanation tonometry in combination with inhaled salbutamol (0.4mg) to assess changes due to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. HFDC did not significantly reduce blood pressure compared to baseline or LFDC. Heart rate was increased by LFDC compared to baseline, but not by HFDC. Vascular responses to salbutamol tended to be greater after HFDC. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen or the thromboxane analogue U46619 was unchanged after LFDC or HFDC, whereas both chocolates reduced responses to ADP and the thrombin receptor activator peptide, SFLLRNamide (TRAP6), relative to baseline. Pre-incubation of platelets with theobromine also attenuated platelet aggregation induced by ADP or TRAP6. We conclude that consumption of HFDC confers modest improvements in cardiovascular function. Platelet aggregation is modulated by a flavanol-independent mechanism that is likely due to theobromine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of maternal caffeine and chocolate intake on fetal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscicchio, Giorgia; Piemontese, Mariangela; Gentilucci, Lucia; Ferretti, Filippo; Tranquilli, Andrea L

    2012-05-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of caffeine and chocolate (70% cocoa) on fetal heart rate (FHR). Fifty pregnant women with uncomplicated gestation, matched for age and parity, underwent computerized FHR recording before and after the consumption of caffeine and then, after one week, before and after 70% cocoa chocolate intake. Computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) parameters were expressed as mean and SD. The differences were tested for statistical significance using the paired t-test, with significance at p intake. The number of large accelerations, the duration of episodes of high variation and the short-term FHR variation were significantly higher (p consumption of chocolate, whilst no effect of cocoa was found during contractions. Our results suggest that maternal intake of both caffeine and 70% cocoa have a stimulating action on fetal reactivity. This finding is likely due to the pharmacological action of theobromine, a methilxanthine present in coffee and in chocolate. The correlation between maternal caffeine intake and increased uterine contraction peaks is likely due to the effect of caffeine on the uterine muscle.

  4. Effect of ewe’s (semi-skimmed and whole) and cow’s milk yogurt consumption on the lipid profile of control subjects: a crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Nova-Rebato, Esther; García-González, Natalia; Martín-Diana, Ana-Belén; Fontecha, Javier; Delgado, David; Gredilla, Ana-Elisa; Bueno, Francisco; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yogurt is the most widely consumed fermented milk product worldwide. Studies have mainly used milk and dairy products from cow, which have a lower fat content than those from ewe and a different lipid profile. This study investigated the effect on the lipid profile of control subjects of three different set yogurts: (a) semi-skimmed ewe´s milk yogurt (2.8% milk fat); (b) whole ewe´s milk yogurt (5.8 % milk fat); (c) cow´s milk yogurt (3 % milk fat). A randomized crossover study inclu...

  5. Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in Swedish consumption milk between 1991 1996; Maetningar av {sup 137}Cs och {sup 90}Sr i konsumtionsmjoelk mellan 1991 och 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, H.

    1997-04-01

    The sources for the radioactivity are the nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Milk is sampled and measured as an important indicator of the Chernobyl load of radionuclides that cows can metabolize and that will ultimately give a dose to humans. Milk was responsible for 13-19% of the total intake of {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs for the average person in 1994. Our milk measurement program covered 90% of all produced consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. Milk samples are taken every second month from the dairies. {sup 90}Sr is only measured on pooled yearly samples from some dairies; these dairies covered 50% of the total production of consumption milk in Sweden in 1995. The mean value per year of {sup 137}Cs for the whole country has decreased from 0.52 to 0.26 Bq/l between 1991 and 1996, which corresponds to a committed effective dose equivalent for humans of 1.1-0.50 microSv for {sup 137}Cs. For {sup 90}Sr during the 1991-1996 period the country-wide mean varied between 0.08 and 0.06 Bq/l, resulting in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.4-0.3 microSv. 7 refs.

  6. Salmonella detection in cocoa and chocolate by motility enrichment on modified semi-solic Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, J; Bolderdijk, R; Milas, J

    1994-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed in 13 laboratories (including the authors' laboratories) to validate motility enrichment on modified semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium for rapid detection of motile Salmonella in cocoa powder and chocolate. The MSRV method was compared with the AOAC standard culture method for detection of Salmonella in cocoa powder, milk chocolate, sweet chocolate, and dark chocolate. Chocolate samples were artificially inoculated with Salmonella at 2 levels of contamination. Cocoa powder was inoculated at 2 levels with naturally contaminated dust from cocoa beans. Uninoculated control samples were also included for each type of product. The sensitivity rate was 98.1% for the MSRV method and 94.9% for the AOAC culture method. The specificity rate was 100.0% for both methods. There was no significant difference in the proportion of samples positive by MSRV and the AOAC culture methods for any of the food types. The MSRV method has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL.

  7. Milk: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  8. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia ferropriva na infância Cow's milk consumption and iron deficiency anemia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. A. Oliveira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar aspectos do consumo de leite de vaca associados à anemia na infância. FONTES DOS DADOS: As informações foram coletadas a partir de artigos publicados nas 2 últimas décadas, pesquisados nas bases de dados Lilacs e MEDLINE, livros técnicos e publicações de organizações internacionais. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A anemia ferropriva é um grave problema de saúde pública nos países em desenvolvimento. Até os 6 meses de idade, o leite materno supre as necessidades de ferro das crianças nascidas a termo. A partir daí, torna-se necessária a ingestão de uma alimentação complementar rica em ferro. Considerando a importância da dieta na determinação da anemia e o alto consumo de leite de vaca na infância, discute-se neste artigo a relação desse alimento com a deficiência de ferro. A introdução precoce ou a substituição do leite materno por leite de vaca pode ocasionar problemas gastrintestinais e alérgicos. Além disso, esse alimento apresenta baixa biodisponibilidade e densidade de ferro, excesso de proteínas e minerais, especialmente cálcio, interferindo na absorção do ferro de outros alimentos, e associa-se às micro-hemorragias intestinais, principalmente nas crianças menores. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização do leite de vaca em detrimento de outros alimentos ricos em ferro biodisponível constitui um risco para o desenvolvimento da anemia. O estímulo ao aleitamento materno exclusivo até os 6 meses de vida e sua continuidade até pelo menos 24 meses, juntamente com uma dieta complementar rica em ferro são medidas de grande importância para a prevenção da anemia e de suas conseqüências na infância.OBJECTIVE: To thoroughly investigate the association between the consumption of cow's milk and anemia in childhood. SOURCES OF DATA: The information was gathered from papers catalogued in Lilacs and MEDLINE and published during the last two decades, and also from textbooks and publications by international

  9. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. State‐of‐the‐Art Chocolate Manufacture: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J

    2017-01-01

    The aroma, taste, shine, snap, smoothness, “melt‐in‐your‐mouth” sensation, and texture are all qualities that define chocolate, and all depend on how the cocoa and the chocolate itself are processed...

  11. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  12. Effects of chocolate-based products intake on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels and on satiety in young people: a cross-over experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Long, Wei-Qing; Ye, Yan-Bin; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhang, Nai-Qi; Xu, Ming; Huang, Jing; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2018-02-19

    This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same. Chocolate consumption for three weeks had no adverse effects on blood glucose, insulin or ghrelin levels. In conclusion, compared to eating the tested biscuit, 21-day consumption of the tested chocolate-based products had no adverse effects on the blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels. This trial is registered with chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-IOR-16009525.

  13. Deformation and fracture properties of dark chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Severa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of mechanical tests (uniaxial compression test, Brasil test, plate bending test with cylidrical specimens made from dark chocolate have been performed. The stress-strain dependence has been ploted and modeled using data from compression test. The strain behaviour of the chocolate was found to be far from the linear elastic strain. The linear elasticity is limited for the very small strains. The Brasil test led to the development of the tensile stress in the specimen and its cracking. The dependence of the tensile stress on the strain rate has been confirmed. Also the linearity of the force vs. displacement data received during plate bending test has been limited to the very small value of the displacemnt. Impact behaviour of the chocolate has been also evaluated. Falling of the specimen from defined hight led to its fracture. This experiment has been simulated using LS DYNA 3D finite element code.

  14. ROMANIAN MILK MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the evolution of Romanian milk market in the European market context: primary production, milk processing, supply and demand, consumption, prices and quality; marketing, the domestic market. Deficiencies in the dairy sector has created conditions for import rising. Last year brought about significant increases in imports of raw milk, decreased milk product supplied by local farmers and keeping the main positions of the processors on the market. Domestic consumption of milk per capita remains low in comparison with the European average. The reduction of milk quotas will be a challenge to domestic producers. Development of associations of producers may be a viable option to ensure the continuity of business for the Romanian farmers.

  15. Presence of undeclared peanut protein in chocolate bars imported from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter; Perelman, Boris

    2003-10-01

    Peanut allergens are both stable and potent and are capable of inducing anaphylactic reactions at low concentrations. Consequently, the consumption of peanuts remains the most common cause of food-induced anaphylactic death. Since accidental exposure to peanuts is a common cause of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in peanut-allergic individuals, we tested for the presence of peanut protein in chocolate bars produced in Europe and North America that did not list peanuts as an ingredient. Ninety-two chocolate bars, of which 32 were manufactured in North America and 60 were imported from Europe, were tested by the Veratox assay. None of the 32 North American chocolate products, including 19 with precautionary labeling, contained detectable peanut protein. In contrast, 30.8% of products from western Europe without precautionary labeling contained detectable levels of peanut protein. Sixty-two percent of products from eastern Europe without precautionary labeling contained detectable peanut protein at levels of up to 245 ppm. The absence of precautionary labeling and the absence of the declaration of "peanut" as an ingredient in chocolate bars made in eastern and central Europe were not found to guarantee that these products were actually free of contaminating peanut protein. In contrast, North American manufacturers have attained a consistent level of safety and reliability for peanut-allergic consumers.

  16. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... for sale or other distribution after shipment in interstate commerce any milk or milk product in final... ingredients (milk or milk products) that have all been pasteurized, except where alternative procedures to...

  17. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way--a randomized-controlled human intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Kroon, Paul A; Wood, Sharon; Horgan, Graham W; Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, Elena; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; de Roos, Baukje

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark and white chocolate, beneficially affects platelet function in healthy subjects, and whether this relates to flavan-3-ol bioavailability. A total of 42 healthy subjects received an acute dose of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark, standard dark or white chocolate, in random order. Blood and urine samples were obtained just before and 2 and 6 h after consumption for measurements of platelet function, and bioavailability and excretion of flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate significantly decreased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation and P-selectin expression in men (all p ≤ 0.020), decreased thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation and increased thrombin receptor-activating peptide-induced fibrinogen binding in women (both p ≤ 0.041), and increased collagen/epinephrine-induced ex vivo bleeding time in men and women (p ≤ 0.042). White chocolate significantly decreased adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet P-selectin expression (p = 0.002) and increased collagen/epinephrine-induced ex vivo bleeding time (p = 0.042) in men only. Differences in efficacy by which flavan-3-ols affect platelet function were only partially explained by concentrations of flavan-3-ols and their metabolites in plasma or urine. Flavan-3-ols in dark chocolate, but also compounds in white chocolate, can improve platelet function, dependent on gender, and may thus beneficially affect atherogenesis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Effects of 60 Days of Tray Ration Consumption in Marine Combat Engineers While Deployed on Great Inagua Island, Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Bread Milk , White and Chocolate, whole Grape juice (from concentrate) 1 All milk provided was aseptically packaged, Ultra-High Temperature ( UHT ...a vegetable, a dessert, instant beverages plus supplemental bread and aseptically- packaged milk . A T Ration meal, including the required milk and...determined the need to supplement the T Ration with bread and milk . However, until the present study, improved versions of the T Ration have not been

  19. Chocolate: Reading across the Five C's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jody

    2007-01-01

    The reading and literacy focus of a unit that centers on chocolate can provide a context for using the interpretive mode of the communication standard from the "National Standards in Foreign Language Education." This article presents a thematic unit that is applicable to all languages and adaptable to any level. Inspired by Woodlands'…

  20. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  1. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between milk consumption and dental caries in 3-5 years old children in Ray city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmodian

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, Tooth decay is still one of the most significant problems in human communities. Tooth decay is defined as a microbial disease that causes demineralization of hard tissues and degradation of organic components of teeth. Although there are various theories on etiology of dental caries, Miller’s acidogenic theory (1890 and Gottileb’s proteolitic theory (1933 have gained the most credibility among the others. In general, status and amount of saliva, oral hygiene, tooth structure, type and quantity of microorganisms and diet are the most important factors that can lead to tooth decay. Since the manner and type of child nutrition during infancy is considered as a significant factor in development and progression of dental caries and also there has not been published any research on this subject in Iran yet, this study was designed and carried out to find the association between the type of milk intake in infancy and the rate of dental caries in 3-5 year old children.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of flavanol-rich chocolate in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Andreas J; Sudano, Isabella; Wolfrum, Mathias; Thomas, Rajeev; Enseleit, Frank; Périat, Daniel; Kaiser, Priska; Hirt, Astrid; Hermann, Matthias; Serafini, Mauro; Lévêques, Antoine; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Noll, Georg; Corti, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Flavanol-rich chocolate (FRC) is beneficial for vascular and platelet function by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and decreasing oxidative stress. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by impaired endothelial and increased platelet reactivity. As statins are ineffective in CHF, alternative therapies are a clinical need. We therefore investigated whether FRC might improve cardiovascular function in patients with CHF. Twenty patients with CHF were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial, comparing the effect of commercially available FRC with cocoa-liquor-free control chocolate (CC) on endothelial and platelet function in the short term (2 h after ingestion of a chocolate bar) and long term (4 weeks, two chocolate bars/day). Endothelial function was assessed non-invasively by flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery. Flow-mediated vasodilatation significantly improved from 4.98 ± 1.95 to 5.98 ± 2.32% (P = 0.045 and 0.02 for between-group changes) 2h after intake of FRC to 6.86 ± 1.76% after 4 weeks of daily intake (P = 0.03 and 0.004 for between groups). No effect on endothelial-independent vasodilatation was observed. Platelet adhesion significantly decreased from 3.9 ± 1.3 to 3.0 ± 1.3% (P = 0.03 and 0.05 for between groups) 2 h after FRC, an effect that was not sustained at 2 and 4 weeks. Cocoa-liquor-free CC had no effect, either on endothelial function or on platelet function. Blood pressure and heart rate did not change in either group. Flavanol-rich chocolate acutely improves vascular function in patients with CHF. A sustained effect was seen after daily consumption over a 4-week period, even after 12 h abstinence. These beneficial effects were paralleled by an inhibition of platelet function in the presence of FRC only.

  4. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Aline A; Souza, Suelen J; Teixeira, Andrea M; Pontilho, Patricia M; Souza, José M P; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2016-05-23

    Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008).

  5. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Petrilli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05 among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008.

  6. Determination of total procyanidins in selected chocolate and confectionery products using DMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, William Jeffrey; Stuart, David A; Ou, Boxin; Fan, Ellen; Ji, Hongping; Kou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A simple, specific, high-throughput colorimetric method based on the reaction of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) with flavan-3-ols was developed to determine total procyanidins in selected cacao-based products. Extracts of defatted samples were dispensed into a 96-well plate and reacted with DMAC. The absorbance of the reaction products was measured at 640 nm and compared to commercially available procyanidin B2 as a standard. The use of the 96-well plates and a plate reader dramatically improved sample throughput. A standard protocol was established and used for further studies. The calibration was found to be linear from 1-100 ppm. The DMAC reagent reacted relatively specifically to (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, the gallates of catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin, oligomeric procyanidins of cocoa up to n=4, and A-type procyanidins. Little or no reaction occurred with cyanidins and representative compounds of phenolic acids, flavones, flavanones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and stilbenes. Sample precision studies were carried out on 10 different test materials over several weeks, and yielded RSD values of 4.0 to 9.5%. The method was ring-tested in three laboratories using blinded test materials including cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate liquor, dark chocolate, and milk chocolate. There was excellent agreement of the results between laboratories.

  7. Evaluation of consumption of milk and its informal derivatives and the knowledge of the population about the public health problems in a municipal district in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Centola Vidal-Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a food of high nutritional value and is considered one of the main animal products consumed today. At the same time, Brazil stands out as one of the leading milk producers in the world and, since 2006 has been showing growing increase in its production. On the other hand, it is observed from the beginning of the 1990s, the growth of so-called informal milk and milk products (foods marketed without any kind of inspection, representing a challenge to be overcome related to food security. There are many diseases that can be transmitted by such foods, as tuberculosis and brucellosis, and there are few consumers who are aware of such information. The fact worsens the thought that milk and dairy products make up the diet of many children, elderly and weakened persons, which may make it more severe. Thus, this study aims to evaluate, through the use of questionnaires in 23 districts of São José do Rio Preto, the profile of 805 consumers or not, of milk and dairy products, the knowledge that they have about the diseases transmitted by milk and dairy products and the significance of the seals from Inspection Services. As a result, it was found that 97.76% (787/805 respondents consume milk or its derivatives, and about 30% are obtained by informal means of commerce. The form of consumption of this product is quite variable, but the work shows that 3.93% (31/787 of the consumers still ingest raw milk without boiling or pasteurization and 65.96% (531/805 of consumers are unaware of the possible transmission of disease by the ingestion of milk. Furthermore 80.24% (646/805 of consumers do not seek the packaging if the product has gone through some kind of supervision before reaching the trade - identification through stamps organs of sanitary inspection. Obtaining such data aims to collaborate in future for the development of prevent programs in the city, and the information gathered will be available to assist inspections services to reduce the

  8. Perfil do consumo de leite e produtos derivados na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná = Profile of milk and its products consumption in Maringá, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Molina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dados coletados na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, referentes ao consumo e à aceitação do leite e seus derivados foram utilizados para se traçar o perfil do consumo desses produtos, gerando subsídios para entendimento mais amplo sobre o mercado consumidor de leite. Trezentos indivíduos responderam à pesquisa que avaliou o grau de aceitação e frequência de consumo do leite e produtos derivados. Observou-se que o mais importante para o consumidor, no momento da compra, encontra-se na relação entre preço e qualidade do produto, e aproximadamente metade dos entrevistados (48,17% tem preferência pelo leite integral, seguido pelo desnatado com 26,20%. Entretanto,constatou-se que 8,73% dos entrevistados declararam não consumir leite, e a maior parte dos casos justifica-se por possuírem algum nível de intolerância à lactose. Enquanto isso, o iogurte e os queijos foram apontados como os derivados com maior percentual defrequência de consumo e aceitação. De forma geral, os dados coletados permitem concluir que o leite e seus derivados são produtos consumidos com regularidade e seus derivados foram apontados com alto percentual de frequência de consumo e aceitação.Data collected in Maringá, Paraná State, on the acceptance and consumption of milk and its products were used to delineate the profile of consumption of these products, generating benefits for a better understanding of the consumer market for milk. A total of 300 people answered the survey that assessed the degree of acceptance and frequency of consumption of milk and its products. It was observed that the most important to the consumer at the time of purchase, is the relationship between price and quality of product, and approximately half of respondents (48.17% prefer whole milk, followed by skimmed milk with 26.20%. However, it was found that 8.73% of respondents reported that do not consume milk, with the majority of cases justified by some level of

  9. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21

  10. The Application Concentration Addition of Skim Milk to Soy Milk Kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Mandang, Filan O; Dien, Henny; Yelnetty, Afriza

    2016-01-01

    Soy milk is a product processed soybean extract that resembles cow's milk. High protein content makes soy milk as highly nutritious vegetable milk. But the beany flavor of the resulting lead soy milk consumption levels are relatively low. One way of improving the quality of soy milk with a probiotic drink that process into soy milk kefir. The purpose of this study to determine the effect of the concentration of skim milk to soy milk kefir quality, namely in terms of the physical and chemical ...

  11. 'Unfit for human consumption': a study of the contamination of formula milk fed to young children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Sahanggamu, Daniel; Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Curtis, Val; White, Sian

    2017-10-01

    To examine levels of bacterial contamination in formula feeding bottles in Sidoarjo, East Java, and to assess the preparation practices that may have been responsible. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 92 randomly selected households with children under the age of two who were bottle-fed formula. In each household, we carried out video observation of mothers/caregivers preparing bottles, and examined samples of formula for coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli). In-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of 20 mothers. A total of 88% of the formula feeds were contaminated with total coliforms at a level >10 MPN/ml, and 45% contained E. coli. These feeds were defined as 'unfit for human consumption'. In the video observations, none of the mothers complied with all five WHO-recommended measures of hygienic formula feed preparation. Only two mothers washed their hands with soap prior to formula preparation. Most mothers also failed to clean or sterilise the bottle and clean the preparation area. In-depth interviews confirmed that such suboptimal hygiene practices were common. The high levels of contamination found highlight that bottles are an important faecal-oral exposure pathway resulting from poor hygiene practices during bottle preparation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  13. Milk Production and Processing in Romania – Characteristics and Tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Tabita Cornelia Adamov; Tiberiu Iancu; Cosmina Simona Toader; Andrea Feher; Mihaela Iancu

    2010-01-01

    Milk and its derived products are a staple food in human nutrition. A suitable food system does not accept food rations which provide milk and milk products in their structure. These considerations have led to increased consumption of milk and its derivatives. For the future, it is predicts that both milk and milk products will occupy an important place in daily human consumption compared with other animal products. Occupying second place, in importance, the Romanian agriculture, after meat p...

  14. Effects of milk type and consumer factors on the acceptance of milk among Korean female consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seo-Jin

    2009-08-01

    Despite an overall increase in the consumption of milk products, the consumption of plain processed milk in South Korea is decreasing. One of the major reasons for this phenomenon is that consumers in Korea find the taste of plain milk unpalatable. The principal objective of this study was to identify the internal and external drivers of liking for milk among Korean consumers. The results of descriptive analysis (Chung and others 2008) were correlated to the results of consumer taste tests to identify the sensory characteristics that positively and negatively affect consumers' liking of milk. Consumers' health and food-related attitudes were surveyed as well as their daily milk consumption patterns to investigate the effects of these attitudes and consumption patterns on the liking for various types of milk. Consumers' liking of milk samples was positively correlated with sweetness, sweet cream flavor, and smooth texture. Grassy odor, raw milk flavor, artificial milk flavor, and rancid flavor were the negative drivers of liking. Consumers who frequently drink plain processed milk, in particular, preferred the UHT-processed whole milk samples, whereas infrequent drinkers preferred lactose-free milk samples. Consumers with strong food neophobic tendency significantly rated lower than consumers with weak tendency for most of the liking categories and some of the attribute intensities. Finally, when the consumers were grouped based on their common preference for milk samples, plain processed milk consumption frequency was the major determinant affecting the preference for milk.

  15. bacterial load in expressed and stored breast milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... in both storage conditions were plated on three different culture media (Nutrient agar,. MacConkey agar and Chocolate agar) ... Results showed that in all the culture media, bacterial load was higher in breast milk samples stored at ..... Poor hygienic practices and improper washing of hands have also been ...

  16. Sin and pleasure: the history of chocolate in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2015-11-18

    In ancient Mayan texts cocoa is considered a gift of the gods: Pre-Columbian populations used chocolate as medicine, too. After the discovery of America, chocolate was introduced in Europe, but Christian Europe looked to this new exhilarating drink with extreme suspiciousness and criticism. From this reaction, the necessity derived to appeal to the reasons of health, with which doctors and scientists committed themselves to explain that chocolate was good for the body. However, during the Enlightment, the road of therapy separated from that of taste, and chocolate mainly maintained its leading role of excipient, bearing the burden, over time, of a negative valence, being associated with obesity, dental problems, unhealthy lifestyle, and so forth. The rehabilitation of chocolate has arisen only in recent times, re-establishing that value that Linnaeus himself credited to chocolate, calling the generous plant Theobroma cacao, food of the gods.

  17. Temporal variation of faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Merialdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6% faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1% samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1% feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000 and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003. The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  18. [Case in point: allergy, intolerance or pseudoallergy to chocolate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantani, A; Ferrara, M; Vazzoler, C

    1989-06-01

    Chocolate is traditionally considered as allergenic for predisposed subjects although many immunologic reactions are erroneously evaluated as allergic, due to misleading procedures. Therefore the term intolerance has been more properly employed. After summarizing the negative effects of chocolate, especially in children, we stress that the diagnosis of chocolate intolerance should be based upon reliable studies, including elimination/provocation tests in a double-blind fashion.

  19. Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, B A

    1984-01-01

    Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci.

  20. The cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Williamson, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Dark chocolate contains many biologically active components, such as catechins, procyanidins and theobromine from cocoa, together with added sucrose and lipids. All of these can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system by multiple mechanisms. Intervention studies on healthy and metabolically-dysfunctional volunteers have suggested that cocoa improves blood pressure, platelet aggregation and endothelial function. The effect of chocolate is more convoluted since the sucrose and lipid may transiently and negatively impact on endothelial function, partly through insulin signalling and nitric oxide bioavailability. However, few studies have attempted to dissect out the role of the individual components and have not explored their possible interactions. For intervention studies, the situation is complex since suitable placebos are often not available, and some benefits may only be observed in individuals showing mild metabolic dysfunction. For chocolate, the effects of some of the components, such as sugar and epicatechin on FMD, may oppose each other, or alternatively in some cases may act together, such as theobromine and epicatechin. Although clearly cocoa provides some cardiovascular benefits according to many human intervention studies, the exact components, their interactions and molecular mechanisms are still under debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human breast milk enrichment in conjugated linoleic acid after consumption of a conjugated linoleic acid-rich food product: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsioulis, Athena A; Rule, Daniel C; Murrieta, Charles M; Bauman, Dale E; Lock, Adam L; Barbano, David M; Carey, Gale B

    2008-07-01

    Human breast milk is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Some compounds, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), come partly from the mother's diet and are produced by the mother's body and secreted into the milk. Although several studies have examined the effect of chronic CLA supplementation on breast milk CLA appearance, little is known about the transfer of food CLA to breast milk over the short term. The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary analysis of the kinetics of CLA appearance in breast milk over the short term. Seven women expressed breast milk at 4- to 6-hour intervals for 2 days after eating either CLA-enriched (1912 mg CLA) or control (231 mg CLA) cookies. Milk samples were freeze-dried, fatty acid methyl esters were prepared using methanolic-potassium hydroxide (KOH), and CLA isomers were quantified by gas chromatography. Analysis revealed the following: (1) CLA enrichment of total fatty acids in the breast milk for 48 hours post ingestion of the CLA-enriched cookies was 2.9-fold above control; (2) total breast milk CLA content for 48 hours post CLA-enriched cookies ingestion was 46% greater than post CLA-moderate cookies ingestion; (3) after ingestion of the CLA-enriched cookies, breast milk CLA enrichment plateaued between 8 to 28 hours. This preliminary study suggests that breast milk fatty acids are enriched in CLA compared to control within 28 hours after the ingestion of a CLA-rich food product and invites further research on the extent and timing with which breast milk composition reflects dietary CLA content.

  2. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  3. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Jin; Kang, Suna; Kim, Da Hee; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Woo Ri; Kim, Yoo Min; Park, Sunmin

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conduct...

  4. Consumers' sensory and nutritional perceptions of three types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify consumer perceptions of whole milk, reduced-fat milk and soy milk, and to investigate demographic influences on perceptions and types of milk consumption. Design and setting: Questionnaires covering nutritional and sensory perceptions of three types of milk. Subjects: Three

  5. Donkey milk consumption exerts anti-inflammatory properties by normalizing antimicrobial peptides levels in Paneth's cells in a model of ileitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, Sophie; Olier, Maïwenn; Leveque, Mathilde; Jard, Gwenaëlle; Tormo, Helene; Haimoud-Lekhal, Djamila Ali; Peter, Magali; Eutamène, Hélène

    2016-08-31

    In this study, we showed the beneficial effects of donkey milk (DM) on inflammatory damages, endogenous antimicrobial peptides levels and fecal microbiota profile in a mice model of Crohn's disease. Nowadays, new strategies of microbiome manipulations are on the light involving specific diets to induce and/or to maintain clinical remission. Interest of DM is explained by its high levels of antimicrobial peptides which confer it anti-inflammatory properties. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered with or without indomethacin for 5 days and co-treated with vehicle, DM or heated DM during 7 days. Intestinal length and macroscopic damage scores (MDSs) were determined; ileal samples were taken off for microscopic damage (MD), lysozyme immunostaining and mRNA α-defensin assessments. Ileal luminal content and fecal pellets were collected for lysozyme enzymatic activity and lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) evaluations. Fecal microbiota profiles were compared using a real-time quantitative PCR-based analysis. Administration of indomethacin caused an ileitis in mice characterized by (1) a decrease in body weight and intestinal length, (2) a significant increase in MDS, MD and LCN-2, (3) a reduction in both α-defensin mRNA expression and lysozyme levels in Paneth's cells reflected by a decrease in lysozyme activity in feces, and (4) a global change in relative abundance of targeted microbial communities. DM treatment significantly reduced almost of all these ileitis damages, whereas heated DM has no impact on ileitis. DM consumption exerts anti-inflammatory properties in mice by restoring the endogenous levels of antimicrobial peptides which contribute in turn to reduce microbiota imbalance.

  6. Quantification of antimicrobial consumption in adult cattle on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium, and associations with udder health, milk quality, and production performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows. Copyright © 2016

  7. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  8. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements...

  9. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Adam K.; Wilson, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work.

  11. Clinical and biochemical effects of dark chocolate in moderate chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Roodgaryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antioxidant agents such as cocoa could have some benefits in treatment of inflammation including periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa consumption on moderate chronic periodontitis. Materials &Methods: This single-blind randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 subjects who were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group received 30 gr dark chocolate (78% cocoa and control group received 22.5 gr white chocolate three times a day for 4 weeks. Saliva samples were collected from patients at baseline and t wenty-eight days after eating chocolate. Probing pocket depth (PPD, Gingival index (GI, Silness and Loe, Modified papillary bleeding index (MPBI, Barnett, Clinical attachment loss (CAL were recorded at baseline and 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th weeks later in ramfjord teeth. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxidation of saliva were estimated by Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Tiuborbituric acid reactive substances ( TBARS methods. Data of clinical parameters were analyzed using t-test and repeated measures test. Biochemical parameters were analyzed using t-test. Results: Intra-group comparison of clinical parameters demonstrated significant decrease in both groups (p<0.0001 and inter-group comparison showed significant decrease of MPBI in treatment group, (p<0.03. MPBI and GI were significantly decreased in treatment group compared to the control in the weeks of 4th, 6th and 8th, according t-test ( GI4, P=0.008-GI6, P=0.008-GI8, P=0.009, (MPBI4, MPBI6, MPBI8, P<0.0001. Treatment group showed the increase in FRAP, (p<0.00001 and decrease in TBARS, ( P<0.015 which were statically significant in compare with control group. Conclusion: Consuming dark chocolate could increase TAC and decrease lipid peroxidation, gingival bleeding and inflammation.

  12. [The contaminated chocolate epidemic of 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapperud, G; Lassen, J; Aasen, S; Gustavsen, S; Hellesnes, I

    1989-06-30

    The article describes a nationwide outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection in 1987 caused by contaminated chocolate products from one particular factory. A total of 349 bacteriologically verified cases were recorded. It was estimated, however, that 20,000-40,000 persons became ill during the outbreak. We describe the epidemiological and bacteriological investigations which led to identification of the source of infection, and discuss two epidemiological models for investigation of food-borne outbreaks. The article emphasizes the importance of collaboration between the community health service and the local food inspection laboratories during investigation of foodborne outbreaks.

  13. Anticipatory and consummatory effects of (hedonic chocolate intake are associated with increased circulating levels of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and endocannabinoids in obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello E. Rigamonti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedonic hunger refers to consumption of food just for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG in normal-weight subjects. To date, the effects of hedonic hunger, and in particular of chocolate craving, on these mediators in obese subjects are still unknown. Methods: To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY, anandamide (AEA, 2-AG, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, and oleoylethanolamide (OEA in 10 satiated severely obese subjects after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same bromatologic composition. Evaluation of hunger and satiety was also performed by visual analogic scale. Results: The anticipatory phase and the consumption of food for pleasure were associated with increased circulating levels of ghrelin, AEA, 2-AG, and OEA. In contrast, the levels of GLP-1, PYY, and PEA did not differ before and after the exposure/ingestion of either chocolate or non-palatable foods. Hunger and satiety were higher and lower, respectively, i